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Stability Studies of Offshore Wind Farms


H. Guo, Student Member IEEE, K. Rudion, C. Heyde, Members, IEEE, Z. A. Styczynski, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract--Wind energy is the most important type of renewable energy in Europe. The stability of system network operation with a large penetration of wind energy has become one of the most critical issues in the new structure of power systems with different types of generation. In this paper the HVDC and HVAC connection of the wind farm to grid is compared. The HVDC is more advantageous in maintaining the system stability. Nevertheless this study focuses on the HVAC connection of wind farms with regard to its lower costs and widely practical application. Based on the topology of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, a simulation model is developed in software PSS/NETOMAC. Using this model the steady-state voltage and power factor at the wind farm connection point is analyzed and compared with the grid code requirement on reactive power exchange and voltage stability. The impact of the cable switching on voltage is investigated as well. The simulation results indicate that overvoltage will occur during cable switching if the cable is not sufficiently compensated, and the overvoltage will become more critical with as the operational voltage levels of the cable increases. Index Termsoffshore wind farm, HVAC cable, steady-state voltage stability, reactive power compensation, overvoltage

II. OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Wind turbines can be situated offshore, where the wind blows harder and more continuously and larger turbines can be installed. Their number of operation hours is larger than the wind farms on land. This brings a better economical benefit. Another motivation to the growth in offshore is to minimize the environmental influence of the wind farms. According to the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), more than 100 GW of offshore wind projects in Europe are already in various stages of planning and construction. The installed offshore wind will reach up to 40 GW by the year 2020 [3]. In the years to come, the development of wind energy in Germany will be mainly offshore; the total installed offshore wind is expected to reach 20 GW by 2020 as shown in Fig. 1. Until now, Germany has in operation or under construction 25 offshore wind farms in the North Sea and 7 wind farms in the Baltic Sea. A. Interconnection of Offshore Wind Farms- HVDC vs. HVAC In the cases of the planned German offshore wind farms the distance between the offshore wind farm and the substation on shore is estimated to be up to 100 km and, in some cases, can even reach 200 km. At such distance the power losses have to be considered and high voltage (above 110 kV) is applied to reduce the power losses via a long transmission cable. Generally, there are two types of technologies available to interconnect the offshore wind farm to the power transmission network on land. One is the HVAC cable connection and the other one is the HVDC transmission technology. The HVDC technology can be divided to two different basic types: HVDC LCC (Line Commutated Converters) and VSC (Voltage Source Converters).

I. INTRODUCTION

HE offshore wind energy has developed very rapidly in recent years in Europe. Currently, there are many offshore wind farms being planned and/or under construction in Europe. It is expected that a market growth of 75% will take place in 2010 as compared to 2009 in the offshore wind sector. In view of this situation, the main challenge for grid operators will be guaranteeing a stable and secure operation while integrating the offshore wind farms to the existing power systems. Thus, new grid codes have been developed by many system operators in order to face this challenge [1][2]. Many of the planned offshore wind farms as well as several existing ones, such as e.g. Horns Rev I and Horns Rev II in Denmark or Alpha Ventus in Germany, are or will be connected by means of long submarine AC cables. Such development can have a significant influence on the power system operation and can also be critical for system stability under certain conditions. Hence, some aspects, like voltage stability, are especially in focus regarding the use of AC technology to integrate off shore wind farms to the power system.

H. Guo, K. Rudion and C. Heyde are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany (Email: hui.guo@ovgu.de; krzysztof. rudion@ovgu.de; Chris.Heyde@E-Technik.UniMagdeburg.DE) Z. A. Styczynski is a Professor at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany (sty@ovgu.de).

Fig. 1 Prognosis of wind energy development in Germany onshore and offshore up to 2020 (cumulated) [4]

978-1-4244-8081-4/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

The utilization of the HVAC and HVDC has both advantages and disadvantages. In general, the great advantages of applying the HVDC with a submarine cable for transmission of the offshore wind power are [6][7]: the high efficiency of long distance power transmission, less power losses (>100 km); power transmission capability almost independent of transmission distance (long distance possible), large scale power transmission possible (>1000MW); decoupled connection to AC grid, less influence by fault in the AC grid, stability improvement; HVDC with VSC provides full voltage controllability on both ends, (continuous power flow control as with two STATCOMS); HVDC submarine cables cost less than HVAC cables. The major disadvantages of the HVDC application are: control system complexity may reduce the system reliability; higher cost (power converter, auxiliary systems like cooling system, filters, control and protection devices); larger area demand (large offshore platform). In comparison to the HVDC system, the HVAC transmission system has some good features. The major advantage of HVAC is the low cost. The practical experience shows that the investment of HVAC transmission systems can be 66% less than HVDC, for example a 500 MW HVDC transmission system costs 371 Million Euro while a HVAC system for the same rated power requires just 223 Million Euro [8]. The main disadvantage of the HVAC is the dependence of the power transmission capability on the distance. The maximum transmitted power via an HVAC cable decreases significantly when the distance increases. Reference [9] gives an example of a study on the limits of transmission capacity of cables for three voltage levels (type: 1000 mm2 Cu cross section and Inom=1055A for 132 kV and 220 kV; 1200 mm2 Cu cross section and Inom=1323A for 400 kV). The results indicate that the maximum length of the cable is 370 km for 132 kV, 281 km for 220 kV and 202 km for 400 kV. Although the power loss in HVAC cables is larger than in HVDC cables, the total transmission system efficiency can be even higher under certain conditions. In fact, the power loss produced by the converters of the HVDC system may reach a range of 6-10%, and the total efficiency of such a system may be below 90% while the HVAC system may have a total efficiency of nearly 92% in the example of a 500 MW offshore wind farm with 100 km cable length [10]. It can be summarized that the choice of the type of interconnection for an offshore wind farm is very important because the choice affects not only the network operation under normal operation but also system stability during fault conditions. In order to find an economical and technical optimal solution of the interconnection, individual studies with detailed analysis should be done for each case. Generally, several main factors need to be considered, i.e. the rated power

of the wind farm, the distance to the substation on land, the voltage level, the strength of the grid to be connected, the area requirement, reliability and maintenance, and the investment budget. As long as the HVAC transmission system is feasible according to the conditions (factors) mentioned above, the HVAC interconnection should be the preferred option. In fact, until the end of 2009 most of the offshore wind farms were connected to the power transmission network by using the HVAC technology, because of the fact that the existing offshore wind farms have rated powers less than 210 MW and the distances to shore are less than 50 km (EWEA statistic: Operational Offshore Wind Farms in Europe, End 2009). But regarding to the future offshore wind development tendency, the planned European offshore grid requires an international interconnection of the large scale offshore farms via long distance and more power flow controllability between the countries, and then the HVDC transmission technology will be the first solution to be taken into consideration. B. Problem and Solution of the Interconnection using HVAC The experience with the HVAC technology has been gathered for several decades, and such problems as maintenance, vulnerability and reliability have been studied by many researchers. From the system stability and operational point of view, the main technical problem of the HVAC application is mostly related to the high charging current of the cable. Basically, the HVAC cable can be characterized by its significant large shunt capacitance in comparison to the overhead lines. Under normal operation condition the cable capacitance is charged and discharged repeatedly during each wave period, so that it produces a large reactive power continuously. One the one hand it will reduce the active power transmission capability and increase the power losses, and on the other hand, it may cause overvoltages at the cable end, moreover this situation will become critical in the moment that the cable is switched on and off. Regarding the application of HVAC on offshore wind farm via long cables, the overvoltage issue must be analyzed carefully. Generally, the internal overvoltages in the network can be divided into the following categories [11]: Power frequency and temporary overvoltage; Slow-front overvoltage; Fast-front overvoltage; Temporary overvoltage usually originates from switching operations or faults. Nonlinearity, for instance, results from the saturation of transformers and harmonic resonance amplifying the harmonics on the fundamental voltage and is one of the typical types of temporary overvoltages; it can last a few cycles [12]. The overvoltage may cause undesired relay activity, and even damage to power devices due to exceeding their voltage capabilities. Furthermore, it can also cause voltage stability problems in the network. Therefore, the overvoltage mainly caused by switching of the cable should be analyzed using simulation tools. In this study such a scenario will be simulated by means of a wind farm model using the simulation software PSSNETOMAC.

Due to the possible problems that will be caused by the integration of a large amount of offshore wind power into the power transmission system, the grid code has been revised and extended in some countries such as Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Denmark to deal with such situation in order to avoid the negative influences of the large wind power penetration on the power system operation security. In the new grid codes some requirements are defined for the wind farms regarding state-steady stability in normal operation conditions as well as dynamic stability during and after faults, for instance a short-circuit in the network. The grid codes vary from country to country and between TSOs, since the power networks present different system configurations, wind power penetration level, power grid strength etc. The reactive power of a long HVAC cable must be compensated using compensation units such as a shunt reactor, SVC, STATCOM etc. to realize a stable, secure and economical operation of the transmission system. III. OFFSHORE WIND FARM STABILITY ISSUES One major concern of the network operators is how to ensure and maintain the stability of the electric power system. The power system stability can be classified according to rotor angle stability, frequency stability and voltage stability [19]. As large scale wind farms with different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) become more and more important in the role of mixed power generation, they must be included in the power system dynamic performance studies [13]. It is necessary to find solutions to maintain the stability of power systems with large wind power penetration to ensure a reliable power system operation. A. Rotor Angle Stability The commonly used wind turbines are mainly based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) concept (shown in Fig. 2), and the synchronous generator (SG) equipped with a fullscale power converter (shown in Fig. 3). They have significant differences to the traditionally used directly grid-connected synchronous generators. As the rotor angle stability is concerned with the ability to maintain the synchronism between interconnected synchronous machines, the wind turbines with such concepts do not affect the rotor angle stability since the DFIG is basically speed-variable and for SG, the power converter can decouple the frequency of the grid and turbine. Generally, the stability issues of wind farms depend mainly on the type of wind turbine generators, the interconnection concepts of the wind farm and the configuration of the transmission power network to which it will be connected. The grid code has defined some requirements on the frequency/active power control, voltage/reactive power control and performance under fault condition. Under the guideline of the grid codes the offshore wind farms have to be investigated with respect to steady-state stability as well as dynamic stability in order to find solutions to face this challenge.

Fig. 2 Example of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator

Fig. 3 Example of a wind turbine with synchronous generator and full-scale power converter

B. Frequency Stability The term frequency stability is defined as the ability of the power system to maintain steady frequency within a nominal range following a severe system upset resulting in a significant imbalance between generation and load [13]. The impact of wind farms on the performance of the power system frequency stability differs from the type of the turbines installed. For wind farms with wind turbines equipped with directly gridconnected induction generators, in case of grid contingency, for example, a three-phase short circuit fault at the connection point of the wind farm PCC (Point of Common Coupling), the generators will accelerate and the mechanical load of the turbine becomes very large and can damage the turbines. In order to avoid such a situation, the protection system of the wind turbines will be automatically activated on the presetting time, and the wind turbines will be disconnected from the grid connection. Thus, the frequency may decrease in the power system because of the large loss of power if there is no sufficient power reserve provided by other generation in the system. After the fault is cleared and the voltage at the PCC reestablished, the wind farm will be reconnected to the grid after several minutes. If the wind condition is good the wind farm power output will be recovered at a high level, then it may impact the power system by increasing the system frequency if there is no appropriate frequency-/active power control of the wind farms. Consequently, a large power loss caused by offshore wind farms may result in frequency instability of the system. According to the new grid code requirements the wind turbines have to ride through the low voltage by remaining grid-connected during grid fault in the transmission system in order to help the system recover. Thus, there will be less impact on system frequency stability. The wind turbines

equipped with DFIGs provide more controllability. Therefore, by applying the appropriate control strategy the wind turbines with DFIGs are able to contribute to frequency stability of the power grid [14]. C. Voltage Stability Voltage stability of power systems with large wind power generation has become one of the major concerns for system operators. The wind power generation units have a totally different characteristic compared to the traditional dominated power plants equipped with synchronous generators, which are mostly controlled by PSS and AVRs. These control systems could help the power system to improve the voltage performance under system parameter variation like incremental changes in system load or voltage decrease due to a small increase in reactive power demand in the system (long-term voltage stability). In systems experiencing a large disturbance such as loss of generation or short-circuit faults, the system will have a sudden voltage sag. After the fault is cleared the voltage may be able to recover to the nominal voltage level with the help of the continuous and discrete controls (short-term voltage stability) such as load shedding, tap changers regulation, additional reactive power supply of synchronous generators etc. According to the grid code specification, large wind farms have to be operated as conventional power plants with synchronous generators. By applying an appropriate control strategy [15] to offshore wind farms with DIFGs and long HVAC cable connection to the grid, the wind turbines can be operated in the overexcited quadrant as well as in the underexcited quadrant. This means they can consume or provide a certain amount of reactive power to the grid. They provide similar features like synchronous generators. Consequently, the voltage can be regulated within a certain range. Additionally, by applying dynamic Var compensation units a fast voltage regulation becomes possible. Considering the grid connection of large offshore wind farms via long HVAC cables that may cause overvoltage problems, the voltage stability problem may become severe and should be analyzed carefully. Some TSOs have revised their grid code and added strict requirements on voltage performance of wind farms under low voltage contingency, called low voltage ride through capability [16]. This means the wind turbines should be able to help the system recover when the voltage drops in contingency, but not leading to voltage instability. In fact, symmetrical voltage dips (symmetrical faults) are the most dangerous contingencies in the power grid. Therefore, the voltage stability studies of large offshore wind farms should be done with the wind farms suffering a disturbance such as three-phase short-circuits. Furthermore, considering the wind farm model to be used for the voltage stability analyses, some studies show that aggregated or simplified models may result in inaccurate results for voltage problem studies such as low voltage ride through [17]. In order to get more reliable results for dynamic voltage stability studies of offshore wind farms in a real grid, the detailed and complete 5th order model should be used.

D. Reactive Power Compensation As is well known, the system bus voltage is particularly related to the reactive power. In general, sufficient reactive power reserve can support the system voltage efficiently. Therefore, appropriate reactive power compensation is the most common method to improve the system voltage performance; it will be also helpful for voltage stability of power systems with large offshore wind farms, grid connected via long HVAC cables. However, this situation becomes more complex for the offshore wind farms where several reactive power sources need to be coordinated and work in an efficient way. The reactive power sources are: Wind turbines (DFIG, SG with Power converter) Long HVAC cable Shunt reactors FACTs (SVC, STATCOM etc.)

The wind turbine DFIG or SG with power converters provide the possibility to regulate the reactive power. But, compensation units still need to be installed, especially in order to ensure the fulfillment of the grid code requirement on voltage control especially during low wind condition. Due to the large capacitive reactive power the cable has to be compensated using shunt reactors. The effect of various configurations for reactive power compensation along the cable is studied in [18]. The most common adopted option is to install the compensation units at both ends of the cable. E. Grid Code Requirement on Voltage The details of grid code requirements differ according to country and transmission system operator (TSO), but there are some common aspects. Basically the requirements for offshore wind farms could be divided into three parts: Active power control-/frequency maintenance Reactive power control -/ voltage regulation Low voltage ride through (LVRT) In steady state the voltage of the wind farm PCC should be constrained in a certain range. In case of a contingency, TSOs require the wind farm to remain connected to the grid under worst-case voltage dip. After fault clearance the voltage should be recovered. The utilization of HVDC in offshore wind farms may be helpful for the wind turbines to LVRT. In fact by applying the HVDC link, the offshore wind farm is isolated from disturbances such as short-circuits that occur in the onshore grid. This provides the wind turbines with more LVRT capability. For HVAC connected offshore wind farms, the voltage stability is usually ensured by appropriate control strategies with fast dynamic reactive power support. In this study the reactive power and voltage behavior in steady state is analyzed by means of simulation model. The result is compared with the grid code requirement shown in Fig. 6.

IV. MODELING AND CASE STUDY A. System Description As the first German offshore wind farm, Alpha Ventus is located 45 km north of the island Borkum in the North Sea, within Germanys Exclusive Economic Zone. The wind farm consists of twelve wind turbines, each of them has 5 MW rated power. Six off them are equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) from the manufacturer Repower, and the other six are equipped with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) from Multibrid. The wind turbines are erected at a water depth about 30 meters and connected to a set-up transformer equipped on an offshore platform nearby via an internal radial 30 kV network. The offshore transformer, which provides the grid connection for the wind farm, and supplies the wind turbines with electricity required for operating, has a transformation ratio for 30 kV/110 kV and a rated power for 75 MVA. The electricity of the wind farm will be transported via a 72 km submarine HVAC cable into the power grid on land. B. Simulation Model The model of the offshore wind farm and its periphery is implemented in the simulation tool PSS/NETOMAC. It consists of a dynamic DFIG model, wind turbine transformers, HVAC cable, shunt reactors Comp.1 and Comp.2, local load Load 1 and Load 2, etc. The topology of the model is shown in Fig. 4. T1 (30/110 kV) is the offshore transformer; T2 (110/220 kV) is the transformer on land. The HVAC submarine cable is completely compensated with two shunt reactor banks at both ends, each has 35 Mvar. The power is transferred by transformer T2 through the transmission line 2 to node N2 where there is a local load 1 and generation SG. The node N2 will be connected to node N1 through Line 1 to the Grid. C. Case 1 - Steady-state behavior In this case the steady-state voltage and reactive power behavior and their controllability at the wind farm connection point is investigated. In order to do this, the active power generation of the wind farm is simulated from 0 to 100%, and the wind turbines in the wind farm are controlled to operate with their reactive power capability limits. Fig. 5 shows the qualitative reactive power capability of the wind turbines. Principally the wind turbine can be controlled to work in this area to contribute to voltage regulation. Corresponding to the active power generation the wind turbine has a capacitive reactive power limit and an inductive reactive power limit.

Fig. 5 Reactive power capability curve of the wind turbine with DFIG

Fig. 6 Steady-state working point of the wind farm at PCC compared with the grid code

The simulation result is shown in Fig. 6. As can be seen, the red solid line shows the grid code basic requirement on voltage and power factor. The operation points have to be inside this area. The working points AP1 and AP2 are with the rated power generation in inductive and capacitive operation, respectively. The distance between AP1 and AP2 indicates the controllability of the wind farm at the steady-state voltage and power factor at the PCC without any other compensation equipment. The voltage at the PCC is in a band from 0.95 p.u. to 1.04 p.u. and no voltage problems can be seen. But at the working point AP2, if more reactive power needs to be supplied to the grid, without reducing the active power generation, an additional compensation unit has to be installed at the PCC. In the allowable operation extension it is about 18 Mvar. With such compensation the regulation band moves to the right inside the grid code allowable area. D. Case 2 - Switching of the HVAC cable In this case the wind farm HVAC cable (110 kV) is switched on and the possible overvoltage of the cable is simulated. The result is shown in Fig. 7. At t0=1s the cable is switched on, and because the cable is completely compensated, no overvoltage appears. At t1=1.15s, the compensation unit Comp.1 is failed, the voltage at the PCC rises to 1.05p.u., the voltage at the wind farm side T1 is 1.08 p.u., after 150ms at t2=1.3s the second compensation Comp.2 is switched off, the voltage at the PCC increases to 1.098 p.u., and at T1 goes up to 1.18 p.u. For a short time such voltage behavior does not cause severe voltage stability problems for the wind farm with a 70 km 110 kV cable even when a double failure of the compensation is assumed. Nevertheless it will be necessary to increase the operation voltage level of the submarine cable if the planned new larger wind farms are constructed in the future. Fig. 8 shows the simulation of the voltage at the PCC and as well as the wind farm offshore transformer when one 220 kV long cable is switched on. In this case the voltage at

Fig. 4 Brief one-line diagram of the offshore wind farm

damage to the offshore transformers and also voltage instability in transmission network. VI. REFERENCES
[1] [2] Fig. 7 Voltage at the PCC and the offshore transformer T1 when the 110 kV cable is switched on and and the compensation units are tripped [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Fig. 8 Voltage at the PCC and the offshore transformer T1 when a 220 kV cable is switched on and the compensation units are tripped E.ON Netz, "Grid Code high and extra high voltage", April 2006 E.ON Netz, "Requirements for Offshore Grid Connections in the E.ON Netz Network", 1. April 2008 "Oceans of opportunity Harnessing Europes largest domestic energy resource", A report by the European Wind Energy Association, September 2009 "Planning of the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in Germany Onshore and Offshore up to the Year 2020", Consortium DEWI/E.ON Netz/EWI/ REW Transport Grid, Electricity /VE Transmission, Summary, 2005 Information found at www.offshore-wind.de/page/index.php?id=4761 &L=1 (visit May 2010) X. P. Zhang, C. Rehtanz, B. Pal, "Flexible AC Transmission Systems: Modelling and Control", Springer, 2006 L. P. Lazaridis, "Economic Comparision of HVAC and HVDC Solutions for Large Offshore Wind Farms under Special Consideration of Reliability", Master Thesis, Depart. Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, February 2005 D. Wensky, "berblick: Technologien zur Ableitung der Energie aus Offshore-Windparks", dena-Fachgesprch, Verlegung von Seekabeln zum Netzanschluss von Offshore Windparks in Bundeswasserstrassen, Bremen, Germany March 2006 T. Ackermann, N. B. Negra, J. Todorovic, "Evaluation of Electrical Transmission Concepts for Large Offshore Wind Farms" H. Brakelmann, "Efficiency of HVAC Power Transmission from offshore-Windmills to the Grid", IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference 2003, June 23th-26th, Bologna, Italy J. Hanson, T. Hunger, "Network Studies for Offshore Wind Farm Grid Connections Technical Need and Commercial Optimization". The Electricity Training Association, "Power System ProtectionVolume 2: Systems and methods", Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1995, ch.11-Overvoltage protection L. L. Grigsby, "Electrical Power Engineering Handbook", Second Edition, CRC Press, 2006. I. Erlich, K. Rensch, F. Shewarega, "Impact of Large Wind Power Generation on Frequency Stability", IEEE 2006 M. B. C. Salles, J. R. Cardoso, A. P. Crilo, C. Rahmann, K. Hameyer, "Control Strategies of Doubly Fed Induction Generators to Support Grid Voltage", 2009 IEEE E.ON Netz, "Grid Code High and extra high voltage ", April 2006 IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, "Reactive Power Compensation for Wind Power Plants", IEEE 2009 W. Wiechowski, P. B. Eriksen, "Selected Studies on Offshore Wind Farm Cable Connections Challenges and Experience of the Danish TSO", 2008 IEEE Kundur P. "Power System Stability and Control", New York: McGrawHill, Inc, 1993. Hui Guo (Student Member 09) studied electrical engineering at the Zhengzhou University, China and then at the Otto-vonGuericke University, Germany. He graduated in 2008 with a Master of Science degree and then joined the Chair of Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources at the Ottovon-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany as a research assistant and also a Ph.D student. Krzysztof Rudion (M 06) studied electrical engineering at the Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland and the Rostock University of Technology. He graduated in 2003 at the Wroclaw University of Technology with a Dip.-Ing. Degree. He then joined the Chair of Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources at the Otto-von-GuerickeUniversity Magdeburg, Germany as a research engineer, and he got his PhD degree there. His primary field of interest is wind energy.

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the PCC reaches 1.6 p.u. if the cable compensation fails, and the wind farm voltage will reach 2 p.u.. Such overvoltage is dangerous to the wind farm operation. On the one hand, the high overvoltage offshore can damage the Isolation of the cables and transformers. If the offshore side compensation fails during the connection process of the wind farm, it would not be possible to start up the wind generators due to overvoltage protection, even though the generators could provide the capacitive reactive power, which is lost due to the compensation failure. On the other hand, such overvoltage on the land side can cause the disconnection of nearby generators or transmission lines, and may result in voltage instability. Thus, it must be ensured, that switching of the submarine network connected to the onshore grid should be done fully compensated. In other words if the cable is not compensated, such switching operation will cause overvoltage. V. CONCLUSION In this study the stability of an offshore wind park is theoretically analyzed. The Interconnection of the offshore wind farm by HVDC and HVAC is discussed. The HVAC cable connection of the offshore wind farm is simulated with a simulation model, based on the topology of the Alpha Ventus offshore wind farm. The steady-state voltage and reactive power behavior at the PCC are analyzed by means of operating the wind turbines at their reactive power capability limits. The result is compared with the grid code requirement. It can be concluded that for the studied wind farm at rated working point, the voltage at PCC is controllable in a small range. If there is more support of the steady state voltage at PCC is required, additional compensation of 18 Mvar have to be installed. Switching of the HVAC cable will cause overvoltage if the cable is not sufficiently compensated. For the 110 kV 70km cable the voltage is not critical for short term. But for a higher voltage level (e.g. 220 kV cable of the same length), the voltage may reach 1.6 p.u. at the wind farm connection point and 2 p.u. within the wind farm. Such overvoltage may cause

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Chris O. Heyde (M 06) studied electrical engineering at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany. He received the Dipl.-Ing. and the Phd same University in 2005 and 2010 respectively. with the degree Dipl.-Ing. His primary field of interest is network security.

Zbigniew Antoni Styczynski (SM 01) He became the Professor and the Chair of Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources at the Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany. From 2002 until 2006 he was the dean of the EE Faculty and in 2006 he became the president of the Centre of the Renewable Energy Saxonia Anhalt, Germany. He is the author of more than 150 scientific papers, senior member of IEEE PES, member of CIGRE SC C6, VDE ETG und IBN and fellow of the Conrad Adenauer Foundation.