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GAS TURBINE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

NOMENCLATURE

& m a =mass rate of air


C = compressor r = compression ratio

& m g = mass rate of gas


GT = gas turbine (drives compressor) i = isentropic process

CC=Combustion Chamber PT = power turbine a = actual process

wC = compressor work

wGT = gas turbine work

wPT = power turbine work

m = mechanical efficiency

Note: small " w " stands for work per unit mass.

The diagram below shows the principal components of a gas turbine for power production. The gases exiting state 5 may be diverted to a stack or to heat recovery components. Also shown is a T-s diagram of the thermodynamic cycle. C

State 1 is known ( P 1 and

T1 ).

s = s1 ). The actual state leaving the State 2. For a given pressure ratio, state 2i is known ( r = P2 / P 1 ; 2i compressor (2a) is found from the definition of compressor efficiency which can be estimated with reasonable accuracy.

C =

h1 h2i h1 h2 a

Neglecting potential and kinetic energies, the actual compressor work per unit mass is:

wC = h1 h2 a
State 3 is found by estimating the percent pressure drop in the combustion chamber ( P 3 = P 2 P ) and selecting the highest temperature (for best efficiency) compatible with the turbine nozzle/blade material. State 4. The ideal work of the gas turbine is found from the definition of turbine efficiency. The actual work is equal to that of the compressor but opposite in sign.

wGTi =
Furthermore: From this relation, and the knowledge that

wGTi

wGTa GT = h3 h4i

s4i = s3 , state 4i is found. The enthalpy of state 4a is found from the definition of turbine efficiency and knowledge of P4 :

GT =

h3 h4 a h3 h4 i
1

( P5 ) , which will depend on any components installed for noise abatement or heat recovery, and the enthalpy ( s5i = s4 a ) . State 5a is then found from the estimated power
State 5i is found from the power turbine exit pressure turbine efficiency:

PT =
The work of the power turbine is:

h4 a h5a h4 a h5i

wPT = h4 a h5 a

The heat energy added in the combustion chamber is:

q = h3 h2 a
The thermal efficiency is:

th =

wPT q

Two useful quantities for comparing engines are the specific fuel consumption (SFC) and the heat rate (HR). The SFC is mass rate of fuel divided by the power:

SFC =

& & m m lbmf ( 3413) lbmf = 2545 lbmf f f = = & m & W th ( LHV ) kWh th ( LHV ) hph th f ( LHV ) Btu

The heat rate is the rate of heat energy added divided by the power output:

HR =

& ( 3413) Btu ( 2545 ) Btu Q = &= thQ kWh th hph th


TURBINE DIMENSIONS

Turbine dimensions are determined largely by the required mass rate. Starting with the clients requirement for power at the generator bus, estimate the generator efficiency and calculate the required brake power:

& =W & / W PT brake m

& =m & W PT g wPT

The required area of the turbine nozzle and blade rings can be calculated, for each stage, from:

& m g =

VA v

REFERENCE Bathie, W. W., Fundamentals of Gas Turbines, 2ed, John Wiley & Sons,1996.