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ACHITECTURE 09 BINUS UNIVERSITY

Assignment
Shadow Puppet (Wayang Kulit)
ENGLISH I 02PAR
Anastasia Prisilla (1200985331) Arditha Auriyane (1301024686) Carolina (1301028500) Cynthia (1301028690) Daniel Tjoa (1301057646) Eugene Velardi (1301052001)

2010

BINUS UNIVERSITY

SHADOW PUPPET (WAYANG KULIT)


Slide 1: Brief History

Wayang is one of the indigenous storytelling traditions Wayang gave impact on the development of traditional puppet theatre.

Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Wayang is one of the indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of traditional puppet theatre. Si Galigi Mawayang (Sir Galigi Played Wayang) o the first record of wayang performance o special royal occassion o performed a story about Bhima from Mahabarata
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The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says "si Galigi mawayang," or "Sir Galigi played wayang". Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata. Wayang was used by the Hindus and Muslim to spread their religion o Mahabarata and Ramayana stories o Represents harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture.

It is believed that wayang was brought by Indian traders before Hinduism. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories were forgotten, or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays.

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Slide 2: The Birth Of Wayang Kulit

In Islam, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited. King Raden Patah wanted to see the wayang in traditional form. Instead of showing the figures they display only the shadow of the wayang figures made of leather. Wayang kulit or shadow puppets as the best known Indonesian wayang: o UNESCO on November 7th, 2003, Wayang Kulit as a Masterpiece of Oral and
Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders converted the wayang golek into wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the shadow instead of the figures itself. Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow picture was displayed. Wayang kulit, or shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Wayang kulit show was aprooved by the UNESCO on November 7th, 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

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Slide 3: Wayang Golek or Wayang Kulit?

There are certain types of wayang in Indonesia. The famous 2 are wayang golek and wayang kulit. As mentioned before, wayang golek existed before wayang kulit was used to present God or gods in Islamic stories. Basically, wayang golek is played more often in West Java. They are figurines more in 3 dimensional way, and they are wooden puppets. On the other hand, wayang kulit is more popularly known in Central and East Java, and its main feature that differenciates the most is that wayang kulit are made of leather. These are some varieties of wayang kulit in Indonesia: Wayang Kulit Gagrag Yogyakarta Wayang Kulit Gagrag Surakarta Wayang Kulit GagragBanyumasan Wayang Bali Wayang Kulit Banjar (South Borneo) Wayang Palembang (South Sumatra) Wayang Betawi (Jakarta) Wayang Cirebon (West Java) Wayang Madura (Extinct) Wayang Siam.

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Slide 4: Materials

the puppets: o Buffalo hide o Bamboo Sticks o Buffalo horn handles o Control Rods. the screen: o Cotton screen o Oil lamp; nowadays replaced with halogen electric light or spotlights.

Wayang Kulit is a unique form of theatre employing light and shadow. The puppets are crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully cut with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.

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Slide 5: The Making


Master models on paper traced out onto skin smoothed with glass bottle painting process attaching the movable parts and central stick. The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models, typically on paper, which are traced out onto the bufallo skin, providing the figures with an outline of any holes that will need to be cut, such as for the mouth or eyes. The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. They usually use spray techniques to paint the less expensive puppets made of cardboard. In the painting process, each person handles different colors. Finally, the movable parts ( the upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) are mounted on the body, which has a central stick by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week.

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Slide 6: Stories

Classic Indian epic stories o The Mahabarata o The Ramayana. Current issues. Other secular stories from Tok Dalang.

Wayang Kulit plays are invariably based on romantic tales, especially adaptations of the classic Indian epics, "The Mahabarata" and "The Ramayana". The green figure shown on the right side of the screen is one of the villain character in the Mahabarata story, Pandhita Durna.He was a sacred pandhita in Sokalima, the teacher of the sons of King Astina. In the Indian version of the story, Drona is honored. While in Javanese version of the story, pandhitaDurna is illustrated as an immoral teacher. In the story he sent Bima, his disciple, to find the Perwita Sari water, which he claimed as the water of life. He sent Bima on purpose to doom him, despite the fact that actually the water have never existed. The fatty figure on the left side of pandhita Durna is Bagong. His story is a journey to save the missing Pandawa treasure. He was accused to be the thief, while actually the one who stole the treasure was another Bagong. With the help from Dewata, finally the real Bagong could defeat his imposer and succesfully saved the Pandawa treasure. Some of the plays are also based on local happenings or current issues or. It is also up to the conductor or "Tok Dalang" to decide his direction.
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Slide 7: Dalang

Dalang works as the narrator, modulates his voice to create climaxes. Provides resonant melody and rhythm. Some famous Dalangs: o Ki Nartosabdho o Ki Anom Suroto o Ki Asep Sunarya o Ki Sugino o Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

The Dalang is the genius behind the entire performance. It is he who sits behind the screen and narrates the story. With a traditional orchestra in the background to provide a resonant melody and its conventional rhythm, the Dalang modulates his voice to create suspense thus heightening the drama. Invariably, the play climaxes with the triumph of good over evil. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

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Source
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayang#History_of_Wayang_Kulit http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayang Google Image Search, keywords: wayangkulit, wayanggolek

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