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Questions on Nationalism in Southeast Asia Origins of pre-World War II Nationalism in Southeast Asia These questions focus on the factors

which contributed to the emergence of nationalism in Southeast Asia before the Second World War and how they also shaped its development. JJC 2007 How far do you agree that it was the colonial masters who were the flint which ignited the desire for independence in Southeast Asia in the period between 1900 and 1939? NJC 2007 Colonial rule sowed the seeds of its own destruction, How accurate is this statement in accounting for the rise of Southeast Asian nationalism before World War II? VJC 2008 How far do you agree with the view that education provided the greatest stimulus for the development of Southeast Asian nationalism during the period 1900-1941? PJC 2010 How far was culture and religion important to the rise of nationalism in Southeast Asia before 1941? Nature of Southeast Asian Nationalist Movements These questions focus on the nature of pre-World War II Southeast Asian nationalist movements. By examining the aims and activities of early nationalist movements, their types and nature can be evaluated. The role of religion, culture and ideology in the development of nationalism can be examined. A Level 2002 How does one explain the widely differing nationalist responses to colonialism in the interwar years (1918-1941)? RJC 2002 In Southeast Asia, nationalism was primarily an ideology of anticolonial struggle. Discuss the validity of this statement. ACJC 2004 How significant was colonial rule in shaping the development of SEA nationalism from 1870 to 1940? CJC 2004

'The development of nationalism before 1942 was primarily underlined by traditional and conservative mentality.' Assess the accuracy of this statement. JJC 2004 To what extent were Southeast Asian nationalist movements driven by anti-colonial aims before the Second World War? MI 2004 Examine the validity of the view that nationalism was principally an ideology of anti-colonial struggle in Southeast Asia. NYJC 2004 How far are the nationalist movements in colonial Southeast Asia an attempt to establish an 'imagined community'? YJC 2005 How accurate is the assertion that the intelligentsia played a major role in determining the course of pre-war nationalism in Southeast Asia? VJC 2007 To what extent is it true that nationalism in Southeast Asia before 1941 was principally an ideology of anti-colonial struggle? AJC 2008 Before 1941, nationalist movements across Southeast Asia were characterised by their rejection of colonialism. Discuss. SAJC 2008 How far can the growth of nationalism in Southeast Asia in the period 1900-1941 be seen as a reaction to colonial rule? YJC 2008 To what extent was nationalism in Southeast Asia before 1941 anticolonial in nature? AJC 2009 To what extent is it true that between 1900 and 1941, Southeast Asian nationalism was characterised more by anti-colonial sentiments than any genuine national consciousness? NJC 2010 All pre-war Southeast Asian nationalist movements characterised by a cultural-religious slant. Discuss. SAJC 2010 were

How accurate is the statement that Southeast Asian nationalist movements were primarily anti-colonial in the period before the Second World War?

Achievements and Limitations of Southeast Asian Nationalist Movements These questions focus on evaluating the achievements of pre-World War II Southeast Asian nationalist movements which imply that there is a need to look at what they have achieved and consider explanations for their failures. An understanding of a balanced picture of nationalist weaknesses and colonial strengths is needed. TJC 2002 Before the Japanese Occupation, nationalism was not a credible force. Discuss. AJC 2003 The colonial powers did not have to do much to thumb Southeast Asian nationalism down; the nationalists were simply too weak and disunited to pose any threat. Discuss with reference to the preWWII period. RJC 2003 By 1941, nationalist movements in Southeast Asia still had little to show for an achievement. Discuss. NJC 2004 Do you agree that pre-war nationalism in Southeast Asia was plagued most by the lack of strong leadership? PJC 2004 Why did nationalist movements in Southeast Asia achieve so little in the period before World War II? RJC 2004 'It was not so much the weakness of the nationalists but the strength of the colonial rulers that led to the failure of the nationalist movements before the Second World War.' How far is this true? TPJC 2004 To what extent did the Southeast Asian nationalists pose an effective threat to the colonial powers during the interwar years 1919-1941? YJC 2004

'The failure of pre-war nationalism showed the success of the colonial governments' 'divide and rule' policy. How far do you agree with this statement? AJC 2005 How valid is the view that the Southeast Asian nationalist movements have only themselves to blame for their lack of achievements before World War II.

NYJC 2005 Idealistic rather than pragmatic. How far do you agree with this assessment of Southeast Asian nationalist movements in the period before the Japanese Occupation? 2005 RJC Nationalism in Southeast Asia before the Second World War never had a chance to succeed in the first place. How accurate is this statement? AJC 2006 The nationalist movements in Southeast Asia by 1941 had not made any real progress. To what extent is this statement accurate? CJC 2006 The nationalist movements before 1942 were threatened from within, but the greater and more fundamental challenge was from the Western colonial powers. How far do you think this is true of the failure of the nationalist movements in Southeast Asia? JJC 2006 Examine the factors which accounted for the failures of nationalist movements from the period 1919-1945. NYJC 2007 The failure of nationalism in Southeast Asia was a product of disunity rather than poor leadership. To what extent is this statement true for the pre-WWII period (1900-1942)? ACJC 2007 Pre-WWII nationalism failed because indigenous character. Discuss. of its inherently non-

AJC 2007 The inability of the nationalist movements to decide which of their contending visions of the future would prevail was the main cause

for the failure of pre-WWII nationalist movements in Southeast Asia. Discuss. CJC 2007 More of a problem of internal weaknesses than colonial repression. Is this an accurate reflection of the Southeast Asian nationalist movements during the inter-war period? MJC 2007 Early nationalist movements failed because they were limited to protecting the status quo of pre-colonial and colonial society. How far do you agree with this assessment of Southeast Asian nationalism up to 1941? RJC 2007 By 1941, nationalist efforts had done little to undermine colonial rule in Southeast Asia. How far do you agree with this statement? YJC 2007 Pre WWII nationalism was ineffective and posed no threat to the colonial masters because it was non-existent. How far do you agree with this statement? TJC 2007 New directions, new elites but little impact. How far do you agree with this assessment of pre-WWII nationalism in Southeast Asia? TPJC 2007 How far do you agree that the diverse responses of nationalist groups undermined their success before WWII? MJC 2008 The differing nature of Southeast Asian nationalism adequately explains why independence was not achieved before World War Two. Discuss NYJC 2009 Southeast Asian nationalist movements before World War II achieved little. Discuss. VJC 2009 To what extent is it true that the failure of nationalism in Southeast Asia before 1941 was due more to the weaknesses of the nationalists rather than the strengths of the colonial powers? YJC 2009 The untapped potential of the rural masses proved limiting for nationalist movements before 1942. To what extent is this accurate in describing pre-war nationalist movements in Southeast Asia?

ACJC 2010 Assess the view that radical nationalist movements, before World War Two, had achieved absolutely nothing. CJC 2010 The colonial powers were undermined by the rise of nationalist leaders. How true is this statement with reference to nationalist movements in the pre-war period? NJC 2010 Southeast Asian nationalists should bear the most responsibility for their failures before World War Two. How far do you agree with this statement?

NYJC 2010 To what extent did factionalism kill the hope of Southeast Asian nationalist movements from achieving independence before World War II? 2010 TPJC Prior to the Japanese Occupation, Southeast Asian nationalist movements were an absolute fiasco in their formative years. How far do you agree with this statement? 2010 YJC The achievements of pre-World War Two nationalism in Southeast Asia should not be discredited. How far do you agree with this statement? Responses of Colonial Governments to Nationalist Movements These questions focus on the policies adopted by the colonial governments to deal with the challenges posed by the nationalist movements and the evaluation of the measures adopted by the colonial governments RJC 2008 To what extent was colonial rule responsible for strengthening Southeast Asian nationalist movements in the years 1918 1941? CJC 2009 How important was the role of the Western colonial powers in the development of Southeast Asian nationalism in the period prior to World War Two? NJC 2009

How successful were the colonial powers in controlling the nationalist menace before World War 2? RIJC 2009 How effective were colonial responses to nationalist movements in Southeast Asia before the Second World War? TJC 2009 How far did colonial policies affect the development of Southeast Asian nationalism prior to the Second World War? TPJC 2009 In the period before World War 2, colonial governments were highly intolerant of early nationalist movements in Southeast Asia. How far do you agree with this statement? IJC 2010 To what extent were the attitudes and responses of the colonial governments the reason for the rise of nationalist movements from 1900-1939? JJC 2010 Before World War 2, effective policies of the colonial regimes hampered the rise of any form of resistance. How far do you agree with the above statement? NYJC 2010 Without colonial repression there will be no nationalist movements in prewar Southeast Asia. How far do you agree with the above statement? RJC 2010 Before 1941, colonial responses to nationalist movements were most responsible for limiting nationalist achievements in Southeast Asia. Discuss. SRJC 2010 Until 1941, coercion was the most valuable tool colonial masters had in the face of nationalist opposition. How far was this true for Southeast Asia? TJC 2010 How effective were the colonial responses to nationalist movements in Southeast Asia before the Second World War?