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Motor-load Interaction

Drive Characteristics Different types of load torque-speed characteristics Different types of motor torque-speed characteristics Motor-load steady state stability conditions Static stability Dynamic stability

Numerical example

Drives Characteristics

For stable speed, motor torque (Tm) = load torque (TL)

Load Torque-speed characteristics

1) Fan or pump

3) Hoist or Elevator

2) Compressor

Motor Torque Speed Characteristics


1. D.C. motor

Tm
Separately excited d.c. motor

N
(a) Separately excited dc motor

Motor Torque Speed Characteristics (2)


Tm Series excited dc motor

N
(b) Series excited dc motor

Motor Torque Speed Characteristics (3)


2. Induction motor:(Note: Though the operating point on the left of the peak torque in the bottom plot is stable, it is not permissible as the current will be very high due to high slip.

Not permissible

Steady-state stability (Static stability)


Tm TL = J. dN/dt + BN Where J moment of inertia of rotating part

B damping coefficient (due to friction and windage)


Under steady state (stable) condition dN/dt = 0 Therefore, Tm = TL + BN which is basically static stability.

Steady-state stability (Dynamic stability)


I1 I2

At both I1 and I2, Tm = TL. However, which one of I1 and I2 is stable? I1 is unstable and I2 is stable.
I1 is unstable because if due to some perturbation (i) Speed increases then Tm > TL causing the system to speed up. (ii) Speed decreases, then Tm < TL causing the system to slow down. I2 is stable because (i) Any speed increment at I2 causes Tm < TL and the system will slow down. (ii) Any speed decrement at I2 causes Tm > TL and the system will speed up.

Steady-state stability (Dynamic stability) (2)


It can be shown (assignment problem 4.1) that to achieve dynamic stability at a particular operating speed:

Note: There is a slight difference between this condition and equation (4.5) in the text , but both carries the same essence.

Steady -state Stability (example)


A motor has a torque speed characteristics given by Tm=30-0.053N (torque in Nm, speed in rad/sec). The motor is running a constant load torque of 25 N-m. The system (motor and load) was initially running at steady state. (i) Find the steady state speed.

(ii) Due to a single impulse type disturbance the speed decreases temporarily by 50 rpm. Find the speed of the system in rpm 0.6s after the disturbance has ceased. J = 0.05 kg-m2.

Steady-state Stability (example solution) (i) Under steady-state, T = T .


L m

25=30-0.053N. Thus the steady state speed is N=N1=5/0.053=94.34 rad/sec. (60/2p) = 900.88 rpm. (ii) One can show using assignment problem 4.1 that
= 1

= ; =

= 0.053. =

= 0.943.

=50.

0.6 0.943

= 26.46 rpm.

Hence the final speed after 0.6s will be N1 -N= 900.88-26.46=874.42 rpm.

Transient response to disturbance


910 900 890
Speed (RPM)

880 870 860 850 840 0 2

X: 2.6 Y: 874.4

4 6 Time (s)

10

Four quadrant operation of a drive

Defining a quadrant using a simple hoist or winch drive as an example

Four quadrant operation of a drive(2)

Braking/ Generating Reverse Motoring

Motoring Braking/ Generating

Steady state four quadrant boundary of a machine