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,

KANSAS CITY, Mi.

tM|CFrR ENYttLOM CO^ KA*A

CITY.

KANSAS CITY MO PU BLIC LIBRARY

MYTHS AND SONGS FROM THE SOUTH PACIFIC.

BOOKS.
THE CHILDHOOD OJ THE WOELD A
:

Early Times.

By EDWABD

Simple Account of Man New E'dit CLODD, F.R.A.S.


-

Crown
"
Gazette.

8yo.

3s.

1 Likely to prove acceptable to a large and growing class of readers.*

Pall

" The book is one -which very young children could understand, and which grc up persons may run through with pleasure and advantage." Spectator" Its style is simply exquisite, and it is filled with most curious information Clvristian World. "I read your hook with great pleasure. I have no doubt it will do good, and 1 you will continue your work Nothing spoils our temper so much as havm unlearn in youth, manhood, and even, old age, so many tilings which wo wore tai as children A book like yours will prepare a far better soil in the child's miiul* I was delighted to have it to read to my children." (.Extract from, a Letter 1 Professor MAS MTJLLEB to tke AutJwr).

THE CHILDHOOD
*

0!F RELIGIONS Including a Simple Accoun the Birth and Growth of Myths and Legends. By CLODD, F.K.A.S. Grown 8vo. 5s.
:

His language is simple, clear, and impressive. His faculty of complicated masses of detail, and compressing much infoimation into fontiH with such felicitous arrangement and expression as never to over-tax the attuntio abate the interest of the reader, is very remarkable." Jffxaminer. " The style is very charming. There is something in the a something in the pellucid simplicity of his easy prose, which along." Academy.

THE LIFE AND GKROWTH OF LANGUAGE. By W.


Professor
College,
that is

of

Sanskrit

New Haven.

D. WHIT* and Comparative Philology in S Second Edition. 5s.


<,

We commend
known

of the

Mr. Whitney's book as being a clear and concise summary still infant science of language." Sour.

MISSIONABY LIFE IN THE SOTJTHEBN SEAS, By JAMES


With
Illustrations.

Hm

Crown

8vo.

7s. Bd.

This is an historical record of mission work by the labourer* denominations in Tahiti the Hervoy, the Austral, the Samoa Navigator's, the Sandwich, Friendly, and Fiji Islands, &o. " The narrative is calm, sensible, and manly, and preserves many Inten*
all
facts in a convenient shape."

Literary Churchman.

A YACHTING
Demy
is

8vo.,

CBTTISE IN THE SOTTTH SEAS, By C. F* with six Photographic Illustrations. 7#. 6d

We

The author has spent considerable time in Polynesia, and his w< a description of the islands and the manners and oustomH of natives as they exist. Much that is interesting from a scientific ft ethnological point of view will be found in the volume,

MYTHS AND SONGS


FROM

THE SOUTH PACIFIC

BY THE

REV. WILLIAM

WYATT

GILL,

B.A.,

OF THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

WITH A PREFACE BY
F.

MAX MULLER,
OF THE FRENCH INSTITUTE.

M.A.,

J'KQFESSOK OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY

AT OXFORD; FOREIGN MBMBBK

HENRY

S.

KING

&

Co.,

LONDON,

1876.

PREFACE.

HAVING expressed a

strong desire that the collection of

Myths

and Songs from the South Pacific, which the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill brought home with him from Mangaia, should not be allowed to
lie forgotten, or, like

other valuable materials collected by hardI

working missionaries, perish altogether,


to state, in a few words,
this collection to be.

could not well decline


real importance of

what I consider the

I confess
questioned.

it

seemed strange

to

me

that

its

importance should be

If

new minerals,

plants, or animals are discovered, if

strange petrifactions are brought to light, if flints or other stone

weapons are dredged up, or works of


hitherto

art disinterred,

even

if

no one,

unknown language is rendered accessible for the first time, I think, who is acquainted with the scientific problems of
in,

our age, would ask what their importance consists

or what they

vi

Preface.
good
if

are

for.

Whether they are products of nature or works of


is

man,

only there

no doubt

as to their genuineness, they claim

and most

readily receive the attention, not only of the learned,


large.

but also of the intelligent public at

Now, what
has brought
hundreds,
it

are these

Myths and Songs which Mr. W. W.

Gill

home from Mangaia,

but antiquities, preserved for

may be

for

thousands of years, showing us, far better


idols, the
is full

than any stone weapons or stone

growth of the

human

mind during a period which,

as yet,

of the most perplexing

problems to the psychologist, the historian, and the theologian ?

The

only hope of our ever unravelling the perplexities of that

mythological period, or that mythopceic phase of the


intellect,
lies

human

in our gaining access to every

kind of collateral

evidence.

We know
races, but

that mythopceic period

among

the Aryan

and Semitic
are

we know

it

from a distance only, and where

we

to look
still

now
think

for living

myths and legends, except among


are, in fact, at

those

who

and speak mythologically, who

the present

moment what

the Hindus were before the collection

of their sacred hymns, and the Greeks long before the days of

Homer?

To
who

find ourselves

gods and heroes and ancestral


sacrifices,
all

among a people who really believe in still offer human spirits, who
their

in

some cases devour


flesh

human

victims, or, at

events,

burn the

of animals on their

altars,

trusting
is

that the scent will be sweet to the nostrils of their gods,

as

if

the zoologist

could spend a few days

among

the megatheria,

Preface.
or the botanist

vii

among the waving ferns of the forests, buried beneath our feet. So much is written just now, and has been written during the last fifty years, on human archaeology, on the
growth and progress of the
the
first

intellect,

on the
;

origin of religion,

on

beginnings of social institutions

so

many

theories have

been

started, so

many

generalizations put forward with perfect

confidence, that one might almost imagine that all the evidence

was before
anywhere.
regions
still

us,

and no more new

light
is

could be expected from

But the very contrary


to

the case.
facts,

There are many

be explored, there are many

now

put forward

as certain,

which require the most careful inspection, and as we

read again and again the minute descriptions of the journey which

man

is

supposed to have made from station to


or, it

station,

from his

childhood to his manhood,


to resist a feeling of

may

be, his old age,

it is difficult

amazement, and to suppress at almost every the exclamation, Wait wait page
! !

There are the two antagonistic


with a kind of religious fervour

schools, each holding

its

tenets

the one believing in a descending,

the other in an ascending, development of the

human

race

the

one asserting that the history of the human mind begins of necessity with a state of purity and simplicity which gradually
gives

way

to corruption, perversity,

and savagery ; the other mainfirst

taining with equal confidence, that the

human

beings could

not have been more than one step above the animals, and that their

whole history

is

one of progress towards higher

perfection.

With

viii

Preface.

of religion, the one school holds to a regard to the beginnings


of something that primitive suspicion
natural,
is

beyond

call it super-

transcendent, or divine.

It considers

a silent walking

across

on tbis/Wfo* of life, with eyes fixed

high, as

a more perfect
offer-

realisation of primitive religion than singing of

Vedic hymns,
articles.

of Jewish

sacrifices,

or the most elaborate creeds and

The

other begins with the purely animal

and passive nature of man,

* " So, on the I2th of August, we made the steep ascent to the village of which crosses the foaming Namgea, and from there to a very unpleasant jkitta, of the Himalaya, and, indeed, on to In this torrent of the
Sutlej.

part

from birch trees or Kashmir, these bridges are constructed of twigs, chiefly about the size of these of thick Two twigs, ropes bushes, twisted together. a man's thigh, or a
little larger,

are stretched across the river, at a distance of

about six to four feet from each other, and a similar rope runs between them, three or four feet lower, being connected with the upper ropes by more .slender
of birch twigs twisted together, but sometimes of grass, and ropes, also usually The unpleasantness at an interval of about five feet from each other.
occurring

of a jfaila is that the passenger has no proper hold of the upper ropes, which are too thick and rough to be grasped by the hand; and that, at the extremities, to have any hold of both at the same they are so far apart that it is difficult is increased by the bend or hang of the jhitta, which time while the
;

danger

much lower in the middle than at its ends. He has also to stoop painfully in order to move along it, and it is seldom safe for him to rest his feet on the
is

lower rope, except where


ones.

To

fall into

destruction.

The

it is supported from the upper ropes by the transverse the raging torrent underneath would be almost certain high wind which usually prevails in the Himalaya during

In the middle of the day, makes the whole structure swing about frightfully. the bridge there is a cross-bar of wood (to keep the two upper ropes separate)

some one

which has to be stepped over ; and it is not customary to repair a jhi'tla falls through it, and so gives practical demonstration that it

until
is

in

rather a rotten condition."

ANDREW WILSON, "The Abode of Snow/'

p. 197.

Preface.
and
tries to

ix

show how the repeated impressions of the world

in

which he

lived, drove him to fetichism, whatever that

may mean,

to ancestor-worship, to a worship of nature, of trees

and serpents ,

of mountains and

rivers,

of clouds

and meteors, of sun and moon and


at last,

and

stars,

and the

vault of heaven,

by what

is

called

a natural mistake, of

One who

dwells in heaven above.

There

is

some

truth in every

one of these views

but they
yet,

become untrue by being


it

generalized.

The
shall

time has not come

probably never

will

come, when we

be able to

assert any-

thing about the real beginnings of religion in general.

We know

little

here,

little

there, but
it

whatever

we know

of early religion,

we

always see that

presupposes vast periods of an earlier

development.

Some people imagine


:

that fetichism, at all events, presupposes

nothing they would probably not hesitate to ascribe to some of


the higher animals the faculty of fetich-worship.
are so devoid

But few words


first

of scientific precision as fetichism, a term


the writings of

rendered popular by
that
it

De

Brosses.

Let us suppose
material object

means a kind of temporary worship of any

which the fancy

may happen

to select, as a tree, a stone, a post,


First

an animal:

can that be called a primitive form of religion?


is

of all, religion

one thing, worship another, and the two are by no means necessarily connected. But, even if they were, what is the

meaning of worship paid to a

stone, but the outward sign of a

Preface.
is

pre-existent belief that this stone

more than a

stone,

something

supernatural,

it

may be something

the divine, so that the ideas of

supernatural and the divine, instead of growing out of fetichism,


are generally, if not always, presupposed
to ancestor-worship,

by

it?

The same

applies

which not only presupposes the conceptions

of immortality and of the ideal unity of a family, but implies in

many

cases a belief that the spirits of the departed are worthy

to share the

honours paid to divine beings.

To

maintain that

all religion
is

begins with fetichism,


far as

all

myth-

ology with ancestor-worship,

simply untrue, as
there
is

our present

knowledge goes.
there
is

There

is

fetichism,

ancestor-worship,

nature-worship, whether of trees or serpents, of mountains

or rivers, of clouds

and meteors, of sun and moon and


\

stars,

and

the vault of heaven


all this,

there

is all this,

and there

is

much more than


:

wherever we can watch the early growth of religious ideas


to learn
is, first

but,

what we have
religion,

of

all,

to distinguish, to study
itself,

each

each mythology, each form of worship by

to

watch them during successive periods of their growth and decay,


to follow to

them through

different strata of society,

and before

all,

have each of them, as much as possible, studied

in their o\vn

language.

If language

is

the realization of thought and feeling, the im-

portance of a knowledge of the language for a correct appreciation of

what

it

was meant

to

convey in the expression of

religious

Preface.
thought and feeling, requires no proof.
this,

xi

have often

insisted

on

and

have

tried to

show

whether successfully or
at
first

not, let

others judge

that

much

of what seems

irrational

and

inexplicable in mythology,

and

in religion also,

can be explained
I

by the

influence which language exercises

on thought

have

never said that the whole of mythology can be explained in that


way, that
or that
all

that

seems
is

irrational is

due to a misunderstanding,

all

mythology
I

a disease of language.

Some

parts of
linguistic

mythology
tests,

have proved to be soluble by means of

but mythology as a whole I have always represented as a


I believe, in the developall

complete period of thought, inevitable,

ment of
that at

human

thought, and comprehending


fall

and everything

a given time can

within the horizon of the

human
all

mind.

The Nemesis

of disproportion seems to haunt

new

discoveries.

Parts of mythology are religious, parts of mythology


parts

are

historical,

of

mythology are metaphysical, parts

of

mythology are poetical; but mythology as a whole is neither It comprereligion, nor history, nor philosophy, nor poetry.

hends
which

all
is

these together under that peculiar form of expression

natural

and

intelligible at

a certain

stage, or at certain

recurring stages in the development of thought

and speech, but

becoming traditional, becomes frequently unnatural and unintelligible. In the same manner nature-worship, treewhich, after
worship,
worship,
itself

serpent-worship,
fetichism, all

ancestor-worship,

god-worship,

hero-

are parts of religion, but

none of these by
which compre-

can explain the origin or growth of

religion,

xii

Preface.
all

hends
its

these and

many more

elements in the various phases of

growth.

If anything can help to impress

upon students of
the advantage

religion

and

mythology the necessity of caution,


research, and, above
it is

of special

all,

the necessity of a scholarlike treatment,

a book

like that of

Mr.

Gill,

an account of a religion and


Mangaia, when

mythology which were

still

living in the island of

Mr. Gill went there as a missionary twenty-two years ago, and


which, as they died away before his eyes, he carefully described
to us from

what he saw

himself,

from what the

last depositaries
it

of

the old faith told him,

and from what was recorded of

in sacred

songs, which he gives us

in the original, with literal translations.

It is true that the religion

and mythology of the Polynesian race


their greatest

have often been treated before, but one of


consists in the very fact that

charms
forms.

we
its

possess

them

in so

many

Each

island has, so to say,

own
that

religious
is

and mythological
to
all,

dialect,

and though there


is

is

much

common

and must
and
indi-

therefore be old, there

at the

same time much

local

vidual variety.
is

Again, the great advantage of Mr. Gill's collection


itself freer

that

Mangaia has kept

from foreign influences than


"

almost any other of the Polynesian islands.

The

isolation of the

Hervey

Islanders,"

he

says,

"was

in favour of the purity of their

and the extreme jealousy with which they were guarded was rather an advantage than otherwise." When we fmd
traditions,

strange*

Preface.

xiii

coincidences between the legends of Mangaia and Jewish, Christian, or classical stories,

we need not suspect own

that former

European

travellers

had dropped the germs of them, or

that missionaries

had

given, unconsciously, their

colouring to them.

Mr. Gill has

been

specially on the guard

against this

and other sources of error.


"I
put away from

" Whilst collecting


classical

my myths,"

he

says,

me

all

mythology, being afraid that unconsciously I might mould

these Polynesian stories into similarity with those of Greece

and

Rome.

On my
about Eve
"

making
(Ivi),

inquiries

whether the Polynesian tradition

which I had discussed in

my

"

Science of ReliGill
its

gion

(p. 304),

was to be found in Mangaia, Mr.


not,

informed

me

that

it

was

and

that

he strongly suspected

European
existed,

origin.

The elements of
traces of

the story
it

may have previously

and we see some


in

in the account of the creation current

Mangaia, but Mr.

Gill suspects that

some of the mutineers of


story,

the Bounty

may have told the natives the Bible


their

and

that

it

became incorporated with

own

notions.

The jawbone,
absent in Mangaia.

too, with

which we are told that Maui, the


is

great solar hero of the Polynesians, destroyed his enemies,

When

I inquired about
it

it,

Mr.

Gill

informed

me

that he never heard of

in the

Hervey Group

in connection

with Maui.

Such things are extremely important

for

a proper treatment of

xiv
I hold

Preface.
no longer
is

mythology.

to the rule that

ologies agree in

what

irrational or foolish,

when two myththey must have had

the same
at

must have origin, or

come

into contact with each other

some period of
to

their history.

If there was a reason for the


in

jawbone

be used as a weapon

one country, the same reason

may have may

existed in another.

But, even if there was

no reason,

a fact that happened or was imagined to have happened in one


place
surely have
in another.
;

happened or have been imagined

to

have

happened

At

first,

no doubt, we
offer

feel startled

by

such coincidences

and that they often

a primfr fade pre-

sumption in favour of a
as

common

origin cannot be denied.

But

we read on from one mythology

to another, our sensitiveness

with regard to these coincidences becomes blunted, and

we

feel

hardened against
evidence.

appeals which are founded exclusively on such

At

first

sight,

what can be more

startling

than to see the

interior of the world, the invisible or nether world, the

Hades of

AvLH being the name of one of the lower regions, both among Brahmans and Buddhists? But we have only to look around, and we find that in Tahitian the name
the Mangaians, called Avaiki^
for

Hades

is

Hawaii,

in

New

Zealand Jffawaiki, and more


similarity

originally, I suppose,

Sawaiki; so that the

between the

Sanskrit

and Polynesian words vanishes very


in

quickly.

That the name of the Sun-god

Mangaia

is

Ra

has been

pointed out as a strange coincidence with Egypt ; but more really

Preface.
important

xv

is the story of Ra being made captive, as reminding us of similar solar legends in Greece, Germany, Peru, and elsewhere.*

can read the Mangaian story of Ina (the moon) and her mortal lover, who, as he grew old and infirm, had to be sent back
to the earth to

Who

end

his days there, without thinking of Selene

and

Endymion, of Eos and Tithonos ?

Who

again, if acquainted with the

Vedic myth of the Maruts^

the strikers, the Storm-gods, and their gradual change into the

Roman god
tion

of war, Mars, can

fail

to see the

same

transition of

thought in several of the gods of the storms, of war and destruc-

the

among the Polynesians, though here name of Maru is purely accidental.

again the similarity in

In some of the Polynesian islands the Deluge


lasted exactly forty days.

is

said to
It

have

This,

no doubt,

is startling.

may be

the result of missionary influence.

But, even

if it

were not, the

coincidence between the Polynesian and the Jewish accounts on


that

one point may be

either purely accidental, or

may be founded

on rude meteorological
tected.
ditions,

calculations

which we have not yet detra-

do not like to quote coincidences from American

because

we know

that

we

are never safe there against

Chips from a German Workshop. 2nd Edition, vol. ii. p. 116. t Rig-Veda-Sanhita, The Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans. Translated by
Mutter.

F.

Max

Vol.

i.

Hymns

to the Maruts, or the Storm-Gods.

London,

Trubner and Co.

1869.

xvi

Preface.

the account of the Toltec deluge, and Spanish by-notes; otherwise the depth of the statement that the mountains were covered to
"fifteen cubics," might

be quoted as another undesigned coin-

cidence.*

the Creator According to the Chimalpopoca MS.,

man being made on produced His work in successive epochs, Why, we may ask, on the the seventh day from dust and ashes. seventh day? But others, without even insisting on the peculiar character of the seventh number, may simply ask, Why not?
There
is

much

similarity
;

between the Hindi! account of the

Deluge and the Jewish

but no one

who

has read the numerous

accounts of a deluge in other parts of the world, would feel


surprised at this.

much
origin

At

all

events, if

we admitted a

common

of the two, or an actual borrowing, then to explain the differences

between them would be extremely


coincidence
is,

difficult.
is

The

only startling

that in India the flood


it

said to begin

on the

seventh day after

had been announced


day
is

to

Manu.
in the

however, that the seventh

mentioned

Considering, " Bhagavatu-

Purina"

only, I feel inclined to look

upon

it

as merely accidental.

It might, no doubt, have been borrowed from Jewish or even Mohammedan sources; but how can we imagine any reason why so

unmeaning a

fact should

have been taken over, while on so many

other points, where there was every temptation to borrow, nothing

was done to assimilate the two accounts, or to remove features of


which, at that time, the Hindus might well be supposed to have

been ashamed?
*

mention

all

this

for

the sole purpose of

Bancroft, Native Races,

vol. v. p. 20.

Preface.
preaching patience and caution
quite as
theories.

xvii

and

I preach

it

against myself

much

as against others, as

a warning against exclusive

On
that

every page of these Mangaian legends there


of them

is

evidence

many

owe

their origin to language,

whether we adopt

the theory that the Mangaians played on the words, or that their

words played on them.


to say that the

Mr.

Gill himself fully admits this

but

whole of the Mangaian mythology and theology


which language
for
is

owed

its

origin to the oxydizing process to

exposed in every country, would be to mistake the rust


iron.

the

With

all

these uncertainties before us, with the ground shaking

under our

feet,

who would

venture to erect at present complete

systematic theories of mythology or religion?


thinks
that
all

Let any one who

religion begins with fetichism, all worship with

ancestor-worship, or that the whole of mythology everywhere can

be explained as a disease of language,


account of the
beliefs

try his

hand on

this short

and

traditions of

Mangaia ; and

if

he finds

that he fails to bring even so small a segment of the world's


religion
let

and mythology

into the

narrow
lay

circle of his

own

system,

him pause before he ventures to

down

rules as to

how man,
state,

on ascending from a lower or descending from a higher

must have spoken, must have believed, must have worshipped. If Mr. Gill's book were to produce no other effect but this, it would
have proved one of the most useful works at the present moment.

xviii

Preface.
contains

But

it

much

that in itself will deeply interest all those

who have

learned to sympathize with the childhood of the world,


is

and have not forgotten that the child

the father of the

man;

much

Jhat

will startle those

who

think that metaphysical concep;

tions are incompatible with downright savagery


will

much

also that

comfort those

who hold

that

God

has not

left

Himself without
race.

a witness, even

among

the lowest outcasts of the

human

F.

MAX MULLER.

OXFORD, January

26, 1876.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

writer of the following pages has been for twenty-two a missionary in the Hervey Group, a small cluster of islands years in the South Pacific, lying between the 19 and 22 parallels of S. latitude and 157 and 160 of W. longitude.

THE

He has sought to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the traditionary beliefs of a small section of the widely scattered PolyOn them the hopes and aspirations of many past nesian family. were founded. correctly call the entire system a generations the true doctrine of to them it was a "theology,"

We

"mythology;" and the invisible world. The actual working of these false ethics was unceasing and pitiless war, unbridled and unblushCorrect knowledge of these "mysteries" was ing profligacy.
the visible

" wise men " of the different possessed only by the priests and tribes. By them the teachings of the past were embodied in These songs be chanted at their national festivals. to songs, for the native intellect, and tended to fascination great possessed the preservation of the ancient faith. The writer's object is simply
to aid the student of ethnology in his researches. While there is much that is puerile and absurd in this heathen

of primeval light philosophy, there are evident glimmerings

The

xx

Introductory Remarks.

The continued truth. a Polynesian name for God expresses great is death after implied in their existence of the human spirit The Vetini. of beautiful the in allegory "laments" and ancient of a is but sacrifice human perversion cruel system of of mankind is taught in the contrast The common truth.
^

origin

Tanbetween "the fair-haired and fair-skinned children of and dark-skinned children of dark-haired "the and garoa," There is an Vatea. Rongo;" both the offspring of Great
undercurrent of yearning after the True
songs;
e.g.

God

in

some of

their

as

when Korea

sings (p. 215)

Oh, for some other Helper !

Some new divinity, to listen To the sad story of thy wasting

disease

As the

result of

many

the ancient faith of Polyyears' inquiry into

nesia, the writer

Max

Miiller

most heartily endorses the remark of Professor " Wherever there are traces of human life, there are
*

traces also of religion."

is contained in this volume was large portion of what Tiaio. last the from derived priest of the shark-god Tereavai, Some links in the system were irrecoverably lost by the slaughter

of his father Tuka, at the battle of Araeva, not long before the but the cordial landing of the first Christian teachers. Nothing

Tereavai to yield up reception of the new faith could have induced The to the stranger the esoteric teachings of the priestly clan. writer throughout has been greatly indebted to the sagacity and unwearied patience of Sadaraka (grandson of the poet Koroa), who
is

allowed by his
language.

own countrymen
Each
its

to be the best living critic of his

own

island in the group

had a

dialect,

history,

and a worship of

own.

The language

of ancient Polynesian

* Science of Religion,

p. 118*

Introductory Remarks.
is

xxi

song

not that

now

the living tongue as

Greek of

spoken; bearing the same relation to the Homer does to that of Xenophon.

The myths and prayers (karakia) are believed to be of great The dirges and clan-songs are modern, but are doubtantiquity.
less

echoes of older compositions.

Should the present volume

meet with acceptances a


illustrative clan-songs,

collection of "Prehistoric Sketches," with

may

hereafter appear.

W. to GILL
LEWISHAM, January,
1876.

CONTENTS.
I.

MYTHS OF CREATION.
PAGE

The Beginning of all

things.
II.

Dramatic song of creation

...

...

DEIFIED MEN.

Derivation of the Polynesian word for God. Tiaio, king and god. Tane-Ngakiau. Tekuraaki. Song of the shore-king, high priest of human Kongo. Derivation of Polynesian word "atua," or god. Dedication of infants. priesthood needed. Naming of children ...

23

III.

ASTRONOMICAL MYTHS.

chase that never ends. The sun and moon.


celestial fish-hook.

A day-song for

The woman

Song of the

moon. Maaki's fte

twins. in the

Matariki, or Pleiades.
Eclipses.
...

A
40

IV.

THE EXPLOITS OF MAUL

The

The fire-god's song. The sky-raised; or, the fire-god's secret The sun made captive. The wisdom of origin of pumice stone. Maui enslaving the sun. The sky raised. Maui's last Manihiki.
... ...
...
...

and greatest achievement


V.

..

...

51

TREE MYTHS.
77

The myth of the cocoa-nut tree. Tahitian myth of the cocoa-nut tree. The iron- wood tree. Ono fells a famous tree. Wanderings of Ono

VLINA, THE FAIRY VOYAGER.


Ina's voyage to the Sacred Isle. Song of Inzi. Final stanza of the day-song for Tenio's fete. The voyage of Ina. The taahangi, or of Timrau. Numeration and the art of The fmny subjects porpoise. The origin of dancing, song for Tenio's fSte ... fishing invented.

88

VII.

MISCELLANEOUS MYTHS.

prince

bachelor god in search of a wife. Echo ; or, the cave fairy. The kite The origin of kite-flying. of reed-throwers. Uti's torch; or, wiU-a-wisp. song for Tenio's fte. Mosquitoes.

xxiv

Contents.
PAGE

"The-long-lived." Human arts Seeking for Origin of pigs at Rarotpnga. or a murderer Prayer or charm for a thief

and Inventions.
light.

Perils of beauty.

Rata's canoe.

I0 7

VIII. -HADES;
Aitutakian
Sneezing.
hell.

OR,

THE DOCTRINE OF

SPIRIT- WORLD.
152

Dramatic song of Miru. Aitutakian heaven. farewell chanted at a reed-throwing match for women.

IX.

VEETINI; OR,

THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.


Puvai leading a band of his son Kourapapa. Death lament for Varenga. Lament
for

The closing or day-song for Tenio's fete. Vaipo's dirge for Vetini. Vetini meeting his father. Dirge for Vera. The ghosts led by
Vera preparing for their final departure. Koroa's lament ghosts to the shades.
Another lament for Kourapapa. A spirit-journey. for Mourua.
X.

Introduction to the fete of Riuvaka

iSi

ADVENTURES IN

SPIRIT- WORLD.
221

An

The adventures of Ngaru. The drama of escape from spirit-land. journey to the invisible world Ngaru. The ball-thrower's song.

XL FAIRY MEN AND WOMEN.


women and men. song in honour of Mauapa. Tapairu Prologue to the dramatic fte of Potiki. The fairy of the fountain
;

or, fairy

256

XII.

DEATH-TALKS AND DIRGES.

Ghost-killing. Death-talks. Eva, or dirge-proper. Karaponga's dirgehonour of Ruru. Arokapiti's dirge-proper in honour of proper in " Blackened face " The first murder Ruru. dirge-proper for Atiroa.

and the

first

battle

268
XIII.

HUMAN
offered.

SACRIFICES.
The drum of
peace.

Why human
over a
sacrifice.

sacrifices

were

Prayer

Kirikovi's Rongo. Prayer for peace. "crying" song for Maruata. The death of Ngutuku. Makitaka's lament

human

sacrifice to

289

XIV.

THE SEASONS, PHASES OF THE MOON,


Changes of the moon.

ETC., ETC.

The

seasons.

The

mariner's compass of Poly-

nesia.

Polynesian plurals.

Polynesian numeration

316

MYTHS AND SONGS FROM THE SOUTH PACIFIC


CHAPTER
I.

MYTHS OF CREATION.
THE BEGINNING OF ALL THINGS.
THE
universe of these islanders
is

to

be conceived of as the

hollow of a vast cocoa-nut


(See next page.)

shell, as in

the accompanying diagram.

At the interior of this imaginary shell is named Avaiki. with the where a world, communicating upper single aperture top mortals (i.e. Mangaians) live. At various depths are different floorBut at the very or lands, communicating with each other.

The
is

ings,

bottom of this supposed cocoa-nut shell is a thick stem, gradually the very beginning of all tapering to a point, which represents or This point is a spirit demon, without human form, and things.
is

named
1

Te-aka-ia-Roe,

or Thc-root-of-all-cxistence.

The

entire

Roe

point, at

The idea is of a quivering, slender, worm-like thread -woim. which existence begins, i.g. the extremity of the thread-worm. B

Myths and
fabric of the

Songs.

universe

is

constantly sustained

by

this

primary

being.

Above
that
is

this

extreme point

is

Te-tangaengae, or Te-vaerua;

to say, Breathing, or Life.

This

demon

is

stouter

and

\S* ^ >" ^--^" ^ s\ V' ^^^


%,
X*"*

'--

---"

X^
5

xX ^"

'

'

'

'

/
/
1 1
'

/ //
/
/
'

/
/
I

Ifates-tf^

\ \
/T&'-noL

,nd. "ham*, q/T&fa>

[&*>

>r^-@nea^s%'0tA>6f'&a~

This diagram will


instance,

suit

"Tahiti"

for

"Mangaia,"

the mythology of many other islands ; substituting, for as the land where egress and ingress to

Avaiki

exist.

Myths of
stronger than the former
one.

Creation.
But the
thickest

part of the

stem

is

Te-manava-roa, or

The-long-liwd, the third


spirits,

and

last of

the primary, ever-stationary, sentient


stitute the foundation,

who

themselves con-

and insure the permanence and well-being

of

all

the rest of the universe.

advance now to the interior of the supposed cocoa-nut In the lowest depth of Avaiki, where the sides of the imaginary shell nearly meet, lives a woman a demon, of flesh and blood named Vari-ma-te-takere, 1 or The-very-beginning.
shell.

We

Such
touch,

is

the narrowness of her territory that her knees and chin

no other
and

position being possible.

Vari-ma-te-takere was

very anxious for progeny.


right side,
it

One day she plucked off a bit of her became a human being the first man Avatea,
is

or Vatea (the elision of the a in Avatea

compensated by the

elongation of the second vowel).

Now
half
fish,

Vatea, the father of gods and men, was half

man and
human

the division being like the two halves of the

body.

The

species of fish to which this great divinity was allied

being the taairangi (Cetacca), or great sea monsters, i.e. porpoises, whose sides are covered with pure fat, and whose home
is

the boundless ocean.

other a fish-eye.
left

His

Thus one eye of Vatea was human, right side was furnished with an arm
;

the

the

had one proper foot, and half a fish-tail. But there is another, and probably far more ancient, account of Vatea, or Avatea, which means noon in all the dialects of
with a
fin.

He

Eastern Polynesia. 2

Vatea

is

man

possessed of two magnifi-

cent eyes, rarely visible at the same time.


1

In general, whilst one,


similar

Literally, Th*btginning-and-the<>bottom

of the hollow cocoa-nut shell

Vatea

is

the

Wakea of the Hawaiians, with a

meaning and

history.

Myths and
called

Songs.

the by mortals the sun, is seen here in this upper world, contra in AvaikL shines (A other eye, called by men the moon, and moon as living beings.) dictory myth represents the sun

IMAGINARY REPRESENTATION OF VATEA.


Compare
with, this

a remarkable picture of a fish-god, from Layard, in Smith V

Dictionary of the Bible, p. 381 (central picture).

The land

Teassigned by the Great Mother to Vatca was


Another designation
for his

papa-rairai, or TJie-thin-Iand.

home

was Te enua marama o Vatea, or The-bright-hind-of-VatM^ implying the perfect contrast between the brightness of mwntoy,
or

Avatea,

and the

utter

gloom of Po, or night which

is

equivalent to Avaiki.

On

another occasion Vari-ma-te-takere tore off a second


side,

bit
///-

from that same right

and

it

became

Tinirati,

or

numerable, who, like his brother,

had a second and

fishy form.

Myths of
The
sort of fish

Creation.
his half fish

which composed

body was

of the

The Great Mother gave him the land of Motusprat-kind. 1 There were his celeTapu, or Sacred Isle as his own domain.
brated ponds
full

of

all

kinds of

fish.

Tinirau was lord of the

finny inhabitants of the sea, from the shark downwards.

it

Another day Vari-ma-te-takere took a bit became Tango, or Support, who went to

off her left side,


live at

and
2

Enua-Kura,

or The-land-of-red-parrot-feathers*

A fourth child was produced from a bit of the same left side, and was named Tumuteanaoa, or Echo, whose home was Te-paraiEcho is represented as a female. tea, or The-hollow-grey-rocks.
A
fifth

child originated from a bit of that

same

left

side of the

Great Mother, and was designated Raka, or Trouble, who preRaka found a congenial home sides, like Aeolus, over the winds.
in Moana-Irakau, or Deep-ocean.
te-takere a great basket in

Raka

received from Vari-maalso the

which the winds were hidden ;

knowledge of many useful inventions. the numerous winds and storms which
child
is

The

children of

Raka

are

distress

mankind.

To

each

allotted

a hole at the edge of the horizon, through

which he blows at pleasure.

Van, or The-very-beginning, finding that her left side had been more injured than her right, resolved to make both sides alike by
taking a third bit from the right side,
child,

and named
this

this,

her

last

Tu-metua, Stick-by4he-parenL

Now,

sixth

and most Mother in

beloved child, as the

name

implies, lives with the Great

1 At Ngatangiia, Rarotonga, there is an islet, covered with cocoa-nut trees, The '* Sacred Isle " is so named. This is, of course, a modem identification.

supposed to be in the shades. 2 Manuae, or Hervey's Island


Avaiki,

yet

mystically

the

scene

is

laid

in

Myths and
that

Songs.

narrow

strip

of territory constituting the very bottom of


is

Avaiki,

and which

Tk-mute4and. designated Te-enua-te-ki, or

Do what

you may to the attached mother and daughter, you

cannot provoke an angry reply; for the only language known such as nods, elevated eyein The-mute-land is that of signs
brows, grimaces, and smiles.
It is to

The-mute-land that Potiki, temporal lord of Mangaia,

circa 1790, referred in a f6te

song

E enua parere i Avaiki E enua mu matangi e


!

In Avaiki

is

a land of strange utterance,


;

Kua

le Tautiti nei

Like the sighs of the passing breeze Wheie the dance is performed in
silence,

Aore e

kite

te tara

And

the gift of speech

fc

unknown.

Tu-metua

is

usually shortened into

7}/,

a principal god in

most of the Polynesian mythologies, to whom the fourteenth night " moon " was sacred. On Cook's second visit to Tahiti, in every
he found the king to be Otoo, ancestor of the present Pomare. Otoo should be written Tu, the being a mere prefix to all
proper names.
to secure for its

This mythological

name was adopted

in order

superstitious reverence due to the gods Tu was the tutelar goddess of mortals. which are unseen by Moorea. On Mangaia Tu was invariably linked with her nephew

owner the

Tangaroa
Island
is

but was
as

little

regarded.

The second
of

islet

of Hervey's

kingdom (au-o-Tu). At Raiatea Tu-papa = Tu-of4he-lowe$t-dcptfis (the same as


fre-

known

"

the

Tu "

Tu-metua) becomes the wife of Ra, the Sun-god, whose too quent visits to her home required to be checked by Maui.
It

was deemed by Vari very unseemly that Vatea's land, which originally was immediately above her own, should be underneath,

Myths of
and so
1

Creation.
younger
brothers'.

to speak invaded by,

his

The-very-

beginning, therefore,
land,

altered the relative

position of The-thinthis

placing

it

directly

under the opening from

upper
the

world;
lands of

so that the law of primogeniture was established,


all

the younger brothers thus lying underneath the territory

of Noon-day.

Vatea

in his

dreams several times saw a

beautiful

woman.
in his

On

one happy occasion he succeeded in clutching her

sleep,

and thus detained the

fair sprite as his

wife in his

home

in

Te-papa-rairai.

Another account

asserts that

on Vatea's waking
fair

from sleep he could discover no trace of the


searched in
all

one.

He
it

directions for her

but in vain.

At length

occurred to him that her home might be in some dark cavern communicating with a land lower than his own, from which the fair one was in the habit of ascending to The-thin-land to pay

him nocturnal
tion,

visits.

To

test the correctness

of this supposi-

Vatea scraped

handfuls

down

all

a quantity of cocoa-nuts and scattered the chasms in his territory. Some time after-

wards he found that from the bottom of one cave, named Taevarangi, or 27ic-cclcstial-aperture, the rich white food had entirely
disappeared.
whilst

A fresh lot of the

same dainty food was now thrown

Vatea from behind a projecting crag cautiously down, peered down. It was not long before a slender hand, very unlike
his own,

at once concluded that this

was slowly extended towards the coveted morsels. Vatea must belong to the woman he had

It was from The-thin-land that Potai sagely conjectured that Captain " Cook had come. " Era, e te matakeinanga, no raro i Te-papa-rairai i Vatea == "Surely, friends^ he has climbed tip from The-thin-land> the home of

Vatea"
shell.

How? By

breaking through the solid sides of the vast cocoa-nut

8
seen in his dreams.

Myths and

Songs.

With a favouring current of wind, he His visions descended to the bottom, and caught the fair thief. had again she that were realized; this lovely one confessed in ascended to his house above in The-thin-land and
that Vatea, would never rest

She correctly guessed he had discovered the whereShe informed wife. abouts of the fair coquette, and made her his the daughter of her lover that she was Papa, or Foundation,
until

again order to win him as her future husband.

Timatekore, or N0iAing-more, and his wife Tamaiti-ngava-ringavari, thus became the cherished The famed
or
Soft-bodied.
;

Papa

wife of Vatea

both ascended by another eddy of wind through


!

the chasm to The-bright-land-of-Vatea

DRAMATIC SONG OF CREATION.


FOR THE llTE OF POTIKI, CIRCA 1790.
Call for the dance
to begin

with music.
of

Noo mai Van i


I te tuturi
i

te aiti,

The home
all,

Van

is

the narrowest of

te
e,

memenge
a kake
!

Kongo

Knees and chin ever meeting x It was reserved for Kongo to ascend.
Solo.

Taipo el
Chorus.

Go on
'Twos

Vatea kite
1

tena vaine
reira e

in the shades

Vatea

first

saw

his wife,

moe ana paa

And
Solo.

fondly pressed her to his bosom.

Ae
1

Aye
to this

Kongo

often

came up from the shades

upper

-vv

orld

Vari never.

Myths of

Creation.

Chorus.

Te

ui a te metua

anau
!

ai

When

asked

who was

her (Papa's)

father,

la Timatekore

She said Timatekore! (Nothing more).


Solo.

la Timatekore Aore o tatou metua, ua tu I Vari ua mai e I


!

e,

Most truly, Timatekore. But WE have NO x father whatever


Vari alone made us.
Solo.

Noo mai Vari


I te aiti ae
!

That home of Vari

is
I

The
Chorus.

very narrowest of all

Noo mai

Vari

te aiti

Van's home
spaces,

is

in the narrowest
2

of

E
I

tuarangi kai taro

mata
!

na turanga pure e O Vatea metua e pua ua ake.

A goddess feeding on raw " taro " z At appointed periods of worship


!

Thy
Solo.

mother, Vatea,

is self-existent.

Pua ua o Vatea,

Vatea sprung into

existence.

Papa

te itinga,

Papa

is

bright as the morn.

Vari-ma-te-takere
1 tapakau

Vari-the-originator-of-all-things

ana e

Sheltered

her

(Papa) under

her

wing.

FINALE.
Call
to begin.

le taia ia Maukurautaroa

Te

rua

te matangi, e

Vatea e

Let the storm be restrained In favour of Vatea, thou god of winds !

Papa could boast of father and mother ; but tjie children of Vari were An allusion is intended to the simply moulded out of bits of her own body. belief that the three original tribes are descended from the three illegitimate
sons of Tevaki.
2

A& a

matter of

fact,

however, Vari and Vatea had no altars and no

separate worship ; but the grandchildren of Vari had. 8 Arum esculentum.

TO

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Taotao matangi na Jna Te kumutonga.

Awake the

gentle breeze of Ina


lover.

That bare her to her


Solo.

O nai matangi riki e


Ka
arara'i oki

for a soft

zephyr to bear

me

Vatea)

toku tere
I

Ki

raro e

Prosperously on To the shades


Solo.

my way
!

taia e te matangi.

Be
Chorus.

lulled,

ye winds.

Taia e

matangi Tukaiaa te tai makoako.

te

Aye, they

ai c lulled.

No

storm

Now sweeps
Solo.

o'er the treacherous sea.

Koakoa

e o tei po
ru-eke e
!

Ye

inconstant winds of nether-land

Kai matangi

Bear

me down

to her

gloomy abode.

Tangaroa and Rongo were the twin children of Vatea and Papa. These boys were the first beings of perfect human form,
having no second shape. Tangaroa should have been born
his brother

first,

Rongo. A few days after mother Papa suffered from a very large boil on her arm.

but gave precedence to the birth of Rongo, his

She

resolved to get rid of it by pressing it The core accordingly flew out it was Tangaroa Another account, equally veracious, says
:

that

Tangaroa came
is

right

spot

indicated by " the

The precise up through Papa's head. crown" with which all their descendants

have since been born.


Vatea's third son was Tonga-iti, whose visible form was the

white and black spotted lizards.

Under the name of Mata-rau,

Myths of
or

Creation.

M
Tonga-iti was an
fourth son of

TJw-two-hundred-cyed,

i.e.

The-sharp-sighted,

object of worship in the Hervey Group.

The

Vatea was Tangiia; the


or Tane-piler-up-of-food.

son was Tane-papa-kai, Both Tangiia and Tone were principal


fifth

and

last

gods of Mangaia.

in

The home of Rongo was Auau (afterwards named Mangaia) Avaiki. As an individual consists of two parts, viz. body and
so this island has a sort of essence, or
spirit,

spirit,

the secret

name

of which

is

Akatautika,

i.e.

The-well-poised,

only used by

the priests and kings of ancient days.


earthly form, or
body, of

When

in after times the

Auau was dragged up

to light, there
etherial form,

remained behind in the obscurity of nether-world the


or spirit^ of The-well-poised.

Now, Tangaroa was


instructed his brother
father wished to

altogether the cleverest son of Vatea

he

Rongo

in the arts of agriculture.

Their

make Tangaroa lord of all they possessed ; but the mother Papa objected, because as parents they dared not taste
her

the food or touch the property of Tangaroa, the eldest by right.

The mother had

own way.
1

Hence, when a human

sacrifice

was offered to Rongo, the refuse, Lc. the body when thoroughly decayed, was thrown to his mother, who dwelt with Rongo in the
shades, in order to please her.
'

all

Government, arrangement of feasts, the drum of peace, i.e. the fountains of honour and power, were secured to Rongo,
selfish craft

through the

of Papa.
fell

Nearly
1

all sorts'

of food, too,

to the share of the younger

Rarotonga only the rocking head of the victim was offered to Tangaroa, : the body might be devoured by the captors. On Mangaia the whole body was laid upon the altar.
their tutelar divinity

On

12
twin-god.

Myths and
The
division

Songs.
this principle
;
:

was made on

all

the
/.&'

RED
the

on

earth or in the ocean

varieties of taro, great bulk, was Kongo's. only one a reddish sort (kaka kura) was Tangaroa's ; the rest

became Tangaroa' s Thus of the numerous

the rest,

being sacred to Rongo.


1

Amongst the multitudinous

varieties of

"meikas," only the plantain was the property of Tangaroa's, The very on account of the redness and uprightness of its fruit

name, "the upright-fruit" (uatu), testifying to the dignity of Bananas of all sorts belonged to Rongo. the eldest of the gods. The plantain, being the kokira, or head, of the great "meika"
family, does not

bend

its

head ;

just as

Tangaroa

is

the kokira,

or the

first

in the family of the gods.

Of three kinds of chestnuts, but one, the red-leafed, is sacred to Tangaroa. Of the two sorts of the indigenous yam, the red is Of the double variety of cocoa-nuts, one belongs to Tangaroa's.
Tangaroa. All bread-fruit was sacred to Rongo. In regard to the wealth of the ocean, Rongo was decidedly the But four sorts of fish all scarlet, besides lobsters, fell to gainer.

Tangaroa.
Rongo's.

The

silvery,

striped,

spotted,

and black were

all

Rongo became very rich; Tangaroa comparatively The twin gods made a grand feast, each collecting only poor. his own food, to which Vatea and Papa were invited. Tangaroa made one great pile of red taro, yams, chestnuts, cocoa-nuts the
;

Thus

top garnished with red land-crabs and find in the sea, etc.

all

the red

fish

he could

Rongo's pile was immensely greater.

The

treasures of earth

and ocean were

parents declared that Tangaroa carried the palm for beauty; whilst Rongo excelled in abundance*
there.
1

The

The term " meika"

includes bananas and plantains.

Myths of
Upon- the same
in after ages

Creation.

13

principle all fair-haired children (rauru keu)

were considered to be Tangaroa's (the god himself whilst the dark-haired, which form the great had sandy hair) Now Rongo's hair was raven black, majority, are Rongo's.
as

became

atua

po,

or

God-whose-home-is-the-shades.

Now

and then a

stray child might


i.e.

be claimed for Tangaroa, whose


;

home
lands.

is

in the sky,

far

beyond the horizon

the majority

of his fair-haired children live with the fair-haired

god

in distant

Very few natives have light hair, a colour greatly disliked To amongst themselves, but in their view suitable to foreigners.
is invariably addressed in playful " the fair-haired progeny of Tangaroa," about in the ancient Tarauri, the prince of reedHence, legend

this

day a golden-haired child

allusion to this myth, as

throwers, this famous son of

Tangaroa

is

represented as being,

with his brother, fair-haired.


Chonis.

Tarauri
Ei

te puti

angaua e Pinga

Tarauri,

the

waif brought up

by

uke

le

mate e

Pinga, Avenged the disgrace of his brother.


Solo.

Taipo el
Chorus.

Go on

^nau keu

a Tangaroa,
i

>lua piri paa

te ao.

The fair-haired children of Tangaroa Doubtless sprung from dazzling light.

Hence, when Cook discovered Mangaia, the men of that day


were greatly surprised at the fair hair and skin of their visitors, and at once concluded that these were some of the long-lost fair
children of

Tangaroa

was but natural that Tangaroa should be displeased at the shown to his brother Rongo. He therefore preference always
It

14

Myths and

Songs.
all

collected a vast quantity of red food of

kinds,

and

set out

on

a voyage in search of some other land, where he could reign alone. He made a long journey, and touched at many islands,
scattering everywhere the blessings of food piled

up

for the pur-

pose

in his canoe.

Finally,

he settled down on
or,

his
it

beloved islands,

Rarotonga and Aitutaki, leaving Auau,


designated,

as

was afterwards

Mangaia, in the

quiet possession of

Rongo = Tht
etc.,

Resounder.

In winter
are in season

tree-fruits
all

disappear; whereas taro, bananas,

the year round.

The

reason for this

is,

that the

former belong to Tangaroa, who merely permits his gifts to be seen and tasted here in the land of Rongo on their way (in winter) to realms where he reigns undisturbed.

On

this

account these

fruits
all

were not regarded as private

property, but as belonging to

the inhabitants of the district in

which they grew.

Ro(ng)o or O Ro was the chief object of worship at Tahiti and most of the Leeward Islands. His seat was the marae, 1 or sacrecj
grove, at Opoa,

on the island of Raiatca ; whence

this

worship

extended to

all

the neighbouring islands, and throughout the

were continually offered to the great Polynesian god of war, to obtain success in their cruel
sacrifices
2

Paumotu Group.

Human

enterprises.
* These maraes were planted with callopkyUa inophylta^ etc., etc., which, untouched by the hand of man from generation to generation, threw a sacral

the mystenes of idol-worship. The trees were accounted sacred, not for their own sake, but on account of the place where they grew. 2 the Rongo, the Rongo of At Atiu Te-rongo, Mangaia, was represented as a son of Tangaroa. At Raiata Oro was in like manner regarded as a At Samoa Longo is repiesented as the MM <>i son of the great Tangaroa.

gloom over

Tangaroa by Sina.

Myths of
When
regarded as the incarnation of

Creation.

15

Captain Cook visited the Sandwich Islands, he was

Rongo, or, in their dialect, Orono, and or Rono, accordingly received divine honours. An ancient prophecy asserted that Rongo, or Rono, who had gone to
Tahiti,

would return

to

Hawaii

in a

This seemed realized in the

visits

of Captain

canoe of a remarkable shape. Cook with his two


great navigator counted
at Tahiti,

wonderful vessels from Tahiti.


forty-nine skulls

The

on the marae of Oro


fiftieth.

and witnessed

the placing of the

When

he himself received divine


that
it

honours at the

Sandwich Islands, he was not aware

was as the blood-stained Rongo, whose home was supposed to be in these southern islands, and at whose shrine those fifty
reeking heads had been offered during

single

generation.

was Tangaroa that was expatriated, without hope of return; Rongo was regarded as being in possession, 1 although His marae is called O-Rongo, and was resident in the shades.
it

On Mangaia

up on the eastern side of the island, but was ultimately removed to the west, where the great navigator held communicafirst

set

tion with these islanders.

It

is

" singular that the

Voyages

"

do

not allude to his great stone image, the secondary representation of Rongo, which must have been visible from the boat of the
Resolution.

Reference

is

made

to the residence of the shore king,

the guardian of the great national idol. The principal god of Rimatara was

Rono or Rongo, to whom human sacrifices were offered. The wife of Rongo was Taka, who bare a daughter named
Tavake.
1

In the course of time Tavake grew up and gave

birth

roto

The word is often used as equivalent to " = " Rongo (i.e. deadly hate) fills Ms

" " " Kua noo Rongo deadly hate: " heart ; in allusion to his being the

author of bloodshed and war.

Myths and

Songs.

and to Akatauira all illegitisuccessively to Rangi, to Mokoiro, were also his mate. Rongo wished his three grandsons, who
sons,
1

to live with

him

in

Auau, in the shades.

But Rangi was

resolved to pull up this land Auau, afterwards called Mangaia, from Avaiki. This was a most arduous task; but, with the
assistance of his brothers, the brave

up the

little

island to the light

Rangi succeeded in dragging of day. Rangi, Mokoiro, and

Akatauira took up their permanent abode in this upper world. Thus the three brothers were the first inhabitants of Mangaia, and
in the course of years gave rise to the
original
tribes

which

peopled

this island.

Three small

to the inarae of

Rongo

rocks, united at the base, close altar for human sacrifice, are the and

the threefold lords of the soil. pointed out as symbolizing nether Rongo continued to live in Avaiki, in the invisible or

Auau, of which
2

this island

was asserted to be but the outward

expression
1

He

directed Rangi to offer bleeding sacrifices


is

on

That these children of Tavake were Kongo's


couplet
:
'

attested

by the

well-

known

Tai anau kakaoa

Na Rongo

paa

la

tama e

The three royal bastards, Offspring of the god Kongo

Ngaritt'sf&e, circa 1790.


2 The Hervey Group consists of seven inhabited islets. Each is supposed to be the body, or outward form, to which a spirit, bearing a distinct name,

located in Avaiki, belongs.

BODY.
1.

SPIRIT,

Rarotonga
i.e.

Western

in

loving

Tonga, memory of
or

I.

Tumutevarovaro

echo.

Western
tapu.
2.

Tonga,

Tonga
later
2.

Auau

ten-need (The name, Mangaia, means

Akatautika

Mangaia-Nm-Neneva
gaia-monstronsly-big].

= Man-

fence.

Myths of
his

Creation.

17

upper world, from time to time the decayed corpse to be invariably thrown in the bush to his mother

marae

in the

Papa.

Mangaia now for the first time emerged to the light of Its central hill universe. day, and became the centre of the was accordingly designated Rangimotia = The centre of the
heavens.

The

inhabitants of

Mangaia were

veritable

men and

women^ as contrasted with the natives of other outlying islands, who were only tuarangi, or evil-spirits in the guise of
humanity.
Vatea, or Avatea (~ noon-day), was thus "the father of the 1 as the gods and men/' the three original tribes being regarded
direct offspring of

Kongo;

all

subsequent

settlers

and

visitors

were

regarded as interlopers, to be, if possible, slain

and

offered

in sacrifice.

3.

Aitutaki

= God-led.
first

3.

Araura

fragrant wreaths for

dancing.
4.

Atiu =s eldest-born (name of


settler).

4.

Enua-manu
Akatoka
the

land of birds.

5.

Mauki

land of Uki (the

first

5.

stony.

inhabitant).

Te-rae o-te-pau

Some say, the Up of

drum.
vast host,

6.
7.

Mitiaro

= face of the ocean. Manuae = home of birds.


It
is

6.
7*

Nukuroa = Enua-Kuia
feathers.

land-of-red-parrot-

said that the "spirit"

name of

Tahiti

is

sun-rising.
*'

Tahiti simply means "east," or

rise

"

fa

being causative.
' *

That
it ib

name Tti or by become familiar.


the
1

east

"

sun-rising/* from hiti (our iti) to island was known in the Hervey Group
full

"

"Iti,"?>. "iti nga"

only of late years the

name

Tahiti has

Yet the great Vatea possessed no marae, had no wooden or stone nor was any worship ever paid to him. representation,
C

Myths and

Songs.

" te anau a " te anau In song, the gods are called atea," i.e. "children of Vatea." The same shortened phrase is Vatea" " Rarotonga at Aitutaki and Atiu the full form Avatea " kia kaka te mata o Avatea Nui " = " when the is used, e.g. eye of Great Avatea (= noon) is open;" in other words, "when the " still in contrast with the darkness and sun is in its full glory ;
in use at
:

"

gloom of Avaiki,

or Nether-world.

The ocean was known


plantain-leaf;
*

as

Rauaika Nui, or

The-vast-out-spread-

that leaf being the largest in

the world.

The

ocean was sometimes designated "the sea of Vatea;'' at other


times " the sea of Tane."

Above was
by the
frail

the blue vault of solid stone, sustained originally

props of

Ru on
In

the central
its

hill

of Mangaia,

but

afterwards permanently raised to

present height by the tremenfrfi

dous exertions of Maui.


heavens, rising
stituted

all,

there were said to be

separate

one above the other into immensity. These conthe Elysium of the brave. Here, too, was the home of

Tangaroa, the scarcely worshipped god of day.

Upon

the brow of a

hill,

facing the setting sun,


it

and near

the great marae of the war-god,


existed a deep,
as Tiki's hole

is

asserted that there once


up),

gloomy chasm (long since closed


ia Tiki).
like the single aperture

known

(Te rua

This constituted the regular


at the top of a cocoa-nut.

road to Avaiki,

Through

it

the three brothers descended to Avaiki, or ascended to

the light of day, at pleasure.

The

three brothers are always described as joint "kings," or

"Nga
1

ariki."

The

entire

body of
is

their

descendants were therc-

A plantain leaf lying befoie me

eleven feet long ami three broad.

Myths of
fore

Creation.

19

called

" Ngariki." by the shorter form


"
;

To Rang! Rongo

" gave the

drum of peace
;

to Mokoiro, the direction over food

of "

all

kinds

to the pet

the youngest

Akatauira was given the


his brethren.

" karakia," or prayers,"

and the sway over

Rangi, Mokoiro, and Akatauira were probably veritable perTheir wives were sons, chiefs of the first settlers on Mangaia.
respectively

named Tepotatango, 1 Angarua, and Ruange.

Then

came Papaaunuku, son of Tane-papa-kai, or Tane-giver-of-food. When Tane died he was worshipped by his son, who was sent for
by Rangi as his priest. But Rangi was not pleased with Tane, as he spake only as a man, without frenzy, through his son PapaauHis grandfather Rongo lived only in the shades Rangi nuku.
;

upper world. He therefore sent to Rarotonga to ask Tangiia, a renowned warrior-king of that island, to send him over one of his sons
live
this

wished for a god who would

with him in

"who had grown up under


leaves
"

the sacred shade

of the

tamanu

to

be

his god.

Rangi's wish was gratified, and Motoro

was fixed upon by

his father for the purpose.

Tangaroa had one marae, and that almost neglected, the only
offering ever presented being the first-fruits of all newly-planted

cocoa-nut groves

the tiny buds, which eventually

become

nuts.

This was simply a recognition of his primogeniture.

But the
:

was supposed to belong to Rongo and Motoro god ruling the dead ; the other the living.
island

the one

Doubtless

the

worship of Tangaroa,

Rongo,

Tane,

and

possibly the Lizard god of Tongaiti, represented a

much

earlier

and

more

widely-diffused
1

system

of idolatry

than

prevailed

Bottom of Hades.

2O

Myths and
when

Songs.
were

here in historical times,


deified.

the children of Tangiia

intellect has no conception of a Supreme Being At Mangaia the idea of a out of nothing. universe creating Whenever the gods a mere to was down nothing. divinity pared

The heathen

make
is

at least in part, anything, the existence of the raw material,

presupposed.

The primary
existence
is

a point.

conception of these islanders as to spiritual Next of Then of something pulsating.


everlasting.

something greater,

comes the Great Mother and Originator of all things. For the first time we meet with the ideas of volition and creation. Van is represented as a female, on account of fecundity, she
being the original of all the gods, and, remotely, of mankind. The arrangement of various lands in Avaiki, and the apportionment of
the different functions of
night of every
air,

Now

earth,

and

sea, are hers.

The
is

ninth

moon was

sacred to her.

Yet Vari

incapable

of speech, and lives in darkness, her solace being the constant


society of

an affectionate daughter.

In the description of her first-made (not born) son, Bright Noon (Avatea, or Vatea), one of whose eyes is the sun, we gain
the
his;
first

his

The ocean is idea of majesty as associated with divinity. children, born like ourselves, are the great gods who
and are worshipped by
idols
;

direct the affairs of the universe,

mortals.

To them

belong the maraes

and

they receive offerings of

food and listen to the prayers of mankind.

And

yet, strangely

are the deified heroes of antiquity, in


fellow divinities.
Birds, fish, reptiles, insects,

enough, associated with these original gods no wise inferior to their

and

specially inspired priests,

were

Myths of

Creation.

21

reverenced as incarnations, mouth-pieces, or messengers of the


gods.

The gods were supposed


the proper sense of that term.

to

have

distinct functions;

their

quarrels were reflected in the wars of

men.

But none

create, in

nearest to the dignity of creator

The Great Mother approximates but when she makes a child, it is


dependent on three

out of a bit of her


prior existences

own body. She herself is destitute of human form.

The
shades
still
;

earth

and

there.

not made, but is a thing dragged up from the but the gross outward form of an invisible essence At least ten heavens are built of azure stone, one
is is

above another

(to

correspond with the different lands in Nether-

world), with apertures for inter-communication;

but the stones

were pre-existent.

The
on
i.

principal words used

by the ancient sages

in speaking

this subject are

Vari =

describing the

This important word is used when Beginning. commencement of any new order of things. The

Great Mother herself is /^rAna-te-takere.


Strangely enough, at the sister island of Rarotonga this

word

no longer means " beginning," but " mud


Evidently,

"
;

agreeing, however,

with the sense of the Mangaian reduplicate "varivari"

muddy.

then, apart from their mythological views, these

" people imagined that once the world was a chaos of mud," out of which some mighty unseen Agent, whom they called Vari, evolved the present order of things.
2.

Pua ua mai
is

= Bud
fit

forth,

or blossom,

as

of a tree.

Evidently here

no

conception of creative power.

22

Myths and
"
"

Songs.

In seeking for an equivalent for


chose the word

word \

its

made. Undoubtedly this is the best anga sense narrow being enlarged by the constant original

^,

the

first

missionaries

The magnificent conception of real perusal of the Bible, etc. creation is as unattainable to a heathen sage as the sublime conception of a Supreme Deity.

CHAPTER

II.

DEIFIED MEN.
DERIVATION OF THE POLYNESIAN WORD

FOR GOD.
SOME
chiefs
five
:

hundred years ago there lived on Tahiti two powerful

the younger

named

Tangiia, the elder Tutapu.

Now the

lands of the younger adjoined those of their only sister, and it chanced that one or two branches of a bread-fruit tree of hers,

growing close to the boundary


soil

line,

extended themselves over the

of the irritable Tangiia. As is frequently the case with this tree, one half of this bread-fruit was almost barren, whilst the

branches extending over the land of her brother were heavily laden with fruit Tangiia claimed the fruit as his, as it grew on his side of the boundary line : naturally enough the sister felt
herself to

be harshly dealt
sister.

with.

The
foes

elder brother

behalf of their
;

Tutapu hearing of the quarrel interfered on Thenceforth the brothers became deadly
words, Tutapu resolved to collect his
certain night to

and

after

many angry

dependants, and upon a

make a

final

end of

his

24

Myths and
Tangiia,

Songs.
obtaining
timely

brother and his family.

notice of

his intention, fled with wife, children,

and

friends to the neigh-

irate Tutapu. bouring island of Huahine ; but was pursued by the Leeward the his brother chased was throughout by Tangiia

Islands, until finally finding that there

was no

rest for

him

in that

ocean. Fortunately group, he committed himself to the trackless insatiate the But awhile. he for him, he reached Atiu, where stayed from of miles Tutapu followed him even to Atiu, many hundreds which Tahiti. again took flight this time to Rarotonga,

Tangiia

was destined to become the home of this renowned chief. were Tutapu remained a considerable time on Atiu. Children

born to him

some of

his

descendants afterwards reached Man-

gaia in a drift canoe, founding


sacrifices.

tribe

devoted to furnish

human

Hearing that Tangiia was prospering on Rarotonga, Tutapu is said to have had again manned his large double canoe, which
three masts,

and

to have carried 200 warriors,

and

started off

once

more

in quest of his brother.

Upon

entering the harbour at

1 Rarotonga, which bears the name of Nga-Tangiia, the brothers prepared for a final encounter. In the conflict which ensued,

Tangiia, assisted

by Karika's

party,

defeated the invaders, and

slew Tutapu-aru-roa

Tutapu-the-rekntless-pursuer)

whose body

was eaten by the

victors.

Tangiia himself never landed on Mangaia, the island which is so intimately associated with the history of several of his children,
needful to distinguish this Tangiia, who is unquestionably an historical character, from the mythical Tangiia descended from
It is

Vatea, and one of the gods of Mangaia, whose iron-wood form deposited in the museum of the London Missionary Society.
1

is

= Ngati-Tangiia,

z>, the tribe of Tangiia.

Deified Men.

25
Mangaia was

The
first

sages of Rarotonga erroneously assert that

discovered and inhabited by the famous brother of Tutapu.


is

This

foreign
first

and new.
settlers

Unquestionably, Rangi and his friends


Savai'i.

were the
came.

on Mangaia from

Other canoes

In the presence of the new comers, the children of the

original settlers, wishing to establish their pre-eminence, boldly

asserted that Rangi,


sun-setting, but out

etc.,

came " up,"

not,

as in truth, from the

of the earth, from (S)avai(k)i, the original home of men and gods, a land in some places much like this, in others filled with horrors. It was, in their opinion, self-evident that
all drift

presence of a race

canoes were mere waifs predestined to destruction in the who grew, as it were, out of the soil.
family at Rarotonga expressly state that their

The Karika
ancestor

Group. " Rangi-Manuka,) or Manu'a (= Manuka) in the skies

came from Manu'a, the easternmost island of the Samoan The family marae of the Makea tribe is therefore named
"
\

as

we say

New
ful

Britain,

New

Caledonia,

New

England,

etc., etc.

They even

state that Karika's great canoe, in

which he performed his wonder" and had two carried 170 people ( okoitu ). masts," voyage,

It has

vincible warrior Tangiia to send

been already stated that Rangi 1 requested the inhim one of his sons as a god.

Accordingly Motoro was sent, with two of his brothers, Ruanuku

The " Ruanuku " of Mangaian mythology is the " Uanuku " of Rarotonga. " Uanuku is repiesented by their wise men" as the eldest son of Tangiia. " Motoro" "to approach to (a woman);" so that it is signifies
1

equivalent to "Epws, in the sense of

libido.

He

was so

called

by

his father

Tangiia, in allusion to his own passionate love for his wife Moetuma. Tangiia in his wanderings married two Mauke girls, Moetuma, and her younger sister

Puatara,

26
and
Kereteki.

Myths and Songs.

Utakea, the third son of Tangiia, started for Mangaia some time after his brothers. Motoro was the fourth When the and best beloved son of the great Rarotongan chief.

Ruamiku, Kereteki, and Motoro were halfway voyage to Mangaia, a violent quarrel sprang up, the two elder brothers united in throwing Motoro into the sea, where
three brothers

on

their

The fratricides safely landed opposite he miserably perished. to the marae of Rongo, and were pleased to see a deep hole in
the
reef,

through which the fresh water from the interior


It is surprising to find

into the ocean.

is poured a large body of pure

spring water gurgling

up

in the midst of the sea.

Here they

resolved to refresh themselves with a bath after their adventurous


voyage.

two large

But as the aperture in the sharp coral will not admit of men bathing together, the point was hotly contested,
get in first
first

who should

It

was

finally settled that the first-born

should enjoy the

bath.

The

instant Ruanuku's

head was

under water, his long hair was firmly grasped by Kereteki, to After a time Kereteki dragged prevent him from raising it again.
ashore the dead body of the murdered Ruanuku, and buried it At a well-known spot on the south of the island afterwards

landed Utakea, who lived peaceably with his brother Keretoki.


cruel Kereteki, twice a fratricide,

Both lived and died on Mangaia. Very strangely indeed, the and his brother Utakca, were

As if in penitence, worshipped as gods in the next generation. Kereteki set up the marae sacred to his slain brother Motoro.
Here the
to

Motoro was supposed to reside j and down the destruction of idolatry, in 1824, this spot was regarded as
spirit of

being the most sacred in the interior; as the marae of Rongo was the most sacred on the sea-shore. flourishing plantation of the of now the idol occupies grove. plantains place

Deified Men.
It

27

but then
hibiscus

was well-known that Motoro's body was devoured by sharksit was asserted that his spirit floated on a piece of
1

over the crest of the ocean billows until


it

it

reached

Mangaia, where

was

pleased

to

"inhabit" or "possess"

Papaaunuku, and driving him into a frenzy, compelled him to utter his oracles from a foaming mouth. This was just the sort
of divinity that Rangi, the

was

first king of Mangaia, wanted. Motoro once recognized as the great chiefs own god, and Papaaunuku and his descendants as the priests of the new

at

divinity.

As Rongo

lived

shades, so

Motoro should

live

and reigned in the "night," or the and reign in the " day," or this

and the kings, invariably and worshipped Rongo Motoro; but many are said to have disapproved of the new worship, correctly regarding Rongo as
upper world.
three original tribes

The

the great original heathen divinity of Mangaia.

Until 1824 both

were conjointly worshipped as the supreme

deities of this island,

Rongo

taking the

first

place.

The

family of the
or
the

first

priest

of Motoro was

named

the

Amama,

open-mouthed,

to

intimate that they were the


is

mouth-pieces of that divinity. To this day this appellation kept up, although but few know the reason for it.

Makitaka, the

last priest

and died

in

1830.

The

idol

of Motoro, embraced Christianity, itself has long reposed in the

museum of the London Missionary Society. The worshippers of Utakea and Kereteki
offered in sacrifice to

were, in later times,

Rongo and Motoro.


called

Motoro was proudly


1

Te

io

ora,

or

The-living-gorf,
(hibiscus)

also to

The sacred men mean "reign,"

assert that this is the reason

why au

comes

or "rule."

28

Myths and

Songs.

because he alone of "the gods of day" would not permit his worshippers to be offered in sacrifice. The other divinities were " io " mate," or dead-gods," as their worshippers were ever styled eligible for the altar of dread Rongo, who lived in the shades. means The word " used for "
io,"

commonly

god," properly
is

"

" core " of a tree. pith," or


to the

What
man.

the core

to the tree, the

god

was believed to be
the life of mankind.
slain in fair fight,
it

In other words, the gods were Even when a worshipper of Motoro was

was supposed that the enraged divinity would,

by some special misfortune or disease, put an end to the offender. Most appropriately and beautifully do the natives transfer the name Io ora, or The-living-god to Jehovah, as His worshipers NEVER die ! Motoro, Kereteki, and Utakea were represented by iron-wood
idols in the god-house of the king. On entering that rude reed hut, the dwelling-place of the chief divinities of Mangaia, the first

was Rongo, in the form of a trumpet-shell ; next came the honoured Motoro, the guide of daily life ; then came Tane and ten other objects of worship, amongst which were Kereteki and
idol

Utakea.
idol called Tane merely, was asserted to represent the fifth son of Vatea; and yet was only third in order of dignity. Tangiia, the fourth son of Vatea, was the last in

The iron-wood

Of the innumerable objects of fear regard to dignity and order. and worship, only thirteen were admitted to the honour of a place in this rude Pantheon as national gods.

Deified Men.

29

TIAIO,

KING AND GOD.


Mangaia
is

The
body
Tiaio.

history of this sovereign of

well known.

of invaders from Atiu

was

utterly routed

by the warlike

chief

To

this

day the natives of Atiu make pilgrimages to the


fell in

spot where their countrymen

the olden time.

Tiaio became deservedly famous for this exploit. But some afterwards his him led "to defile the sacred district of years pride
Keia," the favourite haunt of the gods,

by wearing some

beautiful

scarlet hibiscus flowers (kaute) in his ears.

Now, anything red was

forbidden in that part of the island, as being offensive to the gods ; the redness of the flower being emblematical of the shed-

ding of blood.
lest the

Even the beating of

native cloth was forbidden,

A hot
gods,
in

repose of the gods should be disturbed by the noise. dispute took place about this mark of disrespect to the

which Mouna,

priest of Tane-the-man-eater,

slew the

king with a blow on his head.

The blood

of Tiaio mingled with

the waters of the brook running past the marae of Motoro,


eventually

and

mixed with the ocean.


it

Thenceforth that stream was


eel

held to be sacred, and

was fabled that a great fresh-water

drank up the blood of the murdered king, whose spirit Tuna made its way to the time entered the fish. same at the

Tuna

dark deep

fissure

running underneath the rocks into the

sea.

of Tiaio, having thus succeeded in reaching the ocean, forsook the form of the eel and took possession of the these islanders. The new divinity large white shark, the terror of

The indomitable

spirit

had a

little

marae

set apart for his worship, close

sacred grove of Motoro,

by the more and but a few yards from where he fell

by the hand of the

jealous priest

30
The Mautara,

Myths and
new

Songs.
up
their ancient divinity,

or priestly tribe, gave


this

Tone, in favour of

god.

The

greatness

of Tiaio

marks the political supremacy of that warlike clan, which is of " " recent origin. Tiaio was a food-eating god, generally associated His oracles invariably ended with demands for with Motoro.
a
feasting.

This jolly-tempered

divinity's last priest

was Tereavai,

who

died a valuable deacon of the church in 1865.

A few cocoa-

nut trees

now mark

the site of Mara, the deserted marae of the

shark-god.
Rori's life was spared by Manaune, expressly that he might carve the rough iron-wood representation of Tiaio, which, with the
rest,

now

quietly reposes in the Society's


refers to this in his

museum.
song for
his friend Ata,

Koroa

"
crying

"

recited at the "death-talk" of Arokapiti, circa 1817.

Kua

tae paa

te

tiangamama

la Teakatauira ekotia; Tukua raua Kotia O Ata

Cruel misfortune has again o'crtakon This royal lube.

Turou

O Mouna O

Tane-kai-aro,

Ata and his father Tukua have fallen E'en as once Turou and Mouna, in!

spired

Kai-aro ra ia Mania.

By
!

1 tai

tainga taito ia ne'e, ia kora atu, pau o Tiaio i te toru, ua tutua e

Tane-the-man-eater, struck down Tiaio the king in the olden time.

Long, long ago was that great


slain.

man

TANE-NGAKIAU.
That is, ^w&4trwing'for-p<wcr. This pretended god was a brave warrior, who gave important assistance to Rangi in the first battle ever fought on Mangaia, in which the invaders from
were defeated with great
chieftainship of Ivirua.
loss.

Tonga
and

As

his

reward he received the

After his death his family deified him,

Deified

Men.

31

erected in his honour the famous marae Maputu, which stands a lasting memorial of cruelty. The entire centre was filled with reeking human heads cut off in cold blood to mark his canonizathis detested divinity took up made evident by his skin was any and a blood-red the colour, dying man would, with assuming
tion.

It

was asserted that whenever


in

his

abode

individual,

it

supernatural

strength,

fight

imaginary foes, or rather

unseen

demons.
This uncomfortable god had a carved iron-wood form, and

was one of the thirteen principal gods of Mangaia now museum.

in the

TEKURAAKI.
So long as " "the royal Tama-tapu," the chief of the-rcd-marked-tribe? mainFor some tained their supremacy, this divinity was popular. introduction of this tribe was to the Christianity, generations prior
almost extinct, and the separate worship of Tekuraaki almost Yet the carved iron-wood idol remained in the unknown.

This god was introduced by Tui from Rarotonga.

Pantheon

until 1824,

when

it

was surrendered to Messrs. Williams

and Platt

SONG OF THE SHORE KING, HIGH PRIEST OF


RONGO.
COMPOSED BY VAIPO FOR RAOA S FETE, CIRCA 1815.
Mariu
te tapu o Motoro, taka ra i Vairorongo
J

I lay aside the sanctity of

Motoro

Te

I te

turuki o

koukou anga vai e i Kongo i kakc

Ere bathing in 'Twas here his


ei.

this sacred stream.


spirit landed,

On

this

pebbly beach devoted to Kongo.

Myths and
Kua kake
atu au ra
i i

Songs.
on
this

te pa,

It landed

nanow shore,-

atua noo ata

te kea,

A god whose shade ever rests


On
the sandstone sacred to kings.

E tau ariki nei.


Ariki Tamatapu
i

noo

Mania

Taea

'i

Aupi

te vai

at Mania, Tamatapu once spent a night When the entire valley was flooded.

nga

ariki e puipui aere,

Such was the might of that king


e

Marina Kongo te tapu

tai

I lay aside the sanctity of the shore-

dwelling Kongo.

Thus
whose

it is

evident that

many

of their gods were originally men,

spirits

reptiles,
shell,

were supposed to enter into various birds, fish, as the triton and insects; and into inanimate objects, such
trees,

particular

bits of basalt, etc., etc. cinet, sandstone,

alone had carved images for the convenience greater gods each individual posof worshippers ; the lesser were countless, The gods were divided into two orders, "dwellers sessing several AU the thirteen dwellers in the shades, or night." in day," and

The

principal gods,

continually busy
in their midst,

were save Kongo, were "dwellers in day," It. unseen, mortals in the affairs of ; moving, though
to yet often descending

"night," or to Avaiki,

the true

home of

the major divinities.

In like manner those

who

ascend to day to "dwelt in night" were supposed frequently to but generally preferred to take part in the affairs of mankind, remain permanently to few were supposed in
dwell
spirit-land.

in the obscurity of Avaiki, or

The
air,

"dwellers in

night" believed to hover about in the were day"

"

frenzied hide themselves in unfrequented caves, besides taking recent of the divinities were and women. These possession of men

human origin. The lowest depth of heathen

degradation

is

unconsciously

Deified

Men.
still

33
exist in

reached in the worship of phallic stones, such as


Tinian, one of the Ladrone Islands.
interest

The scene was one

of great

a natural grotto converted into a heathen temple, outside The original of which these degrading rites were performed.
is lost,

significance of this embruting form of idolatry

although

its

symbols are

still

preserved.

DERIVATION OF THE POLYNESIAN WORD "ATUA,"

OR
The
great

GOD.
throughout Eastern Polynesia is this from "ata"

word

for

God

" Atua" (Akua).

Archdeacon Maunsell derives

=
I

apprehend Mr. Ellis

shadow, which agrees with the idea of spirits being shadows, but is absolutely unsupported by the analogy of dialects.
x

regards the

first

a as euphonic, considering "tua"

back, as the essential part of the word, misled by a desire to " tev " of the Aztec and the " deva " of the assimilate it with the

Sanscrit.

Occasionally,
is

divinity

when expressing their belief that the " the essential support," they express it by the word

"ivi-mokotua"

=
is

the back-bone, or vertebral

column

never

by the

mere "tua"= That the a

back.

an
"
;

essential part of the

the closely allied expressions

" Samoan) and aitu

in

word is indicated by "atu" ("fatu" in Tahitian and the latter the a is lengthened into at.
" atua
>J

key

to the true sense of

exists

in

its

constant

equivalent "io," which (as already stated)

means the "core" or


of man.

of a tree.
Analogically,
1

God

is

the pith, core, or

life
ii.

Polynesian Researches, vol.

p. 201.

34

Myths and

Songs.

Again, "atu" stands for "lord, master;" but strictly and " core " or " kernel/' The core of a boil and the primarily means kernel of a fruit are both called the "atu," i.e. the hard and
essential
part.

applied to

As (The larger kernels are called "katu.") a "master" or "lord," the term suggests that his

the

favour and protection are essential to the life and prosperity of serf. By an obvious analogy, the welfare of mankind is

derived from the divine

"Atu"

or "Lord,"

who

is

the Core

and

Kernel of humanity. In the nearly related God, * the final a is passive in form but intensive in signification, as " that He is " the VERY Core or Life of man.
if to indicate

word "Atua" =

person who

at a critical
i.e.

moment

has lost courage

is

said to

be

forsaken by his god, that divine something which imparts courage to fight or to endure. At Rarotonga the " Maitu " at 1 3th phase of each moon is called ; Mangaia, "Atua"

"

topa

te io,"

(see calendar).

The word "rimu" means moss; "rimua" = moss-grown>


Thus it the final a as in the word "Atua," being intensive. that or is comes to pass "eternity" "for-ever" expressed by the " e rimua ua atu " the essential part of which is "rimua." phrase The idea is of a lofty tree covered all over with moss, the growth
of untold ages.
covered with the moss of ages"

So that the phrase might be rendered "until i.e. for ever and ever.

In the phrase "mei tupua grow, happen. roa mai" (the essential part of which is "tupua") the sense is "from the very beginning," i.e. from the time when things first " = " grow or happen. began to tupu

"Tupu" means

A very comprehensive designation for divinities


"te anau tuarangi"
1

of

all

kinds
"

is

or the-heavenly-family

(" tu-a-rangi

like-

All nouns

may be converted into verbs by means of suffixes.

Deified Men.
the-keaven-or-sky}.

35

Strangely enough, this celestial race includes

rats, lizards, beetles, eels

and

sharks,

and

several kinds of birds.

The
their

" " had taken up supposition was that the-heavenly-farnily abode in these birds, fish, and reptiles.

A common
=
loin-belt

and expressive name

for

God

is

"

tatua

manava

"

or girdle, as giving strength to fight

A HUMAN PRIESTHOOD NEEDED.


The gods
kind.
first

their utterances

spake to man through the small land birds ; but were too indistinct to guide the actions of manthis

To meet

emergency an order of

priests

was

set apart,

the gods actually taking up their abode, for the time being, in Priests were significantly named "godtheir sacred persons.

boxes"

(pia-atua),

generally abbreviated
divinities.

to

"gods"

i.e.

living

embodiments of these

Whenever

consulted, a present of the best food, accompanied

with a bowl of intoxicating


pensable.

"piper mythisticum," was

indis-

throwing himself into a frenzy, delivered a in language intelligible only to the initiated. A favourite response of inquiry was "the sin why so and so was ill;" no one subject
priest,

The

being supposed to die a natural death unless decrepit with extreme If a priest cherished a spite against somebody, he had old age.
only to declare it to be the will of the divinity that the victim should be put to death or be laid on the altar for some offence The best kinds of food were sacred to the against the gods.
priests

and

chiefs.

Although unsuited

for the delivery

of oracles, birds were ever

regarded as the special messengers of the gods to warn individuals of impending danger; each tribe having its own feathered
guardians.

4_

36
Of their many
mouth-pieces " the as
"
"

MytJis

and

Songs.
belonged to the

priests the leading place ever

of Motoro. significantly known " Amama," or open-mouthed-tribe/' in reality ruled the first as priests of island from the time of Hangi downwards

These men,

Motoro, and

latterly by right of conquest.

The two

districts

belonging to this tribe are the only ones


hands.

which have not changed


derived the

the gluttonous habits of these priests " " to phrase, gormandize like a god (kai Atua).

From

is

DEDICATION OF INFANTS.
As soon
as the child was born, a leaf of the gigantic taro plant
off, its

(arum costatum) was cut


filled

sides carefully gathered up,

and

with pure water.

Into this extempore baptismal font the


First securing with

child

would be placed.
of
the

bit

of tafa the
right

part

navel string nearest the

infant, the

hand

of

the operator longitudinally


knife.

divided the cord

itself

with a
carefully

bamboo
it

washed out

The dark coagulated blood was then with water, and the name of the child's god

declared,

having been previously settled by the parents whether their little one should belong to the mother's tribe or to the father's. Usually
;

the father had the preference


family was devoted to furnish

but occasionally when the father's


p

sacrifices,
it

the mother would seek to


tribe,

save her child's

life

by getting

adopted into her own

the

name As a rule, however, the father would stoically pronounce over his child the name of his own god Utakea, Teipe, or Tangiia, which
of her
tribal divinity

own

being pronounced over the babe.

would almost

certainly insure its destruction in after years.


;

It

was done as a point of honour

besides, the child might not be

Deified Men.
required for sacrifice, although eligible.

37

The bamboo knife would be taken to the marae of the god specified, and thrown on the ground to rot. If a second god's name were pronounced over

the child, the

bamboo

knife

would go

to

one marae and the name

of the babe only be pronounced over the second marae.

The

removal of the coagulated blood was believed to be highly promotive of health, all impurities being thus removed out of the
system.

= pito noai?"

Hence the common query in heathen times: "I taia toou " What divine name was pronounced at the severance
"

of thy navel string ?

In other words, "

Who

is

thy god ?

"

A deacon,
Teipe, but

still

living, told

me

when halfway

to the

god was to have been marae of that unfortunate god,


that his
wife,

his father resolved to

break his promise to his

and

actually

turned back and presented the knife to Motoro his own god. "Had my father not done so, I should long since have been offered in sacrifice, and should not have heard of the one great
offering

on Calvary," said he with evident feeling. At Rarotonga, when a boy was born a collection of

spears,

clubs,

and

slinging stones
filled

a great taro leaf

the sun was setting with water was held over these warlike

was made.

When

weapons, and the navel string was treated as above described. The idea was that the child should grow up to be a famous
warrior.

On
a

human

the birth of the first-born son of the reigning king Makea, victim previously fixed upon was slain. The royal babe

was placed upon the dead body for the purpose of severing the navel string, thus indicating the absolute sway he would exercise
over the lives of his subjects upon succeeding to the throne of
his father.
It is often said to

an ill-tempered person, "

pito raka toou

"

38
**

Myths and
The name

Songs.

"

of a devil x was pronounced over thy severed navel

string,"

the phrase having outlived the custom.

NAMING OF CHILDREN.
At convenient
intervals the principal king of

Mangaia, as high-

assisted by the priest of Motoro, summoned priest of all the gods, the young people to their various family maraes to be publicly

" named."

Some might be

verging on

manhood

or

womanhood,

whilst others were scarcely able to walk.

Standing in a half circle,

two or three deep, the operator dipped a few leaves of a beautiful


in the sacred stream flowing past the species of myrtle (maire) all the while reciting a song the and assembly ; marae, sprinkled

or prayer to the particular god at whose shrine they were worto be the special protector of shipping, and who was supposed

those present

At

certain pauses in the song the king, as "pontifex

maximus/

two or three times on the head or gently tapped each youngster name. her or his shoulders, pronouncing

The

idea evidently was to secure a public recognition of the


of each of the rising generation
for their

god and clanship

own

guidance in the ceremonial of heathen life, and for the guidance of priests and chiefs afterwards. The greatest possible sin in

heathenism was "ta atua," L& to


stealth.

kill

a fellow worshipper by

In general it might be done in battle. Otherwise such a blow was regarded as falling upon the god himself; the literal
sense

of "ta atua"

being

god-striking,

or ^d-killing.

Such

1 Whilst their gods were nearly all malicious, some being more mischievous than others, the Hervey Islanders had not the idea of one bupiciuc evil spirit corresponding to our Satan.

Deified Men.
crimes were generally the consequence of ignorance
:

39

to prevent the priests and chiefs from such blundering, these occasional " " were appointed. In the event of war, and a connamings

sequent redistribution of lands, the favour of all the principal gods must be secured by favours shown to their worshippers at
least to

a selection of a few to keep up the worship of each

idol.

A great feasting invariably succeeded this

ceremony of naming.

4O

MytJis

and

Songs.

CHAPTER

III.

A S TRONOMICA L MYTHS.
A CHASE THAT NEVER ENDS.
THE
named
younger was a boy. These children were naturally very fond of each other whatever
:

only children of Potiki were twins Piri-ere-ua, or Inseparable; the

the elder, a

girl,

was

the sister wished the brother agreed to. Unhappily, however, their One mother, Tarakorekore, was a scold, and gave them no peace. The tide, rising night the mother went torch-fishing on the reef.
at midnight, put

an end to her sport; but not before she had


full

obtained a basket

of small

bony red
fish.

fish,

called

kukii.

Upon

arriving

home,

according to invariable native custom, she

woke her husband and cooked the made; the


would not agree

Four
at once.

divisions

were

parents eating their portions

The mother

to her husband's suggestion to

wake the children

to partake of the

warm and savoury midnight feast. However, she carefully put away their portions into their baskets. 1
1

basket, so that if

Throughout the islands each member of the family has a separate foixlhungry at night he should only take hU own share, ami not

encroach upon his neighbour's.

Astronomical Myths.
Now, Inseparable and her
twin-brother were
all

41
the time

In awake, but did not let their parents know the circumstance. vain they waited for their mother to fetch them to share their good
things.

Potiki and Tarakorekore enjoyed a thorough good but their children were not to supper, get a taste until morning. The twins wept in secret. As soon as their parents were soundly
asleep, Inseparable
for ever.

flee

away

proposed to her brother that they should At first the boy hesitated, but eventually

agreed to comply with his sister's wishes. Cautiously opening the door of their started on their journey. sliding house, they Upon
reaching an elevated point of rock, they sat down and again wept, each filling a little natural hollow in the rock with their parting
tears, without,

last

however, in the least relenting in their purpose. At they leaped up into the sky, Inseparable holding on to the extremity of her brother's girdle.

As soon

as the

morning
Their

star

became
bed of

visible,

the mother went


fish

to rouse the children, so that they

might eat their

and

taro

but they were gone.


cold,

little

fragrant dried grass

was

though moist with tears. Hastily summoning her husband, search was made. The path taken by the twins was traced by their tears. The little hollows filled from their eyes revealed the But no further trace spot where they had last rested on earth.

strict

could be discovered.

repentant parents looked


risen,

In utter perplexity the now sorrowful and up at the sky, where the sun had not yet

and, to their great surprise,

saw

their beloved

children

shining brightly there.

Vainly they called

on Inseparable and

her brother to return.

To

stay longer

on earth without these

dearly loved, though ungrateful, children could not be thought of :


so then father

and mother leaped

" Twins." pursuit of the

right up into the heavens in hot But the children had got the start of

42
their parents,

Myths and

Songs.
their

and made the best of

way through the azure

vault

for the parents have This strange chase is still j never yet succeeded in overtaking their truant children. All four

going on

shine brightly

the parents Potiki and Tarakorekore, being larger,


brilliancy.

exceed their children in


sister,
still

Brother and
their

dearly-loved
flight,

linked

together,

pursue

never-ceasing

resolved never again to meet their justly enraged parents.

SONG OF THE TWINS.


Eaa
te ara
i

ooro

ai
?

nga tamariki a

Wherefore

fled the children of


?

Tara-

Tarakorekore

korekoi e
ooro ai

Noa

riri
i

paa
ooro

te ai
; i

kuku na Potiki ;
tu ai
i
!

I tu ai

ai

Anger at the cooked fish of Potiki. They stealthily rose, and ran and fled
for ever.

Ua vaia

au i

teia e, ei ta

ua taana e
atu,

Alas

that a mother should thus

ill-

tieat

her children.

kore au e ta

te ui

maie ua

Such was not

my

(father*i>)

wish \ and

when

I intercede,
relent.
is

Ua

kore ake oi e
ua'i

She will not


;

Ka
I

akakutu ta
ua'i.

ka akakutu

ta

She thrashes them,


If

always at

it.

i Karanga ; i moe ana au i Karanga. tau metua vaine kore ua ka rerua koe ikona e

moe ana au

one sleeps at Karanga or where,

else-

Still there is

no peace and blows.


fete

only threats

These
1813.

lines

were composed by Reinga for a


"

held circa

A play is intended on the mother's name


never-speak-at-all."

Tarakorekore,"

" which means

and ft? Inseparable and her brother are the double star i$ v \ The irate parents are the two bright stars and ScorptL ScorpiL The Rev. W. Ellis, in his " Researches," erroneously calls them
Gemini, or

"The

Twins," vol.

iii.

p. 172,

second

edition.

Astrommical
I

MytJis.

43

once heard a native preacher say, that Christ and the Christian should be like these twin stars, ever linked together

The allusion was happy, and was perlife, come death. understood by all present, the story being a favourite one throughout the islands.
come
fectly

MATARIKI, OR PLEIADES.
These stars were originally one.
anger of the god Tane,
Sirius (Mere),

Its bright effulgence excited the

who

got hold of Aldebaran (Aumea) and


offender*

and chased the

The

affrighted fugitive
Sirius

ran for his


drained off
Finally,

and took refuge behind a stream. But the waters, thus enabling Tane to renew the
life,

chase.

Tane hurled Aldebaran bodily against the exhausted fugitive, who was thereby splintered into six shining fragments. This cluster of little stars is appropriately named Mata-riki, or
little-eyes,

Tau-ono,

on account of their brightness. It is also designated or the-six^ on account of the apparent number of
;

the fragments

the presence of the seventh star not having been

detected by the unassisted native eye, Reinga thus sings of the wars of the star-gods

Ua riri

paa Vena ra
i

ia

Aumea,

Vena

was enraged against Aumea,

Noa kite ake


Noa ui
atu
i

te

kakenga.
i

On

(Aldebaran), account of the brilliance of his


rising.

te ara

pao

ai Matariki

She demanded

if

he recollected the

ma

fate of the Pleiades,


!

Mere ma e
1

Tuarangi maiti

Tuarangi maiti

Shivered by Sirius and his friends. Alas 1 ye bright-shining gods! Brightshining gods !

Vena was a goddess, represented by the

star

Procyon (Canis Minor).

44

Myths and

Songs.

This beautiful constellation was of extreme importance in


heathenism,
as its appearance at sunset on the eastern horizon determined the commencement of the new year, which is about

the middle of
seasons, or tau
:

December.
the
first,
;

The

year was

divided into

two

when

in the evening these stars appeared

on

or near the horizon

the second,

when

at sunset the stars were

invisible.

The
i.e.

the beginning of a

re-appearance of Pleiades above the horizon at sunset, new year, was in many islands a time of

extravagant rejoicing.

We have already seen


Vatea being the moon.

that the sun was


i.e.

known
:

as

" the eye of


left

Avatea, of Vatea (noon-day)?

the right eye

the

eye of

was called Tamatanui, i.e. the The evening star was regarded as a different planet eye of Tane. being known as Takurua-rau. Jupiter was often mistaken for
Venus, as the morning
star,

the morning

star.

The rainbow was

designated "the-girdle-of-Tangaroa," by which

the eldest of the gods was accustomed to descend to earth.

The Magellan
and lower
mists.

clouds are

known

as

"nga

matt," or the

upper

THE SUN AND MOON.


A curious myth obtained in the now almost extinct Tongan tribe
relative to the origin of the

sun and moon.

Vatea and Tonga-iti

quarrelled respecting the parentage of the first-born of Papa, each

claiming the child as his own.

At

last

the infant was cut in two.

Vatea, the husband of Papa, took the upper part as his share* and
forthwith squeezed
it

into

ball

and tossed

it

into the heavens,

where

it

became the

sun.

Astronomical Myths.

45

Tonga-iti sullenly allowed his share, the lower half, to remain

a day or two on the ground. Seeing the brightness of Vatea's half, he resolved to imitate his example by compressing his share into a ball, and tossing it into the dark sky during the absence of the sun in Avaiki, or nether-world. Thus originated the moon,

whose paleness is attributable to the blood having and decomposition having commenced.

all

drained out

This myth was rejected by the victorious tribes ; not on the ground of its excessive absurdity, but on account of its representing Tonga-iti as a husband of Papa, instead of being her third son.
this

By

account the almost extinct tribe of Tongans should take


origin of this

the precedence of their hereditary foes, the descendants of Rongo.

The Day

myth seems

to

be

this

(Vatea) and Night alternately embrace fair Earth (Papa). Their joint offspring are the sun and moon. The cutting of the

babe in two was invented in order to account


the moon.

for the paleness of

THE WOMAN
The
admired
simply named
her,

IN

THE MOON.
afar

eldest of Kui-the-Blind's four attractive daughters was


Ina.

Marama (Moon), who from


so

had

often

became

enamoured of her charms

that one night

he descended from his place in the heavens to fetch her to be his The goddess Ina became a pattern wife, being always busy ; wife. of a clear night one may easily discern a goodly pile of leaves,

known

as

"

te rau tao

o Ina,"

for her never-failing

oven of food ;

also her tongs of

split cocoa-nut branch, to enable her to adjust

the live coals without burning her fingers.

Ina

is

indefatigable in the preparation of resplendent cloth,

i.e.

'white clouds.

The

great stones needful for this purpose are also

46
visible.

Myths and
As soon
as her tapa
it

Songs.
and brought into the

is

well beaten

desired shape, she stretches

out to

dry on the upper part of the

blue sky, the edges all round being secured with the large stones. Ina smoothes out every crease with her own hand, and finally
leaves
it

to bleach.
cloth manufacture of the goddess
is

The

on a much grander

scale than

any seen

in

this

world

required are of a monstrous size. and casts completed, Ina takes up these stones
violence.

consequently the stones And when the operation is


\

them

aside with

of the Crash, crash they go against the upper surface

solid vault, producing

what mortals
first

call thunder.

Occasionally the goddess of the tapa nearest to her

removes the stones from the part


person,

fair

and then

hastily rising

The concussion at once. empties out, as it were, the whole lot is termed by stones these falling together ponderous produced by
mankind a
terrific

thunderclap.
like

Ina's cloth

glistens

the sun.
rolls

Hence

it

is,

that

when

hastily gathering
fall

up her many

of whitest tapa, flashes of light

upon the earth, which are designated lightning.

The
"
light

great antiquity of this


"

myth

is

attested

by the circumstance

that throughout the

Hervey Group
refer to Ina.

the only names for

"moon-

and " no

moon
In

Moonlight

is

expressed by

Ina-motea

= the-brightness-of-Ina ;
the

Incwwisibk.

word m&-sina
the Tahitian

= moon,

"no moon," by Ina-poiri = Samoan "Ina "becomes "Sina;" the embodies the name of the goddess. In

" Ina" becomes "Hina."

At Atiu
husband.

it is

said that Ina took to her celestial

abode a mortal

After living happily together for

many

years, she said to

Astronomical Myths.
him,
for

47

"

You

are growing old

and

infirm.

you are a native of

earth.

This

fair

Death will soon claim you, home of mine must not


embrace and
part.

be

defiled with a corpse.

We

will therefore

Return to earth and there end your days." At this moment Ina caused a beautiful rainbow to span the heavens, by which her
disconsolate aged husband descended to earth to die.

ECLIPSES.
Tuanui-ka-rere, or Tuanui-about-to-fly, a
is

demon from

the

east,

at times subject to excessive

fits

of rage, in which he thinks

Affrighted mortals nothing of swallowing up the moon whole. " Alas a moon " and very has devoured the divinity exclaim,
!

anxiously wait to see whether the useful luminary will be restored

or not a Tangiia-ka-rere, or Tangiia-about-to-fly

demon from

the west,

was the ill-mannered god who devoured the sun in his anger. It was very comforting to find that in every instance sun and moon
were vomited forth whole again, and resumed their old for what they had endured. apparently none the worse
duties,

No
was

offerings

were made

at

Mangaia to these demons,

as

was

the invariable custom at Rarotonga,


there believed to

when the irritated Tangaroa have done what at Mangaia was attributed

to Tangiia

and Tuanui.

a very serious matter ; for the anger upshot, however, was of these demons having been vainly exercised against the heavenly

The

bodies,

must occasion the death of some man of distinction, to a sort of payment for giving back to manassuage their ire, and as
kind those luminaries.

Note the inconsistency

of this with the former myth.

48

Myths and

Songs.

A CELESTIAL FISH-HOOK.
The
of
tail

of the constellation
is

two of which are double,


" the
associated with

Scorpio/' consisting of eight stars, here known by the curious designation

"

great fish-hook of Tongareva"


it is

The monstrous myth

as follows

Vatea, the father of gods and men, whose

home was

in a part

hook,

of Avaiki, or nether-world, called The-thin-land, one day went carried with him a great fishfishing in the deep blue ocean. which he baited with a star (doubtless an allusion to the

He

bright

Notwithstanding this brilliant star, the last in the tail). now resolved to imitate the Vatea he nothing. bait, caught conduct of his mother, Vari-ma-te-takere, i.e. The-wry-bcgiiining ; of flesh off one of his own thighs and accordingly, he pulled apiece
This time he found that he had

baited his big fish-hook afresh.


it

was extraordinarily heavy. Fortunately, howgot a prize, but was the strongest known, conever, the line attached to the hook
Vatea pulled away lustily at this line, and was rejoiced at seeing a large dark round mass slowly rising to the surface. This proved to be the island of Tongareva, which had till then lain at the bottom of the
sisting of

many

strands of cinet cord plaited round,

deep blue

sea.

up

his great fish-hook in the sky.

Vastly pleased with this achievement, Vatea hung Hence its name, " the great

fish-hook of Tongareva."

In some islands

this constellation is

known

as

" the fish-hook

of Maui, with a somewhat similar myth to account for it. It is not a little remarkable that this group of stars was so called on Mangaia long before any European had discovered the
island in question. as Penrhyns, without
until

When
its

found,

it

was designated

in the charts

native name, Tongareva, being

known

a schooner, in 1853, had the misfortune to go ashore there.

Astronomical Myths.

49

discovered, the inhabitants of Penrhyns knew of the existence of Auau (or Mangaia), and asserted that Tavai, the erring

When

wife of their great ancestor Mahuta, was a native of that island.

A DAY SONG FOR MAAKTS


BY TANGATAROA,
Chorus*
1 820.

FETE.

E aparangi O
te

Like the outstretched heavens


rere.

kaua peau nui ka

Are the spread wings


bird.
J

of the -warning

E uoa mai na e taae, E mataku paa taua e E roroa ua na ngutu e

One
!

Tis the incarnation of a god. shakes with terror At the long curved bill.
!

Solo.

E roroa ua na ngutu e, e kaua, E manu 110 tai enua e


!

'Tis a bird

Ah, that long curved bill from some other land*


I

Oi au ikitia

te

manu
!

am

the chosen bird


to

E tei
Oi au

taraka ae

That comes
Chorus.

warn

thee.

ikitia te

manu
Tane
1

I taraka, e

tai rau, e

Paoa

te kaki aro, e

pauru kaua.

We are all chosen birds, Messengers of Tane, to save you, Our bills are long and dangerous.
Reveal thy
face, lovely full-moon,

mata o te marangi nui Tamatakutaku e Omai tai turama ia Mangaia

Euea

te

Whom all adore.

for

a torch to illumine Mangaia,

marama

E tamatanui aengata

ua ao e

A bright
day.
Solo.

morning

star,

harbinger of

le tutu ake ki runga e

Pray stand

erect,

Nga manu

No

noea koe ? nunga au, no ua reia e te


taae,

Ye divine birds. Whence came ye ? From the sunrising, driven about


Through the expanse of heaven, We come to you.
Chorus.

matangi,

Ua viriviri te arorangi, Ka roi mai


i
!

Tena oa

te

anana kaua

Hail flock of warning birds


Solo.

Ua

ana mai nei koutou

Ha

ye have arm ed,

50
Nako

Myths and
Chorus.
nei maira
!

Songs.

Welcome

to

our midst

Koki, koka Tangaroa, Akarongo koumu i te tua o Vatea Kokiia te rangi.

In the heavens Tangaroa Listens to the whispers of Vatea.

Tapai

E E rere i te opunga. E kapakapa te manu e tau ra.

la te rangi. rere i te itinga.

Awake, ye winds Sweep o'er the skies.


!

Fly east (ye warning birds), Fly west. What a flapping of wings when
resting
!

FINALE.
BY TIKI (1820), IN FULL CHORUS.

Na

verovero o te ra
i

See yon rays of light


Darting up from spirit- world (Where Great Kongo reigns),
Piercing the heavens.

I patia

Avaiki,

O Kongo
Ko
la
iti

Nui Maruata

E puta i te rangi.
verovero o te ra
etu,

pakakina te
te

E ma"u te marama
Kongo
atua tupu a taae,
te

The rays of light are lengthening The stars still shine ; The moon is full-orbed.
Kongo, thou fiercest of gods, Arouse all sleepers, e'en those As profound as Tavare of old.

E tupiti i

moe
!

Tavare-moe-roa.

E ara E ara
!

Awake
Open, Tane, thy

Awake

E ara,
Aue
e
J

e Tane,

mata katau, kua kata te anau Atea


I

to

brilliant right eye.

Ha

all

1 te rara varu

Laugh

the divine offspring of at our brave diversion.

Vatea

Kua

itirere

te popongi.

Day
?

is

at hand.

Kua

ao e

Tis dawn,
is

Rum

te tere ia Tiki,

The f&e of Tiki

over.

Ka
Six

aere

ei

We part.
birds.

men

in

masks represented the warning

Tane they come from "the surprising." right eye" of Tane is Venus. "Tavare" is the lengendary sound sleeper
tions of

As incarnaThe "brilliant
mother of

(the

Moke), who passed each winter

in unconsciousness.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE EXPLOITS OF MAUL


THE
ORIGINALLY
fire

FIRE-GOD'S SECRET.
this world,

was unknown to the inhabitants of

who
of

of necessity ate raw food.


:

In nether-world (Avaiki) lived four mighty ones


fire
;

Mauike, god
;

the Sun-god

Ra

Ru, supporter of the heavens

and

lastly, his wife Buataranga, guardian of the

road to the invisible

world.

To Ru and
an
early age

Buataranga was bora a famous son Maui.

At

Maui was appointed one of the guardians

of this

Like the rest of the inhabitants upper world where mortals live. of the world, he subsisted on uncooked food. The mother,
Buataranga, occasionally visited her son; but always ate her food One apart, out of a basket brought with her from nether-land.
day,

when she was

asleep,

Maui peeped
tasting
it,

into her basket


1

and

discovered cooked food.

he was decidedly of that it was a opinion great improvement upon the raw diet to which he was accustomed. This food came from nether-world;

Upon

it

was evident that the secret of fire was

there.

To

nether-world,

52
the

Myths and Songs.


home

of his parents, he would descend to gain this knowledge, so that ever after he might enjoy the luxury of cooked food

the following day Buataranga was about to descend to Avaiki (nether-world), when Maui followed her through the bush

On

without her knowing it

This was no
road.

difficult task, as

she always

Peering through the tall mother his standing opposite a black rock, which reeds, he saw she addressed as follows

came and returned by the same

Buataranga
koe.

tona rua, e rarangatu


i

anuemie

akarongoia atu
1
,

ei.
!

Opipiri,

Oeretue-i-te-ata e
i

Vaia, vai akera. taae 1

te rua

Avaiki, nga

Buataranga, descend thou "bodily through this chasm. The rainbow-like must be obeyed. As two dark clouds parting at dawn, Open, open up my road to netherworld, ye fierce ones.

At these words the rock divided, and Buataranga descended. Maui carefully treasured up these magic words; and without delay started off to see the god Tane, the owner of some wonderful pigeons.

He

earnestly

begged Tane to lend him one

but the

proffered pigeon not pleasing Maui, was at once returned to its better pigeon was offered to the fastidious borrower, owner.

but was rejected.

Nothing would content Maui but the possespigeon, specially prized by


its
its
it

sion of Akaotu, or Fearless, a red

Tane.

It
it

was so tame that


it

knew

name;
master.

and,

wander

Tane, who might, was loth to part from his pet, extracted a promise from Maui that Maui now set the pigeon should be restored to him uninjured.
wherever

was sure to return to

off in high spirits, carrying with

him

his red pigeon, to the place

pronouncing the magic words which he had overheard, to his great delight the rock Some assert opened, and Maui, entering the pigeon, descended.
1

where

his

mother had descended.

Upon

Names

for the

two clouds which are parted by the

rising sun.

The Exploits of Maui.


that

53
and perched
fierce

Maui transformed himself into a small


the back of the pigeon,

dragon-fly,

upon

made

his

descent

The two

guardian demons of the chasm, enraged at finding themselves imposed upon by a stranger, made a grab at the pigeon, intending

devour it. Fortunately, however, for the borrower, they only succeeded in getting possession of the tail; whilst the pigeon, minus its beautiful tail, pursued its flight to the shades. Maui was
to

grieved at the mishap which had


his friend

overtaken the pet bird of

Tane.

Maui sought for the home of his house he saw he was guided to it by the sound of her cloth-flail. The red pigeon alighted on an oven-house opposite to the open shed where Buataranga was
Arrived at nether-land,
It

mother.

was the

first

beating out cloth.

She stopped her work to gaze at the red which she pigeon, guessed to be a visitor from the upper world, as none of the pigeons in the shades were red. Buataranga said to

"Are you not come from daylight?'" The pigeon "Are you not my son Maui? " inquired the old nodded assent
the bird,
'

woman.

At this Buataranga entered Again the pigeon nodded. her dwelling, and the bird flew to a bread-fruit tree. Maui
his

resumed
mother,

proper
inquired

who

the object of his visit the secret of


fire.

human form, and went to embrace his how he had descended to nether-world, and Maui avowed that he had come to learn

" This secret rests with the Buataranga said, I wish to cook an When Mauike. oven, I ask your fire-god a stick from Maui inquired Ru to Mauike." father beg lighted His mother pointed out the direction, where the fire-god lived.

and

said

it

was called

Are-aoa

honse-of-banyan-sticks.
is

She,

entreated

Maui

" for the to be careful, fire-god

terrible fellow,

of a very irritable temper."

Myths and Songs.


Maui now walked up boldly towards
the house of the fire-god,

Mauike, who happened column of smoke, guided by the curling oven of food, stopped an at the moment to be busy cooking Maui replied, work and demanded what the stranger wanted.
his

"A
it

fire-brand."

The

fire-brand

a stream running past the bread-fruit tree

was given. Maui carried it to and there extinguished

He now returned

to

which he also extinguished demanded of the lighted stick was

Mauike and obtained a second fire-brand, The third time a in the streamfire-god,

he was beside himself

he gave the daring with rage. Raking the ashes of his oven, These live coals wood. of dry Maui some of them on a piece thrown into the stream as the former lighted sticks had been.
were

Maui
unless

correctly thought that

a fire-brand would be of
fire.

little

use

he could obtain the secret of


but

The brand would


His object

eventually go out;

how

to

reproduce the fire 1


fire-god,

therefore was to pick a quarrel with the

and compel him

invaluable secret, as yet known by sheer violence to yield up the On the other hand, the fire-god, confident to none but himself.
in his

own

intruder into his


fire

to destroy this insolent prodigious strength, resolved Maui for the fourth time demanded secret
fire-god.

of the enraged

pain of being tossed into But the visitor said he should enjoy nothing better than a
strength with the fire-god.

Mauike ordered him away, under the air ; for Maui was small of stature.
trial

of

Mauike entered
;

his dwelling to

put

on

his war-girdle

(ume

tona maro)

but on returning found that


size.

Maui

had swelled himself to an enormous

Nothing daunted

at this, Mauike boldly seized him with both hands and hurled him Maui contrived in falling to to the height of a cocoa-nut tree. make himself so light that he was in no degree hurt by his adventure.

Mauike, maddened that his adversary should yet breathe,

The Exploits of
the highest

Mam.

55

him far higher than cocoa-nut tree that ever grew. Yet Maui was uninjured by his fall ; whilst the fire-god lay panting for breath.
to a dizzy height,
turn. Seizing the fire-god he threw him up and caught him again like a ball with his hands. Without allowing Mauike to touch the ground, he threw him a second time into the air, and caught him in his hands. Assured that this was but a preparation for a final toss which would seal

exerted his full strength, and next time hurled

It

was now Maui's

his fate, the panting

Maui
be
his.

to stop

and

to spare his

and thoroughly exhausted Mauike entreated life. Whatever he desired should


in
said,

The

fire-god,

now
Maui

a miserable
"

plight,

was allowed to
will I spare

breathe awhile.
"

Only on one condition

Where is it hidden t How is itfroMauike gladly promised to tell him all he knew, and led him inside his wonderful dwelling. In one corner there was
duced?

you -,tett me the secret offire.

a quantity of
yielding sticks

fine cocoa-nut fibre; in another,

bundles of

fire-

the

"a^,"
3

the "oronga,"

the "tauinu]' and

particularly the "000,"

and ready
sticks

for use.

sticks were all dry In the middle of the room were two smaller

or banyan tree.

These

by themselves. desiring him to hold


vigorously.

One
it

of these the fire-god gave to Maui, firmly, while he himself plied the other

most

And

thus runs

THE
Ika, ika
i

FIRE-GOD'S SONG.
Grant, oil grant

taku ai e

me thy hidden fire,


tree
!

Te

aoaoaoa.

Thou banyan

The lemon

hibiscus.

Urtica argentea.

Ficus Indicus.

56
Tutuki
i

Myths and
te

Songs.
;

pupu

Perform an incantation

Ka

ai

te karakia.

Utter a prayer to (the spirit of)

Te
Kia ka
I

aoaoaoa.
te ai
i

The banyan
Kindle a
!

tree

nunga

te

a Mauike papanga aoa e

fire for

Mauike
!

Of the

dust of the banyan tree

By

perceived in the friction of one stick upon another. As they persevered with the fire-god's their work the smoke increased j and, favoured
breath,

to his great joy the time this song was completed, Maui dust produced by a faint smoke arising out of the fine

slight flame

arose,

when

the fine cocoa-nut fibre


flame.

called into

and increase the requisition to catch


to the astonishment of Maui.

was Mauike

now

called to his aid the different bundles of sticks,


fire,

and speedily

got up a blazing

The grand
to be revenged
fire

secret of fire

was secured

But the victor resolved

for his trouble

and

his tossing in the air,

by
all

setting

to his fallen adversary's abode.

In a short time

nether-

world was in flames, which consumed the fire-god and all he Even the rocks cracked and split with the heat possessed. " The rocks at Orovaru * (in the shades) hence the ancient saying,
:

are burning."

Ere leaving the land of ghosts, Maui carefully picked up the two fire-sticks, once the property of Mauike, and hastened to the
bread-fruit tree,

his return.

" Fearless " where the red pigeon quietly awaited His first care was to restore the tail of the bird, so as

to avoid the anger of Tane.

There was no time

to

be

lost, for

the

flames were rapidly spreading.


carried his fire-sticks

He

re-entered the pigeon,

which

one

in each claw,

and

flew to the lower

entrance of the chasm.

learnt from Buataranga, the rocks parted,


1

Once more pronouncing the words he and he safely got back


The
foundations of the earth are on fire."

" Equivalent to saying,

The Exploits of Maui.


to this

57

upper world. Through the good offices of his mother the pigeon met with no opposition from the fierce guardians of the
road to the shades.

On

again entering into light the red pigeon

took a long sweep, alighting eventually in a lovely secluded valley, which was thenceforth named Rupe-tau, or the pigeoris-restingplace.

Maui now resumed

his original

human

form,

and hastened

back the pet bird of Tane. Passing through the main valley of Keia, he found that the flames had preceded him, and had found an aperture at Teaoa,
to carry

since closed up.


their land
for
it

The

kings Rangi

and Mokoiro trembled

for

would be destroyed by ; To save the devouring flames. Mangaia from utter destruction, they exerted themselves to the utmost, and finally succeeded

seemed

as if everything

in putting out the

fire. Rangi thenceforth adopted the new name of Matamea, or Watery-eyes, to commemorate his sufferings; and Mokoiro was ever after called Auai, or Smoke.

The
went

inhabitants of
fire

flagration to get
out,

and

Mangaia availed themselves of the conBut after a time the fire to cook food.

and

as they were not in possession of the secret, they


fire.

could not get new

But Maui was

never without

fire in his
all.

dwelling

a circuminquiries as

stance that excited the surprise of

Many

were the

At length he took compassion on the inhabitants of to the cause. the world, and told them the wonderful secretthat fire lies hidden in the hibiscus, the urtica argentea, the "-tauinu," and
the banyan.
sticks,
j

This hidden

fire

which he produced.

Finally,

might be elicited by the use of firehe desired them to chant

the fire-god s song, to give efficacy to the use of the fire-sticks. From that memorable day all the dwellers in this upper world

used

fire-sticks

with success, and enjoyed the luxuries of light and

cooked food.

58

Myths and
To
the present time this
in vogue;
cotton,

Songs. nr primitive method of obtaining

"

""

fire

is

still

cocoa-nut fibre as tinder.

being substituted for fine It was formerly supposed that only the
however,
in the fire-god's dwelling

four kinds of wood found


fire.

would yield

"Aoa" means
word
is

banyan-tree; for intensity and for rhythm the The banyan was sacred to lengthened into "aoaoaoa."

the fire-god.

The spot where the flames are said to have burst through, named Te-aoa, or the the-banyan-tree, was sacred until Christianity
induced the owner to convert the waste land into a couple of
excellent taro patches.

Often when listening to the story of this Polynesian Prometheus, the question has been proposed to me, "Who taught your
ancestors the art of kindling
fire ?

"

At Rarotonga Buataranga becomes Ataranga; at Samoa In the Samoan dialect Mauike becomes Mafuie. Talanga.

THE SKY RAISED


The

OR,

THE ORIGIN OF PUMICE

STONE.
sky is built of solid blue stone. At one time it almost touched the earth ; resting upon the stout broad leaves of the

tew (which

attains the height of

about six

feet)

and the delicate

indigenous arrow-root (whose slender stem rarely exceeds three The unique flattened-but form of these leaves, like millions feet).

of outspread hands pressing upwards, is the result of having to sustain this enormous weight In this narrow space between
earth

and sky the inhabitants of

this

world were pent up.

Ru

whose usual residence was

in Avaiki, or the shades,

had come up

The Exploits of
for

Mam.

59

a time to

this

world of ours.

Pitying the wretched confined

inhabitants, he very laudably employed himself in to raise the sky a little. For this purpose he cut a endeavouring number of strong stakes of different kinds of trees, and firmly planted them in the ground at Rangimotia, the centre of the

residence of

its

island

and of the world.

This was a considerable improvement,

were thereby enabled to stand erect and to walk about without inconvenience. Hence Ru was named "The sky-supas mortals
porter."

Wherefore Teka sings (1794)


i

Tuperetuki

te rangi,

E Ru e,

Force up the sky,

Ru,
!

ua mareva.

And let

the space be clear

One day, when the old man was surveying his work, his graceless son Maui contemptuously asked him what he was doing there.

Ru

replied, "Who told youngsters to talk? " or I will hurl you out of existence." Do

Take
it

care of yourself,

then," shouted Maui.

Ru

was

as

good

as his word,

and

forthwith seized Maui,

who was

In falling Maui small of stature, and threw him to a great height assumed the form of a bird, and lightly touched the ground
perfectly

unharmed.

Maui,

now thirsting
:

for revenge, in

a moment

resumed

his natural form, but exaggerated to gigantic proportions,

and ran

to his father saying


i

Ru tokotoko

te rangi tuatini,
1

Ru, who supports the many heavens

Tuatoru, ka ruatiaraurau

The

third,

even to the highest, ascend

Inserting his

head between the old man's

legs,

he exerted
to

all his

all, prodigious strength, dous height so high, indeed, that the azure sky could never get " back again. Unluckily, however, for the-sky-supporting-Ru," his

and hurled poor Ru, sky and

a tremen-

head and shoulders got entangled among the


hard, but
fruitlessly, to extricate himself.

stars.

He

struggled
oif well

Maui walked

60

Myths and

Songs.

but left pleased with having raised the sky to its present height ; half his father's body and both his legs ingloriously suspended

Thus perished Ru. His body rotted down away, and his bones, of vast proportions, came tumbling from time to time, and were shivered on the earth into countless
between heaven and
earth.

fragments.

These shivered "bones of

Ru"

are scattered over

every hill " The district

and valley of Mangaia, to the very edge of the sea. " where Ru's bones are "
(said
is

my narrator)

sup-

posed to have fallen


derives
its

on the northern part of the


It

island,

and

name from

this circumstance.

belongs to me."

"

It is true that what is universally known in these islands as " o Ru), is found all over the island in the bones of (te ivi

Ru

small quantities.
"
I

Upon

repeated

careful
stone.

examinations these

bones

"

proved to

be common pumice
is

The

"
largest

bone "
fist

have ever seen on the island

about the

size of

a man's

The peculiar lightness and bonelike appearance of pumice stone doubtless suggested the idea that it was the veritable remains of a famous hero of antiquity. The younger natives now know pretty
well the volcanic origin of these mythical
"

bones."

In 1862, when at Pukapuka, or Danger Island, where two years afterwards the first John Williams was wrecked, the
natives brought

me

a large collection of idols of secondary rank.

My curiosity was piled them up in a heap before me. aroused by seeing an old man, formerly a priest, carrying what seemed to be a large lump of coal with evident ease. Upon
They
carefully

looking at

it,

this

god proved

to be

merely pumice stone

blackened by long exposure to rain and wind. Of course it had drifted from some other island. It was known as Ko te
toka

mama

i.e.

the-light-stone,

and was regarded as the god

The Exploits of Maid.


of the wind and the waves.
cantations

61

Upon
;

occasions of a hurricane, in-

and

offerings of food would be


for
it is

worship

will

be made no more

made to it. Such now deposited with the

of the University of Sydney. Purnice stone was not regarded as being sacred in the Hervey Group.

other gods in the

museum

THE SUN MADE


Maui had secured fire for
the sky

CAPTIVE.

the advantage of mortals, had elevated but there one great evil to be remedied the remained ; sun had a trick of setting every now and then, so that it was

impossible to get through any work.

Even an oven of food could

not be prepared and cooked before the sun had set. Nor could a "karakia," or incantation to the gods, be chanted through ere Maui resolved to remove this they were overtaken by darkness.
great
evil.

Ra, or the Sun, is a living creature and divine; in form resembling a man, and possessed of fearful energy. His golden locks are displayed morning and evening to mankind.
Buataranga advised her son not to have anything to do with Ra, or the Sun, as many had at different times endeavoured to
regulate his movements,

Now

and had

all

signally failed.

But the

redoubtable Maui was not to be discouraged.


capture the Sun-god Ra, and compel

He

resolved to

him

to

obey the

dictates of his

conqueror.

Maui now
fibre,

carefully plaited six great ropes of strong cocoa-nut

each composed of four strands, and of a great length.

These
r

wonderful cords of his were


t\e.

named by
off

the inventor Aei-ariki

royal nooses.

Maui

started

with his ropes to the

dis-

tant aperture through which the


1

Sun climbs up from

Avaiki, or

= Taei-ariki.

62

Myths and

Songs.
and there
laid a slip-noose
laid.

the land of ghosts, into the heavens,


for him.
fact,

Further on in the Sun's path a second trap was

In

all the six ropes were placed at distant intervals along the accustomed route of Ra, or the Sun. Very early in the morning the unsuspecting Sun clambered

heavens. up from Avaiki to perform his usual journey through the " Maui was lying in wait near the first royal noose," and exultingly and only caught pulled it ; but it slipped down the Sun's body,
his feet.

Maui ran forward

to look after the second noose, but


it

that likewise slipped.

Luckily, however,

closed round the Sun's

knees. The third caught him round the hips; the fourth, round the Still the Sun went tearing on waist; the fifth, under the arms. But happily his path, scarcely heeding the contrivances of Maui.

for

Maui's designs, the sixth and

last

of the " royal nooses "

caught the Sun round the neck I


frightened, struggled hard

for his liberty,

Ra, or the Sun, now terribly but to no purpose. For

Maui pulled the rope so


Ra, or the Sun,
vanquished
j

tight as almost to strangle the Sun,

and
be

then fastened the end of his rope to a point of rock.

now

nearly dead, confessed himself to


life,

and

fearing for his

gladly agreed to the


little

demand

of Maui, that in future he should be a


deliberate in his

more reasonable and


as to enable

movements through the heavens, so

the inhabitants of this world to get through their employments

with ease.

The Sun-god Ra was now allowed


Maui

to

proceed on

his

way ; but

wisely declined to take off these ropes, wishing to keep Ra in constant fear. These ropes may still be seen hanging from the Sun at dawn, and when he descends into the ocean at
night.

By

the assistance of these ropes

he

is

gently let

down

into Avaiki,

and

in the

morning

is

raised

up out of the shades.

The Exploits of
Of course this

Mam.

63

call

extravagant myth refers to what English children "the sun drawing up water;" or, as these islanders still say, " " Tena te taura a Maui " Behold the ropes of Maui
!

Sun-god

note that the great Polynesian name for the Ra, as was the case in ancient Egypt entering into the composition of the The rule of regal title "Pharaoh," etc. each great temporal " was sovereign manindifferently called a gaia"* = peaceful reign, or a "koina-ra" = bright shining of the sun, the sovereign chief, of course, being the sun. Sometimes " he was called " the man who holds the Ra at other times
is

It is interesting to

(sun)

"the Sun(Ra)-eater."

At

death,

or the transference
said,

of the

supreme temporal power, it was naturally Ra was the tutelary god of Borabora.

" the

Ra

has set."

Such are the three great achievements of Maui.


is

Nothing more

related of

by

the Hervey Group, save that he was driven away for Rangi setting the rocks on fire.

him in

husband is lovingly called by his wife her " rua-ra " sunin allusion to the hole, preceding myth, as from him comes the light
of her
life.

The husband

" gallantly calls the wife his are-rau,"


his affections repose.

well-thatched house,

where

These are

standard expressions in hourly use.

THE WISDOM OF MANIHIKP (KORERO


On
wife Tongoifare, offspring of the

MANIHIKI).

the island of Rarotonga once lived Manuahifare and his

was named Maui the


1

First, the next

god Tangaroa. Their eldest son Maui the Second. Then fol-

Manihiki, Rakaanga, and Tongareva are situated about 600 miles north

of Rarotonga.

64
lowed

Myths and Songs.


their sister Inaika

- Ina4Ju-Fish.

The youngest was a

boy,

other young Polynesians, these children Maui the Third. Like of hide-and-seek. One day Inaika hid her delighted in the game the Third, under a pile of dry sticks and leaves, pet brother, Maui and then desired the elder boys to search for him. They sought
all

everywhere in vain.
naturally expected
place, as the sticks

Inaika at last pointed to the

pile,

and

to see her little brother

emerge from

his hiding-

had disappeared, to see him of him ? But after a few minutes they were astonished leaves and some start up from under a few bits of decayed wood This which had been thoroughly searched a few seconds before. was the first intimation of Maui the Third's future greatness.
This wonderful lad had noticed that his
at mysteriously disappeared
father,

were scattered to the right and left. The heap but no Maui was to be seen, What had become

Manuahifare,
in

dawn of every day ; and

an equally

back again to their dwelling at night mysterious way came resolved to discover this secret, which seemed to him the
strange
as,

He
more

of Manuahibeing the favourite, he slept by the side

knew when or how he disappeared. One fare, and yet never his father unfastened his girdle in order until awake he lay night to Very cautiously did Maui, the Younger, take up one
sleep.

under himself, without attracting his father's from notice. Early next morning, this precocious son was roused This his slumbers by the girdle being pulled from under him.

end and place

it

was

just as

he desired

he lay

perfectly

still,

to see

what would

become of Manuahifare.
was wont,
to the

The

unsuspecting parent went, as he

main

pillar of his dwelling,


I

and

said

O pillar open, open up, That Manuahifare may enter and descend to nether- world

(Avaiki).

The

pillar

immediately opened, and Manuahifare descended.

The Exploits of

Mam.

65
to

That same day the four children of Manuahifare went back


their old

game

of hide-and-seek.

told his brothers

and

sister

This time Maui the Younger to go outside the house, whilst he

should look out for some place to hide in. As soon as they were out of sight, he went up to the post through which his father had
disappeared,

To

his great joy the obedient post

and pronounced the magic words he had overheard. opened up, and Maui boldly

prised

descended to the nether regions. Manuahifare was greatly surto see his son down there; but after saluting (literally,
"

smelling ") him, quietly proceeded with his work. Maui the Third went on an exploring tour through these unknown subterranean regions, the entrance to which he had
luckily discovered.

Amongst other wonderful


over a
fire

things,

he

fell

in

with a blind old

woman bending

where her food was

In her hand she held a pair of tongs (i.e. a green being cooked. cocoa-nut midrib, split open). Every now and then she carefully
took up a
fire

live coal,

be food, whilst the


1

real

and placed it on one side, supposing it to food was left to burn to cinder in the
it

Maui inquired her name, and, to his surprise, found The Inaporari, or Ina-the-Blind, his own grandmother.

was

clever

grandson heartily pitied the condition of the poor old creature, but would not reveal his own name. Close to where he stood watching
the futile cooking of Ina-the-Blind grew four nono trees (morindo Taking up a stick, he gently struck the nearest of the

citrifolia).

Ina-the-Blind angrily said, "Who is that meddling nono belonging to Maui the Elder?" The bold visitor to nether-world then walked up to the next tree and tapped it gently. Again the ire of Ina-the-Blind was excited, and she
four trees.

with

the

shouted,

"Who
"

Second ?

meddling with the nono of Maui the The audacious boy struck a third tree, and found it
is

this

66
belonged to
fourth
his

Myths and
sister

Songs.
exultingly tapped the

Inaika.

He now
his

and

last

nono

tree,

and heard

old grandmother ask,

"Who is this "/ am Maui


"

meddling with the nono of Maui the Third?"


the

you are

my Now when Maui

Third? said the visitor. "Then," said grandson, and this is your own tree."
first

she,

looked at his own nono

tree, it

was

entirely destitute of leaves

and

fruit

but after Ina-the-Blind had

spoken to him, he again looked and was surprised to see it covered with glossy leaves and fine apples, though not ripe. Maui climbed up into the tree, and plucked one of the apples.
Biting off a piece of
it,

he stepped up to

his

grandmother and
excruciating,

threw

it

into one of her blind eyes.

The pain was

but sight was at once restored to the eye which had so long been blind. Maui plucked another apple, and biting off a piece of it, threw it into the other eye of his grandmother and lo sight
!

was restored to
and,

it

also.

Ina-the-Blind was delighted to see again,

in gratitude,

said to

her grandson, "All above, and


all

all

below"(= all on earth and and to thee only."


Ina,

in spirit-land) "are subject to

tliee,

once called the-Blind, now instructed Maui

in all things

found within her territory; that as there were four species of


nono, so there are four varieties of cocoa-nuts and four of taro
in Avaiki, Le. one for each child of Manuahifare, Maui asked Ina, " Who is lord of fire ? " She replied, "

Thy

grandfather Tangaroa-tui-mata," (or Tangaroa-of-the-tattooed-face}* " " Where is he ? " inquired MauL Yonder," rejoined his grand-

mother ; "but do not go to him. He is a But as Maui you will surely perish."
goddess Ina
these
is

terribly irritable fellow

persisted,

the grateful

said,

" There are two roads to his dwelling.

One

of

the path of death; whoever unwittingly approaches the

The Exploits of
Great Tangaroa by
*
J

Mam.
is

67
the
'

this path, dies.

The other

common,' or

safe

(noa) road."
his

Maui

disdained to choose the path of safety.

Knowing
his right

own

prowess, he boldly trod the path of death.

Tangaroa-of-the-tattooed-face, seeing

Maui advancing,

raised
failed

hand to
its

kill

him

that

hand which as yet had never

to destroy

victim.

But Maui, nothing daunted,

lifted his right

hand.

At

this

his right foot,

Tangaroa, not liking the aspect of Maui, raised for the purpose of kicking to death the luckless

intruder.

of

fire

with his right foot


his

But Maui was prepared to do the same to the lord Astounded at this piece of audacity,
name.

The visitor replied, " I am Maui the Younger." The god now knew it to be his own grandson. " " To " What did get fire," was the response of you come for ?
Tangaroa demanded
Maui.

and

sent

a lighted stick, Tangaroa-of-the-tattooed-face gave him him away. Maui walked to a short distance, and finding

some

water, like that dividing the

two

islets

collectively called
this process

Manihiki, extinguished the

lighted stick.

Three times

was repeated. The fourth time all the firebrands were gone, and in order to Tangaroa had to fetch two dry sticks to rub together, the under one for his grandfather ; but held Maui fire, produce in the groove was igniting, the impudent just as the fine dust
Tangaroa, justly irritated at this, drove Maui away, and summoned a "kakaia," or tern, to come to his assistance to hold down the lower piece of wood, whilst

Maui blew

it

all

away.

Tangaroa

diligently

last, to the infinite

worked again with the other joy of Maui, fire was obtained.

stick.

At

It

was no

longer a mystery.

patient

Maui suddenly snatched the upper stick, one end of which was burning, out of the hand of Tangaroa. The bird of white plumage still firmly clutched with her daws
the under
fire-stick,

when Maui purposely burnt

either side of the

68
eye of the bird
fled

Myths and

Songs.

away

for

The indignant tern, smarting at this ill-requital, Hence the black marks, resembling a pair ever.
this beautiful

of eyebrows, on either side of the eye of


this day.

bird to

Tangaroa wantonly deprived him


bird.

reproached his

Maui

deceitfully said,
to

grandson with having thus of the valuable services of his favourite " Your bird will come back."

Maui next proposed

to day-light through the hole

The god

inquired how this volunteered to show the way, and actually flew to a considerable

Tangaroa that they should both fly up by which the bird had escaped Maui at once could be accomplished.

height like
delighted.

a bird

Tangaroa-of-the-tattooed-face
to the ground,

was greatly
his grandis

Maui came down

and urged

father to imitate his example.

"

" Nothing," said Maui,


suggestion,

easier

than to
his

fly."

At

his

grandson's

Tangaroa put on
and, to his

glorious girdle^

by mortals called

the rainbow,

immense
tree.

delight, succeeded in rising above the loftiest cocoa-nut The crafty Maui took care to fly lower than Tangaroa, and

getting hold of one


pull,

end of the old man's

girdle,

he gave

it

a smart

which brought down poor Tangaroa from


fall

his

giddy elevation.

The

killed Great Tangaroa.


fire

Pleased with his achievement in getting the secret of


his grandfather

from

and then

killing

him, he returned

to his parents,

who had both descended


had got the
stance that he
secret of

to nether-land.

Maui

told

them he

fire,

but withheld the important circumtheir wish to

had

killed

Tangaroa.

joy at his success,


respects to the
at once.

and intimated

His parents expressed go and pay

their

their

"

Maui objected to their going Supreme Tangaroa. " on the third said I wish to go myself Go," he, day.

to-morrow."

The parents of Maui

Accordingly, on the next day

Maui went

acquiesced in this arrangement to the abode of Tangaroa,

The Exploits of Maui.


and found the body entirely decomposed. the bones, put them inside a cocoa-nut

69
carefully collected
carefully closed

He

shell,

the tiny aperture, and finally gave them a thorough shaking. Upon opening the cocoa-nut shell, he found his grandfather to be
Liberating the divinity from his degrading imprisonhe ment, carefully washed him, anointed him with sweet-scented
alive again.
oil,

fed him,

and then

left

him

to

recover strength in his own

dwelling.

Maui now returned

to his parents Manuahifare

and Tongoifare,
said,

and found them very urgent to see Tangaroa, Again Maui "Wait till to-morrow." The fact was, he greatly feared
displeasure,

their

and had

secretly resolved to

make

his

way back

to

the upper world he had formerly inhabited whilst his parents were

on

their visit to Tangaroa.

Upon

visiting

the

god on the morning of the third

day,

Manuahifare and Tongoifare were greatly shocked to find that he had entirely lost his old proud bearing, and that on his face

were the marks of severe treatment.


father

Manuahifare asked
Oh," said the god,
"

his

Tangaroa the cause of

this.

"

your

terrible

boy has been here ill-treating me. collected my bones, and rattled them about
shell
;

He
in

killed

me; then
enfeebled,

an empty cocoa-nut

he then
see.

finally
!

made me

live again, scarred

and

as

you

Alas

that fierce son of yours."

The
him

parents of

Maui wept

at this,

and forthwith came back

to

the old place in Avaiki in quest of their son, intending to scold


well.

But he had made


his

his escape to the


his
sister

upper world, where

he found
for

two brothers and

Inaika in mourning

him whom they never expected to see again. Maui the Third told them that he had made a grand discovery He had found a new land. he had obtained the secret of fire.

Myths and
-Where
is
it

Songs.

situated?" inquired they.

"Down

there" saic

Maui the Younger.

Down

where 1

tore* again shouted Maui.

The

fact was,

"Dowr they demanded. o aware not were they


the

house leading to Avaiki. At the secret opening him all consented to follow earnest solicitation of Maui, they
in their

the old post of their dwelling, Accordingly, he went to


as before
:

and

saic

pillar

That we

all

may

enter

open, open up, and descend to nether-world.


!

At

descended and when

at once opened, and all foui these words the wonderful pillar the wonders of spirit-world, all Maui showed them
at length their curiosity

was perfectly

satisfied,

he con-

of ducted them back to the upper world


all

light,

to

which they

properly belonged.

MAUI ENSLAVING THE SUN.


by the inhabitants of this upper world, used to whereas formerly it was eaten raw. But the Sun-god Ra be properly cooked. set in mad haste, ere the family oven could

Food was now

cooked

Maui considered how he could remedy this great evil. A strong made and laid round the aperture by rope of cocoa-nut fibre was

which the Sun-god climbed up from Avaiki (nether-world). But Still stronger ropes were made; but all to no it was in vain. Maui fortunately bethought himself of his beloved
purpose.
sister's hair,

which was remarkably long and

beautiful.

He
it

cut off

some of

Inaika's locks

and

plaited

it

into rope, placed

round

the aperture,

and then hid himself. The moment the Sun-god Ra from spirit-world in the east, Maui quickly pulled one emerged end of the cord and caught him round the throat with the slip-

The Exploits of Maui.


knot.

71

The

hitherto

in his vain efforts to extricate himself.

he begged Maui to
victorious

unmanageable monster bellowed and writhed Almost at the last gasp, release him on any terms he pleased. The
he would pledge himself to go on his The rate, he should be released.

Maui

said that if

course at a

more reasonable

promise was readily given by the trembling captive, and hence it is that ever since the inhabitants of this upper world have enjoyed sufficient sunlight to complete the duties of the day.

THE SKY
Originally the

RAISED.
touched the
earth.

heavens

almost

Maui

resolved to elevate the sky,


the assistance of Ru.

and

fortunately succeeded in obtaining

Maui

stationed himself at the north, whilst

Ru

took up his position in the south.


Prostrate

raising a

at a given signal they succeeded in with their backs the solid blue mass. Now pausing awhile on their knees, they gave it a second lift Maui and Ru
little

on the ground,

were now able to stand upright


the sky higher
still.

The falms

with their shoulders they raised of their hands, and then the tip

of their fingers^ enabled these brave fellows to elevate it higher and higher. Finally, drawing themselves out to gigantic proportions,

they pushed the entire heavens up to the very lofty position which they have ever since occupied. But the work was not complete, for the surface of the sky was
v

very irregular.

Maui and
off the

therewith chipped

got a large stone adze apiece, and roughest parts of the sky, thus giving it

Ru

a perfectly oval appearance.


in order to finish off the

They now procured superior adzes, work so auspiciously commenced. Maui


beautiful, as

and
it

Ru

did not cease to chip, chip, chip at the blue vault, until
faultlessly

became

smooth and

we

see

it

now

Myths and

Songs.

HAITI'S

LAST AND GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT.


of Rarotonga,

A native

named

fisherman. Iku, was a noted

He

was accustomed to go out to sea a great distance, The obvious reason of of fish. find his way back with abundance and movements of the stars \ this was that Iku knew the names
safely

and yet

and by them he steered his course at night. Upon one occasion this Rarotongan fisherman,

at

a great

vast block of stone at the distance from his home, discovered a Iku of Manihiki. bottom of the ocean. This was the island

made sail for Rarotonga to tell what he had seen. The three brothers Maui heard Iku tell his story

of this sub-

of it for themmarine island, and determined to get possession the discoverer the slightest selves. Accordingly, without giving a large canoe to the north in sailed hint of their intentions, they the sunken island. of Many in distance of 600 miles) quest
(a

ere they were rewarded with a sight days passed in weary search, of the great block of coral at the bottom of the sea. Maui the Elder now baited his large hook with a piece of raw
fish,

and

let it

down.

The

bait took;

hard at the

line.
it

As

the fish

and Maui the Elder pulled drew near the surface, he asked his

brother whether

was a shark or a kakai.

They pronounced
and
like his

it

to

be a kakai.

Maui the Second next baited


caught only a kakai.
It

his hook,

brother

was now Maui the Younger^ turn to

try his luck.

He

selected as bait the

young bud
1

of the cocoa-nut, which he had

brought with him

for the purpose.

This he wrapped up in a leaf


a
filbert.

The

size of

The Exploits of Maui.


of the laurel tree.

73

very strong line was attached to the hook,

and then

Maui soon found that he had got hold of something very heavy, and he in his turn asked his brothers what " sort of fish was on his hook. They sapiently assured him that it
let

down.

was either a shark or a kakai."

Maui found
all his

his prize to

be intolerably heavy, so he put

forth
!

hidden strength, and up came the entire island of Manihiki As the island neared the surface, the canoe in which the three
brothers were, broke in two with the mighty straining of

Maui the

Younger. drowned.

His two brothers were precipitated into the ocean and Luckily for Maui the Younger, one of his feet rested on

the solid coral of the ascending island.

At length Manihiki rose

high and dry above the breakers, drawn up from the ocean depths by the exertions of the now solitary Maui.

Maui surveyed
this

his island possession with great satisfaction, for

he regarded as his crowning achievement. There was, howthere was no canoe passage. Maui at ever, one serious defect, once set to work upon a part of the reef, and made the excellent

opening for canoes which distinguishes Manihiki above


islands.

many other

Not long

afterwards Iku

came back

to his favourite fishing-

Great was his surprise and indignation to find Manihiki ground. raised up from the ocean depths by the eiforts of Maui, and

Iku resolved to slay Maui for doing already inhabited by him. He got ashore at the passage which his adversary had so this.
conveniently made, and fought with Maui*
retreated to a certain
spot,

In

this fight

Maui

stamped

his foot with great violence,

and so broke
the sister
islet

off

a part of what

now

constitutes

one extremity of

of Rakaanga.
this exhibition

Iku feared not

of the prowess of Maui, and

74
again pursued

Myths and
him with

Songs.

intent to kill him.

Maui now ran

to the

and again violently stamped the earth opposite side of Manihiki, island of with his foot; and thus it was that the originally large the Manihiki was cleft into two equal parts, one of which retains
ancient designation Manihiki, the other
is

called Rakaanga.

wide ocean channel (of twenty-five miles) separates these twin into the heavens and coral islands. Finally, Maui ascended "up

was seen no more.

On

the island of

Rakaanga
called

visitors

are

shown a hollow

in

a rock near the sea, closely resembling a


ordinary
size.

human
of

foot-print of the

This

is

the footprint

Maui?

where his

right foot rested

when

the canoe parted,


is

and he had almost sunk

in the ocean.

Close by

where Main's fish-hook held

a hole in the coral, said to be the place fast when he pulled up the island
It is asserted that

from the bottom of the ocean.

Maui

carried

with him to the skies the great fish-hook employed by him on that " " The tail of the constellation Scorpio is to this day occasion. " the called by the natives of Manihiki and Rakaanga fish-hook of

Maui?
Iku lived alone on Manihiki
for

a time.

One day he saw


brought it cocoa-nut tree on

a cocoa-nut
ashore,

floating

on the
it.

surface of the ocean.

He

and then planted

Thus grew the

first

Manihiki.

husband Toa,

Iku returned to Rarotonga to fetch his sister Tapairu and her All three safely reached Manihiki and settled

down in their new-found home. Five daughters were born to Toa ; but no son was given to him until he married his youngest From Toa and Tapairu, a single family, all the present daughter.
inhabitants of Manihiki

and Rakaanga are descended.

In after

The Exploits of
times

Mam.
and Rakaanga,

75

Mahuta and

his

clan

migrated to Penrhyns; thus the


are all
his wife Tapairu.

Penrhyn Islanders, the natives of Manihiki


descended from the Rarotongan Toa and

plete,

Few myths are so comhave been so free from foreign admixture as the natives of Manihiki and Rakaanga. They wonderfully
Such
is

"the wisdom of Manihiki."


islanders

and few

resemble each other ; so that to have seen one Manihikian

is

to

have seen all

close parallel runs

between

their version

of the exploits of

of Main and that which obtains


are wholly dissimilar; " the tones of Ru."

elsewhere.
I

Some

particulars

for instance,

can find no account of

Mangaian tradition represents Maui as being driven away by " Rangi to Rarotonga, for setting the island on fire. The wisdom " of Manihiki represents Maui as living at Rarotonga, and starting
thence on his wonderful voyage in search of Manihiki. The tail of " Scorpio " is on Mangaia known as " the great fishhook of Tongareva?
similar to the
i.e.

Penrhyns.

The myth

respecting

it is

preceding, but refers to Tongareva, or Penrhyns, not to Manihiki. Vatea takes the place of Maui.

The

story of

Toa and Tapairu

is

simple history, well

known

at

Rarotonga.

That

Mahuta, accompanied

by

his

wife

Tavai,

uninhabited island of Penrhyns is second undoubted canoe, piloted by the son of the renowned Mahuta, followed and succeeded in making that exten-

emigrated to the hitherto


truth.

sive but

most barren of islands, Tongareva.


I

In

July,

1871,

visited

Rakaanga.

We

rowed

in a

flat-

76

Myths and
with cinet

Songs.
timber neatly

bottomed boat without a


sewn
togetJier

keel, built of cocoa-nut

Yet these adventurous islanders think


of ocean between

nothing of traversing the twenty-five miles Rakaanga and Manihiki in such frail barks.

The king pointed out to us the foot-print of Maui, and the rock in which his fish-hook caught. He next took us to the
uninhabited islet (where now they keep their pigs), to show us We could perceive no hole or the ancient road to spirit-land.
special depression
in the ground ; but were assured dug deep enough, we should be sure to find it
that, if

we

Maui

once, standing

upon
were.

this spot,

overheard a confused

murmuring of voices beneath.


these imprisoned
their
spirits

In a low voice he inquired who Those underneath shouted out

names

in the form of a song,

which our guide repeated.


still

Said he, "

are ; only earth has been piled upon the aperture." These spirits are said to be " like soldier crabs, boring down and hiding in the bowels of the
earth."

Our

fathers assured us there they

77

CHAPTER

V.

TREE MYTHS.
THE MYTH OF THE COCOA-NUT TREE.
iNA-MOE-Arru,
or Ina-wJw-had-a-divme-lover, daughter of Kui-theat Tamarua, under the frowning shadow of the once dwelt Blind, cave of Tautua, so like the entrance of a gigantic edifice. A
1

sluggish stream, abounding in eels, ran near her

dwelling,

and

the rocks. finally disappeared beneath loved to bathe near a clump of trees.

At dawn and

sunset Ina

On

one occasion an enor-

mous

eel crept

up

the stream from

its

natural hiding-place under

the rocks, and startled her

occurred;
presence.

so that

by Ina became

its

touch.

in

Again and again this a measure accustomed to its

the

eel, its

a handsome youth, who said to Ina, and protector of all fresh-water eels.

her surprise one day, as she fixed her eyes upon form changed, and the fish assumed the appearance of " I am Tuna the

To

(eel),

god

Smitten by your beauty, Be mine." From that I left my gloomy home to win your love. in his human form, always admirer attached her he became day

his proper haunts, so as resuming the eel shape upon his return to Some time after he took his farewell of the to elude notice.
1

Aitu

god.

78
lovely Ina.

Myths and
"

Songs.

We

must

part," said

Tuna

"
;

but, as

a memorial of

our attachment, I will

bestow on you a great boon.

To-morrow

there will be a mighty rain, flooding the entire valley.


afraid, as
it

Be not
rising

will enable

me

to approach your house


I will lay

on yon
the

ground

in

my

eel form.

my head upon
it
:

wooden

threshold.

At once

cut

it off,

and bury
of
it."

be sure

daily to visit

the spot to see what will come Ina saw no more of her handsome lover

but was that night

roused from sleep by rain falling in torrents. Remembering Tuna's words, she remained quietly in her dwelling until daylight,

when

she found that the water, streaming


taro-patches,
this

down from

the

hills,

had covered the


to her hut.
its

and had

risen close to the entrance

At

moment a

great eel approached her,

and

laid

head upon her threshold.

with chopped off the head, and buried


the hill-side.

Ina ran to fetch her axe, and forthit at the back of her hut on

The

rain ceased,

and

in the course of a day or

two

the waters were drained off


the true

by

the natural passage under the rocks

home

of Tuna.

According to her promise to her lover, Ina daily visited the spot where the enormous eel's head was buried ; but for many days

saw nothing worthy of

notice.

At

last

she was delighted to find a

Next day the shoot had stout green shoot piercing the soil. divided into two. The twin shoots, thus gradually unfolding
themselves, were very different from other plants.
maturity,

and sent

forth great leaves, exciting the

They grew to wonder of all.

After the lapse of years flowers

and

fruit

appeared.

Of

these

twin cocoa-nut trees, sprung from the two halves of Tuna's brains,

one was red in stem, branches, and

fruit; whilst

the other was of

And thus came into existence the two principal a deep green. varieties of the cocoa-nut; the red being sacred to Tangaroa, and

Tree Myths.
the green to Rongo.

79

In proof of

its

being derived from the head


invariably found the two

of Tuna,

when husked on each nut is mouth of the lover of Ina. and eyes The white kernel of the cocoa-nut
o

is

commonly

called "te
it

roro

Tuna," or the brains of Tuna.

In heathenism

was

unlawful for

women

to eat eels;

and

to this

day they mostly turn

away from

this fish

with the utmost disgust

The
kikau,"

extremity of a great cocoa-nut

leaf,

termed the " iku

and comprising ten or twelve

lesser 'leaves,

when

cut off

and neatly bound with a


as the divinity
fish.

bit of yellow cinet

food," constituted the fisherman's god.

by Without

" the

priest of all

this

Mokoiro,
reef to

was

called,

no canoe would venture over the

The same The

device was used in inviting great chiefs to a feast

the sacred cinet, however, being omitted.


principal taro patch in
its

each

district

was analogically

designated the "iku kikau," as


ship.

possession indicated chieftain-

All " raui," or taboo restrictions, were

and are

means of an
pattern.

entire cocoa-nut leaf plaited after

still made by a certain ancient

of the

The preceding myth is evidently designed for Amama, or priestly tribe, who were

the glorification

worshippers

of

Tiaio under the double form of shark and

eel.

1855, at the very place indicated in this story, measuring seven feet in length, was caught by daylight in a strong In heathenism this would have been regarded as a visit fish-net.
of
Tiaio,

In the year an enormous eel,

and the dainty morsel allowed

to

return under the

8o
rocks unmolested.

Myths and
As
it

Songs.

was,

it

furnished several families with a

good supper.
In a figurative sense, Kongo's cocoa-nuts are human heads. Hence the common phrase respecting the beginning of war, " = " Kua va'i i te akari a the cocoa-nuts of Rongo have

Rongo

been split open; in other words, men have been clubbed. The mass of the people, chiefs included, never struck off the
to drink- but were content to suck top of a cocoa-nut in order hole which nature provides. The the the refreshing liquid through

cocoa-nuts of the priests were invariably struck off (tipi take) when drunk by them, symbolical of the fact that with them lay the

power of ments of

life

and

death.

Chiefs

and warriors were merely

instru-

their vengeance.

TAHITIAN MYTH OF THE COCOA-NUT TREE.

king

named Tai
visit

(sea)

had a wife named Uta


But Tai did not

(shore)

who
what

was anxious to

her relatives.

like

her to go

without a present.

He

therefore inquired of the oracle

would be most

suitable.

The god
itself,

directed

him

to

send his wife to

the stream to watch for an eel; that she should cut off the head of the
first

that presented

carefully plug

up

the aperture.

and deposit it in a calabash and The eel was then to be thrown

back into the water, and the calabash carried to the husband. Upon Uta's return from the stream, the king inquired whether
she had been successful.

The

wife joyfully said yes,

and

laid the
start

well-plugged calabash at his

feet.

Tai now advised her to

on

her intended journey, and present the precious calabash to her Hu parents and brothers, "for there is a wondrous virtue in it"

Tree Myths.
told her that
it

81
tree,

would grow into a cocoa-nut

and would bear

enjoined her on no account to turn aside from the path, nor to bathe in any tempting fountain, not to sit down, nor to sleep on the road, and above all not to put down the calabash.

delicious fruit never before seen.

He

on her journey. For a while all went well ; the sun but, at length, being high in the heavens, she became veryhot and weary. Perceiving a crystal stream, she forgot her

Uta

gladly started

promise to her husband, put down the calabash, and leapt into the After luxuriating for some time in this manner, inviting waters.
she cast a glance at the calabash ; but, lo
eel's
1

it

had sprouted
!

the

head had become a young

tree with strange leaves


all

Grieved
her might
do, with

at her

own
it

folly,
j

she ran to the bank and strove with


for its roots

to pull

up

but could not,

Uta wept long and


joy she perceived a

bitterly.

had struck deep. Perplexed now what to

little

messenger-bird from her husband direct-

She went back to the king with shame and ing her to return. him to all that had befallen her. and related Tai sadly said fear, " Go back to the to her, place where thou didst see the eel whose

head was cut


living,

off

and deposited

in the calabash.

Seek

for the
:

wriggling

tail.

When

found, get a stick

and

kill it

then

come back and tell me." Uta did as she was desired; but

as soon as she entered their


sin.

dwelling her husband expired in expiation of her

THE IRON-WOOD

TREE.

The iron-wood tree (casuarina) was originally introduced by the Tongans, and planted in a deep sequestered valley at Tamarua, named Angaruaau. In the course of years it attained to a great
size,

and the fame of

this graceful

and

stately exotic spread over

82
the island.

Myths and
Oarangi and his four

Songs.
friends, hearing of its various

uses in other lands, resolved to appropriate it to themselves, and In a thus to gain a superiority over the rest of their countrymen.
secret conference about the matter,

some advised Oarangi

to

have

was an impersonation of an evil Vaotere. Oarangi, however, resolved that the famous spirit named tree should come down, in order to furnish him new and better
nothing to

do with the

tree, as

it

weapons of war.

by night on their ill-starred expedition, a with each provided sharp stone axe and a candle-nut torch. Arrived at the hill-side, they easily found the tree, so utterly unlike
Thief-like, they started
all

others,

in

its

long slender branches and wiry leaves, and

towering above

all its

companions.

It

had

four gigantic roots,

The torches were placed in fantastic shapes. gnarled and twisted on the ground around the tree, making the night light as day. The four woodmen zealously set to work upon the four great roots, whilst Oarangi sat at a little distance to watch their progress.
From time
to time they

and deeper
returned to
restored to

all round, as some made cleaner But curiously enough, when each the root which had nearly been severed, he found it

changed

cuts than others.

its

original condition, as if

no axe had ever touched

it.

The

astonished

men

desisted awhile to consult with Oarangi, who,

resolved to attain his object, advised that each should keep to his

own root until entirely severed. Again they plied their axes, and oirrying out the advice of Oarangi, they eventually succeeded in their endeavours. At dawn the tree fell to the ground,
with a tremendous crash.

By

full

daylight the top


lay

had been

lopped

off,

and the ponderous trunk

on the

soil.
;

They had
to-morrow

triumphed.
they

They resolved now would come back to finish

to return

home

to rest

their task.

Tree Myths.
At
this

83
taken
ill,

moment

the four

men were

and began

to

vomit blood

the redness of the blood answering to the redness of the inner bark of the iron-wood tree which had been so injured by them. They staggered to the stream which winds through the

valley,

and sought relief in its waters, but kept on vomiting until two of their number died, and their unburied bodies were left in
the
tall fern.

Oarangi and the two surviving woodmen went off with heavy hearts. Upon reaching the crest of the hill overlooking the scene
of their midnight
great tree they
ever.
toil,

to their utter astonishment they


felled

saw that the


stately as

had so recently

was growing as

They

retraced their steps, in order carefully to note this

wonderful phenomenon.

There was no mark whatever of an axe

appeared.
this

on the resuscitated tree; even the chips all around had disThe tree was restored to its former condition, with
difference,
all

however

the trunk, branches, and leaves were


:

now

of the brightest red


it

as

if

resenting the treatment

it

had

received,

bled at every pore,

They
annoyed

slowly

wended

their
fell

way homewards, but


in the road.

ere long the

two surviving woodmen

dead

Oarangi, greatly

at his failure, resolved that his next attempt should

be

made by

hope of better success. With a number one of friends he returned day to the valley in quest of this tree.
daylight, in the

Upon

arriving at the

summit of the

hill,

where the

tree could

first

be seen, their eyes became totally blinded. With difficulty they descended to the bottom of the valley, and wearied themselves in
searching for the tree.

But

after

wandering about
their

all

day in

its

nightfall without

immediate neighbourhood, they groped having found it at all.

way homewards

at

Oarangi had done his utmost, but had been foiled by the

84
malicious

Myths and
demon

Songs.
But

of the iron-wood tree, and soon after died.

was there no one who could overcome Vaotere, and render the wood of the tree useful to mankind? Ono came from the land

whence

this tree

was originally derived, and had in his possession

a remarkable iron-wood spade,


where-il-must-faU, given to

named Rua-i-paku =
his father Ruatea,

the-hole-

him by

ere

he

set

out on his voyagings, for any dangerous emergency. was very valuable as a club. Armed with Rua-i-paku, he resolved Upon reaching the shady to do battle with the demon Vaotere. he carefully surveyed the coveted tree, and valley of Angaruaau, the earth about the roots, began his operations by digging up avoid injuring any of the main ones. being careful, however, to

This talisman

Day

after day, entirely unassisted, the

brave
all

Ono

persevered in

his arduous task in pursuing the roots in

their deviations over

the valley and


portant,

becoming small and unimhe fearlessly chopped although exceedingly numerous,


hill-side.

Upon

their

them with his famous spade. The chips new in all directions, over hill and vale, under his mighty blows. After many days' toil all the surface roots were bared and severed at their extremities,

The tap-root alone remained. so that the tree began to totter. red the into soil, and then, at a blow, Ono dug to a great depth
divided it

At

this critical

of the evil

spirit

moment, the head and horrid visage Vaotere became visible, distorted with rage at

filled with terrible teeth, being again disturbed. His open jaws, of the impious Ono, who, perceiving end an make to prepared

his danger,

with one well-directed blow of his spade-club luckily

succeeded in splitting the skull of Vaotere.

The

victorious

Ono now.

leisurely

removed the four great

in sooth, the arms of the fierce Vaotere, gnarled roots which were, the enormous trunk the bleeding body divided afterwards md

Tree Myths.
of the

85
:

demon

into three unequal portions

one to furnish a

" skullquantity of long spears, another to be split into arad, or

cleavers;" the third to furnish aro, or

wooden

swords.

All this

was accomplished by the versatile qualities of Rua-i-paku, which was used first as a spade, then as a club, and now as an axe. The thousand chips from the small roots of this wonderful tree
falling

everywhere over

hill

and

valley

and
:

sea-shore, originated
but, happily, Vaotere

the iron- wood trees

now

covering the island

can no more injure mankind. Until a few years ago this was believed to be the true origin of all the iron-wood on the island. It is not surprising that the
heavy wood which in past times furnished all the deadly implements of war, should have been regarded as the embodiment of

an

evil spirit

The

possession of land
"

and the

slaughter of
tree.

were alike the result of the use of


signifies indifferently

this

famous

men "Toa"
it,

iron-wood," and what most resembles

"warrior."

A series

of songs on the exploits of

Ono once

existed.
old.

They
Such

are believed to have

been several hundreds of years

compositions are called "pee manuiri," i.e. "songs relating to visitors." They are known to be the oldest extant

The

following fragment relates to the preceding myth:

ONO FELLS A FAMOUS TREE.


TUMU.
Kotia
rai te toa
i

INTRODUCTION.

Vaotere

The iron-wood
felled
:

tree of

Vaotere

is

Tu

Kua aka-inga. e tauri te rakau e

It lies
!

low on the
;

earth.

Once

it

stood erect

now

it is

pros-

trate.

86
PAPA.
Uriuri ana rai Kua kotia la rakau Uriuria o te vao

Myths and

Songs.
FOUNDATION.

Turn the

The tree

log over and over, thus laid low.


it

Formerly
valley,
!

was the glory of the


;

Tu

e tauri te rakau e

Once

it

stood erect

now

it is

pros-

trate.

WANDERINGS OF ONO.
TUMU.
Rupitia ra Tau akera

INTRODUCTION.

Ono
i tai
I

e te matangi,

Ono
!

tossed about

by a

tempest,
!

O te rorongo
Kua Kua

motu. kauvare a Iva e


PAPA.

Eventually reached this isle. Alas for the haunts of loved Iva

FOUNDATION.

nui ua rai

How terrific the ocean


lire.

tokarekare

The waves

covered with foam

Ka

ara

Ono

iaku nei
e
!

A punishment for the sins of Ono.


Ne'er more will Iva be seen
TAX.
! !

Kauvare a Iva

UNUUNU
Ka
Iaku nei e

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

ara ra koe ra iaku nei e


!

How great must be


Ono
is

thy sins
!

enua tauria e te manu Kua kai ana i Ono e, O te ua o te pitai

Against the gods This isle is but the home of birds.


driven to satisfy hunger.
fruits

With wild

and berries
!

Kura

motu e Kauvare a Iva


ra
i

Growing, ruddy, over this isle. Ne'er more will Iva be seen

PAPA RUA.

SECOND FOUNDATION.
Through
rain

E ua te matangi E te matangi tere ariki


Kauvare a Iva e
!

and

fierce winds,

On

a peaceful errand

we

sail.
!

Ne'er more will Iva be been

UNUUNU

RUA.
e,

SECOND OFFSHOOT.
a peaceful errand we come, Ono, denied his regal honours,
Still

Tei te matangi tere ariki Nai ariki no Ono e, Ka araara i Iva nui

On

longs for Iva the Great.


slain

E taia e Murake.

Alas for those

by Murake

Tree Myths.
Ka
I te

87
Handsome
chants mournful

eva ra Ono-kura

Ono

the

songs

puka maru. Kauvare a Iva e

Under the shade of the laurel trees. Ne'er more will Iva be seen
!

This song

is

complete in

itself,

and

is

an introduction
style
is

to the

narrative of his exploits

and

sorrows.

The

very unlike
national

that of later times,


passion.

when the
is

art of

song-making became a

There

is

no reference

to the

known

history of Mangara.

The "Iva "


It

referred to

believed to be Nukuh/z/<z.
tribe that the poetical
;

was under the rule of the Mautara

faculty of these islanders was most highly cultivated the past 150 years of their history.

i.e.

during

88

Myths and Songs.

CHAPTER

VI.

INA,

THE FAIRY VOYAGER.


ISLE.

INA'S

VOYAGE TO THE SACRED

only daughter of Vaitooringa and Ngaetua was Ina, whose The parents of Ina were the brothers were Tangikuku and Rupe.

THE

wealthiest people in the land of Nukutere, boasting as they did of

a rich breast ornament, abundance of finely braided


white shells worn on the arms, and

hair, beautiful

a gorgeous
feathers, with

head-dress,

more precious than all these ornamented with scarlet and black

a frontlet of berries of the brightest red. Early one morning the parents for the first time left their home in the care of Ina ; the mother charging her to put these treasures
out to air; but should the sun be clouded, be sure to take

them

back into the house.

For Ngaetua knew well that in the bright beams of the sun the arch-thief Ngana would not dare to come ;
if

but

exposed on a lowering, cloudy day, the envious foe would


to try his luck.

not

fail

In a short time the sun shone brightly; not a cloud could anyThe obedient Ina carefully spread out these where be seen.
treasures

on a piece of purest white native

cloth.

But the arch-foe

Ina, the Fairy

Voyager.

89

Ngana was on the watch. Very cautiously did he approach through the neighbouring bushes in order to get a good sight of
these much-coveted articles.

He

forthwith used an incantation,

so that the sun suddenly became obscured. Ngana now fearlessly from the thicket and endeavoured to grab the longemerged
wished-for ornaments.
to permit this.

But Ina was too quick

in her

movements

with affected humility begged permission to admire and try on the various ornaments, for her to see

Ngana now
in them.

how he would look

Ina was very

loth,

but after great

persuasion, consented that

Ngana should put them on inside the house. To prevent the possibility of his taking away any of these The crafty Ngana now arrayed treasures, she closed the doors.

himself in these gorgeous adornments, excepting the head-dress, which Ina still held in her hand. Ngana, by his soft words, at

Thus completely arrayed length induced her to give that up too. he began to dance with delight, and contrived to make the entire
of the house, careering round and round in hope of some loophole through which he might escape with his seeing last he espied a little hole at the gable end, a few At spoil.
circuit

inches wide, through which, at a single bound, he took his

flight,

and

for ever disappeared with the treasures.

Ina at

first

had

been delighted with the dancing of her visitor ; but was in utter despair as she witnessed his flight, and heard the parting words
:

Tamu tamu

tai

tara

Ina e tou reka.

Beware of listening to vain words, O Ina, the fair and well-meaning i

Not long
haste, for they

afterwards the parents of Ina

had seen the

arch-thief passing swiftly

through the sky, magnificently attired. that all was not right with their own treasures.

came back in great and proudly fear crept over them

They asked

the

90
weeping
girl

Myths and

Songs.

She said, " Your choicest the cause of her tears. " " But is there nothing left ? demanded possessions are gone." the parents. "Nothing whatever," said the still weeping Ina.

The enraged mother now broke

off a green cocoa-nut tree

branch

and broke it to pieces on the back of the unfortunate girl. and again Ngaetua fetched new cocoa-nut branches and
beat Ina.

Again
cruelly

The

father

until a divine spirit

now took his turn in belabouring the girl, of Ina, (" manu ") entered and took possession
ominously said
;

and

in a strange voice

E kiri taputapu tana kiri E kiri akaereere taua kiri E kave au Motu-tapu Na Tinirau e ta ta taua kiri.
; i

Most sacred is my person ; Untouched has been my person ; I will go to the Sacred Isle, That Tinirau alone may strike it.
:

The

astonished father desisted

her younger brother

Rupe
if

cried over his beloved sister.

After a while Ina got up, as

merely to saunter about


the sandy beach.

but no sooner had she eluded the eyes ; of her parents, than she ran as fast as her legs could carry her to

When
who

nearly there, she

fell

in with her elder

brother Tangikuku,

naturally asked her


;

She gave an evasive answer


her parents of her
flight,

where she was going. but fearing lest he should inform

she snatched his

bamboo

fishing-rod,

broke

it

in pieces with her foot,

as a knife. 1

She now said to

and selected one of the fragments her brother, " Put out your tongue."
Tangikuku vainly essayed to

In an instant she cut

off its tip.

speak; so that Ina was certain that he could not reveal the secret of her sudden departure. She kissed her maimed brother
to the shore, where she gazed long and wistfully towards the setting sun, where the Sacred Isle is. Looking about for some means of transit, she noticed at her feet a small
1

and pressed on

The only

knife

known

in these islands formerly, save red

flint.

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.


fish

91

named

the avini.

Knowing
:

that all fishes are subjects to


little

the royal Tinirau, she thus addressed the


at the disconsolate girl

avini 1 that gazed

Manini

tere uta

koe

teia

manini ?

Ah,

little fish

art thou

a store-loving

avini?

Manini

tere tai

koe

teia

manini ?

Ah,

little fish! art

thou an ocean-loving

avini ?

Oro mai takitakina atu au Ki taku tane ariki kia Tinirau,


Matoto atu au
i

Come bear me on thy back To my royal husband Tinirau,


With him
to live

reira.

and die.

The
feet

little fish

at

once intimated
its

its

consent by touching her


;'

Ina mounted on

narrow back

but when only halfway

to the edge of the reef, unable any longer to bear so

unaccustomed

a burden,

it

turned over, and Ina

fell

into the shallow water.

Angry

at this wetting, she repeatedly struck the avini;

hence

the beautiful stripes " Ina's


tattooing."

on the

sides of that fish to this day, called

The
for

disappointed

girl

returned to the sandy beach to seek

some other means

of transit to the

Sacred

Isle.

fish

the paoro, larger than the avini, approached Ina. The intended bride of the god Tinirau addressed this fish just as

named

she had the

little

avini

and

then,

mounted on

its

back, started a

second time on her voyage. But like its predecessor, the paoro was unable long to endure the burden, and dropping Ina in Ina struck the paoro in her shallow water sped on its way.
anger, producing for the first time those beautiful blue marks which have ever since been the glory of this fish.

Ina next tried the

api,

which was

originally white,

but for

upsetting Ina at the outer edge of the reef was rendered intensely blacky to mark her disgust at her third wetting. 1 " Manini is an old form of " Avini."

g2
She now

Myths and
tried the sole,

Songs.
successfully borne to the

and was

edge

Wild of the breakers, where Ina experienced a fourth mishap. fish unfortunate of the head on the the with rage, girl stamped
upper
with such energy that the underneath eye was removed to the Hence it is that, unlike other fish, it is constrained side.

one side of its face having no eye At the margin of the ocean a shark came in sight. Addressing the shark in words very like those formerly used, to her great mounted triumphdelight the huge fish came to her feet, and Ina

now

to

swim

flatwise,

antly

on

When
felt

broad back, carrying in her hand two cocoa-nuts to eat halfway on the dangerous voyage to the Sacred Isle, Ina
its

The obedient fish immevery thirsty, and told the shark so. which Ina pierced the on dorsal its erected fin, diately (rara tua)
eye of one of her nuts. After a time she again became thirsty, and again asked the shark for help. This time the shark lifted its

head, and Ina forthwith cracked the hard shell on

its

forehead.

The

shark, smarting from

the blow, dived into the depths of


as best she could.

the ocean, leaving the

girl to float

From

that
all

day there has


sharks, called

been a marked protuberance on the forehead of


" Ina's bump."

The

king of sharks,

named Tekea
his

the Great,

now made

his

wide back, and continued her voyage. appearance. She soon espied what seemed to be eight canoes in a line rapidly approaching her. When near they proved to be eight sharks
resolved to devour Ina.
shark,
shark.

Ina got on

Ina in an agony cried to her guardian

"O

Tekea!

Tekea!"
"

"What
"
girl.

is

it?

"

" See the canoes ?

said the

How many are


'

inquired the " they ?

"
6

" Said her guardian shark, Say to them, = * Got aea koe e Tekea Nui Mangamangaia, mangamangaia
Eight/' replied Ina.

" away, or you will be torn to shreds by Tekea the Great.'

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.

93

sharks

As soon as Ina had uttered these words the eight monstrous made off. Delivered from this peril, Ina again went on her long voyage to the Sacred Isle. But one more danger
:

fleet of ten canoes, but which proved to be ten ground sharks, started off from the very shores of the Sacred Isle to make an end of Ina. Again they were

threatened her

what seemed a

brave

driven away by the fear of the king of sharks. At length the girl reached the long-sought-for Sacred Isle, and Tekea
the Great returned to his

home

in mid-ocean.

Upon going ashore, cautiously surveying her new home, she was astonished at the salt-water ponds, full of all sorts of fish, everywhere to be seen. Entering the dwelling of Tinirau (= Innumerable), the lord of all
inside.
fish, she found one noble fish-preserve But strangely enough the owner was nowhere visible. In another part of the house she was pleased to find a great wooden drum, and sticks for beating it by the side. Wishing to test

and

her

skill,

sweet notes
(

she gently beat the drum, when to her astonishment the filled the whole land, and even reached to Pa-enua-kore

No-land-at-all),

where the god Tinirau was staying that day.


islet

The

king of all fish returned to his


his great

dwelling to discover

who

Ina saw him approaching, and in a curtain. Tinirau entered and behind herself hide to ran fear all sticks and found the drum right, but for a time could not

was beating

drum.

discover the fair drummer.

He

left

the house, and was on his


girl,

way back

to No-land-at-all,

when the coy

unwilling to lose so

noble a husband, again beat the wonderful drum.

Tinirau

came

back and found the blushing girl, who became his cherished wife. Ina now discovered that it was the might of Tinirau that inspired
her with a "mami," or her safety in voyaging
strange
spirit,

to his

home

in the

and then provided for " sacred islet"

94

Myths and

Songs.

In the course of time Ina gave birth to the famous KoromauBesides this boy she had a girl, ariki, commonly called Koro.

named Ature. Her younger brother Rupe washed much to see his sister Ina, who had long since disappeared. Rupe asked a pretty karaurau (a bird of the linnet species) kindly to convey him where Ina lived. The bird consented, and Rupe, entering the linnet,

deep blue ocean, in search of the Sacred Isle, where his beloved sister had her home. It happened one morning that Ina noticed on a bush near her one as she used to see in her dwelling a pretty linnet, just such a
fled over the

old home.
into

As she complacently gazed upon it, the bird changed Great was Ina's It was Rupe himself! a human form.
;

delight

but after a brief stay

Rupe

insisted

on going back

to tell

They were rejoiced to hear of had whom their daughter, for long grieved. A feast was they made, and the finest cloth prepared for Ina and her children. Mother and son now entered two obliging linnets, and laden with
his parents of the welfare of Ina.
all

these

good

things, flew off over the

ocean in search of Ina.

Isle, mother and daughter embraced Three whole days the each other tenderly; past was forgiven. were spent in festivities on account of Koro and Ature, the child-

Arrived safely at the Sacred

ren of Ina.

The
left

visitors

returned to their

home

over the sea,

and Ina was


"

happy with Tinirau the king of all


"
is

fish.

Sacred Isle

an

islet in
is

tonga.

" No-land-at-all "

the harbour at Ngatangiia, Rarothe residence of the chieftainess Pa,

on the mainland.
This very popular legend seems designed to support shark-

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.


worship.
It is expressly said to

95
origin of

be an account of the

tattoo, although another myth refers that to Kongo's ill-treatment of his brother Tangaroa. It is, however, true that the

tattooing

of this island was simply an imitation avini and the paoro.

of the stripes on the

"Tinirau" literally means "forty millions." Doubtless it " " stands for Innumerable, referring to the impossibility of counting the small fish-spawn supposed to be under his special care
at the Sacred Isle,

Tinirau was second son of Vari, The-very"

beginning.
is known as Ina, daughter of Ngaetua," to her from the four Inas born of Kui-the-Blind. tinguish

This heroine

dis-

SONG OF

INA.

TUKA'S CONTRIBUTION TO AKATONU'S FETE, CIRCA 1814.


Call for the music

and dance to

begin.

E manini
E

aii

na Ina e

A ta te reu o Tautiti
paoro ina
i

Here are we,

Ina's

little fish,

On whom
!

the tattoo was

first

per-

formed
te

apainga e

As we
Solo.

bare her on her voyage.

Taipo el
Chorus.

Go on

Na

Riunga atu na Ina Tekea

ia
i

Tinirau
!

ta e

On her way to Tinirau Ina invented tattooing.

Literally,

Mangaians

"Te
of Ina,

are we, Ina's avini sndjpaoro, from which mortals i.e. derive their tattooing" tatau a Kongo," i.e. "the tattooing of Rongo" as opposed to th a means the bloody marks inflicted by spears in war.

" Here

96

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

Manini

tere uta

Ah, thou
Chorus.

s'hore-loving little fish

Eia Ina tata

la

te reu e,

When did
Those
Solo.

Ina imprint so distinctly

Motu

te tatau ra e ?

lines

on thy body?

Takitaki atura na te manini ae

As

I,

little

fish,

bare her on

my

back.

Chorus.

Takitaki atu na te manini

Brave

fish that

bare her to her hus-

Anau tama
Tautiti e

it

te

akatapunga
e
I

Koro

band, So that she became the happy mother Of the dance-loving Koro !

FINAL STANZA OF THE DAY-SONG FOR TENIO'S


FETE.
BY KOROA, CIRCA 1814.
Solo.

Ua pururu ua te
I

etu

The

maunga Opoa

stars have all set Behind the western hills.

Chorus.

Purui tataka i te ara Era vaine taia e te matangi.


Tarotaro Ina i te pa ika, Oro mai ana tatakina 'tu au,

Like a tall solitary tree is the fairy Who committed herself to the winds. Ina invoked the aid of many fish To bear her gaily on their backs j

E Tekea, i tau tane ariki la Tinirau i te moana.


Vaia
te

The

lordly shark to convey her safely

To

upoko, tipitake

te akari

the royal Tinirau o'er the sea. Alas, the bruised head of the angry

monster,
I te

pane o mango,
ia takaviriviri,

Who hitherto
maid,

had obeyed the trembling

I te

mimi o Ina
i

Motutapu. Titi kaara na Ina.

la tae au

Who opened a cocoa-nut On her voyage to the Sacred


Softly she beats the drum.

Isle,

Ina, the Fairy Ua rongo Tinirau Ua kanga Unga e

Voyager,
is

97

Tmirau
6i
!

enchanted

By
Our

the music of the lovely one.


is

Ka

uraura pia
Tautiti,
te tere

e ura te tere o

sport

over

the visit of Tautiti

is

ended,

E numi

o Avaiki ka acre

The

guests from spirit- world are gone

THE VOYAGE OF

INA.

FOR A FEMALE REED-THROWING MATCH, CIRCA 1814. BY KOROA,


Solo.

Patutu

Tekea Nui
!

Tap

gently the head of the shark king,

Ei tarotaro na Ina e

And

invoke his aid,

fair Ina.

Chorus.

Tena Tane-eie-tue
apai atu na i te anau ika I uta i te naupata kura
I

Here comes Tane-the-fierce


Driving along shoals of young fish, To cover the white sandy beach Of the " sacred islet " of Tinirau.
Solo.

Te

Motutapu e

ia

Tinirau

Tinirau taua tane

Yes, Tinirau,
Chorus.

my

future husband.

Aore au
I te

e keu

Ua ii i te kare

to Iva tangata. te matangi.

I will be

My
To
Soh.

feet are

no bride to the men of Iva. wet with the ocean waves.


the

moana i Rangiriii I Rangiriri te aroaro ariki.

Foam-sprinkled I press on to Rangiriri, 1


Rangiriri,

home

of

my

royal

husband.

Aroaro

ariki

kakea

At

the

home

of my husband I land.

Chorus.

Oro mai tapoki ake

au.
;

Come, throw a garment

Te

ani maira Ina Paenuakore


i

o'er me. Ina has reached No-land-at-all ;

Pou enua tapu


1

taea mai nei.

A sacred spot attained by few.


Isle.

The name of a

place at Rarotonga, near the Sacred

98

Myths and

Songs.

THE TAAIRANGI, OR
;

PORPOISE.

lived in The-thin-land, Vatea, the elder brother of Tinirau, whose home was the whilst ocean the of Tinirau, and was lord

Sacred

Isle,

was king of
taairangi,

all fish

from the shark to the

tiniest

minnow.
other
this

The
it is

or

porpoise,
fat

was not counted with


or blubber.
half fish

fish, as

covered with pure

How

came

to

be so

Why, Vatea
tore
off a

himself,

and half man,


Le.

imitating the conduct


The-very-beginning,

of their great

mother Varkna-te-takere,
of his

portion

own

person, and

made
all

a porpoise. Thus the porpoise is of necessity unlike Whales were often seen but never tasted on Manother fish.
it

into

obtained, these islanders might " " have learnt that other fish besides the sky caught are covered
gaia in heathenism.

Had they been

with pure

fat. it

As

the ocean was the undisputed property of Vatea,


alive

soon

became

with
this

taairangi

sporting

about

in

it

Tinirau

magnificent ocean fish-pond, seeing that his own subjects were in danger of dying in the too contracted, though very numerous, fish-ponds of the Sacred Isle. So he

became jealous of

craved his brother's permission to let some of his small fish go Vatea would consent only on one condition into the great sea.
that Tinirau

Sacred
this

Isle

to

would add a portion of his own territory of the With immense difficulty the land of Vatea.
the two brother gods had to get under
in order to

was accomplished

the Sacred Isle,

break off a part of

it.

This done,

Tinirau liberated a portion of his finny population, and thus the

ocean became swarming, not only with the great half-divine taairangi, but with fish of all sorts and sizes.

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.

99

THE FINNY SUBJECTS OF


Call for dancing Aitutaki

TINIRAU.

BY TEREAVAI, FOR HIS F&TE, 1823.


Vaia mai
i

te

akeke

and music to lead off. Throw open the


taki 1

fish-ponds of Aitu-

te

pa ika na Tmirau e Koro e

Where
Solo.

sport the fish of Tinirau

and

Koro.

Taipo e
Chorus.

Go on
Tear

Vaia mai

te tino ika nei, e Vatea,

Ei taairangi, e Tane

off part of the half-fish body of Vatea, That it may become a porpoise, O

Tane.
Solo.

Ae
i

Aye.
Chorus.

E utu oki te kava rauriki, E roaka mai ai.


Vaia mai e
i

Pour out a libation of " kava" To win the favour of the gods.
Solo.

te

akeke ae

Yes, throw open the fish-preserves.


Chorus.

Vaia mai i te akeke ; Tei te moana te ikatauira a Tane.

Throw them all open, O Tane, That the little fish may sport in the
ocean.
Solo.

Ae
Takave mai
i

'Tis done.

Chorus.
te uru kare

See, they are borne

on the

crest of

the billows,

Na Tane-ere-tue, Ka aere e tauri aru i


1

te akau.

And

Driven by Tane-the-Fierce, are lying in shoals on the

reef.

The Sacred

Isle is

here confounded

with Aitutaki, both lands appa-

rently lying in the vast

unknown.

ioo

Myths and

Songs.

NUMERATION AND THE ART OF FISHING


INVENTED.
entrusted to six Vatea prepared an enormous net which he the But subjects of his brother the first of their order.

fishermen,

Tinirau were too crafty to be easily caught

Day

after

day the

At length the aid of Raka, the in vain. finny tribes were hunted of the ocean rough, of winds, was invoked to make the surface
god and thus
below. the net
to hide the great net of

Vatea from the

fish sight of the

; completely net. the hold to six fishermen

and Their younger brother, Raka, willingly lent his aid, the of the but it was not in filled power was
Tane, son of the great Vatea,

fishes. came to the rescue, and resolutely held on to the captive wide the raced through the finny prisoners Eight days and nights
1

with them. ocean, carrying the net


hausted,

At

last

they

became

ex-

and Tane

rich spoil to the feet exultingly dragged the


fish one by one, pronouncing names by which each kind has since

of his father.
for the first

Vatea turned out the

time the various

been known; and

the useful art of counting. thus, also, originating

wearied with reckoning, he gave up the remainder The exhausted inhabitants of the as being in truth innumerable.

At

last, utterly

ocean lay in heaps on the reef and sandy beach


tide carried

until the rising

them out again

to their proper element,

none the

worse

for this first experiment in fishing.

THE ORIGIN OF DANCING.


Tinirau and his son Koro, whose proper home was at the Sacred Isle, occasionally lived on the northern part of Mangaia.

The son had

repeatedly noticed that his father disappeared

by

Ina, the Fairy


night,

Voyager.
at

time.

and remained away from their home two or three days Where the sire went was a mystery. One

thing greatly

attracted the admiration of

Koro ; whenever his


to

father

came back,
seeds,

he was adorned with a


yellow and red.

fresh necklace of fragrant

pandanus

Determined

solve this mystery, one night

hid away Tinirau's girdle, and then lay down to Not sleep. long afterwards the old man sought everywhere for his girdle but in vain. At last he woke up his boy, who rose and gave it to his father. Koro pretended to go to sleep again,
craftily

Koro

but, in reality, was narrowly watching his father's movements. Tinirau having adjusted his royal girdle, went outside; and in a short time Koro out slipped unperceived, and hid himself in the shadow of the house. The old man now passed over his ankles

some strong bark


tree.

in the usual fashion,

and climbed a cocoa-nut

But to the great astonishment of Koro, he used only his right hand, and did not even permit his chest to touch the tree itself. Tinirau twisted off the ripe nuts one by one, and
throwing
with
up, with the
still

them on the ground descended, as he had gone


assistance of only one hand.

On

reaching the ground,

one hand, he husked the


their contents

nuts, clave

them

in two,

and scraped out


*

upon the broad

leaf of

a variety of gigantic taro

This finely grated cocoa-nut was then carefully in the same great leaf, and secured with bark string, wrapped up was carried by Tinirau to the sea, a distance of a mile, over rough rocks, by a narrow path overhung with lofty trees. On reaching
called "pongi."

the beach, he took up his station on a point of rock, still called Akatangi, or the-calling-place, and which runs into the waters of the reef. Koro hid himself in the low bushes growing out " of the sand a few yards behind his sire. The king of all fish "
1

Arum

costatum.

IO2

Myths and
liberally

Songs.

now

scattered

the scraped cocoa-nut over the waters

Koro whilst chanting a long incantation to his finny subjects. his in them memory the words, and treasured
quickly caught

up
at

for his

own use

some

future period.

To

the infinite delight of

the the son, the smaller inhabitants of the reef at once obeyed their for the food to taste came and provided call of their lord,

was heard by the length the voice of Tinirau to the feet of their who hurried larger fish in the great ocean, Ere the incantation ended, the Sacred Isle itself
entertainment

At

sovereign.

its proper place to the edge of the reef! Tinirau's obedient subjects assembled of the entire throng

came bodily from

Thus
on the

and changing their forms into a partial resemblance to human beings, came dancing to meet their lord himself in his true attributes, half man and half fish,
moving Sacred
who, being
Isle,

with gladly united


sort called

them

in their dance,

which was of the famous


feet all

"

Tautiti," in

which hands and

move
all

at the

same

time.

The

subjects, like their sovereign,

were

arrayed in

necklaces of sweet-scented pandanus seeds, which grow plentifully

over the native


subjects

home
started

of Tinirau.
off,

The Sacred

Islet,

king, finny

and

all,

and were speedily

lost to sight in the

distant ocean.

Koro returned home

to the interior, satisfied as

to the real cause of his father's frequent disappearance in past


times.
all day or two afterwards Tinirau returned to his son, but fruit a with as necklace, entirely before, pandanus fragrant his proceedings on his last visit ignorant that Koro had witnessed " time ere " the king of fish some It was to the Sacred Isle.

started off again

on a midnight expedition

but when he did so

he did not escape the vigilance of his watchful son, who was anxious to perfect his knowledge of the necessary invocations.

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.


Again with a
single

103
tree,

hand the old man climbed the


to the ground.

threw

down

the nuts,

and descended

the lonely path to

Again he traversed the sea by moonlight, carrying with him a great

quantity of finely scraped cocoa-nut.

rock

At the projecting piece of the ocean he scattered food for his marine overlooking

children.

The

invocation over,

fish, islet,

and

all

came again

to

the feet of the mighty Tinirau,


subjects in their favourite

who

exultingly joined his merry

Koro gamed
therefore

his object

employment of dancing by moonlight. he had learned the magic words, and


with himself.

went home well

satisfied

On

the following

night he, in his turn, climbed a cocoa-nut as his father

had done, " scraped kernel to the calling place " where Tinirau had performed his wonderful feats. Now was the and then carried the
time to test his
finely

own powers as the son of the king of all fish. Reciting the prayers, he scattered the rich food on the waters, when, to his delight, the fish obeyed the summons, swimming in
shoals to his feet

The Sacred

Isle, too,

with

all its

vast preserves

of

fish,

soon hove in sight

the joy of recognizing his


of moonlight dancers.

Amongst its finny inhabitants he had own father, Tinirau, in the merry throng
at

Koro

once joined
"
:

this

novel assembly,
is

when

his father greeted

him thus

Son,

this,

then,

why you

hid away

my

girdle."

Arrayed like the rest in beautiful necklaces of fragrant pandanus berries, father and son that night, and ever after when so
inclined,

with their finny

enjoyed the pleasure of a prolonged midnight dance It was the subjects on the Sacred Isle.

renowned Koro who conferred on the inhabitants of Mangaia the favour of planting the first pandanus tree close to the spot (Akatangi) where he was accustomed to summon his scaly friends.

He

instructed the inhabitants in the mysteries of dancing.

His

104

Myths and

Songs,

time was spent half at the Sacred Isle and half on the northern z i.& the shore of Mangaia, which is thence named Atua-Koro,

land of the divine Koro!'

A SONG FOR TENIO'S FETE.


BY VAARUA, CIRCA 1814.
Call for the dance
Tautiti au e
!
.

to begin.

I
!

am

Tautiti.

O te ara ra i Taipau,

Tane

O
Solo.

Tane, the fragrant pandanus on the beach is mine.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Tanumia

te ara

te

Atuakoro e

That fragrant

tree was by the divine Koro.

first

planted

Solo.

Ae

Aye
Chorus.

Tautiti rava ki tonga

makatea

Tautiti's

favourite wreaths
gullies.

grow

in

oopu.
Solo.

yon

te

Nai makatea oopu e ara kura o Tautiti ei mai


!

Red pandanus

Yes, in those gullies grow berries to adorn the dance.

1 Every return of March shoals of bream (ature) find their way to AtuaKoro. The name of Tinirau's daughter is Ature. Of course there is a play upon the name of the beautiful silvery fish which every year visits that part, and that only, of the island, as if the sister and her attendants were paying a visit to the chosen home of her brother Koro.

Ina, the Fairy Voyager.

105

UNUUNU

TAI.
Solo.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

mail te ara e

tei

Taipau ae

Groves of pandanus cover yon sandy


beach.
Chorus.

E man te ara i Taipau, No Tautiti kake mai e

Yes, groves of fragrant pandanus


!

For

Tautiti,

whenever he may come

up.
Solo.

Ae

Aye.
Chorus,

Tere maira

te ara

no
i

tai

tuamotu e
1

This famous tree came fiom some


other
isle,

Patiki io

te

kea e

To
Solo.

grace the sacred sandstone.

Patiki io
te ara ra
i

te

kea e

Taipau, e Tane

O
Solo.

Yes, to grace the sacred sandstone. Tane, the fragrant pandanus on


the beach
is

mine.

Taipo e

Go
Chorus.

on!

Tanumia

te ara

te

Atuakoro e

That fragrant tree was by the divine Koro.


Solo.

first

planted

Ae

Aye
Chorus.

Tautiti rava ki tonga

makatea

Tautiti's

favourite wreaths
gullies.

grow

in

oopu
Solo.

yon

te

Nai makatea[ oopu e ara kura o Tautiti ei mai e


J

Red pandanus
dance.

Yes, in those gullies grow berries to adorn the

io6
UNUUNU

Myths and
RUA.
Solo.

Songs.
SECOND OFFSHOOT.

E te
Eaa

opu, e te opu

Entwine sweet-scented
Chorus.

fern-leaves.

ra ?

Eaa

ra

What
Solo.

is

going on yonder ?

Tei

tai

Tei

tai

At
Chorus.

the margin of the sea ?

Ae!

Ae!
Solo,

Aye!

Aye

A kitea
Tautiti

A kitea

The god
Chorus.

reveals himself

kake mai.

Tautiti himself has

come up

(out

of nether- world)
Solo.

Kitea mai, e Tane e

O
Chorus.

Tane, he stands revealed

Maniania, o

maau tara mea.


Solo.

Pleasure

thrills

through

my body.

te iva

Maaraara *i au e taumara a te ra e
!

I
!

would I were
in the sun

A dragon-fly exulting
beam.

CHAPTER

VII.

MISCELLANEOUS MYTHS.
A BACHELOR GOD IN SEARCH OF A
AMONGST

WIFE.

the thirteen principal gods of Mangaia which at the

establishment of Christianity were surrendered to the missionaries

were four bearing the name of Tane. 1 They were simply pieces of iron-wood carved roughly into the human shape, once well
these four

wrapped up in numerous folds of the finest native cloth. Of Tanes three Tane Ngakiau, Tane-i-te-ata, and Tane Kid
were considered to be inferior to the
first,

who was

usually

Tane Papa-kai, i.e. Tane-filerIn order of rank Tane came after Rongo and Motoro, up-of-food. the chief deities of Mangaia. Tane was said to be the fifth son The following is the of Vatea, born in Avaiki, or nether-world.
called Tane, sometimes, however,

extravagant

myth of Tane's exploits when in search of a wife. At Ukupolu there lived a woman named Tekura-i-Tanoa,
The-ruddy-one of Tanoa, possessed of

i.e.

uncommon

attractions.
is

Tane

= husband,

or the generative principle in nature.


this dance-loving

Tane

equiva-

lent to 7JD.

Innumerable modifications of

god were wor-

shipped throughout eastern Polynesia.

io8

Myths and
defect,

Songs.

her right foot was afflicted with The chief Ako was violently in love with her; but elephantiasis. " If it had been Tane, the fair one disdained his advances, saying, Now she would have thought favourably of the proposition."

But she had one sad

Ako was

a great friend of Tane's

so that he at once paddled off

to Avaiki to fetch

Tane, who

cheerfully consented to

accompany

The two friends started for Ukupolu, each in his own him. confessed to Tane canoe. day or two after their arrival Ako

the real motive of getting

him

to

pay a

visit to

Ukupolu, and

in winning The-ruddy-one of earnestly entreated his assistance

Tanoa.

Tane good-humouredly promised


sisters,

his aid.

he applied for two garlands the neck, of sweet-scented flowers one for himself and one

Ako had two

to

whom

for for

his friend, against their projected visit to the inexorable beauty.

The sisters were to arrange it so for Ako should have numerous


the flowers
offensively
;

that the fragrant garland intended

with sprigs of myrtle intermixed

whilst Tane's should

be spoiled by the admixture of


tastefully

smelling

leaves.

When

arranged,

these

banana
times.
take.

white layer of the garlands were carefully enclosed in a thin of the olden custom invariable the to stalk, according

A mark
Now

upon the outside, so as to prevent misTane was a god, and was not to be deceived in this
was
set

way.

Accordingly,

when

these friends,

now become

at heart rivals

in love, were both arrayed in their best garments,

and

their hair

glistening with sweet-scented

oil,

Tane took out the

fragrant

garland of flowers and put


that his crafty friend

best garland

Ako, had by some means got possession of the being thus outwitted, he declined to put on his
it

on.

to his dismay, perceived

own,

lest

Tane should

twit

him with

his ill-faith.

Off these rivals

started to the

dwelling of The-ruddy-one of Tanoa.

Tane

first

Miscellaneous Myths.
entered, bearing in his

109

hands a

gift

consisting of several highly-

filled the house. Ako now made his appearance. Each pleaded his suit with great earnestness, for Tane was at first sight smitten with the charms of the fair

scented garments

the rich perfume

girl.

But the capricious Tekura-i-Tanoa accepted the advances of Ako, and Tane retired in disgust. He resolved to return at once With this purpose in view he walked to the sandy to AvaikL
his

beach to launch

canoe and

start for his

examination found a large hole


treacherous friend Ako.

in

Tane
:

sat

home; but upon bottom made by his down and loudly bewailed his
its

misfortunes in these words

Kua viivii

vaka e

Kua Ako
!

vavaiia ra

tail

Unhappy me
destroyed

My

canoe has been


I

"by

Ako.
tears.

I tua o Avaiki.

Ringiringiia toku

How

shall I return to Avaiki ?

nei roimata

will rain

down my

Tane

fell

now

for the first

musing what he had best do. Upon looking up he time noticed a gigantic bua tree (beslaria laurinoble branches. In a trice Tane got up and clambered to the extremity of one of Tane gave the far-stretching limb on which
fairly into

folia) spreading forth its

the trunk of this tree


the longest branches.

he

sat

a mighty
this

jerk,
Le.

and thus swung himself

another

land, Enuakura,

The-land-of-red-fan'ot-feathers

After walking

newly discovered land, he came upon an old woman named Kui-the-Blind, who was busy cooking yams on a fire. In all she had ten yams cooking ; at her side were ten calabashes of
about
water.

After awhile the old blind


it

woman

took a

yam

off the fire

and scraped
entire

clean with a cockle shell.

She then devoured the

yam, washing it down with a calabash of water. But Kuithe-Blind did not know that the moment she took up a yam, Tane a calabash of helped himself too, and at the same time emptied
water.

no
The
first

Myths and
old

Songs.
first

woman had no
when

sooner finished her

yam and her

calabash of water, than she carefully counted the remainder


to her

with her fingers,

amazement she found a yam and a


thief has

calabash missing.

here

Had

my

She angrily exclaimed, "What him." sight I would devour

come

Having thus vented her


as before.

indignation, she ate another

yam and

drank another calabash of water; Tane helping himself in silence Again the old woman counted the remaining yams

and calabashes with her fingers, and found that only six of each Once more she gave vent to her anger against the remained. unknown thief. Tane uttered not a word to reveal his presence.
In this way the ten yams and ten calabashes of water disappeared. Each time Kui-the-Blind missed a yam and a calabash of water At last her meal, but half the usual her anger grew hotter.
quantum, was finished, and she resolved upon immediate venAccordingly, she rose and entering her house felt in the geance.

accustomed place for her great-fish-hook, which she had never yet used in vain. Whilst adjusting the long line she slowly chanted
this

ominous couplet
rave,

Oi au ka

ka rave
a
te

te tautai
!

Aa

poiri i te ika

tupuna e

a Kui matapo. Ara tatia


Kui-the-Blind.
victim).

Here am I about to fish. It is the angling of The old woman must have her fisk (i.e. human

Here goes

for

it

As she
in his
for

uttered these last words she violently

swung round the


for this,

dreadful sharp-pointed fish-hook.

Tane, prepared

held

hand a banana stump to catch the hook, which he retained a second, deluding Kui into the belief that she had caught the

struggling thief,
the line,

The

malicious old creature pulled vigorously at

hoping

to get a victim to eat,

when she grasped a mise-

Miscellaneous Myths.
rable banana-stalk.

in

disengaged the stump

same words.

Chafing with indignation at her failure, she and again whirled the hook, uttering the This time a low bush, bearing edible red berries,

was used by Tane to tease the old woman. Kui pulled away at her hook with great satisfaction, but found only a bush. Her
anger
victim.

now knew no bounds, having never

before missed her

time she threw her hook, using the old formula. This time Tane allowed himself to be caught Kui was delighted

A third

that she
whilst

had

at last secured the thief.


his

She grabbed him

tightly

" I am Tane." Kui calmly said, " her and instantly forgot exclaimed, anger, Why, you are my own grandson Tane Stay with me."

demanding

name.

He

his old

afterwards Tane, again feeling very thirsty, asked grandmother for some water to drink. Kui-the-Blind said, " There is no water in this country, save in the nuts of yonder tall cocoa-nut tree. But you had better not attempt to climb it, or
will

Some time

you

surely

die.
tree,

You
viz.

will

be

slain

by

my

children,

the

guardians of the

the lizard, the centipede, the beetle,


to climb the tree,

and the mantis." seemed


began
tree."

Tane resolved

whose top
as he
live in this

to reach the sky.

Kui

said to the fearless

Tane

to ascend,

"

Do

not injure

my

children

who

This solitary cocoa-nut tree, the property of the blind grandmother, was remarkable for the wonderful profusion of fruit

and for a great accumulation of dry branches underneath the green limbs. In these withered branches were hidden the fairy
on
it,

guardians of the

fruit,

excepting the mantis,

under side of the green leaves.

who kept watch on the Their duty was to see that no one

At the sight of the intruder Tane climbing stole any of the fruit. up the tree, a large lizard advanced boldly from its hiding-place to Tane caught the lizard, tore it in two, and threw drive him away.

j 1

Myths and

Songs.

the pieces down.

and

cloth-like

intending to sting

Tane now began to clear off the dry branches came out wrathfully coverings, when a great centipede Tane to death. But the brave grandson of Kui

deliberately killed this foe also.


all directions,
beetle

The

dry branches were falling in

and the work was nearly completed, when a feeble


defend the precious fruit

came

forth to

But the beetle

lizard and centipede ; and Tane speedily shared the fate of the climbed up into the great living fronds and sat down to rest

awhile.

At

this

moment

a mantis, of unendurable smell, assailed


its

the intruder, spreading out

gay red wings

but Tane served the

Thus he had conmantis as he had already served the others. the vast quered all foes. With great admiration he viewed
on every side. Plucking two or three of the nuts, on the " roro," or unopened sheath, 1 containing them he husked
clusters of nuts

the young flowers and

fruits.

Tane
Tane's

leisurely slaked his thirst


its

Then

violently swinging this

lofty cocoa-nut tree until

home

top hung over the very land where all the nuts as food against the off he shook was,

kept his place at the top of the wonderful tree, which, rebounding, resumed its former position in There remained on Enuakura, The-land-of-red-parrot-feathers.

day of

his return.

But Tane

still

the

tree

only two tiny

nuts,

each about the

size

of a small

pebble.
said
1

Tane

plucked them, and descending


face towards me."

to the ground,

to Kui,
It is

"Turn your
fact,

The

old

woman

an interesting

of which thieves do not

fail to avail

themselves in

seasons of scarcity, that it is quite practicable to husk the hardest cocoa-nut and pierce the eyelet upon the point of the closed sheath referred to, without

descending to the ground. Ordinarily a sharp stake is fixed in the earth near the foot of the tree for the purpose of husking the nuts that are thrown down ; but nature has provided a sharp-pointed stake at the top of the tree, where the
nuts grow, and the climber finds a sure foothold for cases of emergency.

Miscellaneow Myths.
did
so,

113

when she received a smart blow on her


nuts.

one of the

right eye from She cried out in agony j but in a second found

her sight restored.

Tane again

said to Kui,

she received a blow on her

anguish was extreme ; see well with /both her eyes.

at me." Upon doing so, from the remaining nut. Her left eye but the reward was great, for she could now

"Look

Kui was delighted with the achievements of her grandson, for who had hitherto been called Kui-the-Blind, was now KuiTane asked her, "Have you any daughters?" the-Seeing. "I " Take whichever you please as said have four. Kui, Yes,"
she

your wife." Now all these daughters were at some distance at work. After a short time the eldest, named Ina, came and was
not a
little

surprised to see a stranger

and

to find her mother's

Tane was not pleased with Ina, who subsequently moon (Marama Nui). Tane now inquired after the other daughters of Kui. The second soon made her appearance; it was Ina-who-disappearssight restored

married the

with-the-day.

Though

fair,

she did not please Tane.

Kui

called

her third daughter Ina-who-disappeajs-at-midnight She was very "I have but lovely, yet did not captivate the fastidious Tane. " I will summon her." She one daughter more," remarked Kui.

came

it

was Ina-who-rivals-the-dawn.

She was,

as her

name

implied, surpassingly beautiful.

She became the wife of Tane, who considered himself to be well recompensed for restoring sight to Kui, once called Trie-blind.
But, after a time, Ina
quarrelled,
this

and Tane resolved

became jealous of her husband. to return to his own land.

They
With

view he climbed up the famous cocoa-nut tree, the glory of The-land-of-red-feathers, and brought down a frond, which he

ii4
wove
into

Myths and
a basket of the
sort

Songs.

without an opening.
therewith

known as the " clam-shaped," i.e. He now procured a second frond, and
of a similar shape.

wove a second basket

Fastening

one to each arm, he used these long baskets as wings, and with their friendly aid took his final flight to his own land Avaiki, from
which he had so long been absent, and thus escaped from the
tongue of the lovely but jealous Ina-who-rivals-the-dawn.

The scene

of this story

is

laid

in nether-land.

This myth

unquestionably points to

Samoa, the group from which these

"Ukupolu" is evidently Upolu, and people originally came. " Avaiki " is of Savai'i. form another only
Stories like this constituted the esoteric teaching of the priests

of Motoro and Tane.

The Polynesian idea of a god


in

is

merejtoze/^-,
all

without any reference to goodness.


of heathen

Their gods had

the faults

men and women

The

centipede, lizard,

an exaggerated degree. etc., were sacred ; hence their appeardivinities.

ance in the myth as minor

ECHO
Rangi was the and lived in the
first

OR,

THE CAVE

FAIRY.

man;

for

Vatea was half man and half fish,

invisible world.

When Rangi
nook and

veyed the land which he


shades,

had succeeded

in dragging

complacently surup from the

he resolved

to explore every

corner, to ascertain

whether there were any other inhabitants in his territory. After travelling some distance along the northern division of
the island without discovering the slightest trace of any living creature, he approached a romantic pile of rocks overhanging a

tremendous gorge, by which the waters of the neighbouring valleys

Miscellaneous Myths.
discharge themselves into the ocean.

115

number of caves conis

verge at this point, the pathway to which


boulders.

obstructed

by

vast

To

as was his wont, "60" ("Hallo, there!"). a voice from the rocks distinctly replied, " 60." Rangi asked, "What is your name?" Instead of a satisfactory

Here Rangi shouted,


his surprise

reply,

came the

bursting with indignation,


resident,

"What is your name?" Rangi, now demanded of this unseen fellow"Whence do you come ? " Still the invisible speaker
defiant query,

declined to reveal herself; and the ears of Rangi were assailed with the irritating words, " Whence do you come ? " Unable to

endure
cave,

this

any

longer,

he cursed the hidden inhabitant of the


"

nicknaming

her

the~hide-and-$eek-spirit ;

Aitu-mamaoa," z>. the-ever-distant, or but forthwith heard himself cursed in


Evidently this
satirical,

exactly the

same tone and words.

unseen

being was no respecter of persons.


his
felt

Rangi

fell

immeasurably in

own

estimation at being thus unceremoniously addressed, and sure that it was intended as a reflection upon his illegitimate

origin.
first sovereign of Mangaia now resolved, at any cost, to of the insolent a creature sight get pertinaciously hiding in the rocks. Cautiously leaping from boulder to boulder, he entered

The

the gorge, inquiring as he proceeded, for the hitherto invisible


inhabitant
;

but receiving for his pains only sarcastic

replies.

The

chasm grew darker and narrower, but Rangi bravely kept on his way. Upon suddenly looking up, to his astonishment, he found that the semi-circular roof was everywhere covered with transparent glittering pendants (stalactites), white, like a

row of formidof

able teeth, almost touching his person,

meanwhile

falling like rain

drops upon the stone flooring.

cold water

Underneath

1 1

Myths and

Songs.
from the basement of the

was a row of stumps


the cave.

(stalagmites), rising

Awe-stricken at the sight of these vast

open jaws,
a

apparently about to swallow

him

up,

he

instinctively retreated

few

the first time caught steps, and, looking up once more, for a glimpse of the face of a female fairy, heartily laughing at his terror.

As soon as Rangi recovered his equanimity, he inquired the proper name of this formidable apparition. Her reply was, "I am T^lm^tteanaoa? or Echo (literally, " the-cave-speaking-sprite ").
the being that everywhere inhabited the rocks of Mangaia Rangi now asked whether she had " I have a Echo children. very numerous offspring, replied, any named Tuwu-te-erue ma, or Earth-diggers." " Where are they?"
ere you set feet on the soil."

"I

am

demanded the
cave.

inquisitive king.

"They

are

on the mountains,

roaming about in the

fern," replied the complaisant spirit of the

Rangi now left Echo, and went in search of her children. He had not advanced far up the side of the nearest mountain, trampling

down
"

the fern and

these

earth-diggers," or rats!

were so unlike their

when he came upon a troop of Rangi wondered that the progeny mother, who could on no account be pertall

reeds,

suaded to leave her favourite haunts in the rocks.

The

cave where Rangi

teanaoa, or

made the acquaintance of TumuEcho, was thenceforth named Aitu-mamaoa, 1 or the


first

home
1

of the ever-distant, or hide-and-seek


in

spirit.

Aitu-mamaoa

Chalmers, once explored were nearly burnt out and the roof necessitated a creeping posture. About midway a running stream We sung a number of hymns, and were delighted to hear, crossed our path. at a great height above our heads in utter darkness, a most perfect echo as if an unseen choir were singing in perfect unison with our torch-lit
writer,
J.

The

company with the Rev.

for half a mile, until the torches

company.

Miscellaneous Myths.
In the course of
with this notable
his

117

subsequent explorations, Rangi often met

to be ubiquitous, and " " learnt that besides the earth-diggers in the dry grass and fern

nymph Echo, who seemed

the valleys

had another numerous offspring inhabiting and the dark waters of the little lake in Veitatei, viz., shrimps, eels, and other fresh-water fish abounding there and in the interior gorges and chasms of the adjacent rocks her own
of the mountains, she

constant resort

Rangi thus found that his little world was already teeming with No inhabitants, all descended from the great Tumu-te-ana-oa.
disturbance or difficulty ever arose therefrom, as Echo was a nymph of a gentle and harmless disposition; her only fault being
that she

was a

little satirical

when addressed by

strangers.

was often contested by the sages of former times, whether Rangi, after all, was rightly designated the first inhabitant of ManIt
gaia, seeing that

and

he found Echo already in possession of the rocks They came at last to the conclusion, that whilst Rangi was the first man and king, Echo was the first and parent
caves.

fairy the numerous sprites inhabiting rocks, valleys, hills, and streams constituting the prolific progeny of "the cave speaking
sprite."

At the Marquesas,
Echo, who
is

to this day, divine honours are paid to


to

" speaks supposed to give them food, and who

the worshippers out of the rocks."

n8

Myths and

Songs.

THE PRINCE OF REED-THROWERS.


Upon one
ani-vai,
i.e.

occasion Tangaroa chanced to see the lovely Ina-

Inarsolidted-at-the-fountain, bathing at

a stream

named

The god
and by
frail

Kapuue-rangi, and at once became enamoured of her charms. unfastened his girdle, which mortals call the rainbow,,
this dazzling

pathway descended to
resist the

earth.

The

fair

but

Ina could not

advances of the great Tangaroa;

and

in the course of time she

Bald.

She chose

to live

gave birth to Tarauri and Turi-theapart from her friends, so that the divine

origin of her offspring was long unsuspected. Turi were flaxen-haired.

Both Tarauri and

There was at the same time a man named Pinga, whose seven sons were alike noted for their shortness of stature and for their
1 proficiency in the art of reed-throwing.

The

clever dwarf sons

of Pinga induced Turi-the-Bald to try his luck in this game. Again and again was Turi beaten by the clever sons of Pinga, so
that he wept with vexation

and shame.

Now the

elder brother

had taken no

part in these games.

But

he was distinguished for his skill in wrestling with age, and for catching a small fresh-water fish,
abounding
in the tiny streams

lads of his own-

called

kokopu,

which thread the

valleys.

The
still

mode

of angling said to have been invented by Tarauri,

and

in use amongst enterprising lads, was curious.

The

leaves of the

pandanus, or thatch, tree are furnished with somewhat formidable


thorns.

The

serrated edges of a stout leaf are pared off; the

On Mangaia

spectators ; or together, as in

this popular game was practised by men, the women being by women, the men being spectators never by men and women some islands.
:

Miscellaneous Myths.

119

narrow pieces are then carefully tied together with a bit of hibiscus bark, care being taken that there be at least two thorns or tiny
fish-hooks

The
rod

slit

on either side, and that these little hooks point upwards. midrib of a long cocoa-nut frond furnishes the fishing the thorny hooks being secured to the tapering end.

The sport is enjoyed wherever the stream is dammed up for the purpose of irrigating the little taro-patches of the valleys, or to enable women and children the more easily to fill their empty
calabashes with water.

The

voracious

little

kokopu

leaps
it

to

catch the bait


itself

its

favourite morsel, the shrimp

when

finds

a prisoner on one of the thorns of this quaint fish-hook. The " seven dwarf sons of Pinga " were delighted with the

adroitness of Tarauri, although as yet his

name and

that of his

brother were unknown.


their

names,

Pinga desired his sons to ask the lads a most unpleasant task to a South Sea Islander.

good-naturedly told their names, but did not reveal As soon as Pinga heard their the secret of their divine origin. " seven dwarf sons " names, he astonished his by exclaiming, " Bring them here." Why, these are my grand-children
!

The boys

Very willingly did the lads take up their abode with their One day " the seven dwarf newly-found grandfather for a while.
sons
of

Pinga" made preparations

for

their favourite

amuse-

ment of reed-throwing, purposing this time to measure their skill with Tarauri himself. They started off to the deepest recesses of
the valleys, where the longest reeds grow. Tarauri, with affected his seven dwarf uncles, saying declined to accompany modesty, " Your broken reeds will be to them, good enough for a clumsy After a while they returned, each with a bundle fellow like me."

of fine reeds, and sat down to get them ready. First of all it was necessary to secure with a piece of strong bark the thick end of

I2O

Myths and

Songs.

the reed, which might strike against a stone and be broken. Then the smaller end was nicely rounded, so as not to injure

the finger of the player ; finally, the reeds were slightly singed over a fire, in order to render them perfectly straight.

The game commenced ; but still Tarauri was without a single " The seven dwarf sons of reed (tao). Pinga," having each thrown forward and try his luck. come his reed, called upon Tarauri to
They were
do
all

on the

to see tiptoe of expectation

what he would

Tarauri rose from the ground, and adthus invoked the towards appointed place for throwing, vancing father his the aid of Tangaroa
in this emergency.
:

Kauo

lake,

kauo

lake,

Uo
la

iake te marama, te marama,

Ruanuku e, Ruanuku ma Tangaroa,

Oh, be propitious, oh, be propitious, Grant me light and success. Great Ruanuku, associated with Tangaroa,

Omai

taku tao, ei teka naku, Ei teka ki te taua e


!

Send me a reed for this game, That the victory may be mine
fell

At these

last

words there

from the skies at the feet of

Tarauri a noble reed, perfectly straight, and gaily adorned with Thus the the island. red-parrot feathers, the first ever seen on
divine parentage of Tarauri

was discovered.

Confidently ad-

vancing to the place for throwing the reeds, Tarauri swung his arms jauntily in preparation, and again invoked divine aid
:

Apai na, apai na rava la, e Tarauri, i te tai karongata, Taki na uri e kai ai, e rere ai e, tu arangaranga,
Apai
na, e Tangaroa, to

manga

Bear it away, oh, "bear it far away, for Tarauri's sake, to the treacherous ocean. Guide the flight of my reed, that it may rise to a dizzy height. Great Tangaroa, here goes thine own !

At this, " the seven dwarf sons of Pinga/' dreading a disgrace


to themselves, rushed
to

encircle

Tarauri,

so as

to render

it

Miscellaneous Myths.

121

apparently impossible for him to exhibit his divinely acquired superiority in the art of reed-throwing over these well-practised but mere human players. second time the invocation was

repeated to Tangaroa, but again the jealousy of his newly-found


relatives

prevented him from throwing his gaily ornamented reed. pause ensued, when Tarauri observing that the legs of one of the seven were a little open, in an instant drove the heaven-sent

reed through the gap of the living enclosure. Wonderful, indeed, was the flight of the reed it rose and rose in the air until lost in the azure skies, where it remained eight whole days! At last the
:

1 Areuna, the original marae of the Mautara, or Thus did Tangaroa redeem the disgrace of his younger son Turi-the-Bald. And great, indeed, was the chagrin of "the seven dwarf sons of Pinga" to be thus beaten by young

slender shaft

fell at

priestly tribe.

Tarauri, who thus at his first trial, aided by his divine parent, proved himself to be the true patron and chief of all reed-players.

By some Upolu. The

this

" placed in the land of Ukupolu," i.e. very archaic form of the invocations attests the

myth

is

antiquity of this story.

Of the many songs for reed-matches, none would be complete without a reference to Tarauri the chief patron of the game.
1

Areuna

is

on the south of the

island,

and

is

regarded as the ancient


first,

home of the
waids

as priests priests of Motoro, who swayed Mangaia as chiefs down to the establishment of Christianity.

and

after-

The early part of this myth may serve to explain why in heathenism all illegitimate children were designated "tamariki na te Atua," i.e. children of

Egg-shaped.

Peru*

=A winged kite

Taiaro

= Club-shaped,

(or Bird-shaped).

Miscellaneous Myths.

123

THE ORIGIN OF
Tane
flying.

KITE-FLYING.
Rongo
to a

in the shades once challenged

game

of kite-

But the
of

issue of this trial of skill


his elder brother

was the

utter discomsecretly

fiture

Tane by

Rongo, who had

provided himself with an enormous quantity of string. From this first kite-flying mortals have acquired the agreeable pastime, the
condition of each

game being that the first kite that mounts the to, and should bear the name of, Rongo, the of the art. The names of all subsequent kites were great patron To this contest reference is made in indifferent
sky should be sacred

A KITE SONG FOR


Callfor the dance
to

TENIO'S FETE.

BY KOROA, CIRCA 1814.


lead 0$.
1

Ua kapi te puku i

Atiu

The
Pets

hill-top
kites,

Atiu

is

covered with
o'er the

Na

tere

mami a Raka e

of

Raka who

rules

winds.

Ka aka e
Taipo e
!

Dance away
Solo.

Go on
Chorus*

Ua kapi te puku i

Atiu

!'

See,

yon
kites

hill-top

Atiu covered with

Na tere manu a Raka e


Ae
!

Pets of Raka, god of winds.


Solo*

Aye.
Chorus. e
!

E
1

manu peru au

am

a bird

(z.& kite)

of beautiful

plumage.

A hill

on the east of Mangaia

is

so named, in

memory

of Ake's

visit to

the island.
9

Kites were either ^-shaped,

r/^-shaped^

or bird-shaped.
hill-tops of

As

the

latter

were more

difficult to

make, they were

scarce,

and greatly admired by


Mangaia.

the childish old

men who

delighted to fly

them on the

124

Myths and Songs.


Solo.

Tomo i

te rangi

koukou e

Cleave, then, the dark clouds.

Chorus*

Moaia ea koe e

Tautiti,

Take
Solo.

care lest Tautiti gain the day.

Taumoamoa
Tere manu

e Tane e na

Kongo

oki,

Once Tane and Rongo


skill.

tried

their

aitu ki Iva e

With divine
Solo.

kites in spirit-land.

Naai

te

ao

poto e
Chorus.

Who was beaten ?


Tane ;
Solo.

Na Tane,

tei raro io

na kumu e

for his string fell short.

E mano o te ao
Na Rongo
Te vai
ra
i
;

Two
Chorus.

thousand fathoms of string

Yes

'twas Rongo's,

te

aka

te rangi e!

Whose

kite touched the

edge of the

sky.

UlTS TORCH; OR, WILL-A-WISP.


Riding across the island alone one dark rainy night, I was delighted to see just ahead what seemed to be a man carrying a
lighted torch.
little until

I shouted to

my

supposed companion to wait a


Receiving no reply, I spurred
its

I could get

up

to him.

my horse
on and

but as the creature

made

way with

difficulty

through

the deep mire, I was not a


on.

little

annoyed

to see the light

dancing

But as

it

clump of trees

now

kept to the path I suspected nothing. hid the windings of the road this mocking
:

companion seemed to dart through its gloomiest recesses in a most inexplicable manner. After a long and weary chase the light forsook the beaten track, and hovered over the deep waters of
the
little

lake in that neighbourhood.

I had been chasing an ignis

fatuust

Upon

reaching

home

that night,

and

relating

my adven-

Miscellaneous Myths.
ture, the natives jestingly

125

remarked, "Uti has been lighting up

Is a district named Manomano, or Countless, swayed by a female fairy called Her delight is to climb up at night to this world of ours, Uti.

your path with her torch." In the very depths of nether-land

provided with a torch, in search of food. Sometimes Uti's torch may be seen slowly moving along the reef; now on the rocky shore ; occasionally she threads the damp valleys, where prawns

abound, and thence


chief resort
is

will glide

up mountain

ridges.

But

Uti's
to.

the neighbourhood of the lake already referred


fairy

Sometimes the
or

moves alone ;

at other times attended


different route.

by one
It

more of her daughters, each taking a


first

was

Uti who

taught the

women

of

this

upper world the pastime of

1 catching the sleeping fish by torch-light, or waylaying crabs

ashore, or shrimping in her favourite lake


island.

on the south of the

Hence

the old song:


Light thy torch,

Tungia te ai, e Uti, Ei turama ia Manomano.

Uti,
(literally,

That illuminates spirit-world

Manomano).

Kua pou Rurapu

Ma raua o Tevakaroa.

Our taro has been robbed; Our lands are all bare.

E tu te anau a Vatea E ara te po,

Wake up,

ye children of Vatea

Aore e karo i te rangi. O Iro ua tatai mai raro mai


Nai
te

Keep watch through the night The gloomiest, wettest night

When

Iro

creeps

up

to

play

his

pranks

papa

ia Tu. 2

From

the depths inhabited by Tu.

1 There can be no doubt that most kinds of fish do sleep, or remain in a sort of torpor, during the night. Not so predatory fish, sharks, etc., etc. 2 "Tu" is a shortened form of " Tu-metua " ~ Stick-by-the-parent, who lives in the lowest department of Avaiki with the great mother Vari, in

silence^

but with intelligence.

Here

it

merely expresses the great depth from

which the fairy clambers up.

126
The
first

Myths and

Songs.

night of the native calendar was sacred to Iro (in


;

Tahitian, Hiro

in

New Zealand, Whiro),


;

the patron of thieves, as


think,

being his natal night


night
is

or,

as sceptical

moderns

a moonless
It is

naturally favourable to a thieving expedition.


i.e.

hoped

that the great divinities,


Iro's tricks to pass

" the children of Vatea," will not allow

with impunity.

Uti

is

invoked to come to the

aid of the sufferers,


to

by

lighting her torch over the taro patches

be robbed

for the boldest thief

would be

terrified

by the

sight,

and would

precipitately retire.

Vaangaru, lamenting (circa 1815) for his dead mother-in-law,

Anau, sings
Taumata ra
i

te tai

She glances

at the sea

Kua

eke

Kopuaterea.

And

Tunu mai i te ai ramarama. Tunu maira i te rama


I nunga i Araoa i te takanga I tangi e moimoi aroa,

plies her torch-fishing. Then resting awhile at Araoa,

Cooks part of the spoil. Ere leaving that pleasant spot She carefully relights her torch

Tungia rava

te

rama na Uti

As taught by the

fairy Uti.

MOSQUITOES.
in Mangaia, until

These most annoying insects are said to have been unknown a woman named Veve landed with her children
were worn by
In those days ear-ornaments of a prodigious men and women. To admit these clumsy
slit

from AitutakL
size

adornments, the ears were

in childhood

and enlarged by
1

constant pressure, until at last a small cocoa-nut

be inserted

(vao) could Fragrant leaves and even flowers were put inside,

and the opening carefully plugged up. Now Veve, on leaving her native island,
1

filled

up the hollow of

This

is

literal truth.

Miscellaneous Myths.
her enormous ear-ornaments with mosquitoes, so as
pleasure of
to

127
have the

hearing their continual

hum / But

shortly after landing


retired

on the eastern part of the


little

island, she

went to a pleasant

stream, to enjoy the luxury of a bath,

ear-ornaments on the grassy bank.


torch-fishing
ear-plugs.

her singular That same night she went


left

and

on the

reef,

and there recollected her missing

Upon

returning home, she found two of her children

stung to death by the mosquitoes, which


contrived to burst their prison-house !

had by their loud humming Her other two children had


immersing
their

escaped with their

lives

by

entirely

bodies in

the neighbouring stream,

their

mouth and

nostrils

only being

above water.

Veve set fire to her dwelling, hoping to exterminate the noxious insects she had thoughtlessly introduced to her future home. The majority, indeed, perished; but a few escaped to the
neighbouring rocks. From that remnant the present disagreeable race of mosquitoes are descended. To this old belief Tenio refers
in his f&te song
:

Kua topa te poe i te taringa Kua vare paa i Vaikaute.

Na tangi namu
Kua kai
te

vavai.

namu ka pou

raua.

ear-ornaments were lost; at Vaikaute. The loud humming burst them open. Alas they stung both children to death.

Thy

When bathing
!

It is the custom of the natives to keep burning outside each house a log of dry iron-wood, which if left alone will, like touchOf course the wood, smoulder on until the whole is consumed.

smoke

readily penetrates the reed sides of a native hut,

and

drives

away the mosquitoes. But as the smoke does not invariably suffice to expel these irritating foes, it is the custom to sleep with
the head

and

face well

wrapped up.
if

In the hot,

damp

season,

a native cannot sleep on account

128

Myths and

Songs.
all his

of mosquitoes, he lights a torch and waits until


little

pertinacious

foes

axe

delightedly buzzing round


outside,

it

He
now

then slowly
rushes back

carries the light

of course conducting the insect-army

with it

Suddenly quenching the torch, he

inside the house

and

closes the sliding door.

"

THE-LONG-LIVED."
is

The

formation of Mangaia
is

remarkably

hilly.

In the middle^

of the island

hill,

half a mile long

and 250

feet wide,

named
hills

Rangimotia, or Centre-of-the-heavens, from which the lesser branch out on every side.

This central

hill

was considered very sacred in the olden time,

for there the kings of past generations adjusted the sacred girdle

secret murdering expeditions in the name of condition of wearing this girdle was, " succeed or Rongo. The About a century ago a rash chief, named Uarau, resolved die."

on warriors bound on

to celebrate his accession to supreme temporal

grand

feast

on

this

sacred spot

The

leading men

power by holding a of the day were

sure that such an act of daring impiety would draw

down

the

anger of the gods, and therefore deprived Uarau of his chieftainship.

reason alleged for the sacredness of the hill is this 1 or The-long-lived, lies buried, face god, Te-manaya-roa,
:

The

downwards, at Rangimotia,
length of the level
back !
hill

half a mile

His proportions are wonderful: the being the measurement of his

His head is

at Butoa,
is

depression between,

the

towards the sun-rising. The marked neck of The-long-lived. His right


S.E.,

stretching away to the two miles, and touching the mission premises
is

arm

the line of

hills

a distance of

at

Tamarua.

His
must be

One of the three primary stationary spirits bears this name, but distinguished from this buried giant.
1

Miscellaneot&s Myths.
left

129

arm

is

opposite side of the island.

represented by a hill-range, of equal length, pn the The right leg of The-long-lived is

the line of somewhat irregular hills extending about three miles on the S.W. of the island. The left leg is a chain of equal length

on the N.W. These " arms


"

and " legs

"

serve one important purpose

to

mark
It
is

off the different districts into

which the island

is

naturally

divided
is

in allusion to this

invariably called
side."
Oft

left

The

myth that the southern half of Mangaia " the " the right side," and the northern half eastern part of Mangaia is always termed the
olden time, a large stranded
fish

head. "pauru" Whenever, in the

was

obtained, this fancy guided the cutting up and presentation of the different parts of the fish. The head, as a matter-of-course, went
to the two chiefs at
lived

" the

sun-rising,"

where the head of

TJie-long-

was supposed

to lie.

The

central part of the fish

would go

to the two chiefs of the central portion of

Mangaia the fish being divided along the back-bone, in order that the shares might be
equal.

The
homes

tail

was divided between the two remaining


were subdivided,
until

chiefs,

whose

are at "the sun-setting."


larger portions

The
name

each individual had


until the

a minute share.

But these subdivisions were not made


first

of the chief of the entire district had

been pro-

claimed.

To this
the

day, in all great feasts, the etiquette

is,

after calling out

name

of the king, to announce


six chiefs

in a prescribed order the

names of the

of Mangaia, beginning with one of the chiefs on the east, and then going round in regular order until the

130

Myths and

Songs.
out,

second chief on the east had been called


the island completed.

and the

circuit

of

This

is

done now
real

partly as a matter of

custom,

and

partly as

a matter of

convenience

jealousy

being thus prevented.

Few

of the younger people understand

the ancient reason for the practice.

HUMAN ARTS AND


The employments

INVENTIONS.

of mortals are mere transcripts of what was

and skill being supposed to be going on in Avaiki, their knowledge ever seen on earth The first axe derived from the invisible world.
Mangaia) was, handle and all, of stone from the shades. The grand secret of fire was introduced by Maui from nether-world.
(Le.

The female employment of cloth-beating was derived from the shedemon Mueu, who in the shades is ever beating the flail of death. The art of torch-light fishing was gained from the goddess Uti, who on damp nights loves to come up from Avaiki with a lighted The art of stealing torch (ignis-fatuus) to wander over the island. Iro not himself come up on would infallibly come to grief, did
moonless nights from
spirit-land, for the express

purpose of assist-

The ovens in daily ing mortals in playing their thievish tricks. ovens for the enormous cooking ti (dracoenae teruse, especially
minalis) roots, are derived from Mini's awful oven ever blazing in

Hades.

The

art of war was learnt from Tukaitaua and Tutavake,

denizens of nether-land.

The

intoxicating draught
invisible

from that which the hateful mistress of the


to her victims.

was copied world presents

and harmless game of ball-throwing was first taught to Ngaru by fairy-women ; and introduced by him Veetini came from the dead to instruct mankind to this world.
pleasant

The

how

to

mourn for

their deceased relatives.

Miscellaneous Myths,

131

obvious explanation of this style of thought is the universal tendency of the heathen mind to trace to a supernatural source
everything in earth,
air,

An

make

their ancestors

Another suggestion I would undoubtedly brought with them the knowor sea.
"

" ledge of necessary and useful arts from Savai'i, the Avaiki and of home eastern these islanders. In the islands they original " speak of having come from Hawai'i (= Savai'i), or the Po," i.e. " " Night. By Night is intended the far-west, where the sun
sets,

leaving these

eastern islands

in

darkness.

Po, Hawai'i,

Avaiki, and

Savai'i are convertible terms.

The heathen

of these islands were

philosophy, without knowing it

This

is

everywhere Realists in the fundamental error of

unenlightened nations.

PERILS OF BEAUTY.
1

Ngaroariki,

wife of Ngata, king of Rarotonga, was

famed

for

her beauty.

She was the envy of gods and men. On one occasion she was thrown into a thicket of thorns by four men, who

thought she could never get out alive. (The thorns of this formidWoe betide the unfortunate able creeper resemble fish-hooks.

man

amongst them.) Tangaroa, tutelar god of on the hapless beauty, and sent Oroio and took pity Rarotonga,
that gets entangled

afford deliverance.

Roaki with long, heavy sticks to beat down the thicket, and thus Another time, when rambling near the sea, " O loveliest of women, she heard a siren voice calling to her,
hither !"

come
way

She

felt

impelled to follow the voice.

The

path-

led over a bua (beslaria, laurifolid) which overspread a rock.

Tangaroa whispered to her to tread only the green branches, as


1

Ngaroariki

the lost queen.

Ngata

difficult.

132

Myths and

Songs.

whoever treads upon the dead branches is necessarily bound to She did so. But as she passed on to the sea whence spirit-land. she was suddenly caught in a net by two the voice
proceeded,

demons, and was utterly helpless in their hands. As she was on being borne away to destruction, Tangaroa again interposed
her behalf, and tore the net to pieces and delivered the fair On a third occasion, Ngaroariki told her husband that captive.

she was going to bathe in a retired spot. He attempted to dissuade her from her purpose, saying that she might be attacked

by the

cruel

hag Moto (=

the striker),

who was known

to

be

Ngaroariki loved to have her own way, jealous of her charms. and went off gaily to the fountain, and there greatly diverted herself

by beating the water with her hands.


It

happened

that the envious

woman was

preparing cloth in

dwelling, which was not far away from the bathing-place. As soon as she heard the splashing of the water, she knew that it

her

own

was Ngaroariki, and immediately left off work and sought how she might wreak her vengeance upon the defenceless queen. Tangaroa noticed that Moto's flail ceased to beat, and concluded that she was planning some
ing to save the ill-fated beauty, the kuriri,
Teuteuae, acre ra.
1

evil against Ngaroariki.

Wish-

he despatched

his bird-messenger,

who chirped

thus

ruerueae, e tu ra, e oro ra,

Haste, haste,

arise, flee for

thy

life

The warning was


paid no heed.

repeated two or three times; but Ngaroariki

While she was yet splashing about in the fountain, Moto violently assaulted the unprepared bather. She then, with a keen shark's tooth, shaved off the whole of her hair, which was so
profuse that
1

it

made
is

eight large handfuls.


beautiful
:

Her

face
is

was next so
the same.

The alliteration

the sense of both words

Miscellaneous Myths.
disfigured that
it

133
once

was impossible

for

any one

to recognize the

beautiful queen.

Her

pretty yellow ear-ornament of stained fish-

bone, and her fine pearl-shell daintily suspended from her neck, were snatched away. Her gay clothes were all taken from her,

and she was wrapped round in a

single piece of old black tapa.

When

at

length the hag

Moto

retreated with the spoil, poor


in appearance, hid herself

Ngaroariki, utterly forlorn


in the forest.

and changed

Her husband Ngata,

astonished that his queen did not return

home, searched everywhere for her ; but in vain. After some time a grand reed-throwing match in honour of the king came off. The
party

who throws

the farthest wins the day.

The

chief people of

the island were present,

and

in succession threw their long reeds

with various degrees of success.

When Ngata and


it

his

retinue

came forward

to exhibit their

skill,

happened

that their reeds

passed near where the lost queen was hiding her deformity and She was wasted to a skeleton through grief and want of misery.
food.

She knew well to

whom

the reeds belonged.

One

after

another, as they swept past, they


pieces.
It

were caught by her and broken in

was reported

to the king that his reeds


ugly,

had

actually

been destroyed by some

wretched-looking woman. Ngata, greatly incensed, hastened to punish her insolence. Again and again he kicked her, reviling her for her ugliness and impudence.

As soon

as the king

was gone, Ngaroariki wailed thus


mea
vaine

Takatakaiia, takatakaiia te

O royal Ngata,

tramplest thou thus

a Ngata ariki, I Vaitakaiara te nekuere.

Tramplest thou thus on thine


perishing wife ?

own

The

this ugly creature

king was told what she had said. Was it possible that was indeed his lost wife? He immediately

134

Myths and

Songs.
no
like-

returned and looked attentively at her face, but could see

Yet there could be no mistaking less to his beloved Ngaroariki. At last he bethought himself to open e meaning of her words.
ier

mouth ; and, on doing

;eeth of his lost one.


.old

He

so, immediately recognized the pearly asked what had happened to her. She

him

all

Off started Ngata, followed by his

wife, in search

of

lie sorceress.

She was employed as usual in beating out cloth.

The king demanded whether she had touched Ngaroariki and had The hag admitted that these stolen her queenly ornaments.
true, but begged the king not to kill her, as she the stolen treasures, and restore her to her back rould give mstine beauty. The ornaments and clothing were produced. The

:harges

were

orceress then collected the viscid fluid of the hibiscus

and the

a sort of gum which she >ronga (urtica argented), and prepared The hair was Mastered all over the bald head of Ngaroariki.
hus

made by

the sorceress to adhere as formerly.

The eyebrows

fere restored in the

same way.
forgiven.

The hag
But Ngata
invent

having, with infinite


to the person of the
thirsted for revenge.

ibour, repaired the


[ueen,

damage she had done

hoped

to

be

Besides, the jealous

Moto might

some new method of

Without heeding her entreaties for lercy, the king stoned the sorceress to death, as he believed. Lccompanied by Ngaroariki, he was proceeding home, when, to
ijuring his beloved one.
is

utter astonishment,

he heard Moto again

at her old

employ-

xent,

beating out native cloth.

He

returned to the hag,

who
time

ppeared to

be uninjured by what had occurred.


;

A second

Fgata stoned the sorceress


>

her old work.

Driven to his
successful;
extinct,

but again she revived and returned wits' end, he at last hit upon a
it

Ian which proved


reviously,
life

was to stone her

until,

as

seemed

and then

to sever the limbs

and

Miscellaneous Myths.
bury them in different parts of the island.

135
Thus, at length, an

end was put

to the malicious tricks of the envious

Moto, and the

lovely Ngaroariki lived in peace with her royal husband.

ORIGIN OF PIGS AT RAROTONGA.


Hervey Group, Mangaia and Aitutaki are the only ones without a native breed of pigs. The first were landed in 1823 by the martyr Williams. On occasion of the annual
killed

Of the seven

islands constituting the

May
Of

festivities in

1852, a thousand pigs were

and eaten

late years
off,

the

number of

these useful

animals has greatly fallen

owing to the desolation occasioned

by

successive hurricanes.

The only quadruped previously known on Mangaia was thera/, which was considered to be delicious eating. To this day a rathunt
is

rare sport for boys,

who

afterwards divide the spoil.

seniors have relinquished the practice of rat-eating.

Their " As sweet as

a rat

"

is

ians as

a common proverb " rat-eaters."


following
is
:

and the Rarotongans

revile

Manga-

The
pigs at

the legend given to account for the origin of

Rarotonga

Some two miles from the settlement of Avarua is a place named Kupolu, where there once lived the aged blind Maaru,
and
his son Kationgia.
far

They

lived

by themselves

in a pleasant

from the base of mountains whose summits are nearly in clouds. robed always In consequence of the continual fighting of those days, there
spot, not

Maaru became too feeble to stir from boy had to provide, as best he could, for the wants of the old man and himself. Kationgia could find
was a most severe famine.
the house
;

so that the

nothing better to eat than the stump of the

banana,

which

136
ordinarily

Myths and
no one would condescend

Songs.
to taste.

Very

diligently did

he

grate these stumps

on a lump of madrepore
it

coral, strain off the

farina into a tub hollowed out of a solid tree,

of the refuse
in the oven.

(ota),

in order to give

and mixing a little substance, cooked the whole


to fish, in

on the reef Kationgia would now go


this

order to get something to render

wretched diet palatable.


fire,

The

fish,

when

obtained, was grilled over a

on an extempore

cocoa-nut branches. gridiron of green

The
his
this

dutiful

root pudding

son invariably gave to his aged parent the bananathe cravings of and the fish, whilst he satisfied
larger

own

sibly

and shell-fish. Maaru, wearied of appetite on sea-slugs Posof playing him a trick. diet, and suspected Kationgia the secret of his uncomplaining cheerfulness was that
boy's
all

he reserved

the

good things
blind.

for his

own

eating,

his old father

was stone

Resolved to find out the


fish.

knowing that truth, he


felt

waited

till

his

son had gone on the reef to


salt water,

Maaru now
its

about for the calabash of

and

spilled

contents.

In

due time the son returned with some fish, and prepared their meal. Without a word of But to his surprise, the salt water was gone.
back to the beach to complaint the lad started calabash with this indispensable condiment.
refill

the

empty

This was just the opportunity the old blind father desired. and for his son's he reEverything was spread for his own dinner
:

solved to ascertain what his boy was living on from day to day, To his grief he found seeing that his own fare was so indifferent
that Kationgia

had been

the father really starving himself, whilst


tolerable food obtainable.
his

had constantly eaten the only wept at the thought of what


sake
:

Maaru

of the lad, hearing, at length, the footsteps

poor boy had endured for his he restrained his

tears.

M^scellaneo^t,s

Myths.

137

The meal was finished in silence. The old man then requested The boy obeyed, wondering at this Kationgia to come to him. novel proceeding. The blind Maaru then felt all over his person,
and found him
together.
to

be a

living skeleton.

Father and son

now wept
to

Kationgia was told to prepare an oven. cook?" naturally asked the son. The

"

What have we

father repeated his

command.

When

the oven was nearly ready,

Maaru

directed his

son to dig about the posts of the house, where he had, with a wise forethought, during a previous season of plenty, concealed a
quantity of food against the time of scarcity.

Near the
was a

first

" mii," or sour post was a large quantity of

bread-fruit, carefully

packed up in

leaves. 1

About the second post

lot of excellent chestnuts (tuscarpus edulis).

To crown

the

whole, a bunch of four cocoa-nuts was discovered close to the


third principal support of their dwelling.

Said the old father,

"

Cook

all this

food ; for
all

we

will

have a

feast to-night.

When

am

gone, dig about

the minor posts of this house, and you will

find plenty of food expressly reserved for this time of sore need."

That evening
meal.

father

and son enjoyed the luxury of a second

Maaru then solemnly said, " I have eaten my last food. I am about to die. As soon as the breath is out of my body, take
to

me

Nikao

(a

good

fishing-place about a mile distant).

On no

account carry me ; but drag me there. Conceal my body in the bush ; cover it well with leaves and grass. At the expiration of
four days,

come and look

at

my

body.

Should you see worms

crawling about, cover

me

over again with fresh leaves and grass.

At

the expiration of another four days


1

come back
it

and something

Thus packed and buried

in the earth,

will

keep good two or three

years.

138
will follow you.
be king /"

Myths and

Songs.
to this island,

Peace will be restored

and you will

That same night the old man

died.

Kationgia faithfully
bruised corpse was

carried out the last wish of his parent

The

not far from the beautiful deposited in the dense ironwood forest, At the end of four days the lad white sandy beach of Nikao.
revisited the sequestered grave,

According to the instructions


fresh leaves

and

grass,

and piled

and saw worms crawling about of Maaru, he gathered abundance of them over the corpse to a great

of another four days, he height But when, after the expiration to see the entire paid a second visit to the grave, he was surprised

Alarmed at mass strangely heaving ; it was all commotion His in home horror. ears, however, were this, he rushed away assailed and his steps arrested with the novel grunts of the first
!

brood of pigs on Rarotonga.


varieties

In that

first

brood were

all

the

of white, black, and speckled, which have since prevailed


pigs, of their

These young

own

accord, followed Kationgia to his

home

at the foot of the mountain.

They
all

increased at a wonder-

ful rate,

and made

their

owner famous

over the island.

Being now a man of consideration, Kationgia married to Peace prevailed, and eventually, on account of his advantage.

owning these wonderful animals, he was elected king


the reward of his
filial

Such was

piety.

To

the present day pigs at Rarotonga are, in allusion to this

story, called

" e iro no Maaru

"

= worms of Maaru.
if

Kationgia

bite

and
bit

smell, as

the model

child of their

heathen antiquity only

and smelt
to this

his

own

share of food,

A spot at

Rarotonga

is

day

called Kupolu.

Miscellaneous Myths.

139

SEEKING FOR LIGHT.


AN AITUTAKIAN MYTH.
the expanse, lived long in utter He had heard that there was darkness in the shades (Avaiki). somewhere a land of light ; very earnestly he desired to visit it.

Te-erui,

son of Te-tareva

ruminated as to the best way of attaining his purpose, and finally resolved to make a canoe, in which he might paddle away
to

He

" the land of light"

Te-erui divulged his secret purpose to his brother Matareka = smiling face. Being of one mind, they at once set off in search

of suitable

wood

for their
:

purpose.

As they
te

felled the

trees,

they chanted these words

Nga

Te-erui,

nga Matareka e amo

te toki

tumu o

te rakau.

E aumapu ma taku toki,


Te end and Matareka have brought
Merrily rings the axe
!

aumapu.

their axes to the root of this tree.

merrily

The
off,

trees

fell.

The top and branches were


off,

speedily lopped

the outer bark was peeled

and the trunks hollowed out


were secured.

into two fine canoes.

The

outriggers

The

first

canoe was named, "Weary of Darkness ;" the second, "Sleepless Nights." These enterprising brothers dragged their canoes to
the ocean's edge, set

up a mast and
"

sail

in each,

and

started for

the much-wished-for

land of light"

went, and, they diligently plied their paddles. " to their great joy, reached a region called Glimmering of Light" Here they met with a great misfortune their canoes upset.

When the winds On and on they

grew

light,

They, however,
reaching their

swam back
again.

for

their

lives,

and succeeded

in

homes

In no degree discouraged by the

140

Myths and

Songs.
cut

result of this, their first experiment, the brothers


trees,

down two

chanting as before

this tree. Te-erui and Matareka have brought their axes to the root of axe the I merrily Merrily rings
!

Along

(because started off in search oi launched, and a second time the brothers " the land of well until they arrived at the on went All light" " Glimmering of Light," where comparatively pleasant region of The violence of the waves. the barks were sunk: by their
fragile

The trees fell ; and in due time the canoes were completed. One was named, "Unalterable Purpose;" the other, "Sidle " These new canoes were unable to go direct).

adventurous voyagers happily succeeded in swimming back to But Te-erui and Matareka did not despair. shore a second time.

canoes in the place of those Again they felled timber for two new they had lost, singing as before
:

Te-enti and Matareka have brought,

etc.

these canoes were completed, they were respectively " Tack In," and " Tack Out." Once more the brothers, called each in a separate canoe, started off in search of "the land of

When

but were again doomed to disappointment ; for, on reachof Light," the rough waves again ing the region of "Glimmering broke up their canoes. Te-erui and Matareka, however, got back
light,"

to shore a third time.

The

brothers

now doubted whether

they would ever succeed

in getting to the wished-for land. They resolved to try once trees for their purpose; the best selected more. Again they

and, whilst cutting

them down, sang

as formerly, "Te-erui

and

Matareka," eta When these canoes were completed, they held a consultation as to the probable cause of their previous failures.

Miscellaneous Myths.

141
of the "
Te-tira-o-Rongo,"
is

The
*>,

carpenter,

or priest, inquired

the

name

masts

of

the former canoes.

The
you

brothers replied,

The mast of Rongo.


account
that

The
have

carpenter remarked, "It


hitherto
failed.

on

this

name, and you will yet succeed." " " Call it," said the priest-carpenter, pose ? asked the brothers. " r = " Erect in the Light of Heaven. O-tu-i-te-rangi-marama This was gladly agreed to. Everything was at length completed in search of " the land of for the fourth
expedition
light."

Change the "What name do you pro-

What

with paddling and sailing, they reached the dangerous region of " Glimmering of Light," and saw the mad billows seemingly resolved again to swallow up the frail barks. But " Erect in the

Light of

Heaven " kept on through storm and calm

reached "the land of light"

each other ;

until they a region where they could clearly see where the sun shone brightly, and all was pleasant

No more
had

caring to return to the dark land from which they

originally set out, they

at last espied a half-sunken island ahead.

looked about for a resting-place, and But the ocean waves


reef.

were threatening, and the surf rolled heavily against the coral

The

brothers fought against these billows,

and

lo

the sea

became

Nearing the partially submerged island, they could find no dry place on which to set their feet The brothers again contended with the ocean ; the shallow waters vanished, leaving the
smooth.
island elevated far above the surrounding ocean.

Te-erui and Mata-

reka took possession of their new-found home in "the region of light,"

and thenceforth appropriately called it " Aitu-taki " God-led. " " Such is the legendary history of the Adam of Aitutaki. It a highly exaggerated account of the voyage of the is, of course,
possible meaning of this I prefer that given in the text.
1

name is

"Tu-(bathed)-in-the-Light-of-Heaven."

142
first settlers

Myths and Songs.


from Avaiki Savai'i,

the sun-setting, to

" the land of

light,"

i,e.

the sun-rising.

Said the heathen priests to Papehia,


"

one of

their first teachers,

Te-erui was the

first

man

we know

nothing about your Adam."

RATA'S CANOE.
A LEGEND FROM AITUTAKI.
land of Kupolu lived the renowned chief Rata, who resolved to build a great double canoe, with a view of exploring other lands. Shouldering his axe, he started off to a distant valley

In the

fairy

where the

finest

timber grew.

Close to the mountain stream stood

a fragrant pandanus tree, where a deadly combat was going on between a beautiful white heron (ruru), and a spotted sea-serpent
(aa).

The origin of the quarrel was as follows The heron was accustomed, when wearied with
:

its

search after

stone rising just above the waters of the fish, to rest itself on a coral reef, and chanced to defile the eyes of a monstrous seaserpent,

whose hole was

just

beneath.

The

serpent,

greatly
its

enraged at this insult, resolved to

be revenged.

Raising

head

as far as possible out of the water, it carefully observed the flight of the white heron and followed in pursuit. Leaving the salt

water of the

reef, it

entered the mountain torrent, and eventually

victim was sleeping.

reached the foot of the fragrant pandanus, where the unconscious' The sea-serpent easily climbed the pandanus

by means of one of its extraordinary aerial supports or roots ; and now, holding on firmly with its twisted tail, began the attack by biting the lovely
bird.
all

They fought hard

through that night.

At dawn, the white


"

heron seeing Rata passing that way, plaintively called out, But the sea-serpent said deceitRata, put an end to this fight."

Miscellaneous Myths.
"
fully,

143

It is but a trial of strength Nay, Rata ; leave us alone. a and a heron between Let us fight it out." Again the serpent. white heron begged Rata to interfere ; and again the crafty sea-

serpent bade Rata go

on

his

way

hurry to fell timber for his canoe.


along,
will

which he did, being in a great But as he walked heedlessly


!

he heard the bird say reproachfully, " Ah your canoe not be finished without my aid" Still Rata heeded not the
forest.

white heron's cry for help, but entered the recesses of the
Selecting the finest timber
his purpose,

he could

find,

he cut down enough

for

and

at sunset returned

home.

Early on the following morning the chief returned to the valley, intending to hollow out the trees he had felled on the previous
day.

Strangely enough, the logs were missing


!

not a lopped

branch, or even a chip or a leaf could be seen

No

stump could

be discovered, so

that

it

was evident that the

felled trees had, in

the course of the night, been mysteriously restored to their former


state.

But Rata was not to be deterred from

his purpose, so

having again fixed

upon

suitable trees, a

second time he levelled

them

to the ground.

On

the third morning, as he went back to the forest to his

work, he noticed that the heron and the serpent were still fighting. They had been thus engaged for two days and nights without Rata pursued his way, intending to hollow out his intermission.
canoe,
trees

when

to his astonishment, as

had resumed

their original places,

on the previous day, the fallen and were in every respect


Rata guessed by that had twice served

as perfect as before the axe


their position

had touched them.

and

size,

which were the trees

him

this trick.

He now for the first time

understood the meaning


first

of what the suffering white heron had said to him on the " Your canoe will not be finished without my aid."

day,

144
Rata now
heron was
very
left

Myths and
The

Songs.

the forest and went to see whether the white


beautiful

alive.

bird

was indeed

living,

but

much
and

exhausted.

Its unrelenting foe, sure

of victory, was
in pieces with

preparing for
his axe,

final attack

when Rata chopped


life

it

thus saved the

of the white heron.

He

then went

back to
canoe.
rest.

his work,

and

for the third time felled the timber for his


this

As

it

was by

time growing dark, he returned

home to

From

the branch of a distant tree the somewhat revived white

heron watched the labours of Rata through the livelong day.

As

soon as the chief had disappeared in the evening, the grateful bird started off to collect all the birds of Kupolu to hollow out
Rata's canoe.

They gladly obeyed

the

summons

of their sovereign,

and pecked away with their beaks until the huge logs were Next came the more difficult task of joinspeedily hollowed out.

The holes were bored with the ing together the separate pieces. cinet was well secured with the and the sea the of bills birds, long
claws of the stronger land birds.
It

was almost dawn ere the

to the

work was completed. Finally, they resolved to convey the canoe beach close to Rata's dwelling. To accomplish this, each
the small as well as the large

bird

took
it.

its

place on either side


signal they

of the canoe, completely surrounding


all

At a given

extended

flight.

one to bear up the canoe, the other for As they bore the canoe through the air they sang, each
their wings,
:

with a different note, as follows

E ara rakau e E ara rakau e


!

A pathway for the canoe A pathway


!

for the canoe

E ara inano e E kopukopu te tini o Kupolu E matakitaki, ka re koe 06


I !

A path of sweet-scented flowers


,

The entire family of birds of Kupolu Honour thee (Rata) above all mortals! 06!

Miscellaneous Myths.

145

On reaching the sandy beach in front of Rata's dwelling the canoe was carefully deposited by the birds, who now quickly
disappeared in the depths of the forest

Awakened by
in the valley.

this

unwonted song of the

birds,

Rata

hastily

collected his tools, intending to return to his arduous

employment
famous

At

this

moment he caught
off,

sight of the

canoe, beautifully finished

lying close to his door.

He

at

once guessed this to be the gratitude of the king of birds, and named the canoe " Taraipo " = JBuftt-in-a-nigJit (or Built-in4Jie-

Rata speedily provided his bird-built canoe with a mast and a sail, and then summoned his friends, and laid in food and water
for his projected voyage.

Everything being

now

ready, he went

when Nganaoa asked permission to go in this wonderful vessel. But Rata would not consent. The crafty Nganaoa seeing the canoe start without him ran to fetch an
on board, and was
just starting

empty

calabash,

knocked

off the top,

and squeezing himself in

as

best he could, floated himself off on the surface of the ocean, unti] The people in Rata's canoe he got a little ahead of the canoe.

were surprised to see an apparently


steadily just before their vessel.

empty calabash floating Rata desired one of his men tc


as
it

down to pick up The man did so, but to


stoop
actually containing

the calabash,

might prove
it

useful,

his astonishment found

very heavy

man

compressed into the smallest possible

compass. voice

board

issued from the calabash, O Rata, take me 01 "Whither away?" inquired the chief canoe." your "I fellow inside the calabash, " warned by ai the said poor go,"

now

oracle, to the land' of Moonlight, to seek

my

parents Tairitokerai

and Vaiaroa."

Rata now asked, "What

will

you do

for

me

146
I take
after

Myths and
you
in ?
"

Songs.
replied,

The imprisoned Nganaoa


sail."

" I will look

your mat

" I do not want your help," said Rata.


to attend to the great
still

" Here are

men enough

mat

sail."

After a pause, Nganaoa,

unreleased from his


:

awkward
"I go,"

"Let addressed Rata position, again earnestly " " Whither the demanded ? canoe." again away
said Nganaoa,
to seek

me

go in your
Moonlight,

chief.

"warned by an

oracle, to the land of

my parents Tairitokerau and Vaiaroa." Rata again asked " " What now will The reply you do for me if I take you in ? " I will the water out bale the unweariedly issued from calabash,
" I do not from the bottom of your canoe." Again Rata said, want your help. I have plenty of men to bale out the water from
the bottom of the canoe."

A third time, in similar terms, Nganaoa entreated permission to


go
jin

the canoe

light or adverse.

to paddle it whenever the wind should grow But Rata would not accept his services.

upon the fourth application, the desponding Nganaoa was successful, on the promise to destroy all the monsters of the ocean which might infest their path. Rata wisely reflected that he had "entirely forgotten to provide against this emergency; and

At

last,

who
to

so

fertile in

expedients as Nganaoa,

who was now permitted


his place

emerge from his calabash, head of the canoe to be on the look-out


Swiftly

and to take

armed

at

for monsters.

and

pleasantly, with a fair wind, they

sped over the

ocean in quest of new lands. One day Nganaoa shouted, "O Rata, here is a terrible foe starting up from the main." It was an open dam of fearful proportions. One shell was ahead, the other
astern

the canoe and


this horrid
!

all

on board lying between

In another

moment
its

mouth

clam might crush them all by suddenly closing But Nganaoa was ready for the emergency. He

Miscellaneous Myths.
seized his long spear

147
down
into the
all
fish,

and quickly drove

it

so that the bivalve instead of suddenly snapping

them

up sank

immediately to the bottom of the ocean.

But

This danger escaped, they again sped pleasantly on their way. after a while the voice of the ever vigilant Nganaoa was heard
Rata, yonder
is

"0
Its

terrible

enemy starting up from ocean

depths."

It proved to be an octopus of extraordinary dimensions. huge tentacula encircled the vessel in their embrace, threaten-

At this critical juncture Nganaoa seized his it through the head of the octopus. and drove fearlessly spear The tentacula now slowly relaxed, and the dead monster floated
ing to destroy them.
off

on the surface of the ocean.


Again they pursued
their

voyage in

safety.

But one more

"O great peril awaited them. One day the brave Nganaoa shouted, Rata, here is a great whale /" Its enormous mouth was wide open ;

The whale one jaw beneath the canoe, and the other above it them alive. on was evidently bent up Nganaoa, the swallowing slayer of monsters, now broke his long spear in two, and at the
!

critical

moment when
it

the whale was about to crush them

all,

he cleverly inserted both stakes inside the mouth of


so that

their foe,

became impossible for it to close its jaws. Nganaoa nimbly jumped inside the mouth of this great whale and looked down into the stomach, and lo there sat his long lost father Tairitokerau and his mother Vaiaroa, who had been swallowed
!

alive

when

fishing
;

by

this

monster of the deep.

The

oracle

was

fulfilled

his voyage

was prosperous.
busily engaged in platting cinet

The

parents of

Nganaoa were
at

Great was

their joy

seeing their son,

being

assured that

deliverance was at hand.


his parents, to

Nganaoa

resolved, whilst extricating

be

fully

revenged upon the whale.

He

therefore

148

Myths and Songs,


the remaining one sufficing to

extracted one of the two stakes

prevent the monster from enclosing him as well as his parents in this living tomb. Breaking this prop into two pieces, he converted them into
fire-sticks.

He

desired his father to hold firmly

the lower one, whilst he worked assiduously with the upper stick,
until

at length the
set
fire

fire

smouldered.

Blowing

it

to

a flame,

Nganaoa

to the fatty portion of the stomach.

The

monster, writhing in agony, sought relief in swimming to the


nearest land, where,

and son

on reaching the sandy beach, father, mother, out through the open mouth of the walked quietly

stranded and dying whale.

The
they
its

island proved to be Iti-te-marama, or Moonlight.

Here

the canoe of Rata was drawn up on the beach, and for a time
all

lived pleasantly.

They

daily refreshed themselves with

fruits

and

fish,

adorning

their persons with fragrant flowers.

At

length they longed for the land of their birth in Avaiki,

The canoe was repaired and and they resolved to return. launched ; food and water were laid in j the great mat sail was
set up,

and

at length the brave navigator Rata, with the scarcely

saved parents of Nganaoa, and the entire party, started once After many days, but without further peril, they eventmore.
ually

reached their

original

homes

in the lands

of the sun-

setting.

This myth materially

differs

which Mr. Williams


relates

refers in the
first

"

from the Rarotongan one, to " Enterprises (chap, xiii.), which


In the
:

how
it

Tangiia

came

to Rarotonga,

latter part,

one

is

strongly reminded of the story of

Jonah

the natives look

a distorted version of the Bible narrative. The " a whale " swallowed the of myth says (toora) parents Nganaoa ;

upon

as

Miscellaneous Myths.

149

whereas the native Bible merely states that "a great fish" (ika maata) swallowed Jonah.
This myth, which may be regarded as one of the primitive At Pangaroa, in the island stories of the race, points to Samoa.

of Upolu

(in

Rarotongan and Aitutakian story JTupolu; but in


7upolu), amid some rocks near the sea, about twenty-seven feet in length, very much
"
!

Mangaian
is

traditions
stone,

a block of

" resembling a canoe, and called the canoe of Rata

The

story of

Rata was unknown at Mangaia,

Yet a reference

to this hero occurs in a canoe-making song

Tapaia e Una e toki purepure o


!

Slash away,
tai

Una,

enua.

With

the wonderful axe from another


land.

tua te vao ia Rata

E'en with that which enabled Rata


'

Kua

inga te rakau

To
of the Birds
"
(

fell

the forest

"

The Song

"

A Pathway

for the canoe/' etc.)

has always been

in use at Aitutaki

and Rarotonga

as

one of those

chanted in hauling heavy timber.


" " by the native word ruru is a matter some asserting it to be the of dispute amongst the islanders heron. The objection to white the it is others say albatros, the over ocean. a roamer The fish is that is former the is, purely

The

bird intended

intended

is

the "vaaroa," or spotted sea-serpent, which attains

It the length of eight feet, and is very vindictive. incredible that a species of eel should climb trees,

may seem
but such

nevertheless

is

said (by the natives) to

be the fact

On

low coral

close to the lagoon, it is comislands, where the pandanus grows the sand and broken coral over its make to fish this for mon way
until,
it climbs with reaching the shafts which support the trunk, the on branches. The which sleep great ease in search of lizards

150

Myths and

Songs.

the sake of the sweet-scented octopus climbs the same tree for Like the octopus, this sea-serpent is an expert flowers and fruit comes within rat-catcherfeigning death until the unwary rat The sight of a human being causes it to return to the its reach.

water with the utmost expedition.

PRAYER OR CHARM FOR A THIEF OR A MURDERER.


USED BY THE CHIEF RAOA AND HIS CLAN.
Tena rava
i

te tira

Here
:

is

our sure helper.


:

Ka tu i nunga, Ka tu mua i te are

Arise on our behalf

E tira Omataianuku E tira Outuuturoroa


Oavaavaroroa.

O O

Stand at the door of this house, thou divine Omataianuku thou divine Outuutu-the-Tall, And Avaava-the-Tall
! !

Tei iti au era tangata kekeia, O ua rere i maul ia kiritia ;


I taviria ia turua. la turua a nu koe e te atua
i

We are on a thieving"
Be
:

expedition

close to our left side to give aid. Let all be wrapped in sleep.
as

te are

Be

lofty cocoa-nut tree to support

us.

Ka mate

koe

i te

atua

te are,

house,

thou art doomed by our

godl

Tamoe
Tena rava

te

an mea katoa
na.

Cause

all things to sleep.

te

moenga, maora atu

Let profound sleep overspread this


dwelling. of the house, sleep on Threshold of this house, sleep on

F moe, E moe, E moe,


E

e te tangata noou te are. e te tirango noou te are.

Owner

te portipoti

noou

te are.

Ye

tiny insects inhabiting this house


sleep

on

moe, e

te

ueue noou

te are.

Ye beetles
on
I

inhabiting this house, sleep

'

Keia," applies equally to thieving and murdering.

Miscellaneous Myths.

moe, e

te

kakaraunga noou

te are.

Ye Ye
Dry

earwigs

inhabiting

this

house,

E moe, E moe,

e te ro

noou

te are.

sleep on ! ants inhabiting this house, sleep

e te e te

mata noou pou noou


noou

te are.

grass spread over the house, sleep

on

E moe,
E moe, E moe,
E moe,

te are.

Thou
Thou

central post of the house, sleep


!

on
e te tauu
te are.

ridge-pole of the house, sleep


!

on
e te oka noou te are. e te tarava noou te are. e te kao noou te are.
te tiritiritama

Ye main
on!

rafters of the house, sleep

Ye

cross

beams of the

house, sleep

on

E moe,

Ye
te are.

little
!

rafters of the house, sleep

E^moe, e

noou

on Ye minor posts of the house, sleep on]

E moe,
E moe, E moe,

e te au
e te

noou

te are.

Thou covering of

the

ridge-pole,

e te rau
i

kakao noou te are. noou te are.


te

Ye

sleep on 1 reed-sides of the house, sleep on


i

Thatch of the house, sleep on

O te mata mua o
E ara mai nei,
Mea po

tangata
!

The

first

of

its

inmates

unluckily

awaking
vareaio

Put soundly

te atua oi te io tangata.
i te

to sleep again. If the divinity so please, man's spirit

Acre katoa, tukua

rangi, e

Rongo.

must yield. Rongo, grant thou complete success


!

be robbed.

This prayer was uttered as near as possible to the dwelling to The users of it were famous for their success.

152

Myths and

Songs.

CHAPTER

VIII.

HADES;

OR,

THE DOCTRINE OF

SPIRIT-WORLD.
THE proper name for Hades is Avaiki in Tahitian, Hawai'i in New Zealand, Hawaiki. Many other expressions occur in their
; ;

ancient songs and myths, but they are to be regarded as designations for places or territories in Avaiki, the vast hollow over

which

supposed thrown down the deepest chasms, it was not unnatural for their friends to imagine the earth to be hollow, and the entrance to this
vast nether-world to be

the island

is

to

be placed.

As the dead were

usually

down one

of these

pits.

No

one can

wonder at this who knows that the outer portion of Mangaia is a honeycomb, the rock being pierced in every direction with It is asserted that the winding caves and frightful chasms.
Mission premises at Oneroa are built over one of these great caverns, which extends so far towards the sea that the beating of the surf can be distinctly heard, whilst the water, purified from
its

saline particles, continually drips

from the stony

roof.

The

Hades;
inland

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.


this

153
grand
of

opening to

subterranean
is

territory

was the

repository of the dead,

and

known by

the significant

name

//

/' /'

/+/^.3SL

THE UNIVERSE, ACCORDING TO THE IDEAS OF THE NATIVES OF


MANGAIA.

154

Myths and
Doubtless
this
is

Songs.
the true origin of their idea

of the whereabouts of spirit-world.

The proper
divinities,

denizens of Avaiki are the major and lesser

with their dependants.

These marry, multiply, and


fish,

quarrel like mortals.

They wear clothing, plant, cook,


same
better than that eaten

build,
earth.

and

inhabit dwellings of exactly the

sort as exist

on

The food of immortals is no The story of Kura's marvellous


some
districts
is

by mankind.

escape from Hades represents

delight

of spirit-land as inhabited by cannibals, whose it is to to entrap unwary mortals to their destruction


fish,

be presumed without the knowledge of dread Miru. Birds, and rats ; the mantis, beetle, and centipede ; the cocoa-nut

tree,

the pandanus, the myrtle, the morindo dtrifolia> and the yam, all abound in Hades, either for the support or adornment of
immortals.

practised by them.

Murder, adultery, drunkenness, theft, and lying are The arts of this world are fac-similes of what

primarily belonged to nether-land,

and were taught


but a gross
it is

by the gods.

The

visible

world

itself is

mankind copy of what


to

exists in spirit-land.

If

fire

burns,

because latent flame was

hidden in the wood by Mauike in Hades. If the axe cleaves, it If the ironis because the fairy of the axe is invisibly present. wood club kills its victim, it is because a fierce demon from

Tonga is enshrined in it At a spot named Aremauku, about half a mile from the principal village, on a cliff overhanging the western ocean, it was pretended
that the direct road to spirit-land existed.

Through

it

continual

communication
route

was

anciently
to the

Maui descended
fire.
!

home

By this kept up with Hades. of Mauike, and wrested the


a race possessed of only one

secret of

In one

district lived

eye apiece

At evening the Sun-god Ra drops down through

Hades ;
the opening

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.


for his

155

made
up

convenience at the edge of the horizon,

and thus

lights

the inhabitants of the nether-world.

One myth

asserts that
TV,)

he descends thus frequently to Avaiki to visit his wife who lives with the Great Mother Vari, at the very bottom of
knees and chin meeting
!

the vast cocoa-nut hollow

Hence
vice versa.

the ancient proverb,

"Day

here; night in
:

Avaiki" and

As the

priest

Teka sang (1794)


'Tis night

Ua po Avaiki Ua ao nunga nei. At the appointed


interval, the

For

'tis

now in spirit-land ; light in this upper world


climbs up, not without

Sun-god

Ra

great difficulty, out of nether-world through a hole at the

edge of
Maui,

the eastern horizon, and lights up Mangaia.


are so reasonable

That

his

movements

and regular
Avaiki

is is

due

to the exertions of

The

high-road to

for ever closed

This was not

the fault of mankind, but the penalty of the excesses of the

denizens of spirit-land.

They became

very troublesome to
death.

man-

kind

continually afflicting

them with disease and

They

occasioned great dearth by stealing all kinds of food, and even ravished the women of this world. The brave and beautiful Tiki,
the sister of Veetini, determined to put an end to these annoyances. For this purpose she rolled herself alive down into the

gloomy opening, which immediately closed upon her. From that memorable day the spirits of mortals have been compelled to
descend to Avaiki by a different route. Happily, however, the natives of Avaiki no longer dare molest mankind The closed

chasm

is

known by
spirits

the

name

te

rua

ia

Tiki " = Tiki's

hole.

The

of the dead were often spoken of as wandering

along the margin of the sea most disconsolately;

not a

little

156
annoyed

Myths and

Songs.
and the entangleThey were

at the extreme sharpness of the rocks,

ment of

their feet in the

bindweed and and a

thick vines.

arrayed in ghostly net-work,

fantastic

mourning of weeds

the fragrant heliotrope picked upon the way, relieved, however, by red creeper, resemrocks. the barren on which grows freely head like a turban, the round and twine, wound round

bling dyed

completed their ghostly toilet Rather inconsistently with


coral rock

this,
is

on the western coast

a smooth, shelving piece of known as " te renanga a te

blanch their new-made garments; atua," le. the place where ghosts their wanderings over the rough of as if during the weary months
rocks they were driven, like the living, to prepare new clothing from time to time, and thus replace the garments torn by the bushes and thorny creepers. Was it to assist in the manufacture of such garments that females were invariably buried with one or

more

cloth mallets used in life?

The

these weeping, melancholy spirits, great delight of


1

was

to

At the summer solstice, January, he apparently follow the sun. rises out of the ocean opposite to Ana-knra (the "red-cave," so
called as receiving the red rays of the morning)
;

at the winter

the little solstice, June, rising at Karanga-iti ("

welcome," winter

being but half welcome). These points became, therefore, grand rendezvous of disembodied spirits those belonging to the northern half of the island assembling at the last-named rendezvous,
:

Karanga-iti

those,

by

far the greater

number, belonging to the

southern half of the island meeting at the former, Ana-kura.

might elapse ere the projected departure of the This weary interval was spent in dances and ghosts took place.

Many months
The

sun,

on account of

dead, if buried at all, were buried with this ancient solar worship.

tlie feet

towards the setting

Hades ;

or,

The Doctrine of

Spirit- World.

157

in revisiting their former homes, where the living dwell affection-

remembered by the dead. At night-fall they would wander amongst the trees and plantations nearest to these dwellings,
ately

sometimes venturing to peep


well-disposed to their
vindictive if a pet child
relatives, etc.

inside.

As a

rule, these ghosts


;

were

own
was

living relatives
ill-treated

but often became

by a step-mother or other

Sometimes wearied with these wanderings, the ghosts huddled together in the Red-cave, the stony base of which is constantly
laved by the waves of the Pacific, rolling in with terrific violence from the east Or, if it so pleased their fancy, they clambered up the open, lawn-like place above the cave, out of reach of the

and foam of the ocean (now a favourite resting-place for fishermen, where they cook and eat part of their finny spoil).
billows

This open grassy space, so renowned in their songs and myths " One-ma-kenu-kenu " = THE concerning the dead, is known as smooth spot, or the well-weeded spot. A coarse species of grass
covers the sandy
soil,

pleasingly contrasting with the utter barren-

ness beyond, where Desolation seems to be enthroned.

was fixed by the leader no distinguished person was amongst them, they must of course wait on until such a leader was obtained. Thus in the beautiful classic laments for Vera, he is represented
precise period for final departure

The

of the band.

But

if

as the chosen captain of the dead, as his uncle Nagara ruled over

the living about 125 years ago.

depart Messages are sent to collect those stray ghosts who may yet be With many tears and last lingering near their ancient haunts.
lingering looks they assemble at the Red-cave, or

The

chief of this

disconsolate throng resolves to

lawn above

it,

intently watching the rising of the sun.

on the grassy At the

158
first

Myths and
streak of

Songs.

dawn

the entire band take their departure to meet

the rising sun.

may be

This done, they follow in his train as nearly as he in the heavens above, they at first on the ocean

beneath, but afterwards over the rocks and stones (always avoid1 in the afternoon of the ing the interior of the island), until late they are all assembled at Vairorongo, facing the

appointed day
setting sun.

It is a little means " Kongo's sacred stream." marae of at the the stones out of rivulet rushing Rongo, where in bathe. the olden time only the priests and kings might

"

"

Vairorongo

At

last

the congregated throng, whose eyes are fixed

setting sun, feel that the

moment

has

upon the come when they must for

ever depart from the cherished scenes of earth despite the tears are of who solicitations and relatives, frequently represented as

chasing their loved ones over rocks and across fearful precipices, round half the island. The sun now sinks in the ocean, leaving

a golden track

the entire

band of ghosts take a


flit

last farewell,

and

following their earthly leader,

over the ocean in the train of


to reappear

the Sun-god Ra, but not like

him destined
enter Avaiki

on the
very

morrow.
aperture
for

The

ghostly

train

through

the

by which the Sun-god descends in order

to lighten

up

a time those dark subterranean regions. This view is expressed in the beautiful myth of Ve&ini.
After the crowd of spirits

had taken

their

departure,

might sometimes be left behind arriving at the rendezvous only in time to see the long annual train appointed with the glowing sun. The unhappy ghost must wait disappear
solitary laggard
1

The

vanquished in battle, too often hunted or starved to death home of these exile spirits.

rocks encircling the island and near the sea were the home of the ; also the temporary

Hades;
till

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.


for the following winter,
tiitii,

159

a new troop be formed


"

ment being " to dance the dance of the


"
toss pebbles in the air

its only amuseor starved " or to


!

through the weary months that intercalled a

vene.

The
vaerua."

point of departure for spirit-land

is

"reinga

There are three on Mangaia,

all

facing the setting sun.

The boundary of

the Mission premises at

Oneroa

is

marked on

one side by a bluff rock standing out by itself like a giant facing the west. It was believed that the spirits of those buried in that
" grand repository of the dead Auraka," at the proper season
its

left

gloomy, winding subterranean passages and divided themselves " Araia " into two bands the majority starting from and lodging on the fatal bua tree; some those issuing from "Kauava"
:

going in mournful procession to the projecting rock alluded to, thence leapt one by one to a second and much smaller block of
stone resting on the inner edge of the
outer
beats.
reef,

and thence again


final

to the

and extreme edge of the reef on which the

surf ceaselessly

From this point they take their shades in the track of the sun.

departure to the

At Atua-koro, on the north-west coast of the island, are two This great stones very similarly placed by the hand of nature.
was considered to be an arrangement for the convenience of Like the former these stones ghosts on that part of the island.

Reinga vaerua," Le. Leafing-flace-of-souh ! These are but trifling modifications of the highly poetical representation of disembodied spirits, NOT the slain, being impelled
to follow in the train of the setting sun to spirit-land.

are

known

as

"

Tuoro

At Rarotonga the great "reinga" or "rereanga vaerua" was at on the west of the island, as at Mangaia. So, too, in all j

160

Myths and Songs.


At Samoa, a
spirit

the other islands of the group.

leaving the dead

body
to

at the

most

easterly

island of that group would be compelled

traverse the

entire

series
it

between

at given points, ere

of islands, passing the channels could descend to the subterranean

spirit-world at the

most westerly point of Savai'L


esoteric
z

However, the standard and

teaching of the priests

was that the


extinct,

souls of the dying leave the


travel to the

body

ere breath

is

quite

and

edge of the

cliff

at Araia

(= hindered, 01

sent back) near the

marae of Kongo, and facing the west. li a friendly spirit should meet the solitary wanderer at any point of the sad but inevitable journey from the place where the seem" Go back and live," the ingly dead body lies, and should say,

ghost at once returns to its old home and re-inhabits This is the native theory <&fainting. the once forsaken body.

now joyful

But if no friendly spirit interfere, the departing soul pursues its mournful travels and eventually reaches the extreme edge of the cliff. Instantly a large wave (the sea is about 100 yards distant) approaches to the base, and at the same moment a gigantic lua
tree (beslaria laurifolia)^ covered with fragrant

blossom springs^

up from Avaiki

to receive

on

its

far-reaching branches

unhappy
almost
spirit-

human
traveller

spirits.

Even

at

this

last

moment, with

feet

touching the fatal tree, a friendly voice

may

send the
is

back to

life

and

health.

Otherwise, he

mysteriously

impelled to climb the particular branch reserved for his

own

tribe
oi

and conveniently brought nearest

to him.

The worshippers

1 The difference is merely as to the mode of access to the shades, whethei by following the setting sun, or by climbing on a branch of the mysterious bua In eithfr case the END of all who die a natural death is to be cooked and tree. eaten by Mini, her children and followers.

Hades;

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World. 161


to themselves,

Motoro have a branch


have another

the worshippers of

Tane

the tree in question

having just as
etc., etc.

as there are principal gods in

Mangaia

many The whole batch

branches
of lesser

Tanes congregate on one great branch,

Immediately the human soul is safely lodged upon this gigantic with its living burden to nether-world. tree, the bua goes down

While yet on the tree the wretched spirit looks down to the root, 1 and to his horror sees a great net spread out beneath to catch it This net, from the strong meshes of which there is no escape, is
firmly held
last falls

by Akaanga and his into this fatal net, and


which
lies

assistants.
is

The doomed
in

spirit at

at

once submerged

a lake of la

fresh water

near the foot of the gigantic bua tree and

bears the

name

of Vai-roto-ariki

the-royal-fresh-water-lake.

captive ghosts exhaust themselves by vain in the fishes like hope of escape. The great net is wriggling the half-drowned spirits tremblingly and eventually pulled up,
these treacherous waters
enter the presence of the inexpressibly ugly Mini, generally called " " the rucfdy (Mini Kura), because her face reflects the glowing

heat of her ever-burning oven.


visitors

The hag

feeds

her unwilling

with red

earth-worms, black beetles, crabs, and small

blackbirds.

The grand
the
root,

secret of Mini's power over her intended victims is " kava " root It consists of one vast (piper mythisiicum).

and

is

property.

named by her "Tevoo," being her own peculiar The three sorts of "kava" known in the upper world
branches off this enormous root ever-growing in

were
1

originally

" Ka ei i roto i te Hence the proverb in regard to the dying, kupenga " " Will be meshes" i.e. the innumerable net in the mata varu of caught net of Akaanga. It is curious that the proverb should outlive the faith on which it was founded.
tini

62

Myths and

Songs.

Avaiki
bowls of

Mini's four lovely daughters are directed to prepare

this strong kava for her unwilling visitors. Utterly borne off are victims the the with unresisting draught, stupefied and son her with to the oven and cooked. peerless Mini,

daughters, subsist
to her servants,

on these human

spirits.

The
is

refuse

is

thrown

Akaanga and

others.

Such
i.e.

the inevitable fate

of those
children.

who

die a natural death,


are annihilated*

of

women, cowards, and

They

Not

so warriors slain

on the

field

of battle.

The

spirits

of

these lucky fellows for a while wander about amongst the rocks and trees in the neighbourhood of which their bodies were thrown,

the ghastly wounds by which they

met

their fate

being
is

still

visible.

species of cricket, rarely seen, but whose voice

continually

heard at night plaintively chirping "kere-kerere-tao-tao," was believed to be the voice of these warrior spirits sorrowfully calling to " their friends. Hence the proverb, The spirit-cricket is chirping "

(Kua
field

tangi te vava).

At length the
point of

first

slain

on each

battle-

would

collect his

brother ghosts at a place a short dis-

tance

beyond Araia

(the

departure for

those

who

perish by sickness), still on the edge of the cliff, and facing the It overlooks the marae of Rongo, the god of battles. setting sun.

Indeed, one extraordinary myth represents

Rongo

as

coming up

from nether-world

at

certain periods in order to feast himself

upon the
journey.
side,

spirits

of those slain in battle assembled for their last


bits

With

of ripe banana

Rongo tempts them


! :

to his

and then treacherously swallows them whole But these the have consolation of the of Mini ghosts besides, escaping fire
they are eventually disengaged alive from the intestines of the
1

Some "wise men"

will

have

it

that these spirits live again after passing

through the intestines of Mini and her followers.

Hades ;
grim war-god.

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World. 163


at last rise to the

They

upper sky and join

their

warrior brethren there.

But the more pleasing version represents these ghosts as the cliff. Suddenly a mountain springs up lingering awhile on The road by which they ascend this mountain is at their feet
over the spears and clubs by which they were slain. Arrived at the summit, they leap into the blue expanse, thus becoming the These clouds are clouds of the winter (or dry) season.
peculiar
to

be distinguished from the ordinary rain clouds.

The
together

warrior spirits of past ages, as well as those recently slain, constitute the dark clouds of morning which for a while

sun throughout the year. intercept the bright rays of the the rainy season they cannot ascend to the warrior's

During

Paradise.

In June, the

first

month of

winter, the atmosphere

is

pervaded by Their great number hides the sun for days together, clings.

these ghosts, to

whom

the chilliness of death

still

of spirits occasioning the dull heavy sky, dullness and oppression till the lasts This usual at that season of the year. beginning of August,

when the
It
it

coral tree

opens
light

its

blood-red blossoms, and the


clouds pass over the

sky becomes mottled, and


heavens.
flight

fleecy

The

dead preparing for their spirits of the brave cloudless become soon heavens ; the weather bright
the
It is

and warm.
living

because they have taken their departure.

The

now resume their ordinary avocations in comfort. The spirits of those who die a natural death are excessively
and weak,
of those
as their bodies

feeble
spirits

were at dissolution

whereas the
vigorous,

who

are slain in battle are strong

and

been reduced by disease. These ghosts were said to have "leaped into the expanse" (kua This cheerful home of the brave is somerere ki te neneva).
their bodies not having

64

Myths and
name

Songs.
of the place where Matoetoea, said to have fallen the idea
:

times called Tiairi, from the


the
first

man ever slain at Mangaia, " Le. the expanse being the land which Matoetoea first inhabited," of heaven. At other times it was termed Popo, or Speck-land;
is

because in the distance of the tipper sky these warrior

spirits

appear as the veriest specks. The spirits of the slain are immortal.
garlands of
all

They

are clothed with

used in mundane dances. The white gardenia, the yellow bua, the golden fruit of the pandanus, and the dark crimson, bell-like blossom of the native laurel are gracefully interwoven with myrtle for this purpose.
sorts of sweet-scented flowers

The employment
their

of these fortunate spirits

is

to laugh

and

dance over and over again their old war-dances in In every possible way they enjoy achievements in life.

remembrance of

themselves;

wretches in Avaiki

down with ineffable disgust upon those who are compelled to endure the indignity of being covered with dung falling from their more lucky A well-known and ludicrous proverb refers to friends above.
but look

the vain flapping of the wings of the unhappy spirits in Avaiki who, besmeared with filth, are endeavouring, though to no purpose,
to escape out of Akaanga's

net

The

natural result of this belief was to breed

an utter contempt
to the battle-

of violent death.

Many

anecdotes are related of aged warriors,

scarcely able to hold the spear, insisting


field,

on being led

in

hope of gaining a soldier's paradise.

One may
light

well

exclaim, "Light and immortality were brought to

by the

Gospel."

i^_

A song lying before me represents the ghosts of certain warriors

belonging to the tribe of Tane as "wandering about at Maungaroa

Hades ;

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.

165

and Maputu," the most famous maraes belonging to that family, there to await the period appointed for them to ascend, like the
rest, to

"
Speck-land."

In allusion to the myth of the bua tree, a person who has been very ill and yet has recovered will even now playfully say. "Yes,
I

have

set foot

upon a branch of the bua


to
life

tree,

and yet have been

sent back (by

"
!

God)

Those who die a natural death were said " to go


darkness (aere ki te po), implying that they are

to night, or to

doomed

be

cooked and eaten by Mini, i.e. annihilated. The happier lot of " Of warrior-spirits was "to go to day, or light (aere ki te ao). course, as Christian missionaries, we have not failed to make use of
for

The standard expression phrases so well adapted to our purpose. " heaven" is "the day, or light of God;" the converse is simply " night, or darkness."

On
reef.

the northern part of this island

is

a deep indentation in the


this

The

rush of waters from the reef meeting the ocean occa-

sions a miniature whirlpool.

To

account for

simple

fact, it

was said that a piece of sacred sandstone was once thrown down and hence the never ceasing turmoil of waters. In the there
:

time of Ngauta, a party of fishermen Karaunu and others dreamt that they were swept away at this ill-omened place. An
attacking party overheard the relation of the dream, and

made

it

come

true

by slaying

them

all

and throwing

their bodies into the

seething eddy.

shades,

This unpromising place was regarded as one entrance to the The destined chiefly for the worshippers of Motoro.

traveller in his sleep sees

a house built on long poles rising above

66

Myths and

Songs.

the restless waters, with a ladder to ascend to it


this

The

sides of

house are of

closely-fitting

yellow reeds, adorned with black


little

cinet

Outside this snug, tempting


etc.,

dwelling are hung

new

calabashes, etc.,

to

traveller pause to
feel

admire

decoy the passer by. Should the spiritthis illusive hut, he will in all probability

of some of impelled to climb the ladder and take possession hand is on the his moment The the good things hung all round.
exquisitely braided yellow cinet,

by which the calabashes are suscalabashes are all pended, to his horror, house, ladder, visitor, and the doomed spirit and the of the into ocean, depths swept away
finds himself in the

unwelcome

spirit-world,

and

in the

power of
in-

Mini.

There are said

to

be three such " houses of Motoro," or


unwary
spirits.

visible soul-traps to catch

This

is

but a variation

of the doctrine of the bua tree, to meet the circumstances of those who have the ill-luck to be sucked down by the three miniature
whirlpools existing here.

Since the introduction of Christianity the belief has sprung " up that Avaiki," from which the first inhabitants of this island came, is "Savai'i," the largest island in the Samoan Group. In the

Hervey
z's filled

dialect the

up with
"

k.

dropped, and the break between the two At the Penrhyns the natives speak of " going
is

to Savaikz"

when

referring to death.

the usual form

Avaiki."

Dropping the S, we have In the Tahitian islands the Stakes

the place of S, and the

K in

word becomes "Hawai'i," there being no Thus Avaiki, Hawai'i, and Savai'i the Tahitian dialect
same word.
would be
from Savai'i
Savai'i lying west,

are slightly varying forms of the


as these islanders say,
93

or

that their

"down, " came ancestors up

it

strictly correct to assert

"

Hades;

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World. 167

This view of the origin of all these eastern islanders is conformed by the continual recurrence of the names of western
islands in the ancient songs

and

traditions of the natives.

In

addition to the

names of

all

the near islands of the Hervey

and

Tahitian Groups, we have "Manuka," i.e. Manu'a, "Tutuila," " " " The distant Upolu," of the Samoan Group. #2upolu," for
also Rewa. Tonga contin; double canoe of " Tongans-sailing-through-the " skies landing on the south of Mangaia, founded the warlike Tongan tribe, now almost extinct. It is well known that that
is

land of Vavau
ually recurs.
1

"

referred to in song

adventurous race once held possession of Savai'i and conquered Niue.


Places on Mangaia are called Niue, Rotuma, and Papua. These are ancient appellations indicating, as it seems to me, the

course of the original

settlers.

The

reader will recall the

names

of Savage Island, Rotumah, and the vast island of New Guinea. It has been suggested that the northern Avaiki (Hawaii) was
the original

home

of the islanders.

A careful study of their mythoHow their

logy produces an irresistible conviction that Savai'i, the original Avaiki, is the true centre from which this race emigrated, willingly
or unwillingly,

some

five or six centuries ago.

ancestors

got to

Samoa

remains to

be discovered

but the ordinary trade

winds north of the equator would make that easy, even if they did not step from island to island, starting from the Malayan peninsula,
ever pursued by the savage Negrito races. The son of the elder of three brothers from Avaiki was named " " This is the very name by literally, the sky-beater. Papa-rangi

which

all

foreigners are designated at

Samoa
first

at this day.

It

was

evidently in

commemoration

of. the

settlers

having "burst

through the sky," in order to get to Mangaia.

68
Mokiro's son was "
Te-akataaira,"
arrived.

Myths and

Songs.

named " Vaerua-rangi " = Spirit-of-the-sky. the name of the third brother from Avaiki,
Thus' the very names of the
three
royal
It

signifies

brothers from Avaiki signify voyagers from the sun-setting.

suited the purpose of the priests of the dominant tribe in after


times, to assert that Avaiki
shell,
is

the hollow of the vast cocoa-nut


is

over the aperture of which Mangaia


it

placed.

In

later

times

came

to

be believed that

all

these distant islands were


"
;

situate in nether-land.

Their ancestors came from " Avaiki

and the
"Avaiki,"

spirits
i.e.

of those
"

who died a
ancestors.

natural

death went to

to the

homes of their

That " Avaiki


the "

and " Po

"

are interchangeable

is

clear from

name

of a gloomy rent in the rocks at Ivirua,

known

as

Avaiki-te-po," that

The
it,

is, Avaiki^ or night. old proverb "Na Avaiki e &&%&" =*Avatkt will revenge

means " the gods whose home is in Avaiki, particularly Rongo, will revenge it." Sometimes it is said of depth, "deep as Avaiki ;"
and
figuratively of craft or

knowledge,

"

so

and

so

is

Avaiki,"

i.e.

rivals the

depth of
is

Hades

unknown depth

implied.

in wisdom, etc. " i

Araara

In every instance Avaiki "=think of Avaiki,

as being about to die.

The Samoan
the same word

was supposed to be under the

heaven was designated Pulotu or Purotu, and sea. In these eastern islands

means " the perfection of beauty."


figs

May

not

this

be an adaptation from the former ?


a euphemism " finish." The Of great men spirits of the dead are said "to go on a journey." " it is asserted that have to a of they gone meeting chiefs," i.e.

At Samoa only

die,

men by

Compare Dr. Turner's Nineteen Years

in Polynesia, pp. 235-7.

Hades ;

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World. 169

In relation to the death of such, " the heavens are said to be opened," "the clouds have rolled away,"
in the invisible world.
Le. to

admit the

spirits

of these grandees.

facing the setting sun.

At Rarotonga the grand rendezvous of ghosts was at Tuoro, Those from Avarua travelled the ordinary
this

road towards

rocky point of departure for the invisible world.

Until very recently, near the sandy beach of Nikao, in sight of the " inevitable Tuoro, stood a stately tree known as the weeping

disembodied spirits halted (te puka aueanga), where awhile to bewail their hard fate. If unpitied and not sent back
laurel"

to

life,

the enfeebled and disconsolate traveller passed on to the


still

rendezvous and climbed on a branch of an ancient bua


flourishing.

Underneath

is

a natural circular hollow in the rock

where

Muru

spreads his net.

Should the branch of

this

bua

break off through the weight of the ghost, the victim is instantly Occasionally, however, a lively ghost would caught in the net.
tear the meshes and escape for a while, passing on by a resistless inward impulse towards the outer edge of the reef, in the hope of But in a straight line from the shore is a traversing the ocean.

second round hollow, where Akaangds net is concealed. In this the very few who escape out of the hands of Muru are caught
without
fail.

Escape

is

impossible.

The

delighted

demons

(taae)

take the captive ghosts out of their nets, dash their brains out

upon the sharp

coral,

and carry

off in

triumph their victims to

the shades to eat

Ghosts from Ngatangiia ascended the noble mountain range which extends across the island from east to west, dipping into the
sea at Tuoro.
Inexpressibly weary
to mortals.

and sad was

this

journey over

a road inaccessible

For

this tribe at the

rendezvous

170

Myths and

Songs.

of ghosts was appointed a large iron-wood tree, some of whose branches were green, some dead. The spirits that trod on the
green branches

came back

to life

whilst those

who had

the mis-

fortune to crawl on the dead branches were at once caught in the

net of either

Muru

or Akaanga.

Warrior
Tiki," that
is

spirits

is

to join

" were more fortunate, and were said to aere kia At Mangaia Tiki Tiki, the first who so died.

a woman,
Tiki

sister to

Vetini, the

first

who

died a natural death.

sits at
i.e.

the threshold of a very long house with reed sides, the shades.

in Avaiki,

flowers of

undying Rarotongan Paradise

All around are planted shrubs and This guardian of the fragrance and beauty.
is

ever patiently awaiting

new

arrivals

from

It was customary at Rarotonga to bury with the dead the head and kidneys of a hog, a split cocoa-nut, and a root of "kava" (piper mythisticum), to enable the spirit-traveller to

the upper world.

make an

acceptable offering to Tiki,

who

thus propitiated, admits

the giver inside his dwelling.

Here,

sitting at their ease, eating,

drinking, dancing, or sleeping, are assembled


ages, ready to

the brave of past


to relate over again

welcome the new comer, and

the story of their sanguinary achievements performed in life. The luckless ghost who had no present for Tiki was compelled
to stay outside in rain

and darkness

for ever, shivering of cold

and
It

hunger.

At

Titikaveka, near the sea,


is

is

a mass of blood-red

stone.

was believed that there


spirits
;

in the sky an oven for cooking

human

the blood of these victims dropping

down on

the rock

gives

it

a deep red colour


it

was usual to place at the pit of the stomach of the corpse the kernel of a cocoa-nut and a piece of sugar-cane.
Aitutaki

At

At Mangaia

the extremity of a cocoa-nut frond served the

same

Hades;

or,

The Doctrine of

Spirit- World.

171

purpose, as a charm or safe-conduct


world.

on entering the

invisible

The
cinet

sacred

men
is

of Pukapuka, or Danger Island, gave


"
/.<?.

me

in

1862 two " ere vaerua,

snares for catching souls,

made

of stout

One

snare

The

loops are arranged

28 feet long, the other about half that length. on either side, and are of different sizes

to suit the dimensions of ghosts

When

a person was very


priests

sick, or

some being thin, others stout. had given offence to the sacred
;

" " hung up some of these soul-traps in the upper branches of trees near the dwelling, and pretended to watch the

men, the

flight

of the

spirit.

If the spirit of the sick

man,

in the shape of

an

insect or a

small bird, did not enter the snare,


if,

the patient

recovered
"

but

as the sacred in

men

averred, the wretched ghost

became entangled

demon
off the

one of the meshes, there was no hope. The " " or Vaerua," Spirit presiding over spirit-world, hurried

unlucky ghost to the shades to feast upon, for ceremonial


of those

offences.

The

spirits

who escape
and

the anger of Vaerua follow the

track of the setting sun,

find themselves in a spacious house

Inside are a number of mats, on each of owned by Reva. which a divinity keeps watch over the souls belonging to him. These disembodied spirits amuse themselves with beating gongs,
dances,

and devouring the


watch
all

essence of offerings

of food hung up in

the marae by relatives in the upper world.

fierce sea-god

keeps ceaseless
escape back to

round

this house, in case

gods inside should pity one of these forlorn ghosts


its

any of the landand allow it to

old earthly tenement.

At Uea, one of the Loyalty

Islands,

it

was the custom formerly

when a person was very

ill

to send for a

man whose employment

172
it

Myths and
restore souls to

Songs.

was " to

forsaken bodies."

The

soul-doctor

would

at

once collect
as

men and

and and women, many


his friends

assistants, to the
start off to

number of twenty

the place where the

was accustomed to bury their dead. family of the sick man and his male companions soul-doctor arriving there, the

Upon
compro-

menced

playing the nasal

flutes

with which they had


spirit to
its

come
.

vided, in order to entice

back the

old tenement

The

to be irresistibly by a low whistling, supposed entire the a time After procession proattractive to exile spirits.

women

assisted

ceeded towards the dwelling of the sick person,


the

flutes

playing

and

women
its
it

whistling all

the time, leading back the truant spirit I

To

prevent

possible escape, with their

palms open, they seemingly

On approaching along with gentle violence and coaxing. " have brought back the the village they danced and shouted,
drove

We

spirit

of so and so

"
!

Then would succeed loud

laughter

and

vociferations of delight at the cleverness of their leader, the spiritdoctor.

On entering the dwelling of the patient the vagrant spirit was ordered in loud tones at once to enter the body of the sick man,
who, as might be supposed, would not be a
entire procedure.

good feasting Sometimes the poor fellow died the cause assigned by the soul-doctor would be that the spirit had refused to re-inhabit its former dwelling on account of the smallrelatives of the invalid.
:

little moved by the would be provided by the

ness of the feast

AITUTAKIAN HELL.
The
priests asserted that at death

human spirits descend

to the

domains of the goddess Mini, whose body is frightfully deformed and her countenance terrible. For unknown ages she had feasted

Hades]
on the
brave
death,

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.

173

spirits of the

man named
he directed

dead, but at length was checkmated by a J Tekauae, or the-chin. Being apparently near

his friends, as

soon as the breath was out of his

it to disengage body, to get a cocoa-nut, and cautiously cracking was This kernel shell. the up in a wrapped from kernel round the the of stomach the to dead, next being and placed piece of cloth the grave coverings. completely concealed by In due time Tekauae descended to spirit-world, and was the dreadful aspect of the mistress of those greatly shocked at Miru had but one &reastthe other had somehow been

regions.

cut
at

had been amputated Only one leg was perfect the other the other had been cut But one arm was complete the knee.
off.

off at the elbow.

The deformed hag commanded Tekauae to draw near. down before trembling human spirit obeyed, and sat
According a bowl of food, and bade him eat
anxiety waited to see
it

The
Miru.

to her unvarying practice she set for her intended victim

quite up.

Miru with evident


.

him swallow

it.

As Tekauae took up

the bowl, to his horror he found

it

to

The quick-witted mortal now consist of living centipedes. lected the cocoa-nut kernel at the pit of his stomach, and hidden

recol-

from Mini's view by his clothes. With one hand he held the bowl to his lips, as if about to swallow its contents with the other
he secretly held the cocoa-nut kernel, and ate it the bawl It was evident to the goddess that concealing the nut from Miru.

Tekauae was actually swallowing something; what else could it be but the contents of the fatal bowl ? Tekauae craftily contrived
whilst eating the nourishing cocoa-nut to allow the live centipedes As the intended to fall on the ground one or two at a time.
i

Mangaian

"

te

kauvae

"

= chin.

174
victim was
all

Myths and
this

Songs.
it

the time sitting on the ground,

was no

difficult

achievement in

way

to

empty the bowl completely by the

time he had finished the cocoa-nut.

Mini waited in vain


agony and raging with
to seek
relief.

to see her intended victim writhing in

thirst.

Her

practice

on such occasions was


a lake close by,

to direct the tortured victim-spirit to dive in

None

that dived in that water ever

came up

alive

excessive

anguish

and

quenchless

thirst

so

distracting

their
after-

thoughts that they were invariably drowned. wards cook and eat her victims at leisure.

Mini would

Here was a new event

in her history

the bowl of living

centipedes had been disposed of, and yet Tekauae manifested no sign of pain, no intention to leap into the cooling but fatal waters. Long did Mini wait ; but in vain. At last she said to " c< her visitor, " Return to the upper world (i.e. to life). Only

remember

this

do not speak against

me

to mortals.

Reveal not Should you

my

ugly form and

my mode
so,

of treating

my

visitors.

be so foolish as to do
time

you

will certainly

at

some
it

future

come back

to

do not escape my Tekauae accordingly


His
been, and

my domains, and I will see to vengeance a second time."


left

that

you
life.

the shades, and

came back
where

to

friends, delighted at his recovery, inquired

how it had fared. He and the promise of secrecy made to her, but informed the inhabitants of this upper world what they might expect should they
unfortunately
fall

had heeded not the anger of Mini


his spirit

into the clutches of this foe to mankind.

Hades;

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.

175

AITUTAKIAN HEAVEN.
a good land, Iva, under the guardianship of Tukaitaua? a being of pleasing and benevolent aspect, as well In Iva there is abundance of good as of a gentle disposition.

There

is,

also,

food

who

The fortunate spirits the finest sugar-cane grows there. in the society of time their land this to spend pleasant get
:

Tukaitaua, chewing with unalloyed appetite this sweet sugar-cane. Tekauae warned the people of this world to be on their guard
against Mini.

The way

to avoid her is to

have a cocoa-nut kernel

and a piece of sugar-cane placed close


order to deceive Miru.
pleasant land of Iva,
richest

to the

stomach at death

in

Departing

spirits

thus provided go to the

and

lying at their ease, evermore feast

on the

food and chew

sugar-cane.

DRAMATIC SONG OF MIRU, MISTRESS OF WORLD.


FOR TEREAVAl'S FETE.

SPIRIT-

COMPOSED BY KAPUA, 1824.


Chorus.

Na

Miru

te

umu i
ia

Avaiki,
e
!

Miru has an oven 2

in spint-land,
(the tribe

Ei rangi tae

Tane

Like that which devoured 8 of) Tane.


Solo.

Ae
1

Aye

" Tukaitaua " was of a malevolent At Mangaia

disposition,

the

first

violent death being due to his prowess.

Tukaitaua taught the world the

art

of

war.
2

The oven

ovens in which
terminalis),
8

in daily use in each household, and particularly the monster it was the office of the tribe of Tane to cook ti roots (dracoevm

The

reference

were said to have been derived from Mini's original oven in Hades. is to the tribe of Tane, twice treacherously destroyed by

their foes in the fires of their

own

ovens.

76

Myths and Songs.


Chorus.

Ei rangi tae la Tautiti, E kai karii na Rongo e

An end was
!

Tane mata

reiiua

put to the dance, Tautiti, the warlike behest of Rongo. Alas, Tane author of all our amuse-

By

ments,
Solo.

Nai mata reirua e, Na Miiu oki te umu ka roa


I raro e
!

Those pleasures all came to an end ; For Mini's dread oven for ever burns
In the shades
!
!

nunumi atu

te

aerenga ae

She devours
Chorus.

all

who go down.

E
Ka

nunumi

atu,

She devours
All

acre paa i te umu tao I te umu kai na Mini e


!

who appioach

the blazing oven


is

"Where Mini's food


e

to

be cooked.
out
1

Noea Mini ?

Whence came Mini ?


I

No

Avaiki,

te

po anga noa
te eld
!

From Avaiki

(spirit-land),

of

homd

darkness.

Tao na

Prepare thy intoxicating draught

E E E

ti

ti ti

rakoa e uaua e

Cook
!

the graceful

#'

tara are e

ti

nongonongo ia Avaiki Ae, Mini, naau tena


!

Spare not the prolific ti; Nor even that grown at thy doorway, And that which is the pride of Hades.

Ah, Mini

such are thy tricks

An
ra,

ancient farewell in prospect of dissolution was,

" Ei ko na

tau taeake, ka aere an i te tava ia

brother,
affecting

I
!

Miru? Le. "Farewell, Mini I" How inexpressibly of go " in the world." without and God no hope, Having
to

the domains

The

mistress of the invisible world, so cruel to visitors,

was

very tenderly attached to her only son Tautiti. no one to carry his drinking water but herself.
1

She would permit

On

dark nights, or

Mini

is

stupefy her intended victims. ti roots of all kinds for a feast

charged by the chorus to prepare the intoxicating cup in order to She is represented as building up a vast oven of
;

but Mini's

ti

roots are

human

souls

(The

song

is

not quite complete. )

Hades

or,

The Doctrine of Spirit-World.

177

when deep sleep had locked up the senses of mortals, Mini would make her way to the well-known fairy streams Auparu and
Vaikaute, carrying the empty calabashes to be
there
is

filled.

To

this

an allusion

in Tereavai's

Fte Song

E taa
Na

vai no TautitL
rai e kave,
i

A calabash of water for Tautiti.


!

Mini Kia inu Tane

te vai

kea ra e
"

Mini herself will provide it, So that Tane may drink this living
water.

Her peerless daughters were often seen and admired the mother was most solicitous to conceal her ugly form.

"

but

SNEEZING.
The philosophy
travelling about

of sneezing

is,

that the spirit having to the

gone

perchance on a

visit

homes or

burying-

places of

with some

its return to the body is naturally attended and excitement, occasioning a tingling and difficulty Hence the various over the body. all sensation enlivening

its

ancestors

customary remarks addressed to the returned spirit in different At Rarotonga, when a person sneezes, the bystanders islands. " = " A, kua oki mai koe exclaim, as though addressing a spirit, " Ha At Manihiki and Rakaanga you have come back."
!

(colonised
ki

from Rarotonga) they say to the


"

spirit,

"Aere koe

= " Go Rarotonga
"
is,

address

Ua nanave

to Rarotonga." " = "

koe

At Mangaia the customary Thou art delighted."

The

to following well-known lines refer

Popo,

or Speck-land.

(For Umuakaui, circa 1823.)


Puputa motu tana e Ka acre au tei Prtpot J E enuaakarere Mangaia etaea mai
!

Alas,
I
ai

we part

for ever

go alone to Speckland. My home, Mangaia, for ever fades


from
sight.

178
Here
Tae,"
is

Myths and
a reference to
Tiairi^

Songs.
in his

by Koroa,

"

Lament

for

who was
i

slain circa 1815.


tai

Vaerua aere
I

Spirits
te

Rangikapua

te

nuku o

Atua

At Rangfkapua

wandering towards the sea ; is assembled a divine

hostla tu rofroe.

A feeble,
i

tottering throng

Takina koe iia ? Puara-moamoa i aka


I pare
i

Tiairi,

From

Whither goest thou, friend ? the leaping-place I go to dance


at Tiairit

te kiato.

Clothed in fragrant flowers.

Another reference to Tiairi occurs

in a lament for the sons of

Ron, 1790

(circa).

Na tokotoru

Ron
I

Three brave sons of


i

Ron
!

Ei tupeke pare kura e Tera roa te anau te aka mai


ngaere
I te kapa toa
i

te

Wearing noble head-dresses Yonder are they dancing the wardance

Tiairi.

Of brave

spirits in Tiairi.

When
brother

Ikoke heard of the murder of his beloved younger


said,

Takurua, he feelingly
i.e.

"We

will

meet

in the

warriors' resting-place," 1

"I, too, will die a violent death, so

that

we may meet
;

in the warriors' heaven."


for

Not long

after,

this

wish was granted

he

fell

in the battle of

Tuopapa by those

who had

slain his brother,

only meet his

Ikoke could, according to his faith, favourite brother by a violent death, as all who die

a natural death are devoured by Mini. Another saying of theirs in reference to the unseen world is " Ka aere i " nunga i te puokia ei aka i Tiairi :" We will go to yon place of safety, Tiairi, to dance the warriors' dance."
:

'

nunga

te

puokia maua e araveitu ei."

Hades ;
Subjoined

or,
is

The Doctrine of

Spirit- World.
tree

79

a mention of the famous bua

from the shades

(Arakauvae's funeral

games

for his father, circa 1817).

E metua tane
i

ra

e,

Vara, kua topa ra


!

My father Vara,
thy god.

thou art forsaken by

te io,

Kua

veevee te po, ka eke atu ai e

Night

is at

hand, whither thou must


to
!

descend.

E rua metua i

raro e

Alas,

be deprived of both
Kovirua watches thy

parents

E metua tane ia Kovi,


e
1

kua pa
ra e
!

te

rakau

Thy

father

wasting frame,
i

Ei toko ake

te

maki

Mitikia mai Kovirua, taraia mai, taraia ra e !

And vainly seeks to re -invigorate it. Day by day thy once-rounded limbs
are adzed away
Pitilessly

Taraia ra e te io tupu na Motoro.

adzed away by thy god Motoro ;


living skeleton
is left.

Kua

vai te ata ivi

Toou anga
i

So that only a

rakau oi ra e

Tu

maira

tei

runga koe

te

pua

Take thy

mareva.

place on the bua tree in the shades.


is

Kua mareva

te

metua

oro

Avaiki.

Lost for ever


Avaiki.

the parent gone to

A FAREWELL (VEE) CHANTED AT A REEDTHROWING MATCH FOR WOMEN.


COMPOSED IN MEMORY OF VAIANA, BY HER HUSBAND NAUPATA,
IN 1824.
Solo.

Teiia'ua ngaro e ?

Whither has she gone ?


Chorus.

Tei Avaiki e oro atu,

Kore e arm

tei te nii

moana

She has sped to Avaiki, She disappeared at the edge of the

Tei te opunga

i te ra.
!

Where

Ka tangi i reira

We

horizon, the sun drops through. weep for thee !

i8o

Myths and
Sob.

Songs.

Ka

tangi ana 'i, Oki ra a kimi ra ae

Yes, I will for ever weep. And ever seek for thee !
Chorus.

Tangi an ka tangi e, Tangi ki te vaine ua ngaro

Bitter tears I shed for thee


ra,

weep for the


I

lost wife of

my bosom.

Aore koe

e tu e angairi.

Alas
Solo.

thou wilt not return.

Mai

tu e angairi

Oh,
Chorus.

that thou wouldst return

Ariu mai

te ao e

Stay
tarereia

come back

to this

world

Oki maira iaku nei. Akia koe, ua motu la

Return to
au
!

my

embrace.
off

Thou

art as

a bough wrenched

by

the blast!
Solo.

Mai

tarere

au e

tei
i

Avaiki
!

Te enua mamao

oro atu na e

Wrenched off, and now in Avaiki That distant land to which thou art
fled.

The

author of

this

"farewell" became a devoted servant of

the Lord Jesus Christ.

These words are exceedingly popular


omitted

with the natives.

Part

is

Rakoia,
Enuataurere,

chanting (in

1815)

the

praises

of his first-born,

who was
i

accidentally
kura
i

drowned

at

Tamarua, says
trips o'er the

Enuataurere

te tai

te

Enuatamere now
ocean.

ruddy

moana.

Te nunga koe i te uru Aue


e
!

o te kare i tai e

Thy

path

is

the foaming crest of the

billow.

Enuataurere e
!

Weep

for Enuataurere,

Enuataurere e

For Enuataurere.

CHAPTER
OR,

IX.

THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.

THE

He

first who ever died a natural death in Mangaia was Ve&ini. was the only and much beloved son of Tueva and his wife Manga. But Vetini, .when in the prime of early manhood,

sickened

and

died.

The

parents,

in

their

grief,

instituted

of mourning and funeral games which were ever afterwards observed amongst these islanders. The chief mourners
those signs

were Tueva, Manga, and the lovely Tiki


Ve6tini.

the attached sister of

All these, with the more distant relatives, blackened their faces, cut off their hair, slashed their bodies with shark's
teeth,

and wore only " pakoko," or native cloth, dyed red in the sap of the candle-nut tree, and then dipped in the black mud of a

taro-patch.

The very

offensive smell of this

mourning garment
to give
it

is

symbolical of the putrescent state of the


encircled with
1

dead
fire

Their heads were a red

common

fern,

singed with

The

names.
if

allegorical character of this interesting myth is evident from the Vetini means all-separating ; Tueva, mourner ; Manga, food, in

allusion to the custom of offering food to the dead. *' fetched." a person dies, his spirit is said to be

Tiki

signifies fetched:

82
1

Myths and
It

Songs.

appearance.
in
its

was on account of Vetini that the eva, or dirge, and four varieties, and the mourning dance, were invented
fifteen

performed by the sorrowing relatives day by day. These melancholy ceremonies occupied from ten to
days,

of the party deceased. according to the rank and age no of beating of bark for mourning During the entire period where the death district the in native cloth was permitted bark must go to her out woman wishing to beat occurred.

another part of the island. offence to the female


giving

beating to this world


different texture.

but

The object in view was to avoid demon Mueu, who introduced clothwho herself beats out cloth of a very
the stroke of death.

Her

cloth-flail is

So long

as the

posed

Mueu was supmourning and funeral games were going on, when all was over she returned to her home to be
present;
tangi te
!

in Avaiki, or the shades.

"Era, kua

the proverb when a person dies, Mueu's flail is z>. "Ah a Mueu," tutunga

Hence

once more at work

"

The
fall

last resting-place

of Vetini

from the sea. spot about half a mile 100 feet above the level of the ocean, about the hill, upon

Rangikapua, a green The rays of the setting sun


is

at

thus distinguished.

On

the evening he
in

dances that

had been invented

his

was buried the dirges and honour were performed.


north,

towards the parents and the sister looked wistfully in vain hoping for his return to their midst but

The

The day

following they walked in

sad procession,

slowly

chanting dirges expressive of passionate desire again to embrace At night, the departed, along the western shore of the island.
Since the establishment of Christianity this extravagant mode of mourning for the dead, with the single exception of the bad-smelling "pakoko," has been discontinued.
1

Ve&tini ; or,

The Immortality of

the

SouL

183

exhausted with grief and weariness, they slept in one of the rugged caves near the sea, having in vain strained their eyes over the ocean path where the spirit of Vetini had so lately disappeared.

The mourning band next sought the lost one on the soutJiern and almost inaccessible shore of Mangaia; still there was no
response to the loud cries and entreaties of the disconsolate
parents

and the

lovely Tiki.

they arrived at the eastern coast, and gazed over the vast expanse swept by the life-giving trade-winds. Once more the
last

At

lamentations and funeral dances were duly performed

At night

they occupied the


spacious cave
his stony
is

Ruddy Cave (Ana-kura). The entrance to this washed by the sur Ere dawn Tueva rose from
watch the rising of the sun. The shadows of In a the sun rose few minutes more away.

couch

to

night were
in all
its

fast passing

wonted

glory.

Tueva now noticed a

tiny dark speck


its

beneath on the ocean, which, as the sun advanced on


of the sun.

course,

grew larger and drew nearer, passing over the ocean in the bright
trail

On
own

arriving nearer

still,

this

wonderful object,

lightly

skimming over the

crest of the waves,


!

proved to be no

other than their

lost Veetini

The now rejoicing parents rushed forwards to kiss their who was indeed Veetini, yet not altogether like his former

son,
self.

He
this

said to the joyful throng that

he had been permitted to

revisit

his parents,

upper world in consequence of the passionate lamentations of and to comfort their sorrowing hearts. He also came
to

to

make offerings of food to please the dead. For himself, he had come and must depart in the bright track of the sun, being now a denizen of spirit-land. However, to gratify
his parents

show mortals how

and

friends, Veetini

asked great Tangaroa to detain

184

Myths and
its

Songs.
he might
rest

the sun for a short time in

course, in order that

and converse awhile with

his relatives.

The

prayer was granted,


his friends pleasantly

and the sun was detained while Vetini and


the spot

rested in a sort of extempore house, or booth, erected for

him on

known

as Karanga-iti.
rose,

At length Vetini
on

and led the

half-glad

and

half-sorrowful

procession along the beach towards the west, the sun


as usual in the heavens.

now moving
Here they Not far

At

last

they reached Vairorongo, or

Kongo's sacred stream, directly facing the setting sun.


distant

rested a few minutes only, as day was fast fading away.

on the

hill

lay the

body of

Veetini.

As

the sun dis-

appeared beneath the horizon, and the ocean was covered with its golden light, Veetini said he must go. The weeping parents
" I cannot ; begged him to stay with them. The son replied, " and then shouted imI do not belong to this world now ;
patiently
:

Takai la te ra Ei eke i Tekurutukia.

Thrust

down

the sun,
!

That I

may

descend to nether-land

The
lo
!

parents

now endeavoured
at

they grasped over the western ocean in the ruddy track of the sun, and, with its last rays, Veetini, now a tiny distant speck in the train of the king of day, for ever disappeared.

a shadow.

him by force; but, him gliding swiftly watched They


to detain

Vefoini ; or,

The Immortality of

the

SouL

185

VAIPO'S
FOUNDED
(FIRST

DIRGE FOR VEETINL


ON THE PRECEDING MYTH.
1819.)

PERFORMED CIRCA 1794: FOR THE SECOND TIME IN


Call for the music

and dance to

begin.

Kua pa te rongo i Avaiki Kua inga paa Vetini Aue ka mate e


!

The news has sped to Avaiki Of Vetini about to die.


Sad day of death!
Solo.

Taipo e

Goon
Chorus.

Alcatu are
I te rua

Karanga-iti,
i

A house is built
iti

for

him

at Karanga-

paa

te ra e

To
Solo.

face the rising sun.

Ae!
Chorus.

'Tis

done

Kua

tau paa

Vetini

te rangi

VeStini has gained the sky [i.e. the place where the sun drops down] ;

Ka

oro

Has
!

fled

na mavae

ia

Avaiki e

Oh, all-dividing
Solo.

Spirit- world

Kakea mai

te tautua ae

Whence came he ?
Qhorus.

Kakea mai
I

te tautua ia

Avaiki

He came up

out of Spirit-world,

Ka rekireki
nunga
i

mai e, te moana.

Stepping lightly on his path O'er the treacherous waves.


VeStini
is

Kua

titotito

aere Veetini,

again trembling on
!

the

E kaii,

kau mai e

He
Solo.

wing. skims, he skims the sea

E -am atu i to

miringa ae

Alas, he follows thy track, [0

Sun

!]

86

Myths and Songs.


Chorus.

E am

atu

to miringa,
!

paa e opuopu atu na e Takai la te ra, Ei eke i Tekurutukia


te ra
1

Yes, he follows thy dazzling light, As thou gently settest in the ocean. Thrust down the sun,

That he may descend to nether-land.

THE CLOSING OR DAY-SONG FOR


BY KOROA.
CIRCA 1814.
off.

TENIO'S FETE.

Call for the dance to lead

pakakina o te ra e ! Ka roi te tere o Tautiti


Iti

Day
The
visit

is breaking ; of Tautiti 1 is drawing to a

close

Ka

aka e

Dance away
Solo.

Taipoe!
Chorus.

Goon!
2

Kua

aati te nio o Veetini

Alas, the teeth of Veetmi

are all

broken,

Kua akama

te

ao e

He
Solo.

is

ashamed

to linger in the light.

Ao mata ngaa

The
Chorus.

eye of day

is

unclosing.

E am mai
Kai a mata
tuitui

ia Tautiti

Come, obey the behests of

Tautiti.

kaka ra o Vatea el
te ra e tu e

As

a burning torch of Vatea.

is

the opening eye

Ungaunga

ara

Awake from
arise.

thy slumbers,

Sun

It is

in reference to this

myth of the sad journeyings of the

beautiful Tiki with her parents in search of Veetini, that at the


1 Tautiti was supposed to be present at the particular dance of which he was the originator. As soon as it was over, he returned to the shades. 2 Broken by death, i.e. no longer eats.

Vefoini ; or,

The Immortality of

the So^iL

187

" Ka ruru i te breaking up of a funeral party it is commonly said, tere ia Tiki ka aere ei," i.e. " The weary travels of Tiki are over
:

we

part."

A principal reason why Veetini's


this world,

spirit

was permitted
This
is

to revisit

was

to institute the practice of propitiating the goodofferings of food.

will of the

dead by

alluded to in a

ancient song about Vetini,

by

ELirikovi, circa 1760.

VEETINI MEETING HIS FATHER.


Tueva
aka-itu
i

te eva

te metua,

Tueva,

who
"

seven times lamented for


didst thou return to

his boy,

Ae
I

eaa toou ara


te

te

ao nei

Asked,
this

Why

world?"
(said Ve&ini,)

ana mai au

kave

"

came," you

"to

instruct

I te pakuranga

ma te meringa,

Meringa mai Avaiki e, Meringa mai io tatou metua E noo i te ao nei. Ei aa ?

In making food-offerings to the dead, Offerings to those in spirit- world ;


Gifts

from

their relatives,

Who

yet linger in this upper world.

Such was the belief and practice of heathenism.


the corpse was committed to
its last

As soon

as

resting-place, the

mourners

selected five old cocoa-nuts, which were successively opened,

and

the water poured out upon the ground

These nuts were then

wrapped up in leaves and native cloth, and thrown towards the grave ; or, if the corpse were let down with cords into the deep

chasm of " Auraka," the nuts and other food would be successively

thrown down upon

it.

Calling loudly each time the

name

of the departed, they said,


the
fifth

"Here

is

thy food; eat it"

When

nut and the accompanying "raroi," or pudding, were " thrown down, the mourners said, Farewell we come back no
!

more

to thee

"
i

88

Myths and Songs.

Seventeen years ago, Arikikaka, the last heathen of Mangaia, The old man a consistent church member. lost his only son

was inconsolable
heathen
parent?

at his loss.

How

could

it

be otherwise with a
with
his

The

corpse was buried


island.

mother's

deceased

relatives,

on the west of the

The

friends

had

dispersed to their respective homes.

day or two

after, Ariki-

kaka and
at

his wife

walked with

difficulty across the island, arriving

dusk

at the grave of their

beloved son, with a basket of cooked

food and some unopened cocoa-nuts. With many tears and affectionate words they called upon their boy to eat the food and drink the nuts (carefully opened for the convenience of the ghost
at the grave,

and the contents poured out upon the

earth),

which
tree*

they had

carried six miles.

The aged couple


;

slept

under a

close to the last resting-place of their son

and

at

dawn on

the

following morning departed.


in the faith

How sad
!

that, whilst their son died

and hope of the Gospel, the parents should


It
is,

cling to

however, pleasing to add that in May, 1865, Arikikaka and his wife were baptized. In this case "at eventime there was light"

the effete superstitions of a bygone age

A few years previous


Cook
Mangaia.

to the discovery of the island

in 1777, Ngara, priest of Motoro,

by Captain was paramount chief of

His nephew Vera died,

it

was believed, in consequence

of having incurred the anger of that divinity by setting fire to a forest of thatch trees growing on the eastern part of the island.

Not

were sacred, but the oronga (urtica, argentea), growing between them, was considered to be "the hair of Motoro."
that

the

pandanus

trees

Very imposing funeral


the relatives

rites

were performed for

this lad,

on

account of his relationship to Ngara.

As

in the case of Veetini,

are said to have paraded the island in the vain

Ve&tini ; or,
hope of Vera's

The Immortality of

the Soul.

189

The body was conveyed to Tamarua and return. thrown down Raupa, a fearful chasm, 150 feet deep, and having communication with the sea. The entrance to this gloomy place
is

in the Mission premises at that village.

The

sorrowful parents
for

slept in a cave hard by, in the

hope

that

Vera would return

day, in answer to their passionate laments.

Next day the

disap-

pointed

parents, followed

by a long procession of mourners,

returned to their dwellings.

DIRGE FOR VERA


COMPOSED BY UANUKU.

A DEATH-TALK.
OR PARTIAL WEEPING.

"

TIAU,"

CIRCA 1770.
TUMU.
Solo.

INTRODUCTION.

Turokia

Vairorongo
te aiai

At

Vairorongo, sun

towards the setting

Noo mai koe

Ka

acre au, e

Manga

e,

Tarry with, us this evening. I go far away, mother,


Chorus.

I te ara taurere ki Iva e

By

a perilous path to spirit-land.

PAPA.
Solo.

FOUNDATION.

Pare mai Vera i te kau ara, Ariua te mata i Mangaia. Te karo nei i o metua, Te roe" nei i te ao e"
!

Halt, Vera, on thy journey

Turn thine eyes towards Mangaia. Look again at thy parents,

Whose

days are spent in

tears,

Wherever the body might be buried, the spirits of the dead assembled at Vairorongo, facing the setting sun, to await the proper period for their departure. " " " Iva " its true spirit-land Nukuhiva) I have rendered meaning here. (
1

190
E niaki i te

Myths and
Chorus.
tere
i

Songs.

Anakura e acre ei
TAI.

Resting in the Red-Cave by the way.

UNUUNU
Turokia e

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
Solo.

Towards the
Chorus.
i

setting

sun

tona are e

is

his

home

I tona are, e manga kai na Vera. Tu a rau kura Tueva akatapu.

A home and food in plenty for Vera.


Tueva, encircled with red leaves, mourning.
Solo.
is

Tu

a rau kura Tueva akatapu.


te ike

Tueva, encircled with red leaves,


mourning. Alas! the death-flail
beating.

is

Kua tangi

a Mueu
e Vera e
!

of
thee,

Mueu

is

Kua taroS ua miringa,

Weeping, we follow
Vera.

beloved

Ka aere au,

Manga
!

e,

I go far away, mother,

Chorus.
I te ara taurere ki Iva e

By a

perilous path to spirit-land.

PAPA.
Solo.

FOUNDATION.
ara,

Pare mai Vera


Etc.

te

kau

Halt, Vera, on thy journey.


Etc.
etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

UNUUNIT RUA.
Solo.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.
Rush
Chorus.
forth,

Vaia
te

ma e,

te tokerau e

O north-west wind
Bear him gently on his way.

I te tokerau, e ngaa lid ki te iku parapu


1

mai kl

tai.

Awake,
south-west are

south-west
It is fabled

The north-west and

known as " spirit- winds. "


Perchance
it

that the latter restored

Vetini

to his friends.

will restore

Vera

to his sorrowing parents.

Mautara, the grandfather of Vera, was dead at the The name of this song was composed. period (more than a century ago) when " lord of Manthe illustrious chief is put for Ngara, his youngest son, then
gaia."

Vedtini; or.

The Immortality of
Solo.

the Soul.

191

ki te iku parapu

O How desolate is

south-west.

Tei

te turuki

Te Te

tangi nei

mai Vera e a Mautara e

Perchance Vera will return. Even Mautara weeps for thee,


our

tirae tangata i

pou

rai.
e,

home

Ka aere

au, e

Manga
I

go

far

away, mother,

Chorus.
I te ara taurere ki Iva e

By a

perilous path to spirit-land.

PAPA,
Solo.

FOUNDATION.
Halt, Vera, on thy journey, Etc. etc. etc.

Pare mai Vera


Etc.

te

kau

ara,

etc.

etc.

UNUUNU
Kaukau,

TORXJ.
Solo.

THIRD OFFSHOOT.
Skim,
Chorus.

Vera
I te tuaanga to *NTMwlA

e, i

tuaanga e
i

Vera, the surface of the ocean,

nga mata

te tai

Ngake.

The ocean-path once XT- 1-T 1


1

traversed

by

Ngake.
Solo.
i

Porutu te ua

moana, Te toa ranga nuka te atua E tau ai te tere o Vera e


Tei Tikura moana
!

te

Torrents of rain obstruct thy journey, Yet by the aid of a mighty god

The band
reach

led

by Vera

shall safely

Then*
I

home beneath
ocean.

the

glowing

Ka aere au,

Manga
I

e,

go

far away, mother,

Chorus.
I te ara taurere ki Iva e

By a perilous path to

spirit-land.

PAPA.

FOUNDATION.
Halt, Vera, on thy journey etc. etc. Etc.
:

Pare mai Vera


Etc.
1

te

kau ara
etc.

etc.

Ngake was one of

the three

first

slain,

inconsistently represented as

traversing the ocean.

Myths and
UNUUNU
Pokai
A.
Solo.

Songs.
FOURTH OFFSHOOT.

Slowly
Chorus.
te tere e ia tau ai e
!

Kia tau Vera i rangi maanga No Maautaramea te tere i oki mai.

traverse these nigged shores, Ere Vera gain the western skies. Vetini x once returned to earth.
Solo.

Te

tere

oki mai Vera e


i
!

that

Vera might but

revisit earth,

Tei tipurei moana Ka aere au, e

Manga e,

Gliding over the shimmering sea. I go far away, mother,


Chorus.

I te ara tiroa ki Iva e

By a

perilous path to spirit-land.

PAPA.

FOUNDATION.
ara,

Pare mai Vera


Etc.

te

kau

Halt, Vera, on thy journey,


Etc.
etc.
etc.

etc.

etc.

UNUUNU
Ekiato

RIMA.
Solo.

FIFTH OFFSHOOT.
Lash firmly
Chorus.
the outrigger of thy bark, 2

te vaka e kia mau ai e Kia mau ai i Koatu-taii-roa. Noo mai Vera i te tapaa i mua

Ere
!

starting

Linger awhile,
shore
Solo.

on thy long voyage. Vera, on the sea-

I te tapaa

mua
:

'i

te tangi tai
'i

On the beach where


Near
this

the waves beat

I ara

mania
i

kua taatonga

rough path.

Must thou go

Ki

raro

tei

Ka aere
1

Tuatua-pipiki, au, e Manga e,

To

the regions of the sun-setting? I go far away, mother,

which
2

In the original a second name [Maautaramea] I have dropped.


is

is

substitued for Veetini,

Vera's spirit

actually starting.

The canoe

is

on the outer edge of

See that the outrigger is well secured, the reef ready to cleave the billows. What the outrigger is to the canoe, or the voyager will certainly be drowned.
the god is to the soul.

Without

this necessary aid, tread not this treacherous

ocean-path.

Ve&ini ;

or,

The Immortality of
Chorus.

the

SouL

193

I te ara taurere ki Iva e

By a

perilous path, to spirit-land.

PAPA AKAOTI.
Solo.
*

LAST FOUNDATION.

Pare mai Vera i te kau ara, Ariua te mata i Mangaia.

Halt, Vera, on thy journey :

Te Te

kare nei
roe nei
i

te

o metua, ao e
I

Turn thine eyes to Mangaia. Look again at thy parents,

Whose
Chorus.

days are spent in

tears,

niaki te tere

Anakura

e aere e

Resting in the Red-Cave by the way.

AKAREINGA. Ai e ruaoo e E rangai e


I

FINALE.
!

Ai
is

e ruaoo e

!.

E rangai e

The beauty

of this dirge

throughout to the myth of Vetini.


stanza, in the native,

Vetini, occurs, instead


prevent
confusion
of

much enhanced by covert allusions At the conclusion of each the name "Manga," z.e. the mother of of the name of Vera's own mother. To
ideas,

have

throughout

rendered
"

it

"mother."

To

this

day

it

is

said of the dying at Rarotonga^

So-and-so

is passing

over the sea."

The
their

foregoing dirge has been presented exactly as recited at

"death-talks."

On

account of the numerous repetitions,

those succeeding will be given in an abbreviated form.

194

Myths and

Songs.

THE GHOSTS LED BY VERA PREPARING FOR THEIR


FINAL DEPARTURE.
A
"TLA.!!,"

OR PARTIAL WEEPING.
TUMU.
Solo.

BY UANUKU, CIRCA 1770.


INTRODUCTION.
Vera, to the music of the sea.
trees

Akarongo, Vera, i te tangi tai. Reki atu koe i te ara pepe ; Tangi mat paa i Maunuroa.

List,

Beyond yon dwarfed pandanus

The
5

billows are
rocks.

dashing

o'er the

Tutu atu ka acre

Tis time, friends, to depart ;

Chonts.

te uru

matie kura ra e te nau.

Our garments

are mourning

weeds

and flowers.
PAPA.
Solo.

FOUNDATION.
Advance to yonder

Reki atu koe

te ngau rua

E tatari koe i te parapu,


Naku mai paa i tua moana. Te karo nei Mitimiti e,

level rock;

There to await the favouring wind That will bear thee o'er the sea.

(Thy

father) Mitimiti looks

sorrow-

fully

on

Cfiorus*

I te vivi matangi, e taku tere e

The

departing band led

by

thee.

INUINTJ TAI.
Solo*

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
dear Vera,

Akarongo Vera

e,

List,

Chorus,
i

te tangi tai e ?

Kua patai tau

ara,

Na te ura o

Iva

to the music of the a wretched wanderer, Almost arrived at Iva

sea.

Thou

art

Vetini;

or,

The Immortality of
Solo.

the Soul.

195

na

te

uru o Iva
e,

'i.

yes, at Iva

;
;

Mai Iti au, mai Tonga Mai Onemakenukenu ; O te rua mato ngaa ei. Tutu atu ka aere ;

Once from Tahiti, then from Tonga Now bound to the land of ghosts,
Entered though the gaping grave.
'Tis time, friends, to depart
;

Chorus.
te

uru matie kura ra e te nau e

Our garments
and

are mourning

weeds

flowers.

INUINU RUA.
Solo.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.

Ariunga atu e

I turn

my

eyes

Chorus.
I tai enua e; 1 tai enua patiki atu tau vaerua. to another land.

In some other region


rest
!

may my

spirit

Tei koatu

tauri, tei te

ngutu

te rua,

On
Solo.

this trembling stone, at the

edge

of the chasm (I stand)

Tei te ngutu

At
Chorus.
i

the entrance

te

rua

i.

Of
veenga
i

this

dark chasm.

puaka ngunguru,
papa.

tei te

te

My path is over yon


the sea.

black rocks near


sharpest stones

Na rotopu i Vaenga, tei o Tamakoti, E takina aereia e te ui rauono.


Noea ra ? ikonei, na nunga atu Ki te miri,

Over the roughest and

I lead this feeble troop of ghosts. "Whence come we ? We are awaiting

The
Solo.

long-hoped-for

nanu atu
Chorus.
ki te miri

south-eastern

breeze

Tei kopua-reia

tai

ra tomokia.

To

waft
ocean.

us over the

far-reaching

Tei are toka, tu ra

te rae,

We have wandered hither and thither,

196
Tei Teunu
i

Myths and
te kea,

Songs.

ka eke na

tai e,

Stepping lightly on the sea-washed


sandstone.

Na koatu putuputu,
Kua

tei kaiti-te-ra.

Over thickly studded rocks we have


come.
reira,

kapitia e te po, akaroimata

Overtaken by darkness we
weep,

sit

down to

Solo.

Vaka roimata no Vera

A tearful band, under the guidance of


Vera.
drizzling shower Hides from view the heights of the
interior
;

Angiangi te ua i te aiai ; Tairo atu i te tau are no Moke,

At one time a

Kua

parea e te au

tai.

At another we
Tis
Chorus.

are besprinkled with

ocean spray.

Tutu atu ka aere;

time, friends, to depart

te

uru matie kura ra e te nau e

Our garments
and

are

mourning weeds

flowers.

INUINU TORU.
Solo.

THIRD OFFSHOOT.
Press forwards

Acre tu

Chorus.

Raumatangi e. Kia ripoia na Tautuaorau.

on our journey;

Take care
Solo.

that

we

miss not the way.

E kake

Auveo,

Yonder
Chorus.

is

the landing-place,

o te mata o Katoanu, te ui ava e ngaro, o Taumatatai.

Auveo,

The

entrance of which
to find.

is

so difficult

Tera

to metua,

There, too,
Solo.
tei

is

my father,
watching our course.

runga

Pepeura.

Taueue o

te ra, tukuroi ki Teone.

The sun

is

low

rest

we

awhile.

Ve&ini;

or,

The Immortality of
Chorus.
te takai,

the Soul.

197

E mania ra tau vaevae


Kua avanga Raupa.
Anuenue
roe.
i

Our

feet

are
;

worn out over

these

stones

Yonder

Omoana, e tangata matiroei

is the gloomy cave Raupa. Let us move slowly on our way.

Tei Tuatuakare,

raro

Auneke

We
Gaze
Soh.

friendless

ghosts have reached

Auneke.

Eanga ki runga ; eanga ki raro ;

Look eastward ; look westward


at the setting sun.

E anga ki te ra e ana atu.


Ana
atu paa Mitimiti, e

amoremore

Ah

Mitimiti

is

following

hard

behind,
I to miringa; takiri

koe kia oki mai

Beckoning me to

return.

Tepukatia. Tutu atu ka aere 5

Noo mai

paa

Here

let

us halt awhile.

'Tis tune, friends, to depart j

Chorus.
te

uru matiekura rae te nau e

Our garments are mourning weeds


and
flowers.

INUINU

A.
Solo.

FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
Thy
Chorus.

Ka

iia

Vera ra

e,

feet,

Vera,

e te rau kovi

e,

Mataratara
gata.

Vavau,

te

nooanga

tan-

are entangled with wild vines. Art thou bound for Vavau, the home of ghosts
?

1 Rangioroia,

Over
Solo*

mai Rangi
Chorus.

the foaming billows

panakonui
Tei Omaoma-atu-na, o
te ara tai rau,

wilt thou voyage ?

Thread now thy way through groves


of pandanus,

O te enua tuarangi,
Ariki Utakea
i

te Omangatiti;
tuturi.

The

favourite haunt of disembodied


Spirits
;

Takanga-a

Near where the

royal Utakea landed,

98

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

Na Ooki

aitu ki te

Tikiriri e atua, ei

papa o Aumea. ara paa rxoku e,

The

A level beach laved by the sea.


cricket-god
is

chirping to direct

thy path,
I angamakoitia, ki tuki naupata, I te pou o Atuturi, turi ai

Through the

thickets to the shore

Where

the spirits of the dead wander.

Kxmkou rouru, e Vera e, Omai tai noku ora e, o


maiore.

Te-ata-i-

Bathe thy streaming locks, Vera. Grant me a new life, O Light of the

morning

Tutu atu ka acre ;

'Tis time, friends, to depart ;

Chorus.

te

nau matie kura ra e

te

nau e

Our garments are mourning weeds


and
flowers.

INUINU RIMA.
Solo.

FIFTH OFFSHOOT.

Buapua-ariki

Descendant of the kings


Chorus.
i

Mauke-tau,

ofMauke;

Kua

ikiikitia e, e te

matangi au ra

Favoured one, led by a prosperous wind

No

te

tumu

te rangi, tei

Kopuakanae,

From

the root of the skies to these

shores,

Tei Nukuterarire, e angaanga ikonei, Na Mokoaeiau Vaio ra ikonei,


Solo.

Ere taking a long farewell, turn back Idol of my dwelling, remain awhile,

Vaio ake
Taurarea

ia turina

kapara

o te pua

Decked with the buds of sweetscented flowers

e,

raumiremire no Tutuila,

And

fragrant Tutuila,

leaves

brought from
\

Tutu atu ka aere ;

'Tis time, friends, to depart

Chorus.
te uru matie

kura

ra,

e te nau e

Our garments are mourning weeds


and flowers.
FINALE.

AKAREINGA.

Ai e ruaoo e

E rangi

Ai e ruaoo e

rangai e

VeUini;

or,

The Immortality of

the Soul.

199

In this " lament " it is supposed that the spirits of the dead have been marshalled by Vera on the eastern shore of Mangaia, and then weariedly led by him over the rocks and through
the thickets of the southern half of the island, until reaching the point due west, where the entire troop take their final departure " for the shades. Auneke " is a point on the shore about midway between the rising and setting sun. The poet evidently places Vavau, Tonga, and Tahiti in the invisible world!
the father, Mitimiti, represented as chasing of his beloved Vera in this mournful journey of ghosts round half the island The ghosts stop occasionally to refresh themselves, their feet lacerated with the sharp stones over which

Very

beautifully

is

the

spirit

the living can pass only when sandalled. at the thought of leaving earth for ever.
in this sad journey.
hurries forward,

They weep

continually

Many

days are occupied

Mitimiti, taking advantage of these delays,


visible but airy

and almost clutches the ever

form

of his boy, which


sorrowing parent

somehow

eludes the detaining hand of the

PUVAI LEADING A BAND OF GHOSTS TO

THE SHADES.
A
"TIAIT,"

OR PARTIAL WEEPING.
CIRCA 1795.
TUMU.
Solo.

COMPOSED BY IIKURA,

INTRODUCTION.
i

E matangi tu
No

te

nguare

Anakura,

favouring breeze sweeps the entrance of the ghost-cave ;

Puvai, kua roiroi ka tere,

'Tis for Puvai, about to depart.

Chorus.

Kua kake

atu Id te uru kare e

Lightly he skims o'er the crest of the


billows.

2OO
PAPA.

Myths and

Songs.
FOUNDATION.

Solo.

Ei kona

ra,

e au metua

Farewell, beloved parents


1 Let a mourning procession follow

Eva ake

ai

iaku nei
i i

I te naupata Te tangi nei

Taamatangi.
te

Over the rugged shore of the south.


ra,

tama angai

Weep
Cfoorus.

for the son so tenderly natured,

Ka uaki mai

te

matangi ki Iva e

Ere a

fair
!

wind bear

me

to spirit-

land

(literally to Iva).

INUINU

TAI.
Solo.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

matangi tu e

A favouring breeze
Chorus.
i

I te nguare

nguare Anakura.
:

te

e!

sweeps the entrance


ghost-cave Anakura. List to the hum of the ghosts
Solo.

Of the

Kua va

te tuarangi

Kua va Kua

te tuarangi tei Kokirinui e

J
!

Tis the

hum
;

of spirits passing o'er

the rocks

niu aere

Tengaatanga

Ana

That crowd along the beach by Double


Cave.

orua.

Kua

roiroi

ka

tere,

He is about to
Chorus.

depart.

Kua kake

atu ki te uru kare e

Lightly he skims o'er the crest of the


billows.

INUINU RUA.
Solo.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.
Yonder
Chorus.

Te vaka

te

vaka

is

the bark

o Puvai e

the canoe

of Puvai
it
!

Kua

tipoki

te riu

te oa.

Sorrowfully he bends over

That

is

of living friends and relatives, not ghosts.

Ve&tini; or,

The Immortality -of


Solo.

the Soul.

201

Kua tipoki

te riu

te oa'L

Aye, very sorrowfully does he bend


over
it!

Noo mai koe i te ta ia mua, Kua kakau i te kirikiriti


Riu atu
te aro ki tera enua.

Take thy

seat, son, in front.

Kua Kua kake

roiroi

ka

tere

Clothed in ghostly network ; l And turn thy face to yonder land. He is about to depart.
Chorus.

atu ki te uru kare e

Lightly he skims o'er the crest of the


billows.

INUINU TORU.
Solo.

THIRD OFFSHOOT.
Let a south-west wind
Chorus.

Parepare

tai

te

parapu e

ruffle

the sea.

I te parapu, vaia

Na

mai i te tokerau Tiki e oe atu ; na Tiki e oe atu.

Awake

thou north-west.

Tiki, sister of VeStini, leads the way.


Solo.

Motuanga enua Mangaia no Puvai.

Mangaia

fades

from

the

sight

of

Puvai,

Kua peke ke i nga

taoa.

Driven away by the violence of the


winds.

Kua

roiroi

ka

tere

He
Chorus.
!

is

about to depart.

Kua kake

atu ki te uru kare e

Lightly he skims o'er the crest of the


billows.

INUINU

A.
Solo.

FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
Beloved child
Chorus.

Tama

aroa e

na Motuone e Na Motuone, tangi mai e I te uru o te maunga,


1

of Motuone

Of Motuone,

thy weeping mother,


hills

Glance fondly back on the

Network was

said to

be part of the clothing of departed

spirits.

202

Myths and
Solo.
te

Songs.

I te

uni o

maunga

'i.

Ka ano
Kia

ki Tamarua'i,

And mountains Come back to


marua,

of the interior. the fair vale of Ta-

tae ki

Angauru. Kua roiroi ka

The
tere

born. place where thou wast He is about to depart.

Chorus*

Kua kake

atu ki te uru kare e

of the Lightly he skims o'er the crest billows


!

AKAREINGA. E rangai Ai e ruaoo e


!

FINALE.
e
!

Ai e ruaoo e

E rangai e

This song

is

to Vera. precisely parallel with those relating

Nephew
shades.

to Potiki,
is

his early death

Puvai by supreme temporal chief of Mangaia, of a band off ghosts to the qualified to lead

Great honours were paid to him as the near relative of the living ruler of the island

From a
affecting
:

Christian point of view the following

" lament "

is

very

KOROA'S LAMENT FOR HIS SON KOURAPAPA *


(Endearingly shortened into

"

Ura").

Circa 1796.

FOR THE "DEATH-TALK OF KOURAPAPA."


TUMI7.
Solo.

INTRODUCTION.
KLoroa gave the command feast of cocoa-nuts, like Tueva's

Karangaia e Koroa

e,

E pa akari na Tueva,
Na Ura
1

of old,
oki
i

te rua e

For dear Ura

in his

grave j

Koura-papa = small shrimp.

" Like Tueva's of old. "

' '

Like Tiki's.

"

The former was

the father, the

latter the lovely sister,

of the mythical Vetini. The feast was "all dry," "because it was ill prepared, and lay exposed for " an entire day at the entrance to the gloomy cave Auraka." At nightfall the food was wrapped up in native cloth and thrown down to the corpse.

Vedtini; or.

The Immortality of the Soul.


Chorus.
rara e

203

Jutungakai na Tiki oki

A feast for ghosts,


Solo.

all dry, like Tiki's.

PAPA.

FOUNDATION.

Tai

kume au
to

te

ngutupa,
!

At
*'

the entrance to thy sad shout

home

''eia

pakuranga

"ei

raro

Ura

te taeva

Here is the feast For Ura who lies at the bottom

Chorus.
te

enua
TAI.

la,

e vae

of the deep cave."

INUINU

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
Solo.

Larangaia ra e

'Twos Koroa
Chorus.

Koroa
)

nei e

that gave the

command.

Koroa

nei,

Kua rongo

e,

Alas

Koroa heard

(his

boy) lament-

lua kai ongutungutu,

" The
Sob.

ing ghosts fought over

my food

lua kai ongutungutu, aore au e tongi ana. lua kirikiritia e te ueuera

Fought

so fiercely that I did not get


*

taste,

kaka
ara nei.

Evil spirits
chief)

stole

it all

away.
let

(Their

>

Naukino, na pakoti

i te

Nau-the-Bad would not


near it"

me

get

Na Ura

oki

te rua e

'Twas for Ura in


Chorus.

his grave

Putungakai na Tiki oki


1

rara e

We bore a feast,
"
"

all dry, like Tiki's.

Evil spirits," more literally, bright evil spirits ; but brightness is in These "Dii inferi"at night became or ideas associated with goodness. tminous ; not so the unfortunate human spirits that go down to their abode.
et these spirits are

"

odies

had been thrown

supposed to linger a while about the cave where their dead ; the period for their final departure to the shades not

aving come.

2O4

Myths and
INUINU RUA.
Solo.

Songs.
SECOND OFFSHOOT.

Putungakai

e,

That
Chorus.

feast for the dead,

na Tiki oki e, Na Tiki oki na Ura. Te porea mai i te toketoke kura,

like Tiki's

long ago,

Was

designed for our beloved Ura, Who is condemned to feed on red

worms ;
Solo.

I te toketoke

kura

'i,

te viivii taae.

Yes, on earth-worms and other vile


creatures.

Akaatua atu ana oki


potiki.

te tangata, e

tau

Pet child, thou hast taken thy place amongst the gods.

Na Ura

oki

te rua e

'Twas
Chorus.

for

Ura

in his grave

Putungakai na Tiki oki

rara e

We bore a feast,

all dry, like Tiki's.

INUINU TORU,
Solo.

THIRD OFFSHOOT.

Nai kume au ra

At
Chorus.
i

the entrance

te
i

ngutupa e
te

umauma. Voa atu to metua, voa atu to metua e Koroa 'i.


I te

ngutupa pakia

io

'i

to thy sad home I shout, And despairingly beat my breast Thy father Koroa is sadly seeking for
thee.

Solo.

Kua o koe
ueue
;

te

tupu

te

takanga o te

Thou

art

now

compelled to feed on
spirits.

black

beetlts,

Na manga a te tangata mate. Na Ura oki i te rua e

The food

of disembodied
for

'Twas
Chorus.

Ura

in his grave

Putungakai na Tiki oki

rara e

We bore a feast,

all dry, like Tiki's.

Ve&ini;

or,

The Immortality of
Solo.

the Soul.

205

INUINU A

FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
Wait
Chorus.
patiently

tatau atu e

ia

po rima

five

days
another
this.

la po rima e tau ai na

umu manga

And we
feast.

will

prepare yet
will

E kavetere

kua

oti

naropanga;
J

Again and again


Solo.

we do

Kua oti na ropanga % e Koroa i. Purum tau nagarau, e tama akaaroa.


One
atu au
i

Koroa

will not quickly weary. Then, beloved son, our mourning will

be
te kainga.

over,

And
!

finally we'll return to

our dwell-

ings.

Na Ura oki i

te

rua e

'Twas for Ura in Ms grave


Chorus.

Putungakai na Tiki oki

rara e

We bore a feast,
Solo.

all dry, like Tiki's.

INUINU RIMA.

FIFTH OFFSHOOT.
All dry
Chorus.
is

Kua

rara oki ra

thy food

Kua

roia

te karaii

kua roiae! ma te momo'o.

The

relish

with
eat.

it is

and bad; crabs and

block-

birds.^

Ei ko na
1

ra,

kai

ai.

Farewell

The

reference is to the
a.

"

Momo6," a
It

beautiful but small species of the

blackbird, which has of the god


is strictly

pleasing note.
delights to

"Mod" who

was then regarded as the incarnation "Momod" secrete men and things.

This bird is caught with extreme difficulty, being very expert in hiding itself in rat holes, tufts of grass, etc. Its eyes are fiery When the Pakoko tribe went on a murdering expedition, this blackbird red. was supposed, if propitious, to lead the way by a ball of fire lighting up the These pretty birds were regarded as suitable food for the of warriors.
path
dead,
i.e,

" the Mo6-bird."

for dwellers in the

"

**

po

= darkness, on account of
and

their blackness.

Hence

the appropriateness of crabs

besides, crabs, beetles,

and worms

black beetles as diet for the ghosts ; bore into the soil, or crawl about in caves

where the dead

lie.

206

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

Ei ko na

ra,
J

kai

ai,

e Ura,

to

me-

Farewell.

Enjoy thy

feast,

my

Ura.

ringa

i.

Kua akaui maua

to enua.

Pai ia mai to putungakai i te kainga. Na Ura oki i te rua e !

We return no more to thee. We go back to our desolate home.


'Twas for Ura in
his grave

Chorus.

Putungakai na Tiki oki

rara e

We bore a feast,
Ai e ruaoo e

all dry, like Tiki's.

AKAREINGA.
Ai e ruroo e
!

FINALE.
I

E rangai e

E rangai

Kourapapa died

at the age of four or five years,

and was uncle

This was all the conto my worthy native co-pastor Sadaraka. afflicted the could parent Koroa, who was solation heathenism give
associated at that time with his father Potiki in the government of

the island

It

was believed that the ghosts ate the "essence"

(ata)

of these

food

offerings.

The

living friends never

the (like the Chinese) ate

solid residuum.

To do

so would be sacrilege.

ANOTHER LAMENT FOR KOURAPAPA.


BY KOROA, CIRCA
TUMU.
A.D. 1796.

INTRODUCTION.
!

Ua roiroi ka
Naoeoe
te

acre e

Mirimiri Koroa ia rurou

aue a Koi Roimata i te anau.

ready to start. boy. (The rocks) re-echo the cries, Of Koi the heart-broken mother.
little

The

voyager

is

Koroa

is distracted for his

1 This and the subsequent "laments" are given without the solos and With the aid of the preceding specimens, the choruses being marked off. reader will easily see how they were actually chanted.

Veetini; or,
PAPA.

The Immortality of

the Soul.

207

FOUNDATION.
!

Kapitia ra e te matangi i pae ake e Pae ake Ura i ruruta e !

Should an ill wind o'ertake thee, Seek shelter, O Ura, my spiritchild.

A roi te roi o te ngarie,


na kimi motu ke No taua, ia kite e oki mai ? E tere akaonga e Ruru e

Oro

atu

Go on thy way, fated voyager Go seek some other land


;

Then return

to fetch me.

'Tis a spirit pilgrimage,

mother.

UNUUNU MUA.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
Speed, then, on thy voyage to
land,
spirit-

Ka roi te roi

tai

enua e

I tai enua tumiri te ua o te kakara.

Where a

profusion of garlands awaits


tree,
fruit.

thee.

Na te uanga kura koe,

There the bread-fruit

E vae, e tau ai i te kainga, Na te uanga kuru koe, E vae, e tau ai te kainga.


i

Pet son,

is

ever laded with

Yes;

there the bread-fruit

Is for ever in season,

my child.
cries

Mirimiri Koroa ia rurou.

Koroa

is

distracted for his boy.

Naoeoe

te

aue a Koi Roimata i te anau.

(The rocks) re-echo the

Of Koi

the heart-broken mother.

UNUUNU
Tuoro atu e
i

RUA.

tokerau e ! I te tokerau te taka nei i te aanga. E kauaka ia e kauaka tai


te

E kauaka ia
No
te

e kauaka tai

Kaura, e tnamotu no Mangaia,


te

SECOND OFFSHOOT. Awake, thou spirit-bearing winds Gently waft him o'er the ocean. Yonder is a frail bark Yes ; yonder is a frail bark. Tis a canoe full of spirits from Man! J

gaia,

Ua puia e
Mirimiri

aua mei

te

moana.

Koroa

ia rurou.

Hurried o'er the sea by fierce currents. Koroa is distracted for his boy.

Naoeoe

te

aue a Koi
i

Roimata

te anau.

(The rocks) re-echo the cries Of Koi the heart-broken mother.

UNUUNU
Pae ake Ura

TORIU.
e
!

THIRD OFFSHOOT.

ra, i ruruta nei

I ruruta nei tei paenga o Kurarau, Tei paenga o Kurarau,

Oh for a shelter from the tempest On some well-sheltered shore


!

Yes

Pangitia te vaine reua, Ua tae koe! Ua tae Metua


I te maora nui
i

on some well-sheltered shore The mother mourns the dead But thou and thy sister have reached
;
!
:

Onemakenu kenu

The

gathering-place of spirits,

208
Ua iri
te

Myths and

Songs.
we
is

pa kura o Tueva. Koroa ia rurou. Naoeoe te aue a Koi Roimata nui i te anau.
Mirimiri

Whilst

lament, like Tueva of old.


cries

Koroa

distracted for his boy.

(The rocks) re-echo the

Of Koi

the heart-broken mother.

UNUUNU

A.

FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
Prosperous be thy perilous pilgrimage May soft zephyrs waft thee on
!

E tere ia,

e tere akaonga e ! ngai te akarua, aore e tae tika, Aore e tae tikai : kua topa
1 te tere o

Ua

Kovi ia Angatoro. puia e te aua mei te moana.

Maybe thou hast miscarried, Too late to accompany the ghosts Which are hurried o'er the sea by
fierce currents.

Mirimiri Koroa ia rurou, Naoeoe te aue a Koi

Koroa

is

distracted for his boy.

Roimata nui

te

anau.

(The rocks) re-echo the cries Of Koi the heart-broken mother.

AKAREINGA.

FINALE.
!

Ai

e ruaoo e

E rangai

Ai

ruaoo e

E rangai e

DEATH-LAMENT FOR VARENGA, DAUGHTER OF


AROKAPITI.
COMPOSED BY KOROA, CIRCA 1817.
TUMU.
Tei
Iti au,

INTRODUCTION.
e,

e Varenga

Varenga,
i

who came from


l

the

" sun-

rising,"

Kua kite Aro kua noo

tane
!

Avaiki,

Te ania mai e te ata e Te Vrvitaunoa ra tau moe


PAPA.

In spirit-land is now wed. She was wooed by a Shadow Such was my dream on the mountain.
!

Tau moe

ra tei

Iti,

e Arokapiti e
!

My

FOUNDATION. dream was of thee at the sunrising

Uira e rapa ia maine e


1

Thy form

da2zling as lightning.

or

" the

Referring to the ancient


sun-rising/'

home of the tribe of Tane at " Iti " ( Tahiti), The " ancestral marae " where her remains were laid
due
east)

was expressly

selected (being

with an eye to this circumstance.

Vedtini ; or,

The Immortality of
i

the

SouL

209

Kimi koe i te kavainga O mata ngaae, tau Itirere

te

ao e
!

Thou wert watching for the dawn When I awoke from my sleep

Tei te enua taparere maunga e

On the

steep mountain side.

UNUUNU
Tei
Iti

TAI.
!

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
Varenga,
Yes,

oki ra o Varenga nei e

who came from "the


rising:"

sun

Varenga nei

my

Varenga
cherish

Na Mini e
Kua

akarito kia tupu a vaine,


'i.

Mini 1

will

thee

in

thy

Kia tupu a vaine


tioria e

maidenhood Thy lovely maidenhood


:

te are

tangata
nei.

Pan-

In

life
all,

thou wert the admiration of


light steps wandered.
1

goauri

Tei Vaekura,

tei

Vaikaute
!

Wherever thy

Te Te

ania

mai

e te ata e

Vivitaunoa ra tau

moe
RUA.
!

Now thou art wooed by a Shadow Such was my dream on the mountain.

UNUUNU
Enua i enua
e,

taparere e

SECOND OFFSHOOT. Thou wast buried in the


marae

ancestral

Taparere i Maungaroa, Tei nunga i te tuaronga ; Tei nunga i te tuai-onga % Tei Tuarangi, tei Araturakina e
Tei Rinui aina
J

On the side

of steep Maungaroa,
fern.

Hidden by the tall fern Aye, hidden by the tall


!

Perchance thy
spot,

spirit is revisiting the

?
!

Te Te

ania mai e te ata e

Vivitaunoa ra tau

moe

Hovering amongst the wild rocks. Now thou art wooed by a Shadow Such was my dream on the moun!

tain.

UNUUNU TORU.
Kua
1

THIRD OFFSHOOT.
!

veru te are

Kauava e

Thy

house

in the west is decayed.

It is

Miru
law.

to forego

hoped that the great beauty of this damsel will induce the dread her horrid repast, and in its stead adopt her as her daughter-in-

2 Near the sea, on the western part of this island, is a cave called "Kauava," where some families of ghosts loved to congregate. In this neighbourhood a house had been set up for the special accommodation of this But it is now hopelessly decayed, she is about to distinguished spirit.
,

2io
Tei Kauava, kua

Myths and
oti i te akatu,

Songs.
the gathering-place of ghosts
this
is

At

home,
thine
ancestors,

E nga tupuna kia kioro ua ra


Kia kioro ua
ra'i ia aiai,

Built

by

where
the

spirits

Rest

awhile

and chatter in

E kaunuku atuai io

Tumaronga,

evening ; Or wander about at the edge of the


cliffs
;

E niaki mai i te uru mato.


Te ania mai e te ata e Te Vivitaimoa ra tau xnoe e
!

Or

sit

on the stones gazing


art

at the

interior.

Now thou
!

Such was
tain.

wooed by a Shadow my dream on the moun'

AKAREJNGA.
Ai
e ruaoo e
!

FINALE.
!

E rangai e

Ai

ruaoo

E rangai e

LAMENT FOR MOURUA


(THE FRIEND OF CAPTAIN COOK).

BY UANUKU. CIRCA 1780.


TUMU.
INTRODUCTION.
a spirit-dwelling at Imogo Tis the burial-place of Kavoro, In a shady grove. There we dug his grave ; There the red soil was thrown up. How bitter the widow's grief
There
;

Kua

tu te are

Imogo

is

enua koe no Kavoro,


tupuria e te rakau.
te
te

Kua

ukenga i nunga one kuru i erne


'i

'i
!

taua nei te aroa

tangi e

PAPA.

FOUNDATION.
e
!

Ukea mai Kavoro


1 te rua e
i

But Kavoro was disinterred

tanu

ai.

Was

taken out of the grave where he

had

lain.

descend finally to nether- world. Ghosts from this cave, when the coral tree blossomed, took their departure by leaping from a rock in the Mission premises to a smaller one on the inner part of the reef; thence to the outer edge of the reef; and then tripping over the ocean, like Vetini, disappeared with the sun in nether-world. Although these disembodied spirits avoid the fragrant but fatal bua tree, they cannot escape Miru, mistress of the shades.

Veetini ; or,
Kua Kua
eteia te ara

The Immortality of
The
;

the Soul.

211

mo
mokotua

teeth all exposed

vai te ivi

te

Kakaro

Kua

io au e ngaro iaaku te angaanga e

His form, oh, how wasted, As we gazed on him


!

Now

so mournfully changed

UNUUNU
Kua
Kua Kua Kua
tu te are e tei

TAI.
e
!

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

Imogo

Tei Imogo, e enua koe no Kavoro.


otinga atu na, otinga atu na 'i.

There is a spirit-dwelling at Imogo, For there our Kavoro was buried. There we parted
;

tanu kere

uri ra ki te

rua e

Aye, parted for ever Shallow was the grave where we


!

buried him,

O te ukenga nunga O te one kura erue


i i

i
!

There we dug his grave ; There the red soil was thrown
up.
!

taua nei te aroa tangi e

How bitter

the widow's grief!

UNUUNU
Uri mai te aro e
1 to
i

RUA,
!

to vaine e

vame

ia Turuare,

SECOND OFFSHOOT. Look once more at thy wife At thy beloved Turuare 1
;

1 The night Mourua (Kavoro) was slain, Turuare, the most beloved of his three wives, and her little son Taingarue, were with him in the fishing hut on The father feared lest his little the beach which they temporarily occupied.

boy should be

struck, but

he escaped unhurt.

bravely stripped off her blows aimed at her husband.


efforts

who

own

Not so the mother of Taingarue, clothing in order to break the force of the For a time she was successful ; but, despite the
fell,

of this heroic

woman, Mourua

the wife's

arm being broken

in the

fray.

Upon
carried

Mourua came

the retirement of the exultant party of Potai, the elder son of to Turuare's help. The body of the slain warrior was laboriously

by a very circuitous route, so as to escape observation, to a gorge called In performing this last Imogo, half a mile from the scene of murder. office of love, the son had at first only the aid of Turuare, who was herself suffering from the anguish of a broken arm ; but afterwards friends arrived from the interior. A grave was speedily dug with their iron- wood spades, and
the
grave.
in several folds of native cloth, was laid in the Instead of filling it with earth, it was merely covered with a large stone, so as to elude the notice of his foes. It happened that the women of that part of the island, when employed in

body of Mourua, wrapped

collecting candle-nuts, availed themselves of this large stone for shelling them.

212
Kua peka
Kua peka
Angi nga
te

Myths and Songs.


rima ka akauta, rima ka akauta 'i. rima te mou.
1

She

whom
arms,

thou once clasped in thy

te

Intwining her in thy fond embrace.

rua, tauia

We
The

who lived now part,

so happily together,

Kua

rikarika te

tama

te toa akargre ,

Tamaki

tutai e,

tamaki a ta e

cruel spear slew thee, to the horror of thy son. Thou wast attacked by stealth in the
night,

Oi atu koe

vao,
te

kua pa
mate
e

ra, kiritia,

thy wife), "Escape, (Entreating leave me, for I am struck,


I

Tukua o au no

am doomed

to die

"
!

te

mate

la

tangi no

Kavoro
rai
i

i tai.

Thus perished beloved Kavoro by


the sea.

Tei Nukutaiparia, te vai

reira.

His bleeding corpse lay on the sandy


beach.

Naai

e takitaki ?

Taua ka apai
e
!

Who
And

shall

bear
it

it

Wife and son


foes shall find
it

will carry

away,

Ka uuna kia ngaro


Tupeke atu na mamao,
te
e,

hide

it
!

where

never

tupeke atu na, kia

Bear him, aye, bear him far away 5

kimi te mataku, o te kimi te mataku,


te

So

that if carefully sought


foes,

by

his

Ka kitea i

ngara anga.

His body shall ne'er be found.

The family felt so sure that Mourua must be dreadfully annoyed by the incessant noises over his head, that they disinterred the body ; which, although in an advanced state of decay, was re-anointed with fragrant oil and re-invested
fine white cloth. In a few days it was borne across the island to Tamarua, and finally thrown down the deep and gloomy chasm Raupa. night or two after, one of the sons had a dream, in which Mourua reproached his relatives for the bad treatment he had received at their hands, for no sooner had his body reached the bottom of Raupa, where so many of his own victims

with

had been

so unceremoniously hurled at different times, than the slain rose up,

and

most vigorously pummelled his bones until they became intolerably sore ! However, it was too late to remove him again. The motive for letting the corpse down Raupa was to prevent its falling into the hands of his numerous
Ivring enemies.

Vedtini ; or,
Kua
aite te po,

The Immortality of
i tai,

the

SouL

2 13

kua popongi
i

Night is wearing away. beach


te

On

the

Kua aenga
vaine.
I raro
i

te ata

te

ngongoro a
teitei te

The

first

streak of morning reveals


trees,

the widow's tears.

te

roroutu

kua

ruru

Concealed amongst the


blingly

trem-

I te

kakenga
tokoraa

Katoe ki runga

te

They climb
top

the rocks.

On yon level

Ki

te utu

a Terimu, taukapua tatou

They repose beneath the shade of


the utu tree, 1

Tei Tapataparangi. Tei Atupa te ara


rua.
;

Apai
te

tu

na

uta,

Near the brow of the


Yonder
is

hill.

Again
:

they take the corpse.

kimi nei

te

the narrow path


it

select

a
at

grave.
?

Eiia ra tanu ai

Ei Imogo,
!

Where

shall

be?

Let

it

be

Kia

tae

Tuku

io,

mai au i te e Teau

veivei aere e
!

Imogo, Where I can often come

Koia

te rua kia

Lay him
Pile

gently down,
the

to weep. Teau, in the

akaaka.
Taaturia te koatu.

lowly grave.

Akaruke atu

ia

up

stones.
!

Farewell,

Kavoro.

O O

te te

ukenga i nunga 'i one kura i erue.


'i

Kavoro There we dug his grave, There the red soil was thrown
up.
!

taua nei te aroa

tangi e

How bitter thy widow's grief


THIRD OFFSHOOT.

UNUUNU
Taingarue e
!

TORU.

rave ake koe.


e taua ariki
!

O
!

Taingarue, mayst thou be


tected
!

pro-

E rave ake koe,


1

Mayst thou

Kia karo ake Nekaia

Be loving

live, pet son to thy brother,

Nekaia

2
!

The noble Barringtonia tree. "Nekaia" was the eldest daughter


this

composed

death-lament

for

his

of Mourua, whose husband, Uanuku, warlike father-in-law. Their son

relative Taingarue.

" Tiki," is adjured to take under his protection his young "Patiatoa," or Patiatoa ( pierced-with-a-spear) died of measles in

before his death, he was admitted to the Church upon a profession of his attachment to Christ. I well recollect his bent and venerable figure the day he came to be a candidate. He wa& a priest, and a special depository of all the lore of idol-worship. He was a " koroma1854, at an advanced age.

Not long

214

Myths and
!
!

Songs.
!

Kia karo ake Nekaia 'i Na Patiatoa e uuna 'i Etai ra no vaevae, e taua ariki, E maru aina iaau ?

Ah

Nekaia, be gentle to him.

Patiatoa, too, will shield thee,

O te ukenga nunga O te one kura erue.


i i

'i

For many a day to come, dear child. Will he be safe in thy hands ? There we dug his grave. There the red soil was thrown
up.

O taua nei te aroa


UNUUNU
Okitumurua
I te e
i

'i

tangi e

How bitter thy widow's grief!


FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
!

A.

te

tanumanga e
J

second time thou wast buried,


!

tanumanga
teiia ?

Apai au
Tei

Tei te rua taeva.

Committed to the earth Whither shall we bear thee? some deep chasm
:

To

te

rua taeva

'i.

Apaina

atu
te

Kavoro

nei.

Kua pe

te te

papa e vai ai, atikauria. ukenga i nunga 'i, one kura i erue.
'i

To some fathomless fissure. Come, let us carry Kavoro there, for His body is fast crumbling to dust. There we dug his grave. There the red soil was thrown
up.

taua nei te aroa

tangi e

How bitter thy widow's


FINALE.

grief

AKAREINGA.
Ai
e ruaoo e

E rangai e

Ai

e ruaoo e

rangai e

tua," or instructor of kings

a peculiarly sacred office.

It

was a striking

homage to Christianity to see this aged man give the lie to all that had given him rank and fame amongst his countrymen during a long life, and when past the ordinary term of human life, come and sit humbly at the feet of Jesus. But when the Sabbath came for Patiatoa to partake of the tokens of His Saviour's dying love for the first time, he was too weak to walk so far. His sons extemporized a platform of a number of green branches, and carried the aged disciple
where he received the ordinance of the Lord's Supper and last time in his long eventful life. The "second offshoot " is called "a surprise" (unuunu rako), on account of its great length, and because the weeping is continuous. The fact is, the
for the first

to the foot of the pulpit,

One

song evinces blank, hopeless sorrow and tears from the beginning to the end. of Vera's laments also contains a verse or two of " surprise."

Ve&ini ;

or,

The Immortality of

the Soul.

215

A SPIRIT-JOURNEY.
A DIRGE FOR PUKUKARE AND KOURAPAPA, BY THEIR FATHER
KOROA, CIRCA 1796.
TUMU. Te io kikino o tau potiki, Kua pa te rakau
Ki
te

Thy god,
!

INTRODUCTION. pet child, is a bad one ; For thy body is attenuated.


days.

miro

ia

vero

mate ua
e
!

This wasting sickness must end thy

Ki, rave atu

na koe, kare

Thy form once


changed
!

so plump,

now how

PAPA.

Moe araara Pukukare e reire Ua tauria e te maremare Ua tupo ua ngonga ua rai.


" Teia
au, e

FOUNDATION. The nights of Pukukare are sleepless Are spent in coughing and pain.
I

Ruru

e,

Taka

e, tei

Avaiki

te

ka eke, atu moenga."


TAI.
!

Panting foi breath, he gasps out " Mother, I am going to leave you. My rest will be in spirit-world."
FIRST OFFSHOOT.

UNUUNU
Te
io
!

te io ra e
!

kikino e

Ah, that god


!

that

bad god
child
is

Kikino ra, e vae Kai akakorekore Turanga e

Inexpressibly bad,
thee,

my

The god "Turanga"


Although only

devouring

Ta

ta

keke mai e
i

partially his

own.

Ua

taka te eka

te atua

o Rurungapu.
!

am

disgusted with the god of thy mother.


for

E tika paa tai rangi e Tai manuiri ei akarongo Ki te miro ia vero i mate ua
Ki, rave atu

Oh,
!

some other Helper

Some new divinity, to listen To the sad story of thy


disease
!

wasting

na koe, kare

Thy form

once so plump,
!

now how

changed

UNUUNU
Akaete
te
i

RUA.
toira e
1

SECOND OFFSHOOT.

maki

e,

ua

Thy
Like

disease

went on

increasing.

Ua

toira

to kaki e tuarangi

demon

squatting

on thy

shoulders,

2l6
1

Myths and Songs.


Was
To
Thou wast
gain
the swelling on thy neck, fain to be fanned, relief from burning fever

Ko te ua o Taa Mei te ua o Taa, me tairia mai, Kia marekaeka, ua toko auau Mei toko auau ra Ua kakau i te vai o Kuanuku, No Rongo paa, no Tangaroa,
1 !

A fever sure to return.


Thou wast loved in the sacred streams Of Ruanuku, Rongo, and Tangaroa,
Sometimes hopes of thy recovery Vainly flattered thy fnends. Again thy body wasted away,

Ka puaki
I to kiri,

e mama ki nunga mei nunga ra i to kiri. Rikarika te mate ia vero. te rua tapu o te rua noa

And
Puku-

the mouths of ancestral caves


to

Na
Ua

tuataka
kare.

te

motu anga

ia

Seemed

gape for our Pukukare.


is

rakaraka te io Ngariki.

The god (Motoro) of Ngariki


raged.

en-

1 moria e ao ia matengatenga, Norea-norea, norea te kiko.

Wherefore

And
At

E vae,

Reia-reia, reia e mana ! kua tae koe i te oreore

this pining death, thy flesh ever wasting away. length thou takest a long flight
child, ere
loftiest

Dear

la Ikurangi e enua kai marama,

The

heights of

now thou hast reached Mount Ikuitself is

rangi,

E enua kai marama no Tonga-iti, Na Tonga ra, na veravera o Iti ngaru


erue.

Where
-

the

moon

devoured
Tahiti.

By

the gods from

Tonga and

Ka mimiti ki Ka

te aro

o Vatea

Thou

shalt enter the presence of great

Vatea.
oki au

A oti te ariki o Tonga

go home now. So, king from Tonga.


wilt visit

too, will the

Ua kake atu na i katoa i te taurere, Ua taparere i Enuakura na Oarangi


Ei ingoa manuiri
tei

Thou

hast entered the expanse

And
!

"

the-land-of-red-par-

rot-feathers,"

Tatangakovi au
tai,

Te

kai rnaira
i

te

au
i

Where Oarangi was once a guest Thou feedest now on ocean spray,

I te pia paa

te vai

Vaikapuarangi,

And

sippest fresh water out of the

rocks,

Ua Ua
Te

tunoko
aiai

te matoroa,
i

Travelling over rugged


e
!

cliffs,

akarongo

te tangi tai tei

ua

ra oa te

Aarua vaerua mato

I te naupata, ua takangaia.

To the music of murmuring billows. Thy exile spirit is overtaken By darkness at the ocean's edge.
Kourapapa there
sleeps.

Kourapapa,
turukia'i!

tei

Opapa

te

ngai

All three

Ve&ini;
Tei Opapa te ngai
i

or,

The Immortality of
i

the Soul.

217

turuki ai
te ata ata

Stood awhile to gaze wistfully

Nga

tokotoru.
ra.

Ua kakaro

At

the glories of the setting sun.

I te

opunga 'tu e Tireo ma te Giro. Ua iterere nga po o te atua ra e Ua tau ua 'i e te enua kino i raro.
I

Moonless nights shall pass, ere The fatal one shall arrive

pa te umere, uaua, oaoa. Oai te akatu ? Oai te akatu Koouou aere i Tuatuakare

To conduct you to the dismal shades. The denizens will be astonished


At the arrival of you, pet children. The ghosts sorrowfully crowd round

I te uiui matangi, tauoaoaia ra

Whence

the spot, the wings of the

wind
where

shall

bear

E te Iva tureture i te umu kavakava Tei Ovave aina e ariki tua rire,
Karekare au e
!

Them

to great spirit-land,

A dreadful oven awaits all who


Pass o'er the ocean.

AKAREINGA. Ai e ruaoo e E rangai


!

FINALE.
e
1

Ai e ruaoo

E rangai

INTRODUCTION TO THE FETE OF RIUVAKA.


COMPOSED BY KIRIKOVI, CIRCA 1760.
Sob.

Tane metua i Avaiki Tu mai i to akari


1

Great parent Tane of the shades, 2


Rise, eat this feast
!

"Pukukare" was
"the third"

older than the "pet Kourapapa."

sister is

referred to in this song,

A deceased young which pertains to the " death the praises of his deity are

talk of Kourapapa."
8

Riuvaka was a worshipper of Tane,

Hence

throughout this "Introductory Song." Kirikovi was supreme temporal chief of Mangaia at the date of the discovery of the island by Captain Cook, in 1777. The "parent Tane," was "Tane-papa-kai," Le. Tane~$Uer~up~of-food, son of Papa.
celebrated

2l8

Myths and Songs.


Chorus.

Eiaa te rua

ia

Tiki

Wherefore the chasm of Tiki ?

Ei poani

ia Avaiki.

To
metua.
?

shut

down

the

natives

of

Tueva aka-itu

te eva

te

Avaiki (nether-world). Tueva, who seven times lamented for


his boy,

Ae

eaa toou ara

te

ao nei

Asked,
this

Why

didst

thou

return to

world ?

I ana

mai au

te

kave

I te pakuranga

ma te meringa,

I came (said he) to instruct you In making food-offerings to the dead,

Meringa mai Avaiki e, Meringa mai i o tatou metua E noo i te ao nei. Ei aa ?

Offerings to those in spirit-world Gifts from their relatives

Who
Solo.

yet linger in this upper world.

Oai

te roa

te eiva, e

Tane?

Wherefore

this delay in

thy dance,

Tane?
Chorus.

Oi

te rangi

Orovaru ?
mataotao
?

vaia

Is

it

fiat

of the gods?

Break

Oi
Ei

te rangi

vaia.

through it. Is it the lowering clouds of war? Dissipate them.

ei

e Papa, taku

metua

Ha! Hal Great Papa


mother.

is

my

(Tane's)

E Avaiki
le uiia o

Ae, e Papa, oro atu koe, o, akaatua mai


ai

But why, Papa, didst thou descend To Avaiki, to obtain the honours of
a goddess ? 1 thou hast shaved thy head 1 Should it be asked, Which of the

Ae, ua puapau
e,

koe

to

upoko,

Ah

oai te atua

gods
I keinga
'i

o tatou metua ?

Ae, ua ara iaku.

Devoured our parents ? The fault is all my own.


I (Tane)

ariki taotaoaia e te tuarangi,

am

a sovereign possessed of

an
1

evil spirit

in having occasioned this mourning.

Shaving the head was one way of mourning for the dead. Tane glories This is a reference to Tane-Ngakiau,

or Tane-strwmg-for-po'wer^ from Iti (Tahiti), who was believed to kill people Of course, their bodies, however strong prematurely, by devouring their souls. and healthy formerly, quickly faded and died after this
!

Vedtini; or

The Immortality of
!

the Soul.

219

Aitoa, e Rongo, kia unuia te tumu I o tatou metua Aue Aitoa


!
1

Yes, Rongo, I will drink up the souls Of our ancestors. / wzll, without
fail.

Aue

tou e

Papa, taku metua

I fear naught

for great

Papa

is

my

mother.
Call for music

and dance.
Beat the drum

Tataia

i i

te

vaa

la

te tanga o Tane : tuku ai te kaara.

Those
Solo.

lips

1 of Tane which so sweetly speak.

Taipo e

Go
Chorus.

on.

Kua

tangi reka te vaa o Tane.

How pleasant is
(i.e.

the voice of
re-echo.

Tane

the drum).

Rutu ake

te rangi.
Solo.

The very heavens

Ka

rutu au, e

Tan

Tane,
Chorus.

I will beat thy

drum

Oai tua

roi

au e

?
!

But who
I

shall take the lead ?

Papa, taku metua

(Tane), for mother.

Great

Papa

is

my

Second call for music and dance.

E
E E

kakara tuputupu,

Let there be abundance of fragrant


leaves,

kakara kontonga maire titatoe e a kake.

Magnificent, sweet-scented flowers, With garlands of myrtle for the advent


(of Tane).
Solo.

Taipo el
Chorus.

Go on

Uru

are te kakara

tau

ai.

Cull all sorts of fragrant flowers.


Solo.

Ael

Aye!
Hence
the big

1 The dance was specially under the patronage of Tane. drum used on the occasion is called " the voice of Tane."

22O

Myths and
Choms.

Songs.

maire e kakara tuputupu.

Abundance,

too,

of

sweet-scented

myrtle.

Aratea te

ei.

And
Solo.

white pandanus blossoms.

Porutu te vai e

tei te

moana ae

But what
fall?

if torrents

of rain should

Chorus.

Porutu

te vai

te

moana
I

Though

torrents of rain should fall,

Auenei, apopo Tautiti e

To-night and to-morrow


merry.

we

will

be

Ua

kokoti Avaiki

te rau o te

pua

Fairies

from the shades are preparleaves with their

ing;

Tapokipoki rauru e

te maire,

Are entwining myrtle


hair,

E rau maire tapu e no te ariki


Tei nunga te kapa Tane.
i

Robbing the sacred myrtle of the king


of
its sprigs.

te

Kongo Nui no

The

fete

comes

dedicated to

on the nights Kongo and Tane.


off

The

presence.

peerless daughters never failed to honour the fetes of Tane with their Like mortals, they will come attired with sweet-scented flowers
is

and myrtle sprigs. It is pretended that the fairy toilet the dance must for very shame lead off without delay. 2 The night of the 26th of each month was sacied
following to Rongo.

nearly complete

to

Tane

the night

221

CHAPTER

X.

ADVENTURES IN SPIRIT-WORLD.
AN ESCAPE FROM
IN the Sacred
Islet lived

SPIRIT-LAND.
sister

Eneene, his wife Kura, and his

These women were young and fair, and loved to roam the woods in quest of sweet-scented flowers, which they weaved
Umuei.
into wreaths

and necklaces.

On

discovered a noble bua

(beslaria

one occasion they fortunately laurifolia)^ whose far-spreading


yellow
blossoms.

branches were covered with fragrant


sisters-in-law

The

awhile at the foot of the tree discussing the It was clear that Kura should collect on division of the spoil.
sat

one side of the


central branch

tree,

and Umuei on the


this treasure.

other.
It

seemed the

richest prize of all

But the great was eventually

agreed that

Kura should have


set to

The young women


time,
it

became

evident that

work in good earnest ; but, after a Kura was gathering more than fell to
the coveted
chastised for
for

her share.

To

punish her,

Umuei took possession of


Eneene was speedily

central branch.

The

wife of

her covetousness without the intervention of

Umuei ;

the

branch on which she was leaning heavily

in order to steal

some of

222
her
sister-in-law's,

Myths and
suddenly broke.

Songs.
Kura, basket and
all, fell

with
to

the branch of the sacred tree, cleaving the earth,


fall until

and continued

The ghosts, happenshe reached Avaiki, or spirit-world. be on the look-out, caught her in their arms, so that she was not killed by the fall. The captive Kura was hurried off to a
ing to
considerable distance, and at once firmly tied up to the central

post of a house.

It

was

settled

by these

infernals

called

"the

army of Marama
eaten.

"

that to-morrow

A special
Tiarauau.
e
"
!

guard was

set over her,

Kura should be cooked and both blind and aged,


would shout,

named
"

At

regular intervals the old fellow

E Kura

victim was,

"

(O Kura), to which the unvarying reply of the " Tiarauau e (0 Tiarauau). Thus was the blind
!

wakeful guardian assured of the safety of his prisoner. Now Umuei, witnessing the sudden fall and entire disappear-

ance of Kura into the very bosom of the earth, ran weeping to
inform Eneene.
Anxious,
if possible,

to

recover his wife,

he

bethought himself of his god Tumatarauua, himself manufactured out of the bua. Invoking the aid of the god, and carrying it in
his arms,

he went to the very spot where


;

his wife

had

lately

disappeared

and, pronouncing the invocation to the divinity of


tree,

the sacred "bua


land.

the earth opened and he descended to spirithis

Eneene

at

once began his search for


sight.

wife, so

suddenly removed from his

Now

the

beloved young name of that

particular part of nether-world


it

was Marama.

As, fortunately for

was night at the period of his entrance, his presence Eneene, in the shades was unnoticed. Anxiously wandering about from place to place, he heard the loud interrogations of the old blind
keeper and the replies of Kura herself. His lost wife was found ; but the puzzle was how to get her away without exciting the suspicions of Tiarauau and other hungry denizens of the shades,

Adventures in Spirit-World.

223

Cautiously peering in all directions through the darkness, he discovered a cocoa-nut tree with eight cocoa-nuts on it. Eneene

climbed the

tree, carefully

between

his

teeth,

he

silently

plucked a single nut holding the stem descended to the ground. This
:

process was repeated again and again, until the tree was cleared,

without attracting the notice of the ever-watchful Tiarauau.

With

extreme care during that long night Eneene succeeded in husking the nuts and scraping out their contents, too, without noise.

There were
kept prisoner.

eight paths leading to the

house where Kura was

Eneene was
all

careful liberally to scatter the finely

grated cocoa-nut over


itself.

these pathways,

and

close to the house


to

The

rats,

scenting the rich food,

now came by hundreds


quarrelled

feast

themselves.

They even fought and

over the

delicious morsels, not only


roof,

on the ground but on the low-thatched

enough seemed strange

to drive a

man

out of his

senses.

Certainly

it

to Tiarauau that the rats should


this

noisy.

Amidst

turmoil,

Eneene

be so unusually climbed the roof and

cautiously

removed

part of the thatch to discover in

what part of

the house his wife was tied up. " Kura " guardian called out,

At

this

moment

the old blind

Listening intently to the reply,

he discovered that
of the dwelling.
from,

poor trembling young wife was in the middle Advancing to where the voice seemed to come
his

Eneene

carefully
his

removed part of the

thatch, put

hand and touched

imprisoned wife.
that

The

astonished

down his Kura asked

in an undertone, " Your own

"Who

answer,

husband Eneene."

was?" and received the joyful The roof of the house

was

sufficiently

which

his

low to permit the husband to untie the cords by He then drew her up on wife was tied up to the post

the roof to himself.

Eneene now directed her

to descend to the

ground, and run

off as fast as she

could to the foot of the closed

224

Myths and

Songs.
and there

chasm by which she had


to await his arrival.

so summarily entered Avaiki,

Eneene now

let

himself

down through

the low roof,

and

so as to give her time occupied the place of the released prisoner, " " to The old guard called out as usual, O Kura to escape. " O his wife, of voice the which Eneene closely imitating
!

replied,

Tiarauau

"
!

The

trick

was not discovered, either by Tiarauau or

Eneene now thought it the drowsy inmates of the prison-house. Crawling up to be high time to provide for his own safety. the thatch, he cautiously let himself on the in hole the through he could to the appointed rendezvous, ground and ran as nimbly as where he found his trembling wife waiting for him. There was no time to be lost, for he could hear the echo of
Tiarauau's stentorian voice giving the alarm.
his arms,

Clasping his wife in

he offered the following prayer to

his

god

Pupu-kakaoa,
Pureke-pureke, E ao, e ao 1

United in one

fate,
rise,

We ascend,
To To

we

light, to light,

Kua

avatea

clear mid-day.

At these potent words the gloomy rent again opened, and both were borne through the chasm up to this world of ours, where moment later, and the enraged "army it was still daylight " were have would of Marama caught Eneene and Kura, so close

those infernal hosts upon their heels.

The dua was


on account of

in

some

islands used in the manufacture of idols,

its fine

grain

and being almost imperishable.

The
its

the standard faith purport of the myth is to indicate that the souls of the dead congregate on this tree, and on

of the past

branches are borne by a merciless fate to Hades.

Adventures in Spirit-World.

225

THE ADVENTURES OF NGARU.


In Shady-Land 1 (Mania) there lived the brave Ngaru, his

mother Vaiare, and the grandfather of the

lad,

who was no
lizards.
all

other

than Moko, or Great Lizard, the king of all the youthful wife of Ngaru, was the envy of
account of her
fairness.

Tongatea,

Shady-Land on

Thirsting for distinction,

to try his strength against


evil spirits

Ngaru resolved some of the numerous monsters and


learned from his grandfather that home in the

of his time.

He

two

fierce

enemies of mankind had their appropriate

ocean,

viz.

Tikokura, or the-storm-wave^ and Tumuitearetoka, or

a vast shark, which fed exclusively upon human flesh. These evil spirits always went in each other's company; but Ngaru The enterprise seemed hopeless ; for determined to meet both.

who had ever escaped their anger? Ngaru's first care was to provide himself with a surf-board of the lightest description, which he named Orua = the-two, in allusion to the two seagods he was about
to

encounter.

He now
;

inner edge of the reef, carrying his surf-board


surface was perfectly dry.

appeared on the but the wide coral

on a projecting crag of rock to watch over the safety of his grandson, who now advanced to the outer edge of the reef, where the surf ceaselessly beats, and Tikokura and Tumuiloudly cursed these sea-monsters by name. tearetoka smarted under this unprovoked insult, and resolved to
sat

Moko

be revenged on Ngaru without delay. All of a sudden the dead calm which had made the reef dry changed into a furious tempest Long breakers rushed inland far beyond the accustomed bounds
of the
utu
sea,

and spent themselves

against the gnarled roots of the

trees.

Moko

still
1

kept his place on his rocky eminence,


That
is,

the shades.

226

Myths and Songs.


on the
his

whilst his grandson floated daringly out to sea


retreating billow.

crest of the

The

shark-god,

perceiving

opportunity,
for

crept stealthily behind his intended victim,

and was preparing

the final leap which would seal the fate of the impious Ngaru,

when

the quick eye of

Moko
leapt

shouted lustily to the boy,


hearing
this,

"The

caught sight of his dark outline, and shark is under you." Ngaru, high in the
air,

instantly

so that this

first

attempt

failed.

The

foe

now

leapt in the air after

Ngaru

but he

dived under the water and again escaped.

The

disappointed

god

was excessively enraged ; so that it was needful for Ngaru to put forth all his skill and strength to avoid the open jaws of the Tumuitearetoka became crafty; but Ngaru was still monster.
craftier
:

Moko

often giving his pet grandson timely warning of

the insidious approach of the adversary.

For eight weary days


exhausted Ngaru

and nights this put an end to

terrible contest
it

went on,

until the

by throwing

his surf-board to the sea-monsters,

who

gladly retired to their ancient haunts in the deep blue ocean.


delight

Great was the

of the

old grandfather and of

his

countrymen

at the exploit of Ngaru, the first

who had dared the


life.

sea-gods in their

own domain, and

yet

had escaped with

But

the hero himself was sadly battered, and his skin excoriated with

the sharp coral.

He made

his

way home ; but on the road

fell

in

with his

fair
;

wife Tongatea, Arrived at a fountain, they determined

to bathe
first dip.

but a friendly dispute took place


It

who

should have the

was

finally arranged that the

husband -should take the


to get

precedence.

Once

sunset he got out,

Ngaru was and the wife was


in,

in

no hurry

out

At

horrified to find that his skin

had become almost black through long exposure

to

salt-water,

during the mighty contest with the monsters of the deep. Reviling Ngaru for his blackness, she ran off to her friends.

Adventures in Spirit-World.

227

When

at length

had become of

his fair spouse,

Ngaru reached home, Moko inquired what and learnt that, disgusted with her

husband's appearance, she had fled to Teautapu. Said Moko, " so as the sea soon and the sun." Nothing blackens the skin

The grandson inquired how his skin could be blanched. Moko said, "The only way to blanch your skin is to treat you as green bananas are treated when they are to be ripened. 1 Ngaru agreed
to
this

proposal.

ground, and lined

Accordingly they dug a deep hole in the it with layers of sweet-scented fern-leaves.
into
this

Ngaru descended
leaves

hole,

and was duly covered with

a thin layer of earth crowned the whole. On the eighth ; day flashes of lightning proceeded from the spot where Ngaru had so long been buried, increasing in intensity until it smote away
earth and leaves, permitting

him

to

emerge from

his

strange

abode.

It

then became

evident that these flashes

of light

proceeded from the face and person of Ngaru, being in reality But there was one drawback the dazzling fairness of his skin.
:

the steam of the blanching oven had rendered Ngaru


bald.
for

perfectly

Moko
proved
fair

sent his mother Vaiare to great Tangaroa, to ask


hair.

some new
to

It

was given

but when

Moko examined

it, it

be

frizzly.

Moko

resolved not to spoil the head

grandson with such a wretched mop. Vaiare took it back to the god, and asked for some better hair. Tangaroa put " This will never the suppliant off with some light yellow.* do,"
of his
said

Moko

" I must have the

best."

Once more Vaiare trudged


hair.

back

to the

god

to

beg him to exchange the

Finding that

there was no escape from the importunity of the grandfather,


1

In the native language "ta-para," or blanched: Europeans would say

"ripened."
2 detestable colour in the eyes of a Hervey Islander. hair was of the objectionable light yellow.

Tangaroa's

own

228

Myths and

Songs.

Tangaroa gave a profusion of wavy, smooth raven locks. was delighted, and gladly secured it to the bald pate of
grandson.

Moko
his fair

The

of light, lightning, or dazzling flashes

from the face and

person of

Ngaru reached even to the distant abode of Tongatea (^the fair Tongari), so that everybody said, "Behold the " " This Said the runaway wife, dazzling fairness of Ngaru
!

Ngaru you
I

praise

must be a

different individual
it

know."
;

The

bystanders asserted that

from the Ngaru was her despised hus-

band
but

but Tongatea remained incredulous. Now, Tongatea had got up a reed-throwing match for

women

men were
all

invited from

all

parts to decide

upon the merits

of the game,

and

to applaud the successful throwers.

At

the time

appointed

the fair ones, gaily attired

and covered with fragrant

garlands, stood ready to begin the amusement of the day, each with a long reed in her right hand. Tongatea, as mistress of the

day,

was about to make the


at

first

throw,

when

'Ngaru

made

his

once recognized by the fair runaway. appearance, and was Her arm fell powerless by her side. She struggled to conceal her Such emotion, and to proceed with the game, but could not.

a violent tremor seized Tongatea, that

it

was with

difficulty that
:

she retained her garments about her person.

All was confusion

appeared,

the intended sport of the day was lost. As the visitors disthe weeping, repentant, love-smitten wife followed

still

Ngaru, entreating him to return to her. Ngaru, in whose heart rankled the bitter insult in reference to his former dusky " Never colour, in this moment of triumph said to the penitent,

will I return to thee."

The

despairing Tongatea hearing


kura,

this, set

off in search of

some poisonous kokii

chewed

it,

and

died.

There lived in Avaiki, or netherworld, a

fierce

she-demon,

Adventures in Spirzt-World.
named

229

to destroy

Miru, who, envious of the great fame of Ngaru, resolved him in her fearful, ever-blazing oven. But before
it

enjoying this horrid banquet,

her domains.

Nor did

this

seem

was needful to decoy him into difficult She at once directed

two Tapairu, or peerless ones her daughters to ascend to this upper world to induce the brave Ngaru to marry them both.
Kumutonga-i-te-po
=?

Kumutonga-of-the-nigkt,
to induce
:

and

Karaia-i-te-ata

him to pay a visit to Karaia-the-shadowy, were the shades in their agreeable society once there, his fate was sealed in Mini's estimation. On their entering the dwelling of
Moko, Ngaru feigned
Mini, had sent them
as they arrived,
"

to

be

asleep, whilst his grandfather tried

to discover their real intent.


to escort

They averred
to

that their mother,


;

Ngaru Ngaru was to be united

to Avaiki

that as soon

women,

with

whom

both these " peerless the daughters of mortals could not for a

moment be compared.
Moko, suspecting the real nature of their visit, sought to gain time by exercising the utmost hospitality to his unwonted guests. Whilst these fairy women were enjoying themselves, the king
of lizards (Moko) sent his servants, i.e. all the little lizards, 1 on a secret mission to Mini's domains in the under world to ascertain

what dangerous weapons were


her usual avocations.
possible haste;

at her disposal,

and what were


lizards

Off scampered the

little

in

all

and on

arriving at Avaiki, unperceived

by Mini,

they noticed that the old, deformed, and inexpressibly ugly hag had a house full of kava (piper mythzsticum), kept exclusively
for the purpose of stupefying her intended victims,

who were

1 The black and yellow lizards hide during tlie day in the caves supposed to be the high-road to spirit-land ; whereas the common green variety suns itself all the day on the leaves and grass.

230
eventually
fair

Myths and

Songs.

safely

her cooked in her mighty oven, and eaten by herself, lizards These little keen-sighted children, and her servants. their sovereign returned to this upper world, and reported to
this

Moko privately told what they had discovered. be to him careful, or he would son, and admonished
perish, as multitudes

to
^

his

infallibly

had done before him.


on

As evening drew
^

on, all three started off

the shades.

The mode

their journey to the land of Mini in These " peerless of transit was peculiar.

ones

"

had with them

rolls

upon wrapping up

their future

of finest tapa, in which they insisted husband ; they then secured the

off Ngaru Karaiaand After some time Kumutonga-of-the-night in triumph. " Themountain named the-shadowy began to ascend a when the imprisoned husband became conscious of

bundle well with cords, and slung to a long pole, carried

heavenly,"

a steep and sudden movement, and prayed thus


Oi au tiria, Oi au tara,
tiria

Put
Set

tara

me down, put me down. me free, set me free.


I

Taraia akera Kia kite au i teia maunga te maunga poro oa teia

Oh that
To

had

liberty
I

gaze on this mountain 'Tis surely the mountain spoken of

A tau tupuna a Moko


Tau metua a
Vaiare,

Roa,

By

my
1

grandfather,

" The

long-

Lizard

"

And by my mother
home}.'

Vaiare
fair

(stay-at-

Tau

vaine a Tongatea.

And by my wife,

' <

The

"

Tongan.

To

this
:

Kumutonga and Karaia responded

(temporarily releas-

ing Ngaru)

Kiritia kai e kinana

Thou
!

shalt

To

koivi, vaio

Erangi maunga

Thy

body shall rot on this " venly mountain,


sick

be forthwith devoured " Hea1

Evidently in allusion to sickness.

The

"

stay at

home."

Adventures in Spirit-World.
To
vaerua, e kave
to
i

231

te

po
!

Thy

spirit

shall

be borne to the

Na

maua metua na Mini

To

shades, furnish a repast for our mother

Mini.

To

this
1"

Ngaru

replied,

"Tis

thus you treat your intended

husband

Again wrapping up and cording their intended victim, they bore him to another spur of the same mountain range. Conscious
of this, the imprisoned victim again prayed to be released
Oi au
tiria, tiria, etc., etc.
:

Put

me down,

put

me

down,

etc., etc.

To
before
:

this

entreaty

the

same

ominous reply was

given as

Kiritia kai e kinana

etc.

Thou shalt be

forthwith devoured,

etc.

To

this

husband

"
!

Ngaru replied, "Tis thus you treat your intended At this the " peerless ones " again seized upon Ngaru,
tapa,
until,

wrapped him again in numerous folds of their victim with cords, bore him along
grove of chestnut trees, they set

and well securing


reaching a shady

him down and unfastened the now hastened to fetch some kava, * women These cords. fairy " him to chew. Ngaru chewed named Mini's own," and gave it to the whole, and still, to their amazement, remained wakeful and
active
:

on him alone of the children of men the powerful narcotic


produce
"
its

failed to

usual

effects.

The

ever-blazing oven

of

Mini was ready

for its victim.

The

voice of the pitiless Mini was

now heard:

Kumutonga-of-the-night and Karaia-the-shadowy, is waiting for bring along your husband; the oven of Mini him." At these words Ngaru put on the girdle his grandfather
1

The

three sorts of

" kava

"

known

in this world are but offshoots

from the

original root.

232

Myths and
for his use.

Songs.

had wisely provided


visitor

Thus equipped,

the dauntless

hag Mini from the upper world proceeded anxious the and her dread oven. At this juncture the voice of
in search of the

Moko was

heard in the shades

oven in which she

means

to cook you."

"Return, Ngaru yonder is the Heedless of this warning,

the brave visitor went on his way, and finding the red-hot stones of the oven raked ready for the victim, he asked the horrid this mistress of the invisible world what she meant to do with " To cook you!" Ngaru Mini promptly replied, oven.

burning

Moko did not reproached her thus "Ah, Mini my grandfather food to eat, them but for gave your daughters ; prepare an oven
:
!

cocoa-nut water to drink, and sent

them away

in peace

You

cook and devour your

visitors

"
!

At these words the heavens became intensely black. Ngaru walked to the edge of the flaming oven, and placed one foot
on the red-hot
stones.

At
1

this

critical

moment

the

clouds,

which had been gathering ever since he had entered Avaiki, burst
suddenly.

fearful

deluge

of waters extinguished the blazing

oven, and swept away Mini herself, her younger fairy daughters,

and

all

her servants and accomplices.

Ngaru was saved by

2 the beautiful Tapairu clutching hold of the stem of the nono, held each by one of domains the him to allured who Mini, girls,

of his legs, and so escaped the fate- of their mother and These fairies taught Ngaru the art of ball-throwing.
After a time
the waters
entirely

sisters.

abated.

Ngaru, wearied

of the society of these attractive but dangerous fairy women, succeeded in finding a dark, winding passage to a land called
1 deluge-myth, is inserted in Life in the Southern Seas."

a forthcoming popular volume, entitled


wonderfully tenacious.

"

Morindo

cUrifolia.

Its root is

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Taumareva
(

233
profusely,

expansd),

where

fruits

and flowers grow

and the inhabitants of which excelled


he married a
girl

in flute-playing. 1

Here

kept by her parents inside a house in order

to whiten her skin.

Time passed
little

pleasantly in this

new
"

residence.

But one day two pretty

birds,

known

as

Karakerake,"

perched upon the ledge of a pile of rocks.


they came at his grandfather's bidding.
whilst

Ngaru immediately
birds

recognized them as belonging to Moko, and asked them whether

The
:

nodded

assent,

Ngaru wept

for joy,

and prayed thus


Ye
Aye,
tlie

Karakerake e, tukua iora te tauraJ O te taura oa tena i tukuia 'i o maua


ariki

little birds,

pray drop a cord : cord used for the imperious


all-devouring.

O Raka maumau
ra ikona
!

e.

Tukua, tukua

Oraka,*

the
it

Drop,

drop
fell,

at

once

At these words two cords

one from the

feet of

each bird.

Securing himself by means of this double rope, Ngaru gave the signal to the birds, and without a word of farewell to his

and her musical countrymen, was borne aloft 'to this upper world, and was safely deposited in the presence of Moko, who had long been ill, pining for the presence of his brave Ngaru,
late spouse

so long a prisoner in the shades.

Ngaru had conquered the monsters of the deep; had conquered the aversion of the proud Tongatea; had been buried
in the earth
victor
;

had descended

to the shades,

where he had proved

One

over the hitherto unconquered Miru and her satellites. more trial was reserved for Ngaru, ere he should be permitted

to live in peace.
1

The

last foe

was a heavenly one.


and blown through the nose. the dead were

A piece of bamboo pierced with three holes,


Oraka,
gates of

thrown : here,

&& " Auraka," the dreadful chasm down which " the Hades"

234
One day

Myths and

Songs.

the people of this world were astonished at the sight " a vast fish-hook of a large basket (some say ") let down from the Two or three anxious to see the wonders of the upper sky.
world, hitherto unexplored, entered the basket

drawn up out of
repeated;

sight.

Not many days


to

after, this

and were speedily process was

be noticed, after a time, that none This ever came down again to report what they had seen.
but
it

came

looked decidedly suspicious.

The

fact was,

Amai-te-rangi, or Carry-up-to-heaven,

a sky-demon named had taken a fancy to feed

on human

flesh,

and had invented the basket and ropes as

a means of satisfying hunger. Hearing from his victims of the Now to entrap and devour him. prowess of Ngaru, he resolved the basket itself was a very attractive object, and on the day
of Ngaru's return from his visits to the invisible world
it

was

let

a Ngaru, and have a with its to ascend owner. determined fight challenge, The more wily Moko detained his heroic grandson until his faithful little lizard subjects should go up and find out what was going
close to the dwelling of

down

Moko.

regarding this as

on

in the sky.

The word having been

given by The-king-of-lizards,

a number of his sharp-eyed attendants entered the basket, which

was speedily pulled up by Amai-te-rangi. On discovering that he a number of miserable little reptiles, he was greatly had only caught
chagrined.
place.

When

Meanwhile the nimble subjects of Moko overran the next the basket was let down, they were permitted
it.

to

go down in
gigantic

They reported
of

to

Moko what
"
;

they had seen

the

size

"
Carry-up-to-heaven
;

beautiful

women

engaged in ball throwing


of the sky

a huge chisel and mallet in the hands

demon ; and

piles of

human

bones.

Ngaru fearlessly got into the beautiful basket, and was at once drawn up by the delighted Amai-te-rangi, who anticipated a good

Adventures in Spirit-World.
feast,

235

uncommonly heavy. Upon Ngaru found the full demon drawn out to his size, chisel and mallet in hand ready At this moment the human hero gave it a to deal the fatal blow.
touching the magnificent paving of blue stone,

as

the intended victim was

sudden

jerk, that precipitated himself

and the basket down

to

earth again.

The

disappointed

demon
to

again, resolving not to permit

him

hastily drew up Ngaru escape a second time. But


;

the grandson of

Moko was
earth.

not to be outwitted

for as

soon as

the basket again touched the solid vault of heaven, he once more

jerked

it

back to

Amai-te-rangi eight times pulled his

was nearly exhausted ; but at last, to his saw satisfaction, Ngaru coolly walk out of the basket and confront his giant foe, who again prepared to deal the fatal blow with that
ropes, until his strength
chisel

from which no mortal had hitherto escaped.


foreseen
all this,

Now Moko had

and

to provide for the safety

of Ngaru, each time the basket touched the ground had sent into it a number of lizards, which leaped out on the sky as

soon as the basket touched the blue paving, unregarded by the demon, whose whole thoughts were concentrated on the destruction of this fearless

human enemy.

At the moment
all

his

huge arms

were

uplifted to effect the

murder of Ngaru,

these faithful

his face, guardians rushed up the legs of Amai-te-rangi, covering neck, arms, and body. Particularly clustering about the armpits,
it was impossible for they tickled the giant to such a degree that him to strike with precision. Again and again the monster

endeavoured to brush

off these little fellows

from his naked body,

so that he might accomplish

purpose; but the lizards pertiof distracting Amai-tenaciously returned to their appointed task
his

rangi's thoughts

and movements,

until at length this cruel

of mankind, utterly unable to slay Ngaru,

enemy and tickled almost

236
to

Myths and

Songs.

Ngaru, seizing these let himself weapons, succeeded in killing Arnai-te-rangi,

madness, dropped chisel and mallet.

and then

accompanied by his four-footed protectors, and carrying with him the chisel and mallet of his slain foe. Ere with Ina and Matonga, who kept leaving, he tried ball-throwing at a time, and succeeded in beating them too. balls

down

to earth again,

eight

going

Such were the

Hercules. exploits of this Polynesian

at describing the repentance of Tongatea " Whose place in the reed-throwing match, the question is asked,

In the

original,

when

Manow is
she. not

vacant?"

The reply is,


is

"
"Tongatea's."

Why,
so

then, does

begin?"

There

a spot

on Mangaia
is

" name, Tongatea," means TheI believe this story to have been one brought by fair-Tongan. when they came originally from Avaiki, or settlers the
in the

every one believes that the reference

to the island

named; but " of Manono,"

Samoan Group.

The

wife's

original

Savai'i.
is

It is

no objection

to this

view that the myth, as now

told,

localized here, as a long residence

would be sure

to

produce

The proper depositories of such lore invariably assert that introduced here from other lands. were they
this.

merely a vivid representation of their old belief as to the state of those who die a natural death. Fairy

The

story of

Mini

is

he is like any other corpse, wrapped to fetch Ngaru and borne by two individuals to the well and corded, up " Oraka " is but a of Miru cavernous domain disguise for deep from which two of their the dead, "Auraka," great repository
:

women come
in tapa,

cords pull

up the
story

victor

In

this

upon Miru and

his return to
all

life.

her servants and two of her


ever-burning oven,
too,
is

"peerless" daughters perish.

The

Adventures in Spirit-World.
extinguished.

237

Miru
the

as immortal,

spirits

But the standard belief of the past represents and the oven as still blazing and consuming of all who die a natural death. Does not this myth

express a deep-seated hope and intense yearning after that real victory over death and hell which Christianity alone can satisfy?
Apai-te-rangi
is in

shades; but
victor
It
!

still

man

heaven the exact counterpart of Miru in the of divine descent Ngaru comes off

one family on Mangaia claims But this heavenly sky-demon Apai-te-rangi. descent did not prevent the " Amai" tribe from being devoted to furnish sacrifices to Rongo from generation to generation. (The
is

a curious fact that


this

descent from

name is. indifferently spelt Amai and Apai.) As Miru in the shades is the parent of Tapairu,
fairy

or " peerless "

women, so in the sky Apai-i-te-rangi has about him a set of Tapairu women, whose sole employment is ball-throwing some keeping seven, others eight, balls going at a time. One of these heavenly fairies is Ina, another is named Matonga. Ngaru introduced the
art to this world.
is

The basket of the heavenly monster


stupefying kava, of Miru, his chisel
fiery

the counterpart of the


to the

and mallet answering

oven of the shades.

238

Myths and

Songs.

THE DRAMA OF NGARU.


A REED-THROWING MATCH FOR WOMEN, IN HONOUR OF PATIKIPORO. COMPOSED BY TUKA, CIRCA 1815.
Two women.
Akiakia tute
Ei
te
l Strip the branches off Mini's tree

manava

ia

Tevoo

'i

"kava

' '

mana paa no Ngaru


Koia
i

Avaiki,
!

pau taae

To stupefy wonder-working Ngaru, Victorious over all monsters,


Pet grandson of Moko, Descended from Van-origmator-of-allthings.

Tepoi

arire

na

Moko

ra,
!

Na

Vari-ma-te-takere e

Chorus.

taa o te rangi tuku te ata apai Ngaru

Te

e,

I te

kakenga atu rava.

natives of the sky Let down a trap to catch Ngaru, Who ascended on high.

The

Kake

atu

Ngaru

te tautua,

Two women. To save Ngaru


i

the golden lizards

I te tau aro o te

Moko

kura

tau
!

e,

Climbed up the front and back,


Baffling cruel Apai-te-rangi.

Ka pare nei
Kua

kia Apai-te-rangi e
ei te

kino Ngaru

taeke ae

T'was Ngaru blackened by diving,


Chorus.

Kua

kino Ngaru i te taeke, anga turoko ka oro ai Tongatea e

Ngaru blackened
!

in the billows.

Tei Itikau te roki

The sight disgusted Whose loved resort

is

the fair Tongan, at Itikau.

Two women.
Tei Itikau te roki e
I

Yes

her loved resort

is

at Itikau.

The

root only of the piper-mythisticum is

chewed

to

make

the stupefying

original plant, of enormous size, in the shades is narcotic even to its branches. The inebriate spirits are helplessly carried to the

drink.

But Mirds own

fatal oven,

and are cooked.

Ngaru alone

defeats her cruel arts.

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Chorus.

239

Papa paka, a inu ra

te vai o

Mania,

Refresh

yourselves,

fair

ones,
in

in

rua enua e pei

ai te

pel

Shady-Land, Like celestials proficient


throwing.

ball

INUINU

TAI.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

Two women.
Pei ikiiki na Ngaru e
!

Oh
Chorus.

the wondrous skill of Ngaru.

Tera rava

te karanga, karanga ia Ngaru.

List to yonder voice

'Tis addressed to Ngaru.

Iti

mai rapa

te uira,

E uira tu akarere, Na mana o Ngaru-tai.


Noea
toou

Lightning is emitted from his person, And flashes all around. Great is the might of Ocean-loving

Ngaru.

mana ?

No raro i Avaiki, Na Vari-ma-te-takere, Na ooki atu na,


Tena
la ia

Whence this unheard of power ? From the depths of spirit-land, From Vari-originator-of-all- things, Who sends him back again (to this

kava.

Ah

world). there

comes

the

stupefying

E tere aa ra, e Mini ? E tere kai tangata


!

draught.

What have you come


I

for,

Mini?

come

to devour mankind.

Two women.
Takina ra Avaiki, e Miru e
1

Do
Chorus.

thy worst, Muni

Ei rapanga uira

tane.

Provoke not the flashing lightning of


your betrothed

Ngaru

SB

wave

a play on the

name

is

intended, as well as a reference

to his

first exploit.

240

Myths and Songs.


Tone oro
ki Iti
1

Two women. The

betrothed,
at Itikau

whose loved

resort is

Chorus.

Ae, Ngaru-tai.

Aye, Ocean-loving Ngaru.

Two women.
Akiakia tute
te

manava

ia

Tevoo

'i,

Strip the
tree,

branches off Mini's kava

Ei mana paa no Ngaru Avaiki,

Koia
Tepoi
arire

pau taae

To stupefy wonder-working Ngaru, Victorious over all monsters.


Pet grandson of Moko, Descended from Vari-originator-ofall-things.

na Moko

ra,
I

Na Vari-ma-te-takere e

Ctiorus.

Te

A tuku
I te

taa o te raugi te ata apai Ngaru

e,

kakenga atu rava.

The natives of the sky Let down a trap to catch Ngaru, Who ascended on high.

Two women.
Kake
atu

Ngaru

te tautua

To
tau
1

save

Ngaru the golden

lizards

I te tau aro o te

moko kura i

e,

Climbed up the front and back,


Baffling cruel Apai-te-rangi.

pare nei kia Apai-te-rangi-e

Kua

kino Ngaru e

te taeke ae

'Twas Ngaru blackened by diving,


Chorus.

Kua

kino Ngaru i te taeke, anga turoko ka oro ai Tongatea

Ngaru blackened
e,

in the billows

Tei Itikau te roki.

The sight disgusted the fair Tongan, Whose loved resort is at Itikau.
'women.

Two
Tei Itikau te roki e
I

Yes

her loved resort

is

at Itikau.

**

Iti,"

lovers

an abbreviation for " Itikau," the name of a famous on the west of the island.

resort for

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Chorus.

241

Papa paka, a inu ra

te vai o

Mama.

Refresh

yourselves,

fair

ones,

in

Shady-Land,

rua enua

pei

te pei.

Like

celestials proficient in ball-throw-

ing.

INUINU RUA.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.

Two women.

O Mama tai o

are e

In Shady-Land
Chorus.

is

thy true home.

Takina o Ngaru-tai

Na Kumutonga i apai,

Lift up Ocean-loving Ngaru ; Eaimutonga shall bear thee on

E apai ki Avaiki,
Ei kai na Miru-Kura, Ei tane Ngaru tai
Akiakia
tute, akiakia

Until thou reach spirit-land

kava,

As food for the ever-ruddy Miru Our betrothed Ocean-loving Ngaru. Strip the branches off" the "kava"
tree,

Te manava ia

Tevoo.
ra.

To stupefy thy
The heavens
scend.

senses.

Tataia e Iva, porotua te rangi

are black

torrents de-

Kakea

ra e

Ngaru
te

te

Taumareva,

enua

iri

enua kura

But Ngaru passes on to Taumareva


e,

Na

te taa o te rangi.

E tere aa ra,

Miru ?

The land of scarlet garments, At the edge of the skies. What have you come for, Miru ?
I come to devour mankind.

E tere kai tangata.


Takina ra Avaiki, e Miru e
!

Two women.

Do
Chorus.

thy worst, Miru

E rapanga uira i tane

Provoke not the flashing lightning of your betrothed

Two women.
Tane oro ki
Iti
1

The

betrothed,
at Itikau.

whose loved

resort

is

Chorus.

Ae, Ngaru-tai.

Aye, Ocean-loving Ngaru.

242

Myths and
te

Songs.

Two women.
Akiakia tute

manava

ia

Tevoo

i,

Strip the branches off Mini's


tree,

"kava"

Ei mana paa no Ngaru Avaiki, Koia i pau taae


!

To stupefy wonder-working Ngaru, Victorious over all monsters.


Chorus,

Oi au Oi au

tiria, tiria.

Put
Set

tara, tara,

me down, put me down. me free, set me free.


liberty
!

Taraia akera,

Oh, that I had


teia

Kia

O A

maunga. te maunga poro oa teia tau tupuna a Moko-Roa,


i

kite

au

To

gaze at this mountain 'Tis surely the mountain spoken of

By

my

grandfather

"The-long-

Lizard,"

Tau metua a Vaiare, Tau vaine a Tongatea.

And by my mother Vaiare, And by my wife, ** The-fair-Tongan. "

Kiritia kai e

kinana
i

Thou
!

To To

koivi, vaio

Erangi maunga
i

Thy

Mountain
vaerua, e kave
te

shalt be forthwith devoured ! " body shall rot on this Heavenly "
spirit

po
!

Thy

shall

be borne to
for

the

shades,

Na to maua metua na Mini

To

furnish

a repast

our mother

Mini.

Kumutonga,

Karaia-i-te-ata

6i,

Hist,

Kumutonga

Hist, Karaia-the-

Tukua maira

ta

Kua

roa oa te

umu

korua tane, a Mini


!

Shadowy, Bring me your intended husband, For the oven of Mini is waiting !

Aore a e pau atu

tau

moko

E tapu te tikinga vaine a


Tuku
atu te taura
i

Ngaru

I will not part with my grandson. 'Tis thus ye fairies treat Nganu

Enua-Kura.

Pray drop down some cords to

Spirit-

E taura viriviri,

e taura varavara,

Land; Ropes of many


strength,

strands

and of great

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Ruia e tematangi, kakea
e

243

Ngaru,

Swaying
able

to

and

fro in the breeze, yet

Kakea Kakea

e te rangi tautua, e te rangi tuamano.

To

bear Ngaru, the heaven-climber, Resolved to explore all nature.

E tuku te taura i Enua-Kura e


Mauria
!

Pray, drop

down some
Land.
fast

cords to Spirit-

Hold

(Great emphasis^

Mauria, e Ruateatonga,

Spirit of the shades

hold fast

Te

pitonga I tukua i i
J

te taura
ariki.

To

maua Raka maumau

the end of these ropes, Intended to rescue our favourite


all-devouring

From
!

" Auraka,"
at

Tukua, tukua ra ikdna

Drop, drop them down

once

Oki mai, e Ngaru


Tera
'tu te

umu

e tao iaau

Hasten back, Ngaru Yonder is the oven intended sume you.


!

to con-

This curious drama was performed at Tamarua by daylight, at the base of the hill Vivitaunoa. Several women still living took
part in the performance.

One was named Mini

for the occasion

a second Moko; a third Ngaru. Two others represented the daughters of Miru Kumutonga and Karaia-i-te-ata. These fairies,
at the proper time, carried over the crest of the hill a large bundle " like a seeming corpse, ready to be thrown down Auraka," the
last resting-place

of the dead.

An

oven was made, but no

fire

lighted.

Two

cords were fastened to the

woman who

sustained

the part of Ngaru, and

who was dragged


is
still

to the edge of the sup-

posed oven.

The husband
years sustained a

of Patikiporo

living.

He
etc.,

has for

many
to

good Christian profession. The part commencing "Put me down,"

down

"a

244

Myths and
is

Songs.
is

repast for our mother Mini,"

taken from the myth, which

known

to

be of great

antiquity.

Sadaraka well recollects the performance, at which, as a male, he could only be a spectator.

THE BALL-THROWER'S SONG;

OR,

THE FAIRIES

BEATEN BY NGARU.
FOR THE FETE OF POTIKI, CIRCA 1790.
Call for the dance to lead
off.

Pei ikiiki

tei to

rima, e rua toe,

Keep
In
Solo.

the balls

all

going

two are

left,

Tei Iva e | a

tai

ra koe.

all spirit-land

thou hast no equal.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.
;

Pei aea nga Tapairu no Avaiki

Here

are fairy players from nether-

No nunga paa i te rangi e


Ae e
!

As
Solo.

land, well as natives of the sky.

Aye
Chorus.

Pei aea i te pei itu, i te pei varu, e Ina e Ka re koia o Matonga-iti. kau rere.
!

Ina alone keeps seven,


balls in motion.
Little

yea, eight

Matonga

is

beaten

utterly

beaten.
Solo.

Ka re oki, e Matonga e, i te pei Ka topa i to rima a tai o


;
!

Ah
At

Matonga, thou art beaten


ground.

the outset a ball has fallen to the

INUINU

TAI.
Solo.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

Tiria mai taku pei.

Give

me the balls.

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Chorus.

245

E pel ka topa i

Na Teiiri na
Taku

te

rima o nga tupuna


Teraranga.

This art was taught

me by the gods,
1

rima, taku ei kapara turina,

By Teiiri and Teraranga. Encircled with chaplets of laurel,


I select

Ua toro, pati kura konikoni, No nunga no te akinga pei

round

scarlet fruits

To
For

serve as balls for our game,

O nga Tapairu,
Paiereiere ikitia

tu tai

e,

kin rua

e,

fairy

women who

once

and

again
i

raro o Kaputai.

Have come up from

spirit-world to

A tai nei vaine


I toro pa
te

nginingini

ai,

dance at ELaputai.2 Of these fairies the most strangely


fascinating

titi,

toro pa tata,
te

And

proficient Ina.

at our

game
is

is

pua mata reka, o


are
i

akatu nga

Lovely blossom, whose home

in

1 ikitia

Marama Nui
!

e.

Era koe,

e Ina

the sky, Beloved wife of Full-Moon, I have beaten thee


!

Solo.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Pei aea nga Tapairu no Avaiki

Here are

fairy players

from nether

No

nunga paa

te rangi e

As
Solo.

land, well as natives of the sky.

Ae

Aye
Chorus.

Pei aea

te pei itu,
!

te pei varu, e

Ina alone keeps seven, yea, eight balls


in motion.
Little

Ina e

Ka re koia

o Matonga-iti kau rere

Matonga

is

beaten

utterly

beaten.

Gods presiding over the game of ball-throwing. The shore-king's residence, close by the altar of Kongo.

246
Ka re oki Ka topa i

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

e
to

Matonga e
rima
;

te pel

Ah Matonga
!

thou art beaten

tai

At

the outset a ball has fallen to the

ground.

INITINU RUA.
Solo.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.

Tei nunga

How high
Chorus,

I nunga o pel

tini, i

raro o taaonga.

All the balls in the air


the hand
!

how dexterous

To kura

pel kura, maautara,


te metua, e nui ana,

The

balls

are

all

red and greatly

admired.

Mea Auraka

Thanks

to the divinities

who

taught

thee,

E mau ana,

peiia, tuia te toa

Rangi

Catch them, throw them in succession.

riri.

Anga mai
Riu atu to
Teia taku

te vai ia mata.

All eyes are fixed on thee.

E vai tuaine,
pei,
!

e vai tnngane,

Women
Gaze

tau,

anga mai

to oro,

at thy face

and men in wonder and form.


fairies.

e pei ikiiki

Marama

With

these balls again I challenge

rua e

you
!

Era koe, e Matonga

have

beaten
!

thee,

too,

Matonga
Call the second.

Pei ikiiki

tei

to rima, e rua toe.

Keep
In
Solo.

the balls

all

going ; two are

left.

Tei Iva

e,

a tai ra koe e

all spirit-land

thou hast no equal.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Pei aea nga Tapairu no Avaiki

Here

are fairy players from netherland,

No

nunga paa

te rangi e

As
Solo.

well as natives of the sky.

Ae!

Aye!

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Chorus.

247

Pei aea

te pel itu, i te pel varu, e


!

Ina e

Ina alone keeps seven, yea, eight in motion.


Little

balls

Ka re koia

o Matonga-iti kau rere

Matonga

is

beaten

utterly

beaten.
Solo.

Ka re old, e Matonga e, i te Ka topa i to rima a tai o


;
!

pei,

Ah
At

Matonga, thou
ground.

art beaten.

the outset a ball has fallen to the

INUINU TORU.
Solo.

THIRD OFFSHOOT.

A tail
Chorus.
Tai,

Again!

ma,

torn, a, rima, ono, itu, varu.

One,

two, three, four, seven, eight balls


!

five,

six,

Tu akarongo no Pai, no Manoinoi ariki

Pai and the royal Manoinoi admire.

E tangi
Akairi
i

te vai

Aratatia.

The crowd
i

is

astonished.
all arts,

nunga
kopuku.
i

Aramaunga

te

Akaina, though skilled in

Aakina

te

maro Akaina,
i

Na tumaanga nginingini
i

te rearea,

The
!

Surpassing the men of his day, bravest and wisest of men,

E tangata e tu i Torea, E mania te kura, e mania


Era koe, e Ina
!

Ne'er could equal thee.


i

te

rearea

Let

perfect silence served.

now be

pre-

Again
Solo.

have beaten

thee, Ina

Taipoe!
Chorus.

Go

on!

Pei aea nga Tapairu no Avaiki

Here are
land,

fairy players

from nether

No nunga paa i

te

rangi e

As
Solo.

well as natives of the sky.

Aee!

Aye!

248

Myths and Songs.


Chorus.
te pei itu, i te pel varu, e
!

Pei aea

Ina alone keeps seven, yea, eight balls


in motion,
Little

Ka

Ina e re koia o Matonga-iti kau

rere.

Matonga

is

beaten

utterly

beaten.
Solo.

Ka re oki, e Matonga e, Ka topa i to rima a tai


;

te pei,
!

Ah
At

Matonga, thou
ground.

art beaten,

the outset a

baU has

fallen to the

INUINU

A.
Solo.

FOURTH OFFSHOOT.
Avaunt

retia

E retia

e retia

Tua-minii

Avaunt, avaunt, thou of a scraggy back!


Chorus.

E retia,
Ara-roa

e retia

Tua-ara-roa

Avaunt, avaunt, thou of the long


spine Tall to deformity and ready to die.

te iki-tanga i te

akamatenga.

Na kura pei kura, na tama reionga, Na kakara onu e rutu i te tua o Vatea.
Re tai,
rerua, re toru, re
a,

Give me my grand scarlet-balls, Like young turtle in the palm of


Vatea.

Beaten once, twice,


times
;

thrice, yea, four

Re rima, re ono, re itu, re varu, Re iva, re ngauru, tinitini, manomano.

Arauru,
reinga.

Ara
iri,

peipei, tei kai te

Beaten again, again, and again ; Beaten times innumerable, all of you. Pack up your traps, one and all

Koi tangatanga

koi mata kerekere,


e
!

Ye

sweet-scented ball-players from

the skies

Koi nunga, koi raro, koi te patiu Era koe, e Matonga


!

And from

nether-land

and be
beaten

offl
thee,

Again I have Matonga.


Third
Catt.

Pei ikiiki

tei

to rima, e rua toe.

Keep
In

the balls

all

going

two are

left.

Tei Iva

e,

a tai ra koe e

all spirit-land

thou hast no equal

Adventures in Spirit-World.
Solo.

249

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Pei aea nga Tapairu no Avaiki No nunga paa i te rangi e


!

Here

are fairies from nether-land,

As
Solo.

well as natives of the sky.

Aee!
Chorus.

Aye!

Pei aea

te pei itu,
!

te pel varu, e

Ka

Ina e re koia o Matonga-iti kau rere

Ina alone keeps seven, yea, eight balls in motion. Little Matonga is beaten utterly
beaten.

Solo.

Ka re oki, e Matonga e, i te pei, Ka topa i to rima ; a tai o


!

Ah

At the

Matonga, thou art beaten. outset a ball has fallen to the

ground.

MAUTU.
Fourth
Call.

CONCLUSION.

ara pei na Kumutonga,

And now a game


!

of ball-throwing

Na Karaia-i-te-ata

e,

a kake e

with Kumutonga, With Karaia - the - shadowy


nether-world.
Solo.

from

Taipo el
Chorus.

Go on

Te pei maira

te peinga

te ata,

Play as ye are wont in the shades.


Solo.

Aee!
Chorus.

Aye!

Te rere maira

te

manu pepe

kura.

bird of gay plumage


you.

is

watching

250

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

E ara pel oki ra na Karaia ae e

A
Chorus.

game
Karaia
!

of

ball-throwing

with

E ara pei na ELumutonga,


Na Karaia-i-te-ata.
Aore paa
e kitea te Ikonga
i

A
te

game of ball-throwing Kunmtonga

with

And her
rima !

The

sister Karaia-the-shadowy. quick movements of the fingers

are invisible.

Of
this

the sky-fairies, Ina and

Matonga were the most


:

clever at

game.
third

Both, however^ are vanquished by Ngaru


stanzas

in the first
fourth,

and

Ina

is

beaten;

in the second
is

and

Matonga.

In the "conclusion" Ngaru

trying his fortune with

the infernal sirens with equal success.

In the dance the performers imitated the movements of the


ball-throwers, without balls, however.

The contemptuous language


It is

of the fourth stanza

is

contradiction of the standard belief in their

"
peerless

in direct "

beauty.

sly hit at certain ladies at

sets of fairy

women.

the dance personifying the two Proud of their assumed name, " Tapairu,"

they are really the butt of the whole assembly.

A JOURNEY TO THE

INVISIBLE WORLD.

A TAHITIAN MYTH.
Ouri bare Oem& two
Tavai the younger.
sons, of

whom
for

Arii

was the

elder,

and

On

one occasion,
little

trivial offence,

some of

the father's relatives severely beat

Tavai,

who was his mother's


husband

pet

Ouri was so enraged at

this,

that her

Oema

Adventures in Spirit-World.
descended to Hawaii to hide his shame.
waited

251
regretful wife

The now

many

days in vain for his return.

Little Tavai,

who was

in search of his father.

On

naturally a brave child, resolved to go mentioning his intention to his mother

and older brother, the former strongly objected, whilst the latter volunteered to accompany him. Said Tavai to Arii, " Stay to take care of our mother." But Arii would on no account consent to be
left

behind by

his

younger brother.
it

The

mother, finding

impossible to detain her beloved childsecret road to spirit-land,

ren, disclosed to

them the
formula.

and taught

them the needful

Using this charm, the earth clave asunder, and the lads descended They now found themselves in the land of Kui-theBlind. Arii was excessively alarmed at her appearance, and confessed his fears to his younger brother, who only remarked, "I told you not to come, but you would have your own

way."

Kui was employed in cooking her daily oven when the brothers approached her and in silence watched her operations. Kui did not suspect the presence of these intruders. The food in
her oven consisted of
:

Now

2 heads of taro.
2 plantains,
2 halves of bread-fruit.

2 packages of sour bread-fruit paste.

Laying on a goodly pile of leaves, she covered in her oven and


pressed
it

down
till it

with large stones.


still

Kui now

sat quietly inside

her house

was done,

ignorant of the presence of mortals.

she judged the food to be sufficiently cooked, she opened her oven. She took up a taro and placed it in her basket

When

On

putting out her

arm

to take

up the second

lo, it

was gone

252
Kui was

Myths and Songs.


greatly surprised, but did not speak.

She thought,
to steal

" What
"

daring fellow has invaded

my land
lo,

and come

my food ?

Kui next took up a


on seeking
bread-fruit
for the

plantain

second

and put it it was gone

into her basket.

But

And

thus, too, of the

and the packages of sour bread-fruit paste. old blind woman, now thoroughly enraged, exclaimed, The " Whoever this is that has dared to come to my land, I mil devour
supply of food.

him?

She then re-entered her house, carrying the diminished " Tavai whispered to his elder brother, Beware of
:

her tricks
the-Blind

came

touch nothing belonging to her." At this moment Kuia out, armed with a terrible fish-hook fastened to

long

line.

This she swung backwards and forwards,

all

the while

chanting a song, in order to catch the thief. The lads contrived The log was to keep clear of it, but threw a pandanus log at it

hooked.

Whilst Kui was pulling in her line with immense


:

satis-

faction, the boys chanted these words


Carefully secure thy

fish,

Ere thou be o'ertaken by a shark.

To which Kui

replied

For him that is caught by my hook There is no hope. Strong is my hook.


Its name is (" Furnisher of) food for immortals." The line is called " The indivisible."

Kui

seized her supposed victim, which proved to

be a mere log of

wood.

Angry

at this, she again threw out her dreadful fish-hook.

This time she caught the elder boy Aril Both the brothers wept Kui again chanted the former ominous words, "For bitterly.
him/'
etc.

When

the youthful victim had almost arrived at the

doorway where the cruel blind woman sat, the brave Tavai ran forwards, and seizing the fatal string snapped it asunder by sheer

Advent^l,res in Spirit- World.


force, thus rescuing Arii

253
The
brothers

from her

pitiless clutches.

then entered the house of the

now

defenceless Kui,

and discover-

ing the stone axe with which she was accustomed to despatch her victims, slew her therewith. Her body was next chopped in pieces ; the house pulled down and set on fire, thus consuming
this foe of mankind.

Tavai

now proposed
and

that they should

resume the search for

their father,

that Arii, as the elder, should take the lead.

The

brothers accordingly prepared to leave the land of Kui-

the-Blind.

Arrived at the sea-shore, they walked over the ocean and saw

a red streak ahead on the surface of the water.

On

drawing

nearer to the red streak, they found a red shark swimming underAs the neath. Arii trembled and entreated Tavai to go in front

younger brother sturdily refused, Arii had


great red shark

still

to
:

go on.

The

now

rose to the surface,

and

said

era taata e aere


i

Na raro

te

moana
!

ra e

Keinga korua e au

Yon daring travellers O'er the briny sea Shall furnish my repast.
terror,

These words struck both lads with


himself, replied
:

but Tavai, recollecting

Art not thou our aged ancestor,


Nutaravaivaria ?

The

offspring of

And are not we Oema and Ouri ?

The enormous

fish

now

learning that these boys were his

own

to get on his back, and conveyed grandchildren, allowed them them safely to the shore of Rauai'a-Nui, where Tavai landed The red shark now asked Tavai to give him Arii to eat. But the brave boy said, "You must not devour him, for I have but one

254
brother."

Myths and Songs.


Three times did the red shark ask
for Arii
:

three times

was the request denied by Tavai. Now there was a great abundance of cocoa-nuts in
land.

this

new

Tavai climbed the

trees

and gathered the

nuts, so that the

ground was everywhere covered with the fallen nuts. Tavai's next work was to tie these nuts together in fours and count them. In
all

there were a thousand nuts, which he with

no

little

labour

four was given


Arii

placed on the back of the great red shark. And not until the last up did the shark give up his brother.
ing of the fourth day the red shark

and Tavai spent three days on that island. On the morncame back. The lads again
his

mounted on

back and were borne over the ocean

in search of

their lost father.

Now

the boys

cocoa-nuts to eat by the way.

All but one


their wits'

had provided themselves with had been disposed of


end to know how to open

during their long voyage.

At

Pained by the smart it, they broke it on the head of the shark. dived down to red shark the bottom the of the ocean, blow,
leaving the boys swimming on the surface.
strength of Arii
face,

When

at length the to the sur-

was exhausted, the red shark again rose


the farthest limit of spirit-land.

and generously
This
is

forgiving the late offence, carried

them

to

shore.

The
They They

brothers

now

travelled about in search of the inhabitants.

fell

in with a

man who

asked what they were in quest

of.

told

him

that they were seeking for their father,

and inquired

whether he could give them any intelligence respecting him. The old man advised them to apply to the oracle. Tavai at once
started off to the residence of the

famous

priest.

Without ceremony

The priest sharply asked they opened the door and entered. "What stranger is this that has dared to come to my land?" Tavai, annoyed at this brusque reception, struck the priest on his head,

Adventures in Spirit-World.
causing him to writhe in agony. Oema was.

255

he asked him where


is

dead.

Go on

until

Having thus humbled the priest, he priest replied, "Yonder an meet old woman she has charge of you

The

the corpse."

At length they met an aged woman, and inquired where the


dead body of

Oema was
The

deposited.

She promptly replied, " In the

'stercus' hole."

brothers said, "Go, then,

and

fetch

it."

They

closely followed the old hag.

On

coming

to the place, they found

he had long been dead, for only the skeleton remained. They tenderly took up the bones and wrapped them in a mat. They next killed the old woman, and burnt down her house. Not
that
satisfied with this,

they slew the priest and the

first

person they

had met, and

set fire to their dwellings.

Finally, these brave boys, Arii

to this upper world, bringing to

and Tavai, made their way back Ouri the bones of her long-lost

husband.

In doing

this

they traversed the old road, the chasm

opening up again

as the

words taught by their wise-hearted mother

were uttered by Tavai.


this

Compare
Blind
"

with the myths entitled, "

A Bachelor

God

in

Search of a Wife," and

"The Wisdom

of Manihiki."

"Kui-the-

figures in all three versions of their ancient faith.

256

Myths and Songs.

CHAPTER XL

FAIRY MEN AND WOMEN.


TAPAIRU; OR, FAIRY
THE
where she cooks human

WOMEN AND

MEN.

deformed and ugly Mini has her home in the nether-world, Her son Tautiti spirits in her oven.

presides over the dance called

by

his

name. 1

Besides Tautiti,
Tapairu, or

the pitiless spirit-eater has four


peerless ones,
light to

daughters,

called

on account of

their

matchless beauty.

They

de-

make

dance

is

upper world whenever a performed in honour of their brother. Thus, if a dance

their appearance in this

took place anywhere in the northern half of the island, they would

be sure
at

to

make

their appearance that evening at sunset, bathing

shady stream named Auparu (= soft-dew). These would then climb the almost perpendicular hill overlooking the fountain, in order to dry themselves and to arrange their
little

fairies

beautiful tresses in the

moonbeams, ere proceeding

to witness the

1 The graceful "Tautiti" dance stands opposed to the " Crab," in which the side movements of that fish are most Dances disagreeably imitated. always took place by moonlight

Fairy

Men and Women.

257

But if the dance were to take place performances of mortals. " " in the southern part of the island, these peerless ones would
appearance at two little streams, named Vaipau and Vaikaute, and then perform their usual toilet on the crest of the

make

their

neighbouring

hill.

These

fairies,

always associated with the worship of Tane,

would even deign to take part in the dance, provided that one end of the dancing ground were well covered with fresh cut banana leaves. But after merrily tripping it over these exquisitely
fragile leaves

through the livelong night, not one of them would

be

in

any degree soiled or injured.

As soon

as the

rose they disappeared,


Avaiki.

and returned

to their

morning star gloomy home in

Throughout the eastern Pacific islands of the fair," is a favourite name for girls.

"

" Tapairu," or fairest

The names
1.

of these

fairies

are
==

Kumutonga-i-te-po
Karaia-i-te-ata

2. 3.

Te-rauara

4.

Te-poro

= Kumutonga-of-the-night. Karaia-the-shadowy. = Pandanus-leaf. = Point.

A SONG IN HONOUR OF MAUAPA.


BY PANGEMIRO, LORD OF MANGA! A, CIRCA 1816.
Turina
eia ra e te Aumania ra, Kia turuki te vaine moe atu te tone Na te ei papa kura.

Red
o,

To win

necklaces for Mauapa, the favour of the fair,


leaves of purple hue.
sit

Mixed with

Riro

Maunga

Motuenga i te puku ra i akamac te maire,


1C liarc lapu.

On
To

the mountains

we down

interweave beautiful flowers

Taki rua o ran

With double rows of myrtle

258

Myths and

Songs.

Tangi atu an ra i te aunga tiere. Tei Aupara na vaine tau nongonongo I te pa etu na Ina e Eu e Ae ! Te aiai a Kura
!

I love the fragrance of the flowers

At Auparu, from

fairy

women

To

are karioi e Tekura-i-Tanoa.

Arraying themselves by starlight, Whilst Ina in the moon looks on. Ah ye e'en surpass Tekura-of-Tanoa
!

In each valley of this island are crevices in the soil, through which superfluous waters drain. The direct road to spirit-land, through Tiki's chasm, having long since been closed, fairies avail themselves of these narrow passages to climb up from time to
time, in order to be present at the dances of mortals.

The f(te of Terangai, ancestor of the present tribe of Tane, was specially honoured by fairy visitors. The fte came off at Butoa. Teporo and Terauara, fair daughters of Mini, availed
themselves of the gorge just by, to come up out of nether-world The sound of the great drum used to take part in the festivity.

on that occasion reached to the very depths of spirit-land, inducing four other fairies usually said to be males, and, of course, connected with Mini also to climb up to witness their favourite
dance, Tautiti.
Oroiti
x

and Teauotangaroa
south.

came up
3

at

a gorge

Marangaitaiti got up through a disagreeable-looking hole on the west, Marangaitaao < through a gorge at the north of the island. Guided by the sound of the

known

as Tuaoruku,

on the

drum, these four male


their unearthly beauty.

fairy visitors tripped

along different moun-

tain ridges, until they all

met

at the

fte ground, conspicuous by

At dawn they disappeared in the depths of Avaiki through the various crevices.

To
years
1

myth the prologue to Potiki's fte-songs alludes. After of anarchy and bloodshed, peace was proclaimed in the name
this

Oroiti

slow-footed.

Marangaitaiti

Teauotangaroa = rn&n-of- Tangaroa = gentle-east-wind. Marangaitaao fient-eastevind.


*
.

<=*

Fairy
of the gods.

Men and Women.


first

259

At

this,

the

fte inaugurating the era of peace,

The it is hoped the fairies will be present as at Terangai's. of wars the occasion mortals, greater gods, whose jealousies
should be chained.

PROLOGUE TO THE DRAMATIC FETE OF POTIKI ON HIS ASSUMPTION OF THE TEMPORAL


SOVEREIGNTY, CIRCA
Solo.

1790.

Vaia

te

rua

Avaiki,
e

Open
oi
!

the entrance to spirit-world,


up.

Kia kake mai Oroiti

Tane

That Oroiti and Tane may come


Chonis.

Tircia Tautiti,

Kia aka

Onemakenukenu.
te lua

The

On this merry night smooth ghosts are dancing on the


sward
;

Tane ao

o Teiangai.
Solo.

As

at Terangai's

famed

fete

of old.

Te moko

ia Tautiti e

Tane

is

the patron of dancing.


dance).

Kaieia!

(War

Tukua, tukua e

Tukua
1

ki raro.

Down with your burdens, 1 Down with them and rest.


distinctive

symbolism. In Captain Cook's song, : in this the employments of peace, introduced appropriately caulking The "burdens" were bundles of long as contrasting with those of war. for men in bamboos, suitable for fishing-rods. These furnished employment "The cloth-beating mallet" was intended to illustrate the time of peace. with safety in time of woik of industrious wives. This could not be

Each

fete
is

has

its

"

"

pursued

murderer to his prey. war, as the far-reaching sounds would only guide the At this fte, however, men beat mimic cloth-boards. These fairies* were acted one coming from either end, met in the middle.

260

Myths and
Chorus.

Songs.

E ngae pu Avaiki i te papa,

Spirit-land

is

stirred

to

its

very

E tukia ma te kaara.
Kua mau mai nei Teporo ma Terauara.
papa i maui ; Rumakina papa i katavu Eeratetaua iTuaoruku
Takaia
te

At

depths the music of the great drum.


fairies

The

Teporo and Terauara have


left
;

come up. Lead off the dance, ye of the

te

And

you, too, of the right.


is

At Tuaoruku
ground,

fairy

dancing-

Na

Oroiti,

na Teauotangaroa,
atu.

Kimi pou enua ke

Who
Solo.

For Oroiti and Teauotangaroa, have dared to come up to this


world.

Ka tutu Rongo No

te rangi e

Great Kongo shakes his club.


Chorus.

te ike tangi

reka e papa

tua.

Softly sounds the cloth-beating mallet o'er the sea.

Tutua

Tutua

Beat away
Solo.

Beat away

Kano korua

kiea ?
Chorus,

Whither go

ye, fairies ?

Kano maua a kimi

ia Tautiti,

We

go in

search of the pleasing

dance,

Kua ngaro mai


Teia.

nei.

So long disused.

Teia

te akatu,

ma te akarongoiongo,
Solo.

Here it is. Here are the dancers, the torch-bearers,

Ma te matakitaki.
Kano korua
kiea ?
Chorus.

And

the spectators.

Whither go ye,

fairies ?

Kano maua a kimi

te

mania kapa

We

follow

the

merry

sounds

of

Kua ana mai

nei.

dancing ; Therefore have

we come.

Fairy
Teia.

Men and Women.


Here
it is.

261

Teia te akarongorongo
taki.

ma

te mataki-

Here

are the torch-bearers and the

_
te

spectators.

Apaina eretia

anau Atea,
i

Chain up the gods, the offspring of


Vatea,
!

Te papa
Tautiti ngarue

te itinga e

Apaina! Apaina! i Teakarum.


Eia
la
!

That our sport be not spoiled. Avaunt! Avaunt


1

Ha!

hear Butoa!
I

shouts

of

dances

at

Eia
la!

la.
-

la!

(War dance, twice performed.)


Solo.

V5ia, e Marangaitaao, te rua

Avaiki.

Open up

for Marangaitaao

an en-

trance from spirit-land.

Chorus.

Kikimi mai

Aere mai

Search us out, join our throng


Solo.

Vaia, e Marangaitaiti, te rua

Tipitake!

Open up

for Marangaitaiti the

dark

gorge.

Chorus.

Kikimi mai Aere mai Kano korua i Temangarea.


I

Search us out, join our throng

To what

distant spot are these fairies

bound?
Pua!
Ereti

ua

viriviri,

Pua! ua varavara,

Beat away! Beat away! Give me a many-stranded, powerful


rope,

Ruia e Ruia e

Kua

matangi maira, maira, te matangi maira, maira, oro Tautiti i Avaiki Nui
te

te

ma

te

Waving to and fro in the wind, Waving to and fro in the wind, To pull up Tautiti and his drum
of Great Spirit-Land. Here is the fairy Marangaitaao
search of us.

out

kaara.

Teia Marangaitaao

kimi atu

nei.

in

Tutua!

Tutua!

Beat away!
Let the
fairies

Beat away!

Ka

apai te tere
i

mua o

te kaara.

pass in front of the

drum;

E taki acre

te uto

o Terangai,
I

The

fairies

who once honoured


I

the

f&eofTerangai,
I rakoa
!

rakoa

How dazzling

How

brave

262

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

uru tupu ariki te apai o te pan e

Now for
this

a war-dance as drum.

we

bear on

Karela

(War
Let
Chorus.
all

dance.)
toss it aloft.

Apai nuku, apai rangi !

take a part

Tuia
Tuia
i

uta, tuia tai.

Those over yonder ; those near hand;


aka
nei.

at

te

kapa o

Tautiti e te

Prepare to lead off our fairy dance.


Solo.

Uakina e Kaukau

te

papa

Teaka-

The

dance-loving tribe assembled of

ruru,

yore

Te papa o

Terangai.

On
Chorus.

the lands of Terangai.

Tatakina te kaara, urikaka.

Up
Solo.

with the great drum


the
air.

toss

it

in

Rumakina e Rongoimua, 1

The

illustrious

Te papa i Pekekura,

te

papa i te ngaere.

And

Mautara fought conquered the island for us, his

children.

Chorus.

Vaoo

ra ikona tena kaara,

Up

with this great drum


air,

toss it in

Ei poani

i te

rua

Avaiki.

And
Solo.

close

up the mouth of

spirit-

world.

Te miro o

te tata

koe o

Come
Chorus.

forward, ye players of melo-

dious flutes,

Tautiti te

kapa

Atea.

la.

In honour of
(Shouts.)

this

dance of the gods

Mautara's true

name was Rongoimua, but

later years in favour of the cannibal ways of that outcast.

it has been entirely dropped in nickname "Mautara," because he took to the

Fairy
Tanumia Tevoo

Men and Women.


to

263

Call for the dance


i

lead

off.

Avaiki rangi taea e

"Mini's own" kava grows in


land.

spirit-

Solo.

Taipo e

Go on
Chorus.

Te kava

ru au e rupepea.

The

finest

and

most

intoxicating

drink.

Solo.

Ae

Aye
Chorus.

E atua nio-renga
Eaa
la

i Iti,

e Tane

manu

kai tangata ra e

Tane, god with yellow teeth, was once expelled Tahiti, Yellow with devouring mankind
I

Solo.

Nai kava kura

te

kava akiakia
!

'i

Let the red


plucked,

"kava" be

carefully

Te Te

tere o turina

kake e

As a
1

draught for dancers in the upper world.

rangia te kava e no te atua ae e

Let .the drink


priests.

be prepared

for the

Chorus.

Te

rangia te kava o te atua.


ia

The

sacred bowl of the


ready.

priests is

Kia inumia

pau

te titara are.

To be

quaffed only

by yon sacred

men,
Solo.

Kiekie toro e

Is there not yet another sort ?

Chorus.

E raui tapu

e taki na,

Tis too sacred for mortal use.

264
te kava, e vaio te

Myths and
Solo.

Songs.

Takina

noko

la Tevoo

akamae ana

el

shoots only may we strip off; the parent stem " Minims own," reserved for the Is destruction of souls.

The

" sometimes reprepeerless ones," were Tapairu," or the sea-side with king, who was sented as taking up their abode

These

"

under their protection regarded as being specially

Te ui

a te Tapairu
ra te enua

The
e
!

A van toe ia Kaputai


Te moea
marama
After
all,

Who
To

questionings of the Tapairus came up at Kaputai

sojourn in a land of light

these fairies formed one family,

known

as "fairies

from

ri&r-world"
all

Ngaru

climbed the sky, in his passion for


different set of

exploring
all fair

nature,

and discovered a

"Tapairus"

women.

Of these

the most celebrated is Ina, wife of the

moon, and Little-Matonga.

They

are

known

as "fairies of the

Like those of nether-world, the heavenly fairies are wonsky." Ina being able to keep eight drously skilled in ball-throwing,
balls going at
fairies in his

one

time,

Ngaru

learnt the art from the nether-

did he long residence in their home. So proficient the sky fairies at become, that he actually beat the nether and their own game, which he afterwards introduced to this world.
Xukia koe
tei

Apepe
i

Thou wast
poiri.

smitten

down

at

Apepe.

Ka aere

ra, e Ati,

te

enua

Ah, Ati

thou art bound to the land

of darkness.

Kua pou au

nei,

Riuvaka

ra,

Alas, Riuvaka, I
gods,

am

devoured of the
feast

Tai kai e ou te atua,

Who
I

have assembled to

upon

me!
Te
ravea ra e te are Tapairu

was saved
parius

by

the friendly Taroad.

TM

te

flj-a

veerua.

Who met me on the

Fairy

Men and Women.

265

THE FAIRY OF THE FOUNTAIN.


fountain of Vaitipi.

In Rarotonga, at the pretty village of Aorrangi, is the small On the night after full moon, a woman and a
crystal water.

man of dazzling white complexion rose up out of the When the inhabitants of this world were supposed

to

be

asleep,

they came up from the shades to steal taro, plantains, bananas, and cocoa-nuts. All these good things they took back to nether-

world to devour raw.


Little did the fairies think that they

had been seen by

mortals,

was being devised to catch them. A large scoop net of strong cinet was made for this purpose, and constant watch

and

that a plan

On the first appearance of the new by night. came they again up, and, as usual, went off to pillage the plantations. The great net was now carefully outspread at the
set at the fountain

moon

bottom of the fountain, and then they gave chase to the fanThe fairy girl was the first to reach the beings from spirit-world.
fountain,

and dived down.

She was
But

at

once caught in the

net,

and

carried off in triumph.

in replacing the net after the

struggle,

a small space remained uncovered; through this tiny aperture the male fairy contrived to escape. The lovely captive became the cherished wife of the chief Ati,

who now
fairy

carefully filled

up the fountain with great

stones, lest his

spouse should return to nether-world.


lived very happily together.

They

She was known


of Ati."

all

over

Rarotonga as the "peerless one


novel position.

(Tapairu)

She got

reconciled to the ways of mortals, and grew content with her

In the course of time she became pregnant, and

when

the period for her delivery had come, she said to her

266
husband,

Myths and
"Perform on

Songs.
operation,

me

the Caesarean

and then
Ati

bury

dead body. refused to accede to

my

But cherish

tenderly our child."

this proposition, but allowed Nature to take her course, so that the fairy became the living mother of

fair boy.

When

at length

the

child

had become

strong, the

mother

She told one day wept bitterly in the presence of her husband. shades in the him that it was grief at the destruction of all mothers

upon the

birth of the first-born.

Would he consent

to her return

thither in order that so cruel

a custom should be put an end This was agreed upon, and her. should to? Ati accompany the bottom accordingly the great stones were dragged up from
of the fountain.
All kinds of vegetable

gums were now collected,


person of Ati, so as

and the

fairy carefully

besmeared the

entire

to facilitate his descent to the lower world.

Holding firmly the hand of her human husband, the fairy dived to the bottom of the fountain, and nearly reached the
entrance to the invisible world.
hausted, that out of pity for
this process

him she
!

But Ati was so dreadfully exEve times was returned.

The fair one from spirit-land wept repeated in vain because her husband was not permitted to accompany her ; for only the spirits of the dead and immortals can enter.
Sorrowfully embracing each other, the "peerless one" said, " I alone will go to spirit-world to teach what I have learnt from

you."

At

this

she again dived

down
their

into the clear waters,

and was

never again seen on earth.


habitation;

Ati went sorrowfully back to his old

and thenceforth
in

Ati-the-forsaken,

memory

of his

boy was called "Ati-ve'e" lost fairy mother. He was


spirit-land
;

surpassingly

fair,

like his

mother from

but strangely

enough, his descendants are dark, like ordinary mortals.

Fairy

Men and Women.


woman

267

It is to this lovely fairy

the old song of the Ati clan

alludes

Kua

ve'eia te

pou emia,
i

She has descended again to


world
!

spirit-

Ka paa
e
1

'i

te rau

atua o Ati e

Vaitipi

Men
But

by Ati
tu a kino te inangaro
!

praised the divine being at the fountain.


is

first

seen

Akana

his heart

now

filled

with

grief.

Hence
one^ in

the origin of the

common name

"

"

Tapairu

= feerkss

memory

of their fairy ancestress.

268

Myths and

Songs.

CHAPTER

XII.

DEATH-TALKS AND DIRGES.


GHOST-KILLING (TA
I

TE MAURI).

UPON the decease of an individual, a messenger (" bird," so called from his swiftness) was sent round the island. Upon reaching the boundary line of each district, he paused to give the war-shout
peculiar to these people, adding
tives

"

So-and-so

is

dead."

Near

rela-

would

start off at

once

for the

carrying a present of native cloth.

house of the deceased, each Most of the athletic young

men

of the entire island on the day following united in a series of


battles designated
district

mimic

" ta

te mauri," or slaying the ghosts.

The
ghosts.

where the corpse lay represented the " mauri," or


to
it

The young men belonging


if for battle,

early in the

morning

arrayed themselves as

and well-armed,

started off for

district, where the young men were drawn up in under the name of " aka-oa," or friends. The wardance performed, the two parties rush together, clashing their

the adjoining
battle array

spears

and wooden swords, as though

in right

earnest

The

sufferers in this bloodless conflict


spirits,

were supposed to be malignant who would thus be deterred from doing further mischief to

mortals.

Death-Talks and Dirges.


The combatants now
"
mauri," or ghosts,
coalesce,

269
called

and are

collectively

and pass on

to the third district.

Through-

out the day their leader carries the sacred " iku kikau," or cocoanut leaf, at the pit of his stomach, like the dead. Arrived at this
third village, they find the younger men ready for the friendly " aka-oa." " The battle of the conflict, and bearing the name of
"

ghosts

is

again fought, and


fifth,

now

with swelling numbers they pass


districts.

on

to the fourth,

and

sixth

In every case

it

was supposed

that the ghosts

were well thrashed.

Returning with a really imposing force to the place where the corpse was laid out in state, a feast was given to the brave ghostkillers,

and

all

save near relatives return to their various homes

ere nightfall.

So

similar

was

this to actual warfare, that it

named

"e

teina

no

te puruki," ie.

was appropriately "a of war." brother younger

DEATH-TALKS.
The
the
"
dirge-proper
to all
"

"ghost-fighting
"

months afterwards.

took place immediately after the decease ; The former was common

the latter was reserved for persons of distinction. Some; times the friends of the illustrious dead preferred a grand tribal This gathering for the purpose of reciting songs in their honour.

was

called

"e

tara kakai," or "talk about the devouring?

i.e.

a " death-talk."

For when a person

died,

it

was customary

to say,

" he was eaten-uf by the gods."

"kapa," i.e. dance, came but whilst the other was performed under long booths, the former took place in large houses built for the purpose,
"death-talk," like the festive
night
:

off at

and of course

well lighted with torches.

270
As many
for

Myths and

Songs,

as thirty songs, called "tangi," were often prepared

These were the "weeping songs." Each was supplemented with a song""designated a " tiau," or "pe'e" proper. Thus, in all, as many as sixty separate songs would be mournfully chanted in honour of the dead. Of course the
a death-talk.
"

"

tangi

merit would greatly vary.


song.
If unable to

Each adult male

relative

must

recite

to furnish

compose one himself, he must pay some one him with an appropriate song. The warrior chief and

poet, Koroa, supplied to different parties ten different songs for one " death-talk."

near relative of the deceased was appointed to start the " first At the proper pauses the chorus tangi," or crying-song." catches up and carries forward the song. In the "tangi" the
"

weeping

is

reserved for the close,


"

when
"

the entire assembly

abandon

themselves to passionate cries and tears.


tion invariably begins,

song of this descrip-

Sing we

(Tio
"

ra).

The

" appropriate "tiau," or pe'e


slight

proper, follows.

"Tiau"

means "a

" shower;" and metaphorically, a partial weeping." The songs relating to Vera and Puvai are, with one exception, "showery" songs. In these the chief mourner was the solo.

Whenever, as indicated, the entire assembly took up the strain, the former solo wept loudly until it again became his duty to take up his part in a soft plaintive voice.

The accompaniments of
wooden drum,
called

this

performance were the


(kaara),

great

"theawakencr"

and the harmonicon.


musical instruments

Sometimes the "pau" was added

The

were called into use between each song; in the case of the

The

"showery" songs the great drum accompanied the grand chorus. true accompaniment of the "crying songs" was the pasall

sionate weeping of

present

Death-Talks and Dirges.


The most touching songs were
longest remembered.

271

the most admired and the

Several months " preparations needful for a death-talk."


dresses

were requisite

for

the

Not only had


of,

the songs

and

and

complexions to

be thought

but a

liberal pro-

vision of food for the guests.


If

a person of consequence in the same clan died or was

slain

within a year or two, the old performance might be repeated with the addition of a few new songs. It was then termed "e
veru,"

or " second-hand."

The

songs relating to Vera are

known

as " te kakai ia Vera "

"

the death-talk about Vera."

So, too, the dirges for

Mourua,

the friend of Captain Cook, are

known

as appertaining to "the

death-talk about Vaepae," his mother.

These are ancient Some of the best modern songs belong to " the death-talk of Arokapiti," whose eldest son was the first to embrace Christianity, which
necessarily put

an end

to this high effort of heathen poetry.

EVA,
Some months

OR DIRGE-PROPER.
decease of a person of note, funeral

after the

games called "eva" were performed in honour of the departed. These entertainments invariably took place by day. Ve'eteni was fabled to have been sent back to life for a day,
in order to instruct mankind in the art of mourning, " eva " in stitute solemn memory of the dead.

and

to in-

There are four


i.

varieties of the dirge-proper

The "eva tapara?

or funeral dirge, with blackened faces

streaming with gore, shaved heads, and stinking garments. This was a most repulsive exhibition, and well expressed the hopelessness of heathen sorrow.

272
2.

Myths and Songs.

The " eva furuki? or war-dirge. For this long spears were made, as if for war; only they were adzed out of orotea
iron-wood (casuarina (a white, brittle sort of wood), not of fatal
equasitifolia\

The

war-dirge for
all

Tuopapa

is

of this

sort.

Nearly

the natives of Mangaia were present

a famous specimen on

that occasion, arranged in two long

columns facing each other,

with a space of eighty yards between. The performance began with an animated conversation between the leaders of the two

squadrons of supposed enemies, as to the grounds for war; to When this is concluded, excite a lively interest in what followed.
the person most nearly related to the deceased begins the history of the heroic deeds of the clan by slowly chanting the introduc-

At the appointed pause both companies take up The mighty chorus the strain and vigorously carry it forward. is accompanied by a clashing of spears and all the evolutions of
tory words. war.

At the

close of what in writing


;

would be a paragraph a
is

momentary
full

pause takes place

new

story

introduced by the

soft musical voice of the chief mourner, caught up and recited in

chorus by both companies as before.

These war-dirges were most


bodied the only
3.

carefully

elaborated,

and em-

histories of the past

known
In

to these islanders.
this

The "eva
infallibly

toki" or
;

axe-dirge.

iron-wood axes,

not stone, were used

that

is,

mimic

axes, as the use of stone axes

would

end

in bloodshed.

In

this scenic dirge

the axes

were used to cleave the cruel earth which had swallowed up the Hades (Avaiki) was supposed to be under Mangaia. In dead.
cleaving the earth a vain wish was expressed that an opening

might be made through which the spirit of the departed might return tears streaming down the cheeks of the performers.
1

Translated by the writer with a number of clan songs, but not

yd

pub-

lished.

Death-Talks and Dirges.


The
axe-dirge was appropriate to artisans only,

273
who enjoyed
special

great consideration, seeing that such


gift

knowledge was the


in

of the gods.
4.

The "eva ta"

or

crashing-dirge,

or a

belonging to the two supposed armies is wooden sword a fathom long. This

which each person furnished with a flat-spear


differs

in the

weapons used and in the

style of composition.

from the war-dirge Reasons


in the death of

are assigned for the anger of the gods as


their friends.

shown

sort of

comedy

generally

wound up

these per-

formances.

The " dirge-proper,"


talks,"

were

all

or " amusements

" deathdancing-ftes, reed-matches, and " comprehended under the general name of eva," " " the heeva
(called

by Cook

").

KARAPONGA'S DIRGE-PROPER (EVA) IN HONOUR OF RURU (CIRCA A.D. 1816).


EVA-TOKI,

OR AXE-DIRGE.
Solo.

la Rangi te toki ia Avaiki

Sing

we

of Rangi's axe
shades,

from the
I

E
1

Kongo

oi

Thou descendant

of

Rongo

in

house on Mangaia was built by Rauvaru at Tamarua, who slept it was finished, the long thatch ends hanging loosely down. of rain fell, causing the thatch to lie smoothly. shower heavy Now Rangi greatly admired this new invention of house-building ; but

The

first

it

as soon as

had accomplished. thought he could improve upon what Rauvaru

He

there-

fore descended to the shades (Avaiki), to pay a visit to his grandfather Rongo, who presented him with a wonderful axe, the handle and all being of stone in and withal very sharp. During the rain Rangi came up unobserved one
piece,

274

Myths and

Songs.

Chorus,

Tera Tane-mata-ariki, Ei koti i te ua ma te ra,

Ei tua

te

pa rakau,
Iti.
!

Here is Tane-of-royal-face, Keen in rain and sunshine, To lay low the loftiest trees.

E mae
Era
ei tiki i

ai te toki ia

They

are felled

by the Tahitian axe.

Ie-koko-kok6

(War-dance. )

na tumangamanga noo i te are Taumaa Kaukare i te inapoiri,

This axe

is

When buried
E'en as
night.

to slay the brave in sleep.

Kaukare 2 perished in the


I

motu oki 6 Kotia aea ia Ruateatonga.


!

The fiat went forth The axe from spirit-land


deed.

did

the

Kapitia oki te tiraa

E tama e
Tena
Kla rua
'i

Paataanga 6 E Uri e
!

Prostrate they all lay

on the ground.
!

Alas for thee, eldest son

te tamaki,
!

They come rushing


served our clan.

on.

ia

Turanga 6
ake

Twice has the god Turanga 3 thus upoko


!

Taamaa

te toki ia

te

Their axes enter the skulls of the


victims.

Ie-koko-k6k6

(War-dance.)

from the shades, and trimmed the thatch of Rauvaru's house all round. Great was the astonishment of the owner in the morning to see what an improvement had been effected by an unseen friend during the peltering storm. The
magic-axe of Rangi, named Ruateatonga, became the envy of gods too. When Rangi died, it disappeared for ever,
1

men and

the

clever

"Tane-of-royal-face" is the name of the axe-god, identified with the Mangaian method of securing ordinary stone axes to wooden handles. This valuable knowledge was introduced by Una from Tahiti These
(or Iti).

axes were equally valuable for felling trees and men ! It is made to stand for the veritable axe which slew Kaukare and others. 2 Ruru died a natural death ; but being on his mother's side descended from

afterwards.
3

Kaukare, an animated description of that warrior's cruel end is introduced, with a natural cry for vengeance which was but too truly answered not long

The Tongan
its

tribe introduced the

iron-wood

out of

timber.

The god " Turanga" (now

tree,

and

first

made

spears
is

in the Missionary

Museum)

put for the tribe.

Death-Talks and Dirges.


Tena oa
Taraiia
i

275

te toki

paekaeka a Tinirau.

This

is

the axe greatly coveted by the


;

god Tinirau
te rangi te

upoku o Kae.

Now uplifted
victim
:

against the head of

its

la totoia, ia tangi a pu te iku o te


toora.

Irresistible as a

blow from the

tail of

a whale.

la tangi kekina,

With

a ringing sound
skull.

Tuparua te kapu, la motu a uka,


la eveeve ua, la kite i te kata.

Descend on the hapless

As
Is

unresisting thatch
this axe,
feel its

trimmed by

Let him

keen edge.
!

Taina ra

Taki na te toki ia Iti, Ei koti i te iku o te toora,

Slay him Lift the famed Tahitian axe, To chop off the tail of the whale

E puta
Taumaa o
moana,

tokerau.

Te-ariki-takoto-i-vaenga-

Come from some northern sea. Let the shark-god, supreme in the ocean, devour thee,
That avenging Tutavake may wade
in

E tae a vai

oki te pera o Tutavake o

human blood

Puruki TongaitL

Ua

ta Tongaiti.
;

E karonga na Kongo E karonga tuturi.


Te vaka autu, Te vaka aueke.

The Tongans struck the blow. The Tongans shed thy blood. The war-god is delighted.
Shoulder to shoulder they come. Will they prove victorious ?

Kua pau Mangaia


Aue
Eaa
te

oi

Or are they destined to fail ? The warriors of Mangaia have


fallen
!

tamaki e
!

6i

Alas! that

fearful night.
1

Aue, ka mate e
te puruki
?

How dreadful is death

Te vaa

toa te puruki o Tongaiti

With what were they slain ? With iron-wood spears The special teaching of the Tongans.

Te kai kaka, Tumaeu kura

O
e
!

poisonous wood,
like

Red
!

human blood,

E
Ei taki
i

ati

mata
toko

tao,
i

te ara

te ngaere

That defies all other weapons, That hurries the greatest chiefs to an
untimely grave
I

I-iet

Ie-koko-koko.

(War-dance twice performed.)

276
The whole
chorus.

Myths and

Songs.
first

of this dirge, excepting the

two

lines,

was

This "eva" was performed by his

father's

clan,

and takes

precedence of Arokapiti's.

AROKAPITI'S DIRGE PROPER (EVA) IN

HONOUR

OF RURU,

(CiRCA

A.D.

1816.)

EVA TA, OR CRASHING-DIRGE.


Solo.

la Ruru te toko

te ra 6i

Hail, Ruru, predestined chiefl

Chorus.
Tera, e Ruru, te uira vananga ei unui
i

Ruru, the flashing lightning came


to fetch thy spin't
!

to

manava

Ruru

atia vaie

Cut down with a stroke


i

Te kutu

te

mangungu e karara

te

The

crashing
salute thee.

thunders

of heaven

rangi.

Tie-koko koko.
Vavaia, e Rongo, te rua
i

(War-dance).
te matangi,

Great Rongo, cleave an aperture in


the horizon,

la katamutamu Avaiki.

Through which may be heard the

Koia aea

te

kopuvaru.

Each
i

E maiti te pura o

Tutavake e rere

whispers of spirit-land. (god) wields an octagonal club. Sparks of fiery war fly up to heaven.

erangi. I aa to taumaa, e te rangi maoaoa ? To punanga, e te veri tautua ?

Why this curse,


Art
thou

ye angry skies ?

Ka pura te
Reia e
te

Ikurangi,
i

Centipede, everywhere present ? The enraged Mantis flits over mount


Ikurangi.
irate

offended,

moko

Enua-kura.

The
i

Lizard has arrived from the


in haste to

shades.

Ka moe

koe, e te karaunga, tona are.

Art thou, Earwig,

occupy
?

the dwelling (of the dead)

Death-Talks and Dirges.


I akaaraia
atti

277
is

koe, e te tukununga.

The

ever-watchful Spider

already

E
To

tu ra koe, e te ueue

peau, e te
I narea

manu ka

rere.
-

koe

e te potipoti

weaving its web, And the drowsy Beetle is on the move. Each insect is on the wing. Horrid vermin are devouring
thee.

I narea

koe

e te
i

vava
te kikau.

The
(In

E atare kai

roro

Taumaa to To komata

toto,

pauru, e te ro ; e te namunamua,
e anau.
e te kereteki,

is eating thee up, league with) the despoiler of the cocoa-nut palm. curse upon thy head, O Ant !

Cricket, too,

And on

thee, too, Mosquito,


:

ever-

thirsting for blood

Na Tiereua koe

E manu tu e mai koe,


Tokoa e
I
te iva i

Ha

All children of the god Tiereua. there is a Grasshopper in the


!

cruel throng,

vaenga moana.

Followed by a Dragon-fly from midocean.

turuanuku koe e Tutavake. mataotaoa te apai o


te rangi.

Oh

that

war loving Tutavake would


!

I turua

pity thee Oh, that the fierce

demon
!

of the sky

would save thee


Eia e manu e pungaverevere.
Ei
ei

Thou

art

spider's

doomed web ;

like

a fly in

nuku na manu o
Pirake e
piri te

te rangi,

Snared by the
air;

relentless fairies of the

papao

Helpless as a fish in the meshes of

net.

Na
Anaua

tamaroa e tu
te

te taua,
!

Alas

brave sons destined for


1

fight,

te

tamaroa e Tutavake 6

Begotten of war-loving Tutavake,

Miru

metua

enua akarere Mangaia.

Dread Miru awaits you. Mangaia will soon fade from your
sight

Puputa motu no Tirango, E pa te rongo i Avarua.

Even

He

great Tirango was slain, whose fame reached other

lands.

As Ruru

did not die a warrior's death, his spirit necessarily enters the

domains of cruel Miru.

27 8

Myths and

Songs.
clan of

Taevaia e Tane te manavaroa o te Keanui.

The

Tane was

cut up

by the

Oaia

te ara

puku
i

tu

Maungarua.

shark-worshippers, Who love to worship

on steep

A puta koe
Oai

te rangi, e

Rongo

te tiaki i te are o

Tongaiti?
a rua.

Maungarua. Favoured childien of the god Rongo. Who maintained the ancient fame of
the

Tongans

Teio,

tai.

Tevaki,

Teio, Tevaki, and Tirango,

Tirango, a toru.

O Paia,
E

ka

a.

Teuira, ka rima.

Paia,

Rarea, ka ono. akaara i te moe o te koromatua


i

Teuira, and Rarea famous warriors.


to

all

six

They loved

waken the slumbers of


!

Mangonui
e ara
!

E tu,

tu,

e ara

E ara na tokorua te papakura.


Ka
Te
eva Tane
i

man at Mangonui, Get (With the words) Get up up Day would dawn upon these
the wise
!

watchers,
Tiairi,

Ah,

Tiairi

is filled

with the tribe

of Tane.
tu ra oa

Ruaika
i

Tikura, ua
te tua

mau

Brave Ruaika gaily equipped


speared. Rerepuka attacked
his

was
from

te rakei.

Na

Rerepuka
tuku,
I rauka

aae

o Tuku-

foes

Na makona

\ tana taua. o Tutavake e tu


i

te taua,

behind, And gained a decisive victory. Successful fishermen of the war-god

E akaara
Tu
Aore

te tiraa

te rau tamanu,

Avenged him who

sleeps under the

"tamanu"
iora ikona e Kotuku.
e taea teia paepae,

tree,

The

fearless

Kotuku.

O O

tai

paepae tua-manomano. taeo, o Teiiri o Terarama.


taeo,

This place is henceforth sacred. None dare approach.

tai

tai

paepae o Rongo.
Solo.

Only the fairies may come, Teiiri and Terarama. Rongo himself has been here
!

Ina

oi

Ina 6i

Hail,

Inal

Fair Ina

1 Tiairi is the warrior's paradise, in which the clan of Tane is supposed to have a large share, most of them having died a violent death. The reference is introduced to distract attention from the dismal fate of all who fall into the

clutches of Mini.
2

This

is

a sort of comedy.

The

performers

now

divide themselves into

Death-Talks and Dirges.


Ua
akia oa to puta vai na, e Ina
1

279
Alas
!

Thy

fruits

are stolen.

Ina,

Ina
Chorus.

the moon-goddess.

A mau

Tera rava

te

maoaoa.

Catch (the

thieves.)

The sky

is

threatening.

One

half.

kake ra koe, e

te

unga.

O
Other half.

Robber-crab, climb and catch

them!

Aua au

kake

;-

na

te irave e kake.

I will not climb


catch them.

let

the

" Irave "

One

half.

E kake ra koe,

e te

" Irave "

"

"
Irave,

climb

and

catch

them!

Aua au

kake

na

te

"Papaka

Other half. " I will not climb e


catch them.

let

the

"

Papaka

"

kake.

One

half.

E kake ra koe,

te

papaka.

O
Other half.

"Papaka," climb and catch them!


"
"

Aua au

kake

na

te tupa e kake.

I will not climb

let the

Tupa

catch them.

One half.

E kake ra koe,
two bands,
I

e te tupa.

"Tupa," climb and catch them!

At length two men, calling alternately addressing each other. themselves mice, actually climb a pandanus tree well-laden with ripe fruit, and Showers of nuts are scattered over the performers to their great squeak
amusement.

The "eva," or "dirge properly so called," day; usually in the early morning. The
**

was always performed by


varieties of the

irave,"

"papaka," and "tupa" are well-known

land-crab.

28 o

Myths and
e

Songs.

Other half.

Aua

ail

kake ; ne

te

karau e kake.

I will not climb

let

the tiny crab

catch them.

One

half.

E kake ra koe,
Aua au
e

e te karaii.

tiny crab, climb and catch

them !""

kake

Other half. na te kiore e kake. I will not climb


them.

let

the

mouse catch

Two.

Noai

teia ngai ?

Who
Chants.

is

up there ?

Ake

Ake Keka
! ! !

Keka
!

Tutute

What

noises are these of nibbling

Tutute
!

and crunching
! !

Kaika Ngengene Ngengene Kaika!! Akaruke i te katu


!

Squeaking and fighting ?

The hard

shells are falling.

Pururu

te

katu a te kiore, te katu a te


!

kiore.

They are scattered by the mice.

in

all directions

Tai naku, e Kio

Tai naku, e
!

mouse, give

me some
!

Pray
!

Kio Tera ake oa


!

te kuriri

give me some Hark to the song of the birds

Tikaroa

te iroiro.

Our amusement

is

concluded.

This dirge was performed by the mother's clan under the


direction of
Arokapiti.

lightning on the day

Rum

There happened to be thunder and died ; which was, of course, regarded


have resolved
tc

as a celestial compliment to the dying chief. All the minor gods (i.e. reptiles and
kill

insects)

of the major gods pitying him, his ghost sorrowfully enters the shades.

the illustrious Ruru.

None

Death-Talks and Dirges.

281

"

BLACKENED-FACE " DIRGE-PROPER FOR ATIROA.


BY HIS FATHER KORONEU, CIRCA 1820.
Solo.

Pange

oi

e rau raua ia tama.


te

Alas, Pangeivi

The

case
;

is

hopeless.

Kua tomo
A, aore e
I

vaka

The canoe x
Chorus.

is lost

tu,

tail

atua.

Oh,

my god

(Tane) thou hast failed


life
;

naau

ai

kua oki

o,

mel Thou didst promise

E vaorakau raui naau,


Aore
tetai e tukua i te urunga piro. Ina tika oki Turanga, E vaimangaro ra taana
!

Thy
To

worshippers
forest,

were to be

as

fall
it

only by the axe in battle.


!

Had

been the god Turanga That liar I would not have trusted
hint.

Parau aore, e kai oki taau. Tapani atura i te koi parara


Kororo-kururu ua
'tu ra.

Like him, you are a man-eater May thy mouth be covered with
I

E atua te tangata e
Tiria
i

oia

Slush it over and over This god is but a man after


!

all

Solo.

mua, e

Kon

Ei

Ei

Plaster

him

well, friends.

Ha Hal
t

(Women's

shouts).

Chorus.

Tutae keinga e te tuarangi Kua kau te metua i te ngarau E ngarau no Tiki. Ei eva i te tama akaaroa ; Ei tuveu i te are rangorango, Kia ara te tangata mate. E takanga mate no Tutaemaro,
!
I

Dung is fit food for such gods "We parents are in deep mourning, Like that first used by Tiki
!

We mourn for our beloved


Oh, that one could
stir

first-born.

Te taka

ra

One-makenukenu.

up the gods, And cause the very dead to awake Yonder stands thy weeping mother. Thy spirit wanders about One-makenu!

kenu,
1

" The canoe

is lost

"

" The child isdead."

282

Myths and
J

Songs.

E kimi i te ara, Kia kitea te ara i keinga


Itia e

Inquiring the reason


i
!

Why his

poor body was devoured (by

the gods).

Ruateatonga te ii keremuta o Vatea la amama Avaiki I


I te

Fairy of the axe cleave open The secret road to spirit-land ; and Compel Vatea to give up the dead
! !

Solo.

Ua, e Tiki,

te

tuarangi

Puff,

Tiki, a puff such as only ghosts

can!
Chorus.

Aria

Wait a moment.
Solo.

Ua, uaia

(Again I say)

puff, puff

away
1)

K6!

(Chorus of pretended explosions


Chorus.

To

taringa, e Pangeivi ; I kai koe i tad tamaiti na

A curse upon thee,


!

priest Pangeivi.

Thou

hast destroyed

my boy.

As no one would undertake to compose an atheistic dirge for It was performed the angry mourner, Koroneu made his own. successfully amongst the other more regular dirges for Atiroa.

THE FIRST MURDER AND THE FIRST BATTLE.


The
earlier part

of these people. aged their limbs tottering, their backs curved, and their teeth

" of the reign of Rangi was " the golden age Children grew up to maturity; men became

of the cocoa-nut, poured into the

dropping out, so that they were fed again with the expressed juice mouth by means of the leaf
tiere,

of the

or gardenia
1

still,

Death had not made


pedite.

its

appear-

In Latin,

Death-Talks and Dirges.


ance
;

283

and of course war, famine,


this

sickness,

and pain were un-

known.
But

happy

state of things did

not

last.

Even during the

lifetime of the

famous Rangi a mighty change took place. There lived in those days a famous man named Matoetoea.
tried to kill

Many had

him

but in vain.

For

as soon as the

arms of an adversary were uplifted to strike him, a violent shivering and trembling would seize the limbs of the would-be murderer,
so that the

unharmed.

and

his

weapon would fall to the ground and Matoetoea escape Hence the saying in daily use, when any one shivers skin becomes rough in consequence, "he has been
(te kiri

smitten by Matoetoea "

o Matoetoea).

There lived in spirit-land (Avaiki) a " brave," named Tukaitaua, 1


ever ready to perform the behests of Rongo. Hearing of the marvellous power possessed by Matoetoea, he longed to measure
his

own

strength with one of earth.

With

this

view he came up

upper world and searched over the island for his foe until he found him. For the first time Matoetoea's power of selfto this

defence was at

fault,

and he

easily fell

under the blows of the


also slain

redoubtable Tukaitaua. " brave " in


j

Ngake and Akuru were

all,

three persons were murdered successively

by this on one

night by Tukaitaua

Thus death entered


was the
first first

one from each of the three primitive tribes. into the world (Mangaia). Matoetoea

to die

to die a natural one.

a violent death, as Vetini afterwards was the Rangi was much grieved at this violent
his hitherto peaceful

breach,

now

first

made, in

domain.
to

He

sought everywhere for the

unknown murderer ; but


way

He
1

therefore

descended to (Avaiki) nether-land, to


"
(tu

no purpose. pay a visit

to his grandfather Rongo, as the only possible

of discovering
wf;

= " He whose delight

it is

to fight

= stand;

kai

tau=

battle.}

284
the murderer.

Myths and
Upon

Songs.
Kongo,

entering the presence of the great


there, his

he found Matoetoea
blood.

head and face

all

covered with

Rangi Rongo asked Rangi what he had come for. The Matoetoea." who murdered To ascertain war-god replied, now inquired, "Have you not seen any new face in the upper " "I have," replied Rangi. " He is the murderer," reworld ?
"
joined Rongo. Rangi, now thirsting for revenge, asked how he, a mortal, could " Tukaitaua. Rongo said, Go back to daylight ; you cannot
c
'

kill

conquer Tukaitaua.
this the

king upper world of


"

left

the shades

/will send some one to punish him." Upon and returned to his old home in this

light.

The war-god kept


land another
kaitaua,

his word.

There lived with him

in spirit-

brave," Tutavake, cousin to the redoubtable

Tu-

who

represented the elder branch of the family.

The
the

father of Tukaitaua

was Tavarenga (Deceiving)


(Entirely-brave).

the parent of
to

Tutavake was

Tuatakiri

Summoned

" to presence of Rongo, Tutavake was ordered to go at once " "How can I manage it? asked daylight" and slay Tukaitaua. Tutavake. Rongo directed him to search through the six districts

And if you cannot then discover him, climb the and will be sure to find his whereabouts. Only do not hills, you attack him early in the morning, for then he is in his full strength
of Mangaia.
;

"

nor in the evening, for as the shadow lengthens his strength


increases.

Recollect that as the shadow of morning shortens,

Tukaitaua's strength wanes.

At mid-day
its

it is

at the lowest
;

Stand erect on a

hill in

the sun until

rays are vertical

point then go

and attack him."


Tutavake obeyed.
inhabitants of

Coming up to "daylight," he found the Auau (Mangaia) crowded together in the interior

Death-Talks and Dirges.


in terror of the

285
For some time

unknown murderer of mankind.

he could get no clue to the exact whereabouts of Tukaitaua. He had indeed been seen occasionally performing his wonderful warlike evolutions hitherto

unknown

to

(which represents the

left heel

of the giant

mankind. Ascending a " Te-manava-roa

hill

")

he

espied a small cloud of -dust rising from a spot not far from "thechasm-of-Tiki,"

kept up with nether-world.

by which constant communication was at that time Tutavake cautiously approached the

spot, and peered through the dense growth of trees and bush which surrounded the open space cleared by Tukaitaua for spearexercise. There, indeed, was his unconscious foe vigorously

fighting the air.

Day

after

day, from

dawn

to sunset,
this

this

was

Tutavake's sole delightful employment.

On

occasion Tu-

kaitaua was somewhat exhausted, for the sun was vertical. Ever and anon an " ugh " would escape the accomplished warrior, as

he

failed

in

some

delicate

movement

Encouraged by these

heavy grunts of disappointment, Tutavake, spear in hand, suddenly darted from his hiding-place to the edge of the circle inside which his cousin was practising. The astonished Tukaitaua exclaimed:

Ana mai

ta Tauatakiri,

The son of " Entirely-brave come

"

did not

Kua pakua

ta Tavarenga.

Until the son of "Deceiving" was exhausted.

Yet Tukaitaua did not

for

a moment cease

his

spear-practice.

His antagonist followed him very adroitly, as he went round and round the great circular area, in order to avoid a hasty meeting.
This was in accordance with the instructions of Rongo. Tukaitaua's obvious aim was to close in with his foe as quickly as
possible,

and to give the death blow.


skilfully

Seven times Tukaitaua

wheeled round, but was

avoided by Tutavake.

The

286
eighth time

Myths and
he made the
circuit, it

Songs.
was evident that
his strength

Tutavake suddenly swung round in was much impaired. the opposite direction and dealt the hitherto invincible Tukaitaua

At

this

a fatal

blow on

his head.

Rangi was delighted that the death of Matoetoea and his Tutavake returned to the friends was thus speedily avenged. state of things could never be But the former peaceful shades.
enjoyed again. Blood had been shed; first in sheer wantonness, Ever since, mankind has been engaged next in just retribution.
in either aggressive or defensive warfare.

Diseases of various
;

kinds followed in the


first

train,

and

lingering death

Vetini being the

Hurricanes and famines came,

too, into existence.

Tukaitaua,

when prowling round


fertile interior,

the

island in

search

of
sur-

Matoetoea,

etc.,

discovered in the exterior pile of rocks

rounding the

runs right round,

a remarkable narrow gorge which not unlike a wide road, fenced on either side
Yet,

with imperishable walls of hardened sharp-pointed coral


strangely enough, in this coral large trees

and

beautiful creepers

of different kinds grow luxuriantly.


natural road round Mangaia, Tukaitaua

At various points in this had cleared the bush and


to prosecute his favourite
at another with
;

removed the rough loose stones in order pastime at one time with a long spear
:

a double-

edged wooden sword; anon with a curved club


a
sling.

occasionally with

of the world (Mangaia) contrived to get of the glimpses proceedings of this extraordinary fellow from behind trees or elevated blocks of rock ; without, however, being seen by him. For it was evidently a dangerous thing to go near a
inhabitants
native of nether-world possessed of such fearful strength.
It

The

was

Death- Talks and Dirges.


in this furtive

287
what
sort of

weapons

to

manner that mankind first make and how to fight with them.

learnt

This knowledge was very seasonable. For not long afterwards there arrived at Tamarua, on the south of the island, a " " fleet of canoes of Tongans-sailing-through-the-skies (Tongaiti-

The leader of this formidable band was the first akareva-moana). The secret of his successful of the high-priest god Turanga. navigation was a vast ball of string which he held in his hand during
his long voyage,
arrival

and which was

quite exhausted

upon
his

their safe

on the southern coast of Mangaia, 1


or
The-man-of-the-long-string.
little

Hence

name, Te-

ab-roa,

In those days the


lake in Veitatei
;

now

unruly ocean was smooth as the


occasionally disturbed with
easiest tiling possible to
direction.

its
it

surface

gentle

ripples,
it

so that

was the

voyage over

at

But in

after

ages, ceaseless wars

any time and in any and shedding of


rise to

blood disturbed the course of the elements, and so gave


the fearful storms and cyclones

we now

suffer from.

A battle ensued between


of nether-world.

these driftaways from

original possessors of the soil,

who claimed

to have

Tonga and the come up out

which have been fought on Mangaia.


place at Te-rua-noni-anga,"
it is

This was the first of the forty-two pitched battles This primary conflict took
or
Valley-of-soiL
fell

Of

this battle

expressly asserted that as

men

in the ranks of Rangi, their


!

places were immediately filled

up by new warriors from the shades their think moderns places were filled up from a reSceptical serve force hidden behind the rocks. However, the result was that the warlike invaders, who had despised the small army oi
1

long-string" tied this end of the enormous ball of string

Until lately was shown the hole in the coral reef where "The-man-of-theThe bit of rock is
!

now

destroyed.

2 88

Myths and
who were

Songs.

Rangi, and

sure of securing the entire island to them-

selves, fled in utter disorder.

The numerous names

of different

island to the cave of Tautua, where the points of road across the remnant took shelter, are but so many memorials of those slain in

the pursuit.

Of Rangi's

victorious force three fell


tribes.

one out of each of

the three original

And

thus was established the ancient

doctrine (ara taonga), that victory

and

chieftainship of all degrees

can only be secured by first shedding the blood of some of the victorious party, so as to secure the favour of Kongo, the arbiter of
the destinies of war.

In the persons of Rangi and Tiaio, but in no other, the secular and spiritual sovereignties were united.

Peace was secured by the

offering

up on the

altar of

Rongo a

human

sacrifice,

Vaioeve.

Rangi now

consented that the unfortu-

nate Tongans should permanently occupy that part of the island where they had so recently landed. The art of war would not,

however, have reached perfection but for these Tongan settlers, who had the credit, or discredit, of introducing the iron-wood all weapons of war tree, from the wood of which in after years

were manufactured.

The
bravery

settlement of a

Tongan colony on the

south,

and

their

first conflict

with the earlier inhabitants, are historical

facts.

Then-

is

universally admitted.

The
proverb,

restless character of these

Tongans

is

indicated in the

"

A stone-mouth
i.e.

is

needed
tire.
it

to exhort the

Tongans to keep
"
said,

the peace,"

lips that

never
"
;

When

dealing a death-blow

was sometimes

Go, eat

the stale food of Tukaitaua

the food in question being the club

and the spear which Tukaitaua loved

so well.

28 9

CHAPTER

XIII.

HUMAN SACRIFICES.
WHY HUMAN
RANGI'S
first

SACRIFICES

WERE OFFERED.
Rongo was a
rat laid with

propitiatory offering to
original

great ceremony on the

marae of the god of war.


visit to his

But on

descending to the shades to

pay a

divine grandfather,

Rongo evinced
on
a
sacrifice.

account of his having

now

learnt

by averting his face from Rangi been imposed upon with so unworthy Rangi, who was naturally averse to blood-shedding, that nothing less than a human sacrifice would give
his displeasure

satisfaction.

upper world, Rangi successfully fought a spot ever since called " Teruanoninga," or In this engagement the newly arrived colony Valley-of-sfoil. a great check. received from Tonga fugitive from the battlehis first battle at

Upon

his return to this

field,

Vaioeve, was overtaken and

slain

expressly for sacrifice

god of War and of Night Vaioeve was \hsfirst human The place where the victim fell sacrifice ever offered on Mangaia.
to the
still

bears his name.

290
The
first

Myths and
practice once
it

Songs.
until Christianity
sacrifice

a stop to

for ever.

begun was continued The second human


Iti

put

priest of

Tane on Mangaia, from

(Tahiti).

was Turuia, Turuia was

slain at the instigation of

The

tribe

Tamatapu, during the lifetime of Rangi. of Tane arrived after the Tongans, and from being first

lords of the soil regarded as guests, were devoted by the original from the who claimed direct descent god Rongo to furnish

human sacrifices whenever required. The successive priests of Tane,


Tepunga, were in
older
tribe.

viz.

Matariki, Tiroa,
in sacrifice

and

after times slain

and offered

by the

The
is

martial

Tevaki, the
tribe of
able,

last of that

supremacy of Mautara alone saved devoted race, and from whom the present

Tane

descended.

As human

sacrifices

Mautara reverted

to the original tribe of

Tongans

were indispens(in which

human sacrifice. member of these

Teipe was included), from which Rangi had selected the first It is mournful to think that almost every
families

was offered in

sacrifice;

a few of their
for the express

number being always

reserved,

and even cherished,

purpose of providing future sacrifices. Later still, the Amai tribe was devoted on account of their
complicity in a murder of a chief of the once all-powerful Mautara
clan.

Thus

it

became the custom

to devote each

new band

of

settlers

(with

other, to the altar.

one or two exceptions), on some pretence or The only tribe never thus treated was the
:

original

reason being that

one who worshipped Rongo and Motoro the alleged be if would his own Rongo angry worshippers

and
then,

so-called children were offered.


it

With perfect consistency,


in 1824, to offer

was proposed by the angry heathen,


first

up

Davida, the

Christian teacher,

to

the god Rongo.

This

was with the view of extinguishing

Christianity.

The

plot almost

Sacrifices.
succeeded.
to Davida,

291
revealed
it

Providentially, a convert

named Mauapa x
on

and

so set the Christian party

their guard.

The following ancient myth refers


that fish were not offered to that god.

to the only instance related of


;

stealing away the sacrifice from Kongo's altar

for

it is

well

known
victims.
:

His fish

'were

human

Three

varieties of butterflies are indigenous

on Mangaia

large, velvety,

purple beauty

a somewhat smaller one, with red

spots

and a

small, unattractive, yellow sort


his altar

One day Rongo missed from


it

a fine sword-fish (aku)

had been stolen by the Lizard-god, Matarau, whose marae is at 2 Aumoana, at Tamarua. Rongo ordered his swift messengers, the
birds, to fly to that

marae to see whether

it

was not hidden

there.

The

birds obeyed, and found the stolen sword-fish in the sacred shade of the marae. Hard by, in a gloomy little recess, the Lizard

kept constant watch. Now this Lizard had, as its name Matarau implies, two hundred eyes, besides eight heads and eight tails. So that all that the bird-messengers could do was to look on
with

awe

at a distance,

from the branches of the sacred

trees.

Rongo, and told what they had seen. They returned They were chided by Rongo, and bidden to return to the grove of " fish " stolen the Lizard-god, and endeavour to bring away the from his altar. The birds returned, and in their zeal venturing too
to great

near the cave of the god possessed of two hundred eyes, were summarily devoured. Several other bird-messengers shared
similar fate.

all

Rongo now commissioned


;

rich
all

velvety butterflies

to attempt the rescue

but they, too, were

snapped up by the

Lizard-god.
1

The
Ocean

red butterflies fared no better.

At

last

Rongo,

A heathen song in honour of this


current.

man is

given on

p. 257,

292
at his wits' end, hit
sacrifice
:

Myths and

Songs.
to get

upon a notable device


yellow
butterflies

back

his stolen

two

little

were summoned

to

his

to a banyan tree growing out of the presence, and were directed rocks just over the entrance to the cave where the ever-vigilant

Lizard kept watch.


leaves, their

Adhering to the inside of two sere yellow not be noticed. The trusty little meswould presence

in appearance, easily sengers, so utterly insignificant

made

their

way unnoticed

to the

banyan

tree.

All the butterflies

and moths

of Mangaia hid themselves amongst the leaves in the immediate neighbourhood, in order to render assistance. Rongo now caused " moio " across the island the (w. by N.) wind to blow violently

a straight line from the grove of Rongo to that of the LizardDown came a shower of yellow leaves with the two yellow god). " fish." Little did the Lizard stolen
(in
butterflies

upon the

suspect

Rongo were hidden underneath which caused leaves his eyes to blink for a the multitude of
that

two messengers of

his rival

moment.
success

The
was now

clever

little

butterflies

inwardly

chuckled,

as

And they had seized their prey. now myriads of butterflies and moths of all sorts and colours came The ears of the astonished Lizard-god to the aid of then* friends.
certain, for
fish

were assailed by the defiant shouts of the war-dance, as the swordwas borne on the wings of the army of butterflies through the

air across the island to the altar of Rongo. With infinite chagrin the Lizard-god helplessly watched the disappearance of his stolen " fish." As they fled they sang
:

E uru tupu ariki,


E apai

e ika

na Rongo

e takitaki aere.

Dance in triumph before this (fish) offering to Rongo. Lift it on high ; bear it carefully on.

"Aumoana"

is

the ancient marae of the

Tongan

tribe,

to

Human

Sacrifices.

293

whom Vaioeve belonged. Unquestionably this is an allegorical account of the loss and recovery of Vaioeve, or some other very early victim ; the object being to conceal the fact from the vulgar.
That an ambush was formed, and two clever fellows dared the anger of the Lizard-god, in order to recover a stolen sacrifice (or
"
fish," as it

was invariably termed)

is

very probable.

THE DRUM OF PEACE.


gaining a decisive victory the leading warrior was " The kingly authority proclaimed temporal lord of Mangaia."

Upon

was hereditary and


I believe

distinct

from that of the warrior chief: the


the other the temporal power.
this
i.e.

former representing the

spiritual,

Mangaia

distinction

be the only island in the Pacific where obtained. Kings were "te ara pia o Rongo,"
to

" the mouth-pieces,


tutelar divinity

or priests, of Rongo."
all

As Rongo was

the

and the source of

authority, they were invested

with tremendous power the temporal lord having to obey, like the multitude, through fear of Rongo's anger. Peace could

not be proclaimed or blood spilt lawfully without the consent of the king speaking in the name of the god Rongo. So sacred

were their royal persons that no part of their bodies might be tattooed ; they could not take part "in dances or in actual warfare. It sometimes happened that the temporal chief was at enmity
with the king of his day.

In

this case the

king would refuse


;

to complete the ceremonies for his formal investiture

life

would

remain unsafe
followed.

the soil could not be cultivated, and famine soon


state

This

of misery might endure for years, until


in his turn

the obnoxious chief

had

been despatched, and a more

agreeable successor fixed upon.

All the multitudinous idolatrous

294

Myths and

Songs.

ceremonies to secure peace would be


king.

now

easily

arranged by the

Seven

distinct journeys

the victorious warriors,


hitherto

would be made round the island by who with their women and children had

as

if

huddled together in one encampment Fully equipped, island for battle, they would one day march round the

supremacy of the -winning party. that day was slain. Man, woman, or child crossing their path in Subsequent processions were of a more peaceful character,
absolute defiantly, to assert the

order to perform idolatrous worship at each of the principal One of the more interesting of these was the ceremony maraes.

After a of spear-breaking, in token of the cessation of war. renewed circuit of the island, the warrior chiefs would, with
pieces a number of second-rate spears of various shapes against a great chestnut tree (cut down a year or two since) growing opposite the principal interior marae. Anto great formality, beat

other interesting symbol of peace was the setting up in each prin" marae a forked stick, well notched, and called supports?
cipal

intimating that the leading

supports prove Miniature houses were erected on

"

"

to

the

men who worshipped reign of peace now


all

there should

inaugurated.
;

these maraes

each house

being a fathom long and well thatched, with a little open door These tiny neatly screened with a strip of the best white cloth. ?; " houses were designated conservators of peace (are ei au). The idea was, that all the gods and all their worshippers should lay
aside their animosities

and unite

in keeping the peace.

In the

" language of those days, the entire assembly of gods form but one " house ; the great point being that no divinity should feel himself
neglected, and so take umbrage, and thus a hole be made through which wind and rain (war and bloodshed) might enter. If all the

Human

Sacrifices.

295

gods be propitious and united, they form a well-thatched house which no evil can invade.

the

The seventh and most important procession of all was to beat drum of peace all round the island. But the indispensable
arbiter of

preliminary to this was the

Rongo,
slain,

war and peace.

securing an acceptable offering to man or woman must be

but not needlessly battered, for the express purpose, and


altar.

laid

upon the

The victim was first exposed on a platform of pandanuswood in the sacred district of Keia, and opposite to the idolhouse hence the name often applied to such, " pange-ara," or " The entire body of victors now laid-on-a-pandanus-tree."
;

victim, whilst

assemble in their gayest trappings, and well armed, in front of the "the praying-king" (te ariki karakia) slowly chanted
twice the following

PRAYER OVER A HUMAN SACRIFICE TO RONGO.


E kaura
!

ura pia

Stately, noble priest

Ura vananga, ura turou, Turoua takaia, takaia e mana, Rimarima tangata, angaanga tangata, Atia a mana airi a tapu Atia te 10, te io no Rongo.
:

Sweet peace, pleasant offering Securely fastened and well-tied. These human hands and human form, Devoted to this fate by the gods
!

Doomed

to

sacrifice

by the god

Rongo.

Vatea

te

auranga moana,

Great Vatea

is

the guardian of the


:

ocean.

le rua rau'i au, E rua rua'i toro.

By him it is ruffled By him it is calmed.

This prayer, and the "Prayer for Peace" on p. 299, are of unknown

antiquity.

296

Myths and Songs.


Ka tupu o te toa, Ka rito o te toa, Ka rara o te toa, Ka kokoti o te toa, Ka era o te toa, Ka maikuku o te toa, Ka ngaa o te toa.
Here
is

iron- wood of

noble growth

A most graceful tree,


With numerous branches. Fell this iron- wood tree ;
Divide
Split
it

its

trunk

with wedges, For the making of spears.

Tupu akera

la uki e toa

maori no taua puruki


taua te arutoa

In every age the iron-wood has yielded Death-dealing spears

No No

For the use of wairiors only

tupuranga taua,
!

From

No taua kiea, no taua kiea E ti o te maunga o te mateni


Teniteni te matakeinanga
;
I

And bravely
;

time immemorial. have we wielded them

The

wild

ti

root of the hills (was

our food).

But now
This day
Lately

we
we

shall enjoy plenty.

Koakoa

te

matakeinanga
ra
i

heartily rejoice.

Taua
I te

te makitea,

we

hid in the rocks


shall enjoy plenty,
rejoice.

punanga o
te

te ao.
;

The

refuge of the conquered.

Teniteni te matakeinanga

But now we
This day

Koakoa

matakeinanga

we heartily

The

of this incantation painfully interesting part

is

lost

the

stanzas relating to the division of the lands,


ears of the victim were cut off

when the nose and

expectant chiefs.
sion.

The "

"

prayer

and formally presented to the only was chanted on this occa-

their gayest trappings,


altar.

After a few days the warriors would' again deck themselves in and well armed stood in front of the wooden

The "praying

king," assisted

by

his friends,

now came

forward with a large coarse scoop-net of cocoa-nut fibre, used only on such occasions ; and carried off the decayed sacrifice to
the pebbly beach at

some
1

distance.

It

was

laid this

time on a

Dracaena terminals*

Human
Rongo.
"

Sacrifices*

297
idol,

smooth block of sandstone in front of the great national stone

Hence

the

name

frequently applied to

ikakaa," or fish caught in the net of

Rongo.

human victims, The incantation


marae of
altar

slowly chanted at the

wooden altar in the

interior near the

Matoro, god of day, was repeated at the natural stone

on

the shore at the marae of Rongo, god of night (atua po). The " praying king," with a bamboo knife, now cut off the ears

of the victim

the right ear representing


;

the right, or southern^


left,

half of the island


half.

the left ear representing the

or northern

Each ear was then subdivided

into as

many

small portions

as might serve to represent the various

minor

districts (tapere)

of

each

half.

The

king

now demanded,

in a loud voice,

"

Who

shall

According to a private agreement, the leading man amongst the winning tribes rose, and " with dignity said, " Ei iaku Mangaia = " Let me be lord of
lord, or warrior-chief, of

be

Mangaia?"

Mangaia," The entire assembly of warriors, by profound silence, confirmed the appointment. This chief now resumed his seat on
the ground
;

victim was given.


district-chiefs

but to him, as supreme temporal lord, no part of the In a prescribed order, the names of all the

and landowners were proclaimed, each receiving from


ears of the victim

the

hand of the king a portion of the


leaf.

wrapped up
first

in a ti

The

great temporal chief invariably received the

portion, in the inferior capacity of district-chief.

These

bits

of

human
of the

ears were deposited in the different family maraes.

They

constituted an investiture to all offices


soil.

and

right to the possession

Without a human

sacrifice there

could be no formal

possession of dignity or estate.

The

nose of the victim


assistants.

was the portion of the kings and

their

recognized
the sacred

drum

of

Thus the guardian of, and performer on, The man who had the peace had a share.

298

Myths and

Songs.

management of all great feasts, and was supposed to make the " food grow, came in for his share of the nose. The praying
king," however,

was the great

spiritual dignity or pontiff,

and as

such came in for the best lands, in addition to the daily offerings
of food of best quality.

And now

the famous

drum of peace,
;

expressly

made

for this

solemn occasion, would be beaten

or, strictly

speaking, would be

feast occupied the heavily struck with the tips of the fingers. attention of the warriors and chiefs between the presentation of

the bits of

human ears and the drumming. The performance first the marae of Rongo a procession was now formed on ook place of all the victorious tribes, headed by the king and the hereditary
;

reverence was simply part of a

This object of mysterious at one end with stone out tree, dug with a adzes j the aperture being covered piece of shark's skin. Each relative of the hereditary drum-player carried a small drum,
drum-beater,
carried the big drum.
to increase the

who

volume of sound, thus assuring

fugitives hiding in

The the rocks and thickets that better days were dawning. " praying king," at the head of the procession, chanted in a pleasing tone a prayer for peace to the gods. At a certain point all the
males of the kingly families united their voices, and
all

the drums

sent forth their agreeable, although monotonous, accompaniment.

I give the exact words from the lips of the aged king, who minutely related to me the whole of the ceremonies connected

For with the offering of human sacrifices and the drum of peace. " " or voices recite these but to karakia," kingly prayers/' any

would have been

to invoke the anger of the gods.

Human

Sacrifices.

299

PRAYER FOR PEACE.


The
Akiakia Maruata
ikitia

single voice

" of the fraying king."

taku atarau.

A
By

bleeding victim has been chosen for our altar,


it

laia ia vaerea te tarutaru enua

are

weeded out

the evils of the

land

Avaiki mai raro e

Which

spring up from nether- world.


voices.

All the drums and all the

Teimaia rangi maia, rangi vaerea.

Let peace begin.


cloudless
!

May

the sky be the sky be

Teimaia rangi maia, rangi vaerea.


Vaerea
Vaerea
tai

Let peace begin.


cloudless
!

May

taru

vaerea.

Weed

out

all

evils.

Weed them
utterly

out!
;

vaerua

to makita, makita.

Weed, weed them out ;


for ever
!

and

Makitaria kitaria, kua rangi

riri

Aye,

let

each

threatening

cloud

entirely disappear!

Upon
circuit

entering each district the performance began anew.

The

of the island was


times offered.

made

in

one day
spot,

the prayer being

many

stones, a spear

marked by three was thrust into the big drum of peace, in token Peace was secured The great that the work was accomplished.
certain
still

At a

drum was hidden away


to this day.

in

a certain cave, kept an inviolable secret

So

that for each proclamation of peace a

new drum

(pau) must be dug out No music was ever half so sweet to the ears of the vanquished as the monotonous notes of the drum of peace. By it human life

became
the

sacred.

Wretches, nearly dead from starvation and


*4

terror,

hiding in the desolate


fertile valleys

raei,"

now came

forth boldly.

Everywhere

the victors

became again dotted over with the dwellings of and their vassals. These houses might be covered

300

Myths and Songs.


;

with substantial thatch

for

had not the gods

in each district

been honoured with

Thatched houses tiny ones of their own? miserable were not lawful until the drum had been beaten.

shift

was made with split In the hope of winning the favour of the new lords of the tribes brought out from their soil, the survivors of the beaten
cocoa-nut branches.

white shells for the hiding-places in the rocks fine braided hair ; wooden arms, used at dances ; fish-nets of the best quality ;
troughs and stone adzes.
tected by relatives,

Some were

fortunate in

being pro-

usually allowed their unfortunate friends to Some were avowedly protected to retain part of their treasures. The birth of a child by furnish human sacrifices at a future day.

who

such

serfs

was regarded with

satisfaction

by the unfeeling masters.

rule, the wives of the conquered were the property of the victors. The serfs were expected to fish daily for the benefit of

As a

their lords,

generously permitted their dependants to eat the small, inferior fish themselves.

who

was given by the victors to these serfs a public their safety. This was called " taperu kai." of recognition
feast

The
with
its

coral-tree (erythrina coralodendror?),

which

attracts every

eye

symbolical blood-red flowers, was

now
is

the valleys in token of peace.


It

This plant

formally planted in almost imperishable.

was vainly hoped that the reign of peace might be equally Cocoa-nut trees were also planted all over the island enduring.
to

mark the

whom

duration of peace. The only warrior-chiefs under peace prevailed long enough for a cocoa-nut tree to bear,

were Tuanui, Mautara, Ngara, Potiki, and Pangemiro. of these were long reigns Mautara's, twenty-five years
about twenty years. seven years apiece.

Two
;

only

Potiki's,

The

other three certainly did not

exceed

Sages praise these five great chieftains for

causing peace to prevail so long!

Human
Tradition
tells

Sacrifices.

301

unknown.

of a period when war and bloodshed were in the days of Rangi, before Rarotongan ^ chiefs had taught them to be cruel Thanks be to God, that for more than forty years, under the benign influence of Christian

That was

truth,

human

life

has been sacred.


beaten,
it

After the
to carry

drum of peace had been


description.
staff,

became unlawful

weapons of any

Aged men, however, were

permitted to carry about a


support their tottering limbs.
in symbol of peace,

five

Men

or six feet in length, to daily carried about with them,


fan,

an outrageously large
It

now

obsolete.

This

fan was sufficiently large to protect the upper part of the

body

from sun or
in

rain.

church, as
it.

was found necessary to forbid its use the person of the owner was nearly hidden

behind

grave offence to cut

During the season of peace it was considered a most down iron-wood on any pretence whatever; as
rafters for their houses, or the

under pretence of obtaining strong

making of spades
factured.

for husbandry,

weapons of war might be manu-

1 823, he learnt had been fought two years previously but the drum of peace had not been beaten. Hence their favourite

When the martyr Williams touched at Mangaia in

that a decisive battle

saying, that the

men of that generation were awaiting the arrival of the Gospel of the Prince of Peace, whose word and reign conDavida and Tiere first caused them stitute the true drum of peace.
to hear the sweet melody; they

into the peace, light,


laid

emerged out of their hiding-places and freedom of Christianity. The Sacrifice


but the

on the divine

altar

from the slave

tribes,

was no longer an unwilling victim selected free-will offering of the Son of God.

The
1

native words for

"peace"

The
rule

" the

and consequent peace of

Bible phrase, "the peace of God" " God.

is

("mangaia," "au"), also rendered " te au

302

Myths and

Songs.

lord lasting denote "rule," or "reign;" the rule of the temporal charm the broken, Once only so long as no blood was spilt a pitched murders and reprisals might daily take place, provoking When the victors felt extermination. battle, sometimes a war of than one) victim human a (sometimes more themselves secure, ceremonial gone through and all this burdensome must be

secured,

again, ere peace


difficulty

and order could once more

prevail.

Hence

the

peace,"

"periods of of native chronology; the "reigns," are most carefully enumerated ; the years of war and
or

anarchy are invariably omitted.


chronology
seeing the
is

The means

for correcting their

well known.

of their priests, which axe supplied by the lifetimes It is impossible that the errors should be serious,
three contemporaneous orders of priests

names of the

are definitely ascertained. (Motoro, Tane, and Tuaranga)

The
1815.

last

The

time the peace-drum was played was about the year Of course the poor old victim selected was Teata.

bald-headed fellow was kept in ignorance of the intentions of the On a certain evening the victim-seekers assembled on sacrificers.

Upon reaching, by an unfrequented moungirdle." tain path, the hut of Teata, they found it empty. They were not a little perplexed; for should their presence in the village be known,
their

the level top of the central " the sacred

hill,

to receive at the

hands of the king

At

intended victim would effectually hide himself in the rocks. some of them asked the assistlast, under cover of darkness,

ance of Rakoia. But Teata was maternal uncle to Rakoia, who well

knew

that the old

man was

liable to sacrifice at

any time, as his

ancestors

had been

before him.

Rakoia resolved to secure to

himself the merit and profit of delivering Teata into the hands of few minutes previously he had left his uncle in a lone his foes.

Human

Sacrifices.

303

house built on poles in the middle of the taro patches. short ladder led up to the hut With another relative (still living in

Then they 1875) and Teata, Rokoia had been rehearsing songs. chatted pleasantly about the dire famine then prevailing. The old fellow patted his head, and remarked, " Could they get THIS (as an offering), the gods would send plenty again." At length Teata
and went home.
perplexity, " 'fish*

Vainekavoro snored, and Rakoia quietly slipped down the ladder As soon as the victim-seekers told him of their

Rakoia

said,

A race

now took

"Follow me, and you shall have your place between two warriors as to the
Rakoia
led

honour of giving the death-blow.


arriving at the top

the

way;

on

of the ladder he carefully pointed out the of his uncle form Teata. sleeping single blow from the axe of

Arokapiti ended the career of the old man,


later in the

that
to

who an hour or two same night was laid on the altar. And thus it was the drum of peace for Pangemiro's temporal sovereignty came
Hence the
consideration ever paid amongst the
in

be beaten.

chiefs to the

word of Rakoia, who


of Tamarua.

chief, or governor,

1846 succeeded his brother as Rakoia was one of the first to


1865, I never saw

embrace Christianity; and

until his death, in

anything inconsistent with his profession as a disciple

of Jesus.

He was

faithful friend to the missionaries,

and

his last intelligent

words were addressed to

At the period of He had fought in


engagements.

expressive of his hope. death he was about eighty years of age. four pitched battles, besides several minor
his

me

He

was accounted the best poet of his day.

After the death of Rakoia, a tract of taro-planting land in the

possession of his nephews


of the younger

became a

subject of discussion.
title

None

men had

a clue to the

by which

it

was held.

304

Myths and Songs.


it

anciently Some proposed to give it to another tribe, to whom that the land confessed then tribe The old men of the belonged.
in question
to

price which would never closed the lips of these old men; a shame to the ancient for According Christianity. have been felt but

Rakoia

was Pangemiro's formerly, but was formally given Shame had till then of Teata's blood as the
!

what blood formerly secured dictum, "blood only can purchase Of course Rakoia's family retain the land.

A month

or two before the landing of

Davida a

sacrifice

was

of Pangemiro's second elecsought for the public acknowledgment Reonatia was waylaid tion to the supreme temporal chieftainship.

and

slain (as

coota-fishing.

was supposed) one night, upon his return from baraA companion of his was uselessly slain at the same
the body of the victim, spear was driven through to the altar. The island the across litter borne on a

time.

A long

and the body

had been laid on coolness of the night revived Reonatia, after he He even descended to the the altar, and the warriors had retired. the ghastly wound, unsteadily ran up the hillground, and despite
side a few yards.

In a short time

it

was discovered, and

this

and the time a stone adze was employed to give the fatal blow, which dissensions But the altar. on the offering was replaced were the angry) gods arose on account of this occurrence (that
of the ceremonies necessary to peace. prevented the completion Reonatia was the last human sacrifice ever laid on the altar of

Rongo.

who took part afterwards betrayer of Reonatia was Rouvi, the in the destruction of the maraes and pantheon, and became

The

advanced age

At a very one of the brightest ornaments of our Church. our midst. from he away passed say eighty-five

Human

Sacrifices.

305

The heathen had prophesied that he would speedily die through the anger of the gods ; but he outlived every vestige of the
heathen party, and was universally respected for his consistent attachment to the Truth.
of peace had been sounded over the island, the king again employed his great net to remove the putrid carcass of the victim now minus ears and nose to a certain place in the After the

drum

bush within the

limits

of the marae.

It
to

"ika aua na Papa," or fish-refuse thrown

was now designated an Papa, mother of Rongo.

She was supposed

to

come up

at night to feed

upon

this ghastly

banquet. image of Great Rongo, and there allowed to decay. Inside this coarse net was the ordinary tiputa, or loose covering; on the

The

net

itself

was wrapped round and round the stone

head was a

sort of hat

made

of folds of dark native cloth, giving to

a spectator the impression that he was gazing at a living person. Near the image of Rongo the Great stood a small stone
figure bearing the
the-red-tongue.

name

" of " Rongo-i-te-arero-kute

Rongo-ofdivinity

This

little

unclothed,
at

unworshipped

seems to have been placed

the back of his friend to give

Rongo-the-Great. emphasis to the title Rongo Nui At Rimatara human sacrifices were continually being offered " " to Rono ( Rongo), but the drum of peace was unknown.

KIRIKOVFS SACRIFICE.
CIRCA A.D. 1772.
After the battle at Teopu, the temporal lordship of Mangaia devolved upon Kirikovi. It was in his chieftainship, of some five or six duration, that Captain Cook touched at Mangaia.
years'

The

first

victim uselessly placed on the rude altar of Rongo, in

306
order that the

Myths and
drum

Songs.

of peace might be beaten, was Arauru, who, with the rest of the Teipe clan, had been hiding with the ancient
tribe

of Ngariki inside a grand and almost inaccessible cave named Erue. For a consideration of some valuable lands, To,
cousin to the

doomed man, engaged

to lure Arauru out of his

Nor was this a difficult task, secure hiding-place to his death. Ere it inside the cave. lived himself relative this treacherous as
was quite day, To proposed to his victim that they should go Arauru objected, on the ground of danger ; but To, fishing.
assured

him

that their foes

had

that day started off in a different

direction.

Accordingly they

left

Erue,

and with some


sea.

difficulty

made

their

way

through thickets towards the

When

half-

panion,

way (opposite to the present church), Arauru was startled by the loud chirp of a cricket in the air, and said to his deceitful com" = " " Ara tera rava te Atua List to yon warnkaranga
!

ing voice

Twice did the unseen insect mysteriously address the infatuated Arauru, who kept on his way, and soon found himself encircled with armed men. That same day the unoffending victim
!"

was

laid

on the
1

altar of

(koromedua

of his

" " Rongo. But Uanuku, the wise man day, and the author of a well-remembered

and protested against the prayers for peace being chanted over his relative. The body of Arauru was accord, ingly thrown down a neighbouring chasm.
dirge for Vera, wept

A
tribes ?

new and
Despite

so suitable as Maruata,
all

Who unobjectionable victim must be sought. who had no family ties to the winning
pledges of safety for himself and his children,

he was in the dusk of evening enticed out of the cave Erue to a short distance and despatched. The prayers were duly offered,
1

Hence the

native

name

for

**

a wise man* or instructor"

" Orometua "

"Missionary," Orometua, meaning literally, " Koromatua," is Tahitian for

Human
and
all

Sacrifices.

307
in-

the other ceremonies performed.

Thus Kirikovi was

stalled

paramount

chief.
is known as "Maruata where the victim was clubbed being

As

there were several Maruatas,this one


at loapa," the place

who

fell

so named.

who at an earlier period so narrowly eaten escaped being by Ngako, not only witnessed the cruel sacrifice of her husband, but also of some of her children in after
wife of Maruata,
years.

The

To

was himself offered in

sacrifice at the

commencement
the lizard-god

of the next reign.


Arauru,
Teipe.

Maruata,

and To

all

worshipped

A "CRYING" SONG FOR MARUATA


(PERTAINING TO THE "DEATH-TALK OF PUVAI").

BY KOROA, CIRCA 1795Used only by the Altar-tribe


Teipe.

TUMU.
Solo.

INTRODUCTION.

Tio

ra, tinaoia

Maruata e

Sing

we
altar,

of Maruata, slain for the

Ekitea mai nga erepua

tei iaau,

E Mai e

Though many were the promises To thee, Mai


!

Chorus.

Aiuia mai taua e

All, alas
!

soon broken by

Pae

atiati

Ngariki e

Deceitful, lying Ngariki.

3 o8
PAPA.

Myths and

Songs.
FOUNDATION.

Solo.

Akamoe

ana era, e Mai e

The
Chorus.

clans were united, yet

Mai

fell!

Akamoe koe

te ivi-roa

E tamaki kiato i Erue,

ua tanimo e

Yet brother sold brother


Erae.
Solo.

Solemnly united to the ancient chiefs to death a

Ua

tanimo

tai

kopu.
:

Te raka nei

tai aiai

ua

e ia

Mai

They cruelly sold Thou was deceived O Mai


1

thee.

to

thy death

Chorus.

Maruata

ra, tei

o loapa e

Yes, the Maruata

who

fell

at loapa.

UNUUNU
Tinaoia Maruata ra e
!

TAI.
Solo.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.
Alas for Maruata, slain for the altar
Chorus.

Tinaoia Maruata nei

Maruata was

slain for the altar

Ua koa tei Ngariki. Ua tapaia tai apaki,


Apapatai ua
tapariri.

(Ngariki only smiled thereat), Like so many others of his tribe,

That but few now survive

Pikao rauti ra
I te taringa kotikoti

Wiapped
!

in green ti leaves,

Slices of Maruata's ears

Maruata

ia otoia

Announce

all

new

possessions.

Na Kongo te take i Ua kakina e

tingeti
!

Thy head,

sacred to

Kongo,

Was
Solo.

hit

and

split in his

name

Ua kakina Maruata nei.

Yes, Maruata, thy skull was split

kitea

mai nga erepua E Mai e


I

tei iaau,

Though many were the promises To thee, O Mai


!

A second name for Maruata,

Human
Atuia mai taua e
!

Sacrifices.

309

Chorus.
All, alas
!

!'

soon broken by

Pae

atiati

Ngariki e

Deceitful, lying Nagriki.

UNUUNU

RUA.
Solo.

SECOND OFFSHOOT.
!

Na

Paeru

te ivi

akamoea'i

The
Chorus.

chief Paeru
thee.

made league with

Na
Ua

Paeru te ivi i akamoea'i. u taua i te mate o Uarau,


tapariri.

We

Paeru himself made league with


tunes,

thee.

too faithfully followed their for-

Atuia mai e ua

Who betrayed
Wrapped
Announce

thee to thy death.


hi green ti leaves,
all

Pikao rauti ra
I te taringa kotikoti

Slices of Maruata's ears

Maruata

ia otoia.

new possessions.

Na Rongo te take i tingeti Ua kakina e


!

Thy

head, sacred to Rongo,


hit

Was
Solo.

and

split in his

name.

Ua kakina Maruata nei. kakina mai nga erepua tei iaau,

Yes, Maruata, thy skull was split;

Mai

Though many were the promises To thee, O Mai


!

Chorus.

Atuia mai taua

All, alas

Pae

atiati

Ngariki S

Deceitful, lying

soon broken by NgarikL

THE DEATH OF NGUTUKU


Voices only
:

(CIRCA

1810).

ARRANGED FOR THE NATIVE HARMONICON.


as

many

as ten.
is

Ngutuku

te tuku, e te

matakeinanga
ra
!

Ngutuku

doomed

to

perish,

friends

taua teve,

mangeo ua

He who

as dangerous is deadly "teve*

as

the

3io
Tena
te

Myths and
tamaki, e tiki ia
te rua.
i

Songs.

Ku tei roto

Let us attack the guardian of the


cave.

Kua motu
Nana

te rauaika.

ia
i

ka
te

ora.

His hour has come. He vainly dreams of

safety.

E tiki e ta
Vaarire te iki
i

rua o Tongaiti.
e tangi ra.

Up, attack the stronghold of the

Tongan
te

clan.

kapua

Vaanre

the offering 1 for the altar the price of peace.


is

Music and
Tera!

Voices.

Ngutuku, Ngutuku, Ngutuku


titiri
!

Ngutuku oki ka
I te

apai

na

kapua ei ika na Kongo. Anatia kia mou, kia ketaketa.


Kotia Vaarire,
kotia Vaarire,

Look yonder! Ngutuku, Ngutuku Ngutuku has fallen. Ngutuku is destined for the altar, As a peace-offering to Kongo.
Vaarire
,

kotia

Secure the victim well to the litter. is slain, Vaarire is slain,

Ngutuku. Ngutuku, Ngutuku

Ngutuku
Yes, Ngutuku,

is

slain

titiri

Ngutuku

is

hurled

down.
Voices only.

Kua maranga o Vaarire i

te

kapua
!

E uru tupu aiiki,


E apai

e ika na

Kongo

Ah, Vaarire is borne to the altar Dance in triumph before this offering
!

to

e takitaki aere.

Lift

it

Kongo. on high j bear

it

carefully

on.

Music and
'

Voices.

Vaarire

te ika i

mua.

Bear

in front

the

sacrifice

(fish),

Vaarire.

E Vaarire te ika i te kapua Tei runga au, na Tamarua,


Na
Piti, e Piti, Piti,
:

Vaarire

is

destined for the altar.


the entrance to his cave at

We scaled

Tamarua.
I na Veitatei ra

tukuroi ra

Vaipia

now bear him along the road Until reaching Veitatei we rest at the stream.
Wherever
is

We

"

Vaarire was the original name offering," the original is fish.


1

of Ngutuku.

have translated

2 The ancient song of the modern production.

butterflies,

on page 292,

incorporated into this

Human
A na
Kua
!

Sacrifices.

311
war dance.
Such
!
!

la ia

tataki

na

And now

for the

Up
the

with him.
naua.

Oie puruki Kongo,

We
So

have succeeded.
fiat

is

of

Rongo

Oie puruki Rongo.

wills the

god of war

Romia
Kia

takitaki tatou

mai, e te matakeinanga takaki na uriuri.


:

Onwards, onwards, brave friends. Toss him aloft. Dance the wardance.

Ka apai
Kua

ei

kapua koe.
Music and

Thou art on thy way


Voices.

to the altar.

roiroi

ka
te

aere,

a tau

te vaapoiro,

Once thou didst despatch 1 thy hurried mealj

Anatia

peru ao
i

The well-secured
i

basket of tackle

Akairi ra

te ua,
te taatua-

Kia aere atu


tini
!

te taatuatini,

Slung to thy shoulder Thou madest thy way to the sea for
sport.

vaka no Ngutuku, e vaka koatu ;

taki

A canoe for Ngutuku.


stones.

Put in some

E vaki taki aere.


Kua kakaro
Kua tu
te rirei
;

te matangi. kua tu te rirei


i

Launch thy frail bark. Note well the wind.


!

The

tokens are favourable


fair.

'twill

be

maro

tikoru e

itikitiki

rouru e

Thy

girdle is secured

thy hair tied

up,
Itikitiki

rouru e

Kotia ra e Kauare to metua, e Mua. Kotia


ra

Ready for the Muare thy


I

altar.

father

was skin by

Kauare.

Ngutuku.
!

Tena oa
!

te

Yes,

Ngutuku was
hand.
!

cut

down by his

tamaki Kotia ra Ngutukfl


I koia

la

koe
i

te rakau.
!

A puta koe

te

puruki a Rongo

fell (War-dance.) spear entered thy body ! Such is the resistless will of the god

Ngutuku

The

Rongo
Ngutuku was an expert fisherman; avocations in this and the following stanza.
1

hence the reference to his daily

Myths and
Oi tatamaki koe
;

Songs.
art of

oi tatamaki koe.

For thou
race.

restless

and doomed

O Taura tei mua O


Ka

Atiati te teina

Thy daughter Taura


1

leads the

way

Atiati follows.

Paraakere, o Veruara.
i

Then comes
\

apai na to metua

te

kapua

(the youngest) Paraakere with her mother. the father is Mng borne to

altar!

MAKITAKA'S LAMENT ON THE LOSS OF THE

TEMPORAL SOVEREIGNTY.
COMPOSED BY TUKA, CIRCA
Recited at
A.D.

1815.

a Reed-throwing Match.
Solo.

Taku. pua i tanu reka e Ua tanu ake koe i Tamarua E tupu te au e


! !

Fair tree planted by my hand ! Alas, for the tree of peace which

Once flourished
i

at

Tamarua

Teipoi arire riro akera Mangaia rave


!

te

Alas,

that

Mangaia

should
grasp!

be

snatched from

my

1 the bearers of By a refinement of cruelty only possible to heathenism, " Your father is the sacrifice address the weeping children in the words, being borne to the altar.-" Muare, the only son of the victim, did not follow the

He survived to Christian times, corpse, as he would have been put to death. and became a member of the Church. Years before the first teachers landed, he induced Reinga to compose this song in commemoration of his father's Muare found a melancholy pleasure in chanting this song to its tragical fate. proper accompaniment of the haimonicon indeed, he quite excelled at this outrageous performance. A few years ago he died the death of a Christian. His sister Paraakere died recently.
:

Human
Ta Makitaka te ua,

Sacrifices.

313

Chorus.

Makitaka, once supreme chief;

A motu te toa ia Ngaki te miro.


Solo.

Now

dispossessed

by the

fiat

of

Ngakiau.

la Ngaki te miro ia Teata

Ah Ngaki 1 directed
!

the sacrifice of

Teata;

te uri oki

na Aemata
i

Like

all

Tei nunga

Kore

rai

kapua. ooku taeake


!

te

The

victim

the descendants of Aemata, was laid on the altar.

Unpitied
!

unsaved

Kore kore

rai e

taeake tangi e

Alas
Chorus.

unpitied

unsaved

tini

na Tane

ka

riro

Mangaia.
Solo.

Mangaia

is

now

transferred,

Ua

riro rai

Mangaia
i

rai, e

Teau.

Mangaia, friends,

is lost.

Ua

e ia Maki,

The
'i e"
!

te ivi koia

akamoea

chiefs dealt treacherously After plighting their solemn troth.

UNUUNU
Vaekura
te pia
i

TAI.
Solo.

FIRST OFFSHOOT.

tara

The
Chorus.

priest of

Tane planned

it

Vaia

te

Amama,
taka.

Amama

o Maki-

Split

up the
taka.

priestly tribe of

Maki-

Vaekura

te arataki.

So willed Vaekura.

Arataki aere atu Eia tu eia toa ?

Do
j

thy worst

Why this bloodshed ?


To win Mangaia
Strike
for a new dynasty. The fame of Makitaka is gone.

Ei Mangaia, ei Ngariki Ngariki o Makitaka. E oa i te upoko ;

the

head

(of

the

altar-

victim).

R oa

to rae.

la tangi a pu ; la tangi kekina

As
;

Strike the temples, if a conch-shell sounded

Is the falling of the axe.


1

Ngaki

is

a shortened form of Tane Ngakiau.

314
Ia ara
i

Myths and
te

Songs.
are shrieking
!

pa
i

The wounded

la ara

te mate.

A tara nei e Tane.


Kare kaiti kau
rere
!

Are awakened only to die Tane has gained the victory.


Alas
Solo.
I

Alas

Alas

Alas

Ua

riro rai

Mangaia

rai,

e Tcau*

Mangaia, fnends,

is lost.

Ua
te ivi

e ia Maki, koia i akamoea

The
'i

chiefs dealt treacherously,

After plighting their solemn troth.


i

Teipoi arire riro akera Mangaia e rave


!

te

Alas,

that

Mangaia

should
grasp
!

be

snatched from
Chorus.

my

la Makitaka te ua.

Makitaka, once supreme chief;

A motu te tea la Ngaki te miro*


Solo.

Now

dispossessed

by the

fiat

of

Ngakiau.

la Ngaki te aiiro ia Teata

Ah Ngaki
!

directed the sacrifice of

Teata;

te uri oki

na Aemata.
i

Like

all

the descendants of Aemata,

Tei nunga e

te kapua.
!

The

victim was laid on the altar.

Kore

rai

ooku taeak
rai e

Unpitied
!
1

unsaved

Kore kore

taeake tangi e

Alas unpitied
Chorus.

unsaved

tini

na Tane

ka

riro

Mangaia.

Mangaia

is

now

transferred*

UNUUNU
Tutukiria nga ivi e

RUA,
Solo.
!

SECOND OFFSHOOT.

Let brother slay brother.


Chorus.

Ka Ka

tu au

ka aerey
!

I will arise

and

fight.

aere taua e

Join our band.

I nunga i te tuaronga. Taukarokaro i reira. Tena te vai maka.

Away to yon plain To fight our foes.


Stones are flying about,

Human
E vai koatu 5 E vai rakau e
ICa ui te vai.
! !

Sacrifices.
Out of the

315

A pa te vai. A pa te toa ia Tauokura.


la katamutamu ia karearea.

Te vaa i koma 'i. Te vaa i tara 'i.


KLa tara nei, e Tane.
ICare kaiti

kau

rere

slings of the brave. Spears are uplifted. The chiefs pause a moment To examine the omens. Death-blows are being dealt, Fearful are the shouts of the victors. Alas, those lips that once spake Alas, the mouth once shouted Tane has gained the victory. Alas Alas Alas Alas
!

Solo.

Ua

riro rai

Mangaia
i

rai,

e Teau. e

Mangaia, friends,

is lost.

Ua

e ia Maki,

te ivi koia

akamoea

'i

chiefs dealt treacherously, After plighting their solemn troth.


i

The

Teipoi arire riro akera Mangaia ravS


!

te

Alas,

that

Mangaia

should
grasp
!

be

snatched from
Chorus.

my

la Makitaka te ua.

A motu te toa ia Ngaki te miro.


Solo.

Makitaka, once supreme chief ;

Now

dispossessed

by the

fiat

of

Ngakiau.

la Ngaki te miro ia Teata

Ah Ngaki
!

directed the sacrifice of


;

Teata

te uri oki

na Aemata
i

Like

all

the descendants of Aemata,


altar.

Tei nunga e

Kore

rai

kapua, ooku taeake


!

te

The

victim was laid on the

Unpitied
!

unsaved

Kore kore rai e taeake

tangi e

Alas
Chorus.

unpitied

unsaved

E tini na Tane

ka riro Mangaia.

Mangaia

is

now

transferred

Myths and

Songs.

CHAPTER

XIV.

THE SEASONS, PHASES OF THE


MOON,
ETC., ETC.

THE SEASONS (NGA TINO MARAMA).


EREXJ,

OR SUMMER.
and Plenty.}

PAR6RO, OR WINTER.
(Drought, Cold,
iv

(Rain, Heat,
1.

and

Scarcity.}

Breadfruit appears ; Akau. chestnut and other trees in blossom* This month is also known as "the time of beautiful cocoa-nut leaves"

Paroro.

Cold south winds,

withering up the wild vines everywhere.


2.

Mantf.

Incubation of birds.

(marama o te kikau). Akau extends from the middle of December to the


middle of January.

The woodpecker bores the dead cocoanut for a nest. The titi bores the
side of the mountain.

Coral-tree in

Otunga* Breadfruit and chestnut trees covered with, fruit, but not ripe.
2.
1 arrive. Hills covered with Sprats reeds in blossom.

blossom.

Warrior-spirits take their

departure from earth.


3.

Pipiri*

Muffled up inside the


cold.

house,

on account of the

The two months preceding the arrival of sprats are called " te karaii koa," or "time of exhausted crabs," they having made their way from the rocks to the sea to spawn. In like manner the interior of man is supposed to be
1

empty and weak, until the arrival of sprats gives new life. During these hot and enfeebling months children are fractious and troublesome, but should on no
account be beaten
!

The Seasons,
3.

Pliases

of the Moon,
4.

etc.

317

JZautua,

kere"
is

= " trail-of-the-ed"

or

" kautua a kereThe soil


eels.

Kaunuunu.

Papaka, or landits

everywhere furrowed with water, as

crab, comes out of to and is feed,

hiding-place

easily

caught

though traversed by
floods.

Time of

Also

called

"karaii,"

or

"crab

season."
5.

Some breadfruit 4. Akamakuru. and chestnuts fall unripe, worm eaten.


So, too, some brave men are sure to die prematurely this moon. Hurri-

M#u. 1

Spring tip.

Alltubelife.

rous roots in the soil spring into

Also said

"kua tuputhe anau kai"

='

all

plants in leaf/'

cane month (end of March).


5.
i.e.

Muriaa, or "ruruangakakao,"

the reed blossoms are shed

upon

Trees, stones, bush everywhere covered with the vines of the wild yam; the o'e, or bitter yam;
6.

Vaetd.

the hills
6.

by a

late blow.

mararau, or sweet yam,


tive arrow-root

etc.

etc.

Na-

etc.,
fall.

Uringa, or "dead." The leaves, of the yam, arrow-root, etc., etc.,

and "teve"

roots are

luxuriant.

The

year ends about the

middle of December.
7.

Miringa, or

"finishing

up"
sea-

(of the food of ereu, or


son).

summer

Thirteen moons in alL

The

arrival

of the

new year was

indicated

by the appearance of
i.e.

Matariki, or Pleiades, on the eastern horizon just after sunset,

about the middle of December.

Hence

the idolatrous worship

paid to this beautiful cluster of stars in many of the South Sea Islands. The Pleiades were worshipped at Danger Island, and at the Penrhyns, down to the introduction of Christianity in 1857.

In many islands extravagant joy is still manifested at the rising of this constellation out of the ocean.

The knowledge of the calendar belonged to the kings, as they alone fixed the feasts in honour of the gods, and all public For others to dare to keep the calendar was a sin spectacles.
against the gods, to
1

be punished with

hydrocele.
;

The same name

for the

Magellan clouds

as

if

the rising up ofvapour^ or

curling

up of columns of smoke

in the heavens.

Myths and

Songs.

CHANGES OF THE MOON


IN
1

(TE

TAU AROPO).
IN

THE WEST.
16 Oturu.

THE

EAST.

Iro.

thieves.

Sacred to Iro, patron of Favourable for thiev-

ing,

17 Rakau. 18 Rakau-roto,

Oata=

shadow,

&
'

moon
Sprats

seen
arrive

in shadow.

i.e. Second Rakau. Rakau. 19 Rakau-akaoti, le. Last 20 Korekore. 21 Korekore-roto, i.e. Second Kore-

3 Amiama. 4 Amiama-akaoti, i.& Last Amiama,


5 Tamatea.
,

during these three days in Feb. Failing


that,

kore.

22 Korekore-akaoti,
kore.

i.e.

Last Kore-

expect

23

([

Tangaroa. Sacred to Tangaroa.

them
March.
Last

the
in

24 Tangaroa-roto.

Second night

sa-

same days

cred to Tangaroa.
sa25 Tangaroa-akaoti. Last night cred to Tangaroa.

6 Tamatea-akaoti,
tea.

i.e.

Tama-

7 Korekore. 8 1) Korekore-akaoti, ie. Last Koreskore.

26

Tane.

Sacred to Tane.

9 OVari
10 Una.
11 Maaru.

(z>.

Vari-ma-te-takere ==

the Originator-of-aU-things.)

27 Rongo-Nui, i*e. Rongo-the-Great. The 26th and 27th were fite jughts Rongo and Tane being of their dances in time
patrons of peace.

12 Ua.
13

14

E O

atua

= A god.
i.e.

28 Mauri =s ghost ended. 29 Omutu

Tu,

Tu-metua,

the

last

30

Otire o Avaiki

made
15

of the major gods, 1 Marangi, or Full-Moon.


is

"Otireo")

Lost

(abbreviated in the

depths of Avaiki.

At Rarotonga the i3th


similar).
is

"Maitu," instead of "Atua" (sense

Otherwise

this

account of the changes of the

moon

equally

good
it is

of dialects,
1

Rarotonga. the same in the Tahitian islands.

for

Allowing for

the

difference

the

moon

Cocoa-nuts were invariably planted at the full of the symbolfcing the full roundness of the future fruit.

moon ;

the size of

The
From
men.

Seasons, Phases

of the Moon,

etc.

319

the iyth to the 28th the nights were considered favourj

able for fishing

also favourable for catching the fish of the gods,

i.e.

In other words, these were murder nights. Tangaroa (23rd) and O Tane (26th) and Rongo-Nui (27th) were the three " most " lucky for this cruel purpose.

The

eastern Polynesians, like the

New

Zealanders, invariably

reckon by nights not, as we do, by days. For example, "Po ia " koe i te aerenga? = " How many nights were you journeying? "
etc., etc.

THE MARINER'S COMPASS OF POLYNESIA.


To the Chinese belongs the honour of inventing the mariner's It was known to the compass, long anterior to the Christian era.
Arabs in mediaeval times, and from them, through the Crusaders, the knowledge spread -over Europe. There can be no reasonable doubt that Polynesia was peopled
from Asia.

Did the

original settlers take with

thsm the

mariner's

compass, or anything analogous thereto ?

May

not the ancestors

of the present South Sea Islanders have been far more civilized than their descendants ? The absence of iron throughout Polynesia would easily account for the loss of the magnet. Subjoined
is

a plan of the winds for the Hervey Group from the

lips

of the
other

ancient priests.

With

slight variations

it

will

do

for

many

of wind-holes in this plan groups with the of the mariner's compass. In exactly corresponds points

in the Pacific.

The number

purpose of

the olden time, great stress was laid on this knowledge for the fishing, and especially for their long sea voyages from

group to group.

At the edge of the horizon are a

series of holes,

some

large

and some

small, through which Raka, the god of winds,

320
and

Myths and
his children, love to blow.

Songs.
the phrase in daily use,

Hence

"rua matangi," or "wind~/M?," where Europeans would simply "head" of the winds is supposed to be speak of "wind." The the time it has veered round to s.w. by w. it is in the east
;

by

named

the iku, or "tail ;" in

fact, it is

dying away until

it

becomes,

in the s.s.w., merely an uru, or

"

like the

touch of a feather."

violence until,

Cyclones, of course, begin in the N.E., and go on increasing in on reaching the iku9 or " tail," they moderate.
is

Passing on to the uru> or "feathery," there

a perfect calm,

mocking the desolations so lately wrought

The
The whole

Seasons, Phases
.

of the Moon,
more or
less,

etc.

321

of these names have,

figurative

reader will observe the word anau (give birth) signification. several times recurring. Taking, for example, akarua for N., the
wind, in veering towards the w., becomes akarua anau;
i.e.

The

the

north giving birth to a


to the N.N.W,
it is

new wind

called

(N. by w.). akarua tu; that is, the akarua strong

As

the wind veers

enough

to stand.

Taking maoake for N.E., when the wind shifts a point it becomes maoake anau; that is, the N.E. giving birth (N.E. by N.).

Advancing

still

towards the

N.,

it

is

called

maoake

ta,

or the

killing or terrible

maoake

(N.N.E.),

on account of the extreme


blows.

violence of this wind

when a cyclone

The

vast concave above was symbolised

by the

interior of

calabash, in the lower part of which a series of small apertures was

made

to correspond with the various wind-holes at the edge of

the horizon.

Each hole was stopped up with


unfavourable for a grand
his incantation

cloth.

Should
the
chief

the wind be
priest,

expedition,

by withdrawing the plug from the which the wind was supposed to unpropitious aperture through this he blow. wind, Rebuking stopped up the hole, and advanced
began
through
all

the intermediate apertures,

the desired wind-hole was reached.


gentle hint to the children of

moving plug by plug, This was left open,

until

as a

Raka

that the priest wished the

wind

to blow steadily from that quarter.

The

operator having a good knowledge of the ordinary course

of the winds, and the various indications of change, the peril ot


the experiment was not great

Providence has supplied these islanders with an unfailing


natural indication of
in the phrase,

"

Kua

an approaching cyclone. This is expressed " taviriviri te kao o te meika i.e. the core of

322

Myths and
is

Songs. and contorted some

the true native banana

strangely twisted
as if to give

weeks previous to a hurricane,


danger.

This

of food.

warning of impending an extraordinary growth Doubtless the excessive moisture and heat which occais

usually associated with

sion this rapid growth,

and give

rise to the strange twists

of the

wondrously delicate leaves of


cyclones.

this

banana, are the real causes of

POLYNESIAN PLURALS.
JN

early all

the plurals in use in the Hervey

Group have a

definite signification as nouns.


i.

A common plural is
plural use
it

"

in

its

may be

are? which rendered "

literally

means " a house: "


?".<?.

a-house-full-of,"

"many."

Thus

"e
"

are atua"
full-of

= "a number ^gods;"


"

literally,

"a-house"

gods ;"

e are apinga

= "a number of
is

valuable things

literally,

"a-house-full-of valuable things."


2.

second plural

"vaka" = "canoe;"
"

or,

as

it

may be

" a-canoe-full-of." Thus rendered, " e vaka = "a host of

angela"

angels

literally,

"a-canoe-

full-of angels

"
;

"

e vaka puruki " =

"a

host of warriors

"
;

literally,

" a-

canoe-full-of warriors."
3.

Another frequently used plural


" "

is

"fa

"

"enclosure: door."

Thus
e pa puaka e

= " a pig enclosure ; " ~ a pig-sty " pa maunga = a range of mountains," as enclosing a
"
;

"

valley;

The

Seasons, Phases

of the Moon,

etc.

323

"e pa enua" = "a group


4.

the ocean were thereby

sorts of food on."

commonly Thus

of islands/' as if a portion of marked off or enclosed. used plural is " ata " = " shelf to place all

" " e ata pa " e ata


5.

= " a number of doors " " kete = "a number of food-baskets." " rau" = still more interesting plural is
;

"leaf?
i.e.

Thus
people

we may speak
numerous as the

of "te rau tangata o te Atua,"


leaves of a tree,

"a

The

figure is of

a vast

tree,

the growth of ages.

worshipping such and such a god." The huge trunk

represents the god, the branches the lesser divinities, the leaves the worshippers ever dropping off by death, and ever being

renewed by

fresh

births.
:

This

is

servants of the true


believers the leaves.
6.

God Jehovah

constantly applied to the being the trunk and branches,

The
i.e.

last instance

" shade?
Atua,"

Thus the

of plurals is "maru" = "shadow? or natives daily speak of " te maru tangata o te

" the people


still

who sit under the shadow of God?

The

old

idea was

of an ancient tree overshadowing the

marae

filled

with worshippers.

The

noblest trees affording the best shade were

planted in their idol groves, not

As

'

applied

to

Christian worshippers

a twig of which might be plucked. gathering Sabbath after


to take refreshment under the
xc.
i), the figure is

Sabbath in the house of

God

shadow of the Almighty (Psalm


beautiful.

extremely

In the Tahitian dialect the "r"


1

is

dropped,
"

"maru" 1 becoming

te taru ariki the chiefs, or kings speak of " ** Taru " on Mangaia is a verb, " to heap Mangaians speak of te tau ariki." " cover over with new soil." It is up," to easy to trace the connecting link of thought, i.e. the entire assembly of chiefs.

The

Aitutakians

"

324
"

Myths and Songs.

the ordinary plural of that group. Doubtless our common " au " is the same as the " mau " of the Eastern islands. plural The full form, " maru," is the dignified form to be used when-

man"

ever the gods

and

chiefs are

spoken

of.

It

is

scarcely fair

to

regard

" anau

"

= family,

as a plural.

Thus the

natives speak of

" "

te te

anau ika anau kai

"
"

" " the whole family of fish ; " the whole family of plants."

A very polite

mode

of address in the Mangaian dialect

is

the

use of the third person singular, dual, and plural, where in other languages the second person would be appropriate ; reminding one

of the use of the

German

Sie.

POLYNESIAN NUMERATION.
The mode of counting in use amongst the Papuan population of the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides, is
worthy of notice. They enumerate by fingers up to five, which makes " one hand j " ten is " two hands ; " twenty is "an entire

man," i.e. ten and so on.


This plan
to small

fingers

and ten

toes.

hundred

is

" five men,"

is

ingenious,

but clumsy, being applicable only

Missionaries labouring in those islands have discarded it I was much surprised when first I heard wisely the school children at Aneiteum, Mare, and Lifu, repeating the English multiplication table with great facility and correctness,

numbers.

The

Seasons, Phases

of the Moon,

etc.

325

to hear the chapter and hymns announced in the natives turning to the right chapter or hymn English figures in their own books. This innovation, however, has brought down

and on the Sabbath

upon the missionaries the


for

ire

of the French.

Throughout the Eastern Islands there has been no need In the Hervey changing the original system of numeration.
distinct bases

Group we have two


base
is

four

and

ten.

The former

used in counting cocoa-nuts, which were from time immemorial tied up in fours (kaviri)
:

bunches

(kaviri)

of cocoa-nuts

make one takau,


rau,

i.e.

20

10 takau
10 rau 10

i.e.
i.e.

200
2,000

mano,
kiu,
tini, Le.

mano

i.e.

20,000

10 kiu

200,000

All beyond this is uncertain. To express more the natives simply heap up the highest figures, without any attempt at a " definite mano
tini, tini," literally, mano, signification ; thus, ; "2,000 on 2,000; 200,000 on 200,000;" much as we say " " millions on millions," i.e. innumermyriads on myriads," or

able.

In measures of length they were from time out of mind


accustomed to the fathom (the outstretched arms of a
half-fathom, span,
tall

man),

and

finger's length.

Ten fathoms
on.

(paru)

make one "kume."

In

this

way 100

would be called 10 "kume ;" 200 would be 20 "kume," and so

Through the Eastern

dialects there is

a very close resemfive,


i.e.

blance of the primary numerals.

In the expression for

326

Myths and
we may
and
the

Songs.

"a "e hand," rima," or

trace a point of resemblance

between

Papuan

Malay
is

systems

of
"

numeration.

Throughout the Ellice's Group ten


(i.e.

expressed by

katoa

"

all

the fingers).

The "rau" 1

is

a favourite number,

continually

occurring

in their stories of the past.

In a decisive battle fought circa " Potai a " rau = 200 warriors ; boasted ago, eighty-nine years whilst the winner, Potiki, had only 120 (6 takau).
" Eternity"
t.e.

is

often expressed

by the phrase
than the

"

e rau te tautau,"
"

" 200
'*

ages.'

This

is

less poetical

common

e rimua

" until covered with the moss of unknown ua atu ages," as of a Another mode lofty cocoa-nut or other tree entirely moss-grown. " e tuatau ua " time on i.e. the same idea of
expressing
on."
is,

atu,"

on,

still

" also means "leaf," or "pandanus thatch." native house 200 reeds of thatch to complete one side: "rau," therefore, about requires may mean indifferently a leaf, 200, or a "tua.-rau," i.e. thatched side of a

dwelling.

INDEX.
Adventures in spirit-world, 221 Adventures of Ngaru, 225
Arokapiti's dirge, 276

Hades, 152 Heaven, Aitutakian, 175

Astronomical myths, 40 Avatea, or Vatea, 3

Human arts and inventions, 130 Human priesthood needed, 35 Human sacrifices, 289
Ina, the fairy voyager, 88 tree, myth of, 8r

Hell, Aitutakian, 172

Bachelor god in search of a wife, 107 " Blackened face " dirge for Atiroa, 281
Celestial fish-hook, 48 Chase that never ends,

Iron-wood
40
77

Cocoa-nut
Creation,

tree,

myth
of,

of,

myths

Journey to the
Kereteki, 26

invisible world, 250

Dancing, Origin of, 100 Death-talks and dirges, 269 Dedication of infants, 36 Deified men, 23 Derivation of the Polynesian word for God, 33

Kirikovi's sacrifice, 305


Kite-flying, 123

Kourapapa, laments

for, 202,

206

Drum of peace,
Echo, 114
Eclipses, 47

393

Escape from spirit-land, sax Eva, or dirge-proper, 271 Exploits of Maui, 51


Fairy men and women, 356 Fairy of the fountain, 365
Fire-god's secret, 51
First

Makitaka's laments, 312 Mariner's compass, 319 Maruata, "crying** song for, 307 Matariki, or Pleiades, 43 Maui, 51, 63 Miscellaneous myths, 107 Moon> phases of, 318 Mosquitoes, 126 Motoro, 25 Mouma, lament for, axo

murder and

first battle,

282

Naming of children,

38

Ghost-killing, 368

Ngaru, adventures of, 225 Ngutuku, death of, 309 Numeration, 100, 324

328
Papa, 8
Perils of beauty, 131

Index.
Tane-ngakiau, 30 Tane-papa-kai, Tangaroa, 10
Tangiia,

Pigs, origin of, 135

Pleiades, 43
Plurals,

remarks on, 322

Tango, 5
Tekuraaki, 31
The-long-lived, 128 Thiet's prayer, 150
Tiaio, king

Potiki, dramatic fdte of, 259 Prayer for a thief or murderer, 150

Prince of reed throwers, 118

Pumice

stone, origin
for,

ef,

58

and god, 29

Puvai, lament

199

Tinirau, 4
Tonga-iti, ir

Raka, god of winds, 5 Rangi, 16 Rata's canoe, 142


Riuvaka, introduction to the fSte
of,

Tree myths, 77 Tu-metua, or Tu, 6 Tumuteanaoa, or Echo, 5 Tutapu, 23


217

Rongo,

10, 15

Utakea, 26
XJti's torch,

124

Seasons, 316

Seeldng for

light, 139

Sky raised,

58, 71

Sneezing, 175
Spirit-journey, 215

Varenga, lament for, 208 Van, the Great Mother, 3


VeStini
;

or, the

Sun and moon, 44 Sim made captive,

Vera, dirges
61,

for, 189,

immortality of the toul, 194

il

70

Wisdom of Manihiki,
Taairangi, or porpoise, 98

63
45

Woman in the moon,

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