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UNIVERSAL CABLES LIMITED

P.O.Birla Vikas , Satna (M.P.)-485005 Ph: 07672-414693/94 Fax: 07672-257136 E-mail: capacitor@unistar.co.in Studied Date 12 & 13th Feb. 2013

HARMONIC STUDY REPORT OF

M/S HJI Division of Orient Paper Mill, AMLAI,

Submitted By UNIVERSAL CABLES LTD (CAPACITOR DIVISION)

Conducted By: Prateek Gupta & Ashutosh Gautam

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INDEX:

1. Scope and Objectives of study 2. Harmonics in Power System 3. Observations / records of Site Measurements

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Scope:
The scope of study includes: - Measurement of harmonics and other parameters. - Preparation of Report on the measurement carried at site. - Analysis of the results & Recommendation

Objective:
Study has been carried out to get the actual picture of harmonics flow in the system & its behavior & its effect in system, after changing the Input voltage of rectifier transformer from 100Vac to 140Vac.

Purpose of harmonic study:


M/s HJI has decided to change the input supply from 100Vac to 140Vac for Rectifier transformer. This study is being a part of complete analysis about to know the consequences of this change of input voltage in their power system. Study will be conducted in two parts; A: First with 100Vac Input to their Rectifier Transformer B: Second with 140Vac Input to their Rectifier Transformer

System Detail:
M/s HJI is getting power from 30MW Captive power plant installed in his sister concern M/s Orient paper mill. Total power required is about 9-10MW. Generally Plant runs on optimum & constant load. For Power transmission three runs of single core 630sq.mm Al XLPE cable for each phase i.e. Total 9 runs is used. In general, there is no variation seen during.

Capacitor Bank Detail:


A) Filter Banks (In operation): HarmonicFilterCapacitorBankDetails(SingleStarArrangement)
BankRating UnitRating ReactorRating (XLperPh.) 5thHarmonic 3330KVAr,14.2KV 185KVAr,8.2KV 2.71Ohms. 7thHarmonic 1845KVAr,13.5KV 123KVAr,7.8KV 2.21Ohms. 11thHarmonic 13thHarmonic

1845KVAr,13.5KV 1845KVAr,13.5KV 123KVAr,7.8KV 0.81Ohms. 123KVAr,7.8KV 0.64Ohms.

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B) PF Compensation Capacitor Banks: (Rarely used) PFCompensationCapacitorBankDetails(SingleStarArrangement)


BankRating UnitRating ReactorRating (XLperPh.) 1MVAr 2MVAr 3MVAr 1008KVAr,11.65KV 2016KVAr,11.65KV 3024KVAr,11.65KV 84KVAr,6.73KV 9.38Ohms. 84KVAr,6.73KV 3.63Ohms. 84KVAr,6.73KV 2.97Ohms.

IEEE recommendations for Harmonics:


Current Distortion Limits (up to 69KV): ISC / IL <20* 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 *4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 11<=h<17 2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.0 17<=h<23 1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 23<=h<35 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 35<=h 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4 %THD 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

* All power generation equipments are limited those values regardless their ISC / IL ISC = Short circuit current at the point of common coupling IL = Fundamental full load current H = Harmonic order th th 11<=h<17 represent all harmonics current between 11 &16 harmonic THD = Total harmonic Distortion Voltage Distortion Limit: Bus voltage at PCC <=69 KV 69>=161 KV >161 KV Individual Voltage Distortion 3.0% 1.5% 1.0% THD 5.0% 2.5% 1.5

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Instrument Description:
Instrument used for field measurements is FLUKE-434 Power Quality Analyzer. It is the most sophisticated and accurate instruments to be used for the purpose. The instrument is designed to ascertain: System parameters like Current, Voltage, Power factor, Frequency, Active & Reactive power etc. Level of current and voltage harmonics present in the system. Current and voltage distortions (individual & total)
st st

one of

The instrument measures the values of 1 to 49 discrete harmonics. The equipment measures the system parameter continuously for long period. For the measurements, the inputs to the instrument were taken from the Bus Potential Transformer and the respective Feeder Current transformer.

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Harmonics in power system:


Harmonics are components of periodic waveforms having frequencies that are integral multiples of fundamental power line frequency (50 Hz). Presence of Harmonics in the system distorts voltage and current waveforms. Harmonic distortion is associated with non-linear loads of the plant like Rectifiers, AC / DC Drives, UPS, Cyclo Converters, Ferro magnetic devices etc. Harmonic current tends to flow from non-linear loads to the lowest impedance in the system usually the utility source, since the impedance of power source is normally low compared to the load. However, Harmonic Current splits depending on the impedance ratios of the circuits. One of the most common measures used for evaluating the influence of harmonics on the power system is the Total Harmonic Distortion in Voltage (THD-V), which gives a measure of the effective (rms) value of harmonics relative to the fundamental component.

Effects of Harmonic Distortion: The most common problems created by harmonics include over - heating of transformers, motors, generators, cables, switch gears and other equipments leading to their pre-mature failure, malfunctioning of electrical and electronic controls of equipments, PLC, UPS and other sensitive electronic devices, spurious tripping of Circuit Breakers and Relays, excessive neutral current and consequent heating of neutral conductor, higher neutral to ground voltage (common mode noise), premature failure of Capacitors, reduction in power factor, harmonic resonance in the power system and interference in communication network.
2

Harmonic current flowing in the system causes energy loss. Harmonic Current increases I R loss in cables, transformers, motors and other equipments. Since harmonics increase the skin effect, the
2

effective resistance of the Conductor increases, leading to higher I R loss in the system. Harmonics also increases the eddy current and hysterisis losses in transformers, motors etc., since these losses are functions of frequency.

Mitigation of harmful effects of harmonics : Since, harmonic distortion can cause serious problems in certain electrical environments as enumerated above, harmonic analysis conducted at major non-linear loads of the systems helps to implement suitable remedial measures for mitigating the harmful effects of harmonics wherever harmonic distortion exceeds the limits.

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Harmonics & Capacitors:


A discussion of power system harmonics is incomplete without discussing the effects of power factor correction capacitors. In an industrial plant containing power factor correction capacitors, harmonic currents and voltages can be magnified considerably due to the interaction of the capacitors with the service transformer. This is referred to as harmonic resonance. For a typical plant containing power factor correction capacitors, the resonant frequency
th th th th th th

(frequency at which amplification occurs) normally falls in the vicinity of the 5 to the 13 harmonic. Since non-linear loads typically inject currents at the 5 , 7 , 11 and 13 harmonics, a resonant or nearresonant condition will often result if drives and capacitors are installed on the same system, producing the symptoms and problems outlined in the previous sections. It is important to note that capacitors themselves do not cause harmonics, but only aggravate potential harmonic problems. Often, harmonics related problems do not "show up" until capacitors are applied for power factor correction. It is a common misconception that the problem of applying capacitors in harmonic environments is limited to problems caused for the capacitor itself - that the capacitor's lower impedance at higher frequencies causes a current overload into the capacitor and, therefore, must be removed. However, the capacitor/ harmonics problem must be viewed from a power system standpoint. The capacitor-induced increase of harmonic voltages and currents on a plant's system may be causing problems while the capacitor itself remains within its acceptable current rating

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Observations / records of Site Measurements

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UNIVERSAL CABLES LTD. SATNA 485005 INDIA REF DIMENSIONS IN M.M.


TITLE

DWG. NO.

DATE

SLD of M/s HJI-Division of orient Paper mill,AMLAI

GEN-SET at OPM 30MW,11KV PF-0.8,Xd= 23% 1.5 km. 630sq.mm XLPE Al. Cable : 1Cx 9

Q2
1,2,3 4,5,6

Main Incomer

11KV BUS

12,13,14, 15,16

10

11

7,8,9

2 MV VAr Cap. Ban nk

1MV VAr Cap. Bank

VAr Cap. 3 MV Bank

1.5 MVA A Aux. Tr.

5th

7th

11th

13th

5 MVAr Harmonic Filter Cap. Banks

o1MVAr, 2MVAr & 3MVAr capacitor banks: Normally not used. o Prime load of Plant (almost 90%) is Rectifier Transformer. o Digits inside circles corresponds to sheet no. & shows the measurements taken at respective point.

2 MVA A Aux. Tr.

Rectifier sformer Trans

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UNIVERSAL CABLES LIMITED P.O.Birla Vikas , Satna (M.P.)-485005 Ph: 07672-414693/94 Fax: 07672-257136 E-mail: capacitor@unistar.co.in

SUMMERIZEDHARMONICOBSERVATIONREPORTM/sHJIDivisionofOPM,AMLAIDated:12&13/02/13
Sr. Ref. No. Sheet Location FilterBanksStatus
Load Condition
KV

SystemParameters(Avg.)
Amp. PF MW MVA MVAr %VTHD 6 4.8 3.4 1.7 1.9 1.4

HarmonicsDetail
%(I)CurrentHarmonics THD 6.5 6.5 6 6.3 4.8 5.9 2nd 2.2 2.7 2.8 3.6 3.2 3.4 3rd 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 4th 0.8 2.3 2.3 3.6 2.5 4 5th 0.7 0.7 1.2 1.4 0.8 1.1 7th 0.4 0.2 0.9 1.1 0.4 0.7 11th 13th 23rd 4.7 4.1 3.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 3.5 3.1 2.7 2.2 1.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.3 25th 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2

MAININCOMER(OPM)
1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 12 9 1 14 OPMMainIncomer (Q2) Withoutfilterbanks with5thonly with5th&7th With5th,7th&11th With5th,7th&11th With5th,7th,11th,& 13th FullLoad FullLoad FullLoad 75%Load FullLoad FullLoad 11.25 11.2 11.18 11.2 11.18 11.2 615 550 525 368 498 475 0.81 0.89 0.93 0.99 0.96 0.99 9.72 9.5 9.5 7.04 9.3 9.19 11.87 10.64 10.15 7.12 9.64 9.25 6.81 4.78 3.57 1.06 2.52 1.01

LOADFEEDERS
7 8 9 10 11 4 16 11 2 3 1.5MVAAux.Tr. 2MVAAux.Tr. IEMRectifier Transformer On12.02.13atFullLoad On13.02.13atFullLoad On13.02.13at75%Load With5th,7th&11th With5th,7th&11th FullLoad FullLoad 11.1 11.1 11.13 10.98 11.12 542 555 412 210 54 0.81 0.8 0.77 0.95 0.8 8.48 8.63 6.14 10.43 10.75 7.9 6.03 6.4 7.97 0.122 0.618 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 8.4 8.6 9.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.8 3 1.1 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.7 1.4 1 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.2 6 6.1 6.4 0.3 0.2 4.6 4.5 5.2 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.1 2.3 0.7 0.2 0.8 1 1.8 0.4 0.3

0.386 0.404 0.837 1.04

CAPACITORBANKFEEDER
12 13 14 15 16 8 13 5 10 15 CapacitorBanks with5thonly with5th&7th With5th,7th&11th With5th,7th&11th With5th,7th,11th,& 13th FullLoad FullLoad FullLoad 75%Load FullLoad 11.01 11.17 10.87 11.16 11.18 110 176 245 245 310 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 5 3.6 1.9 2.1 1.9 11.9 11.9 17.8 13.3 14.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 7.2 4.4 9.2 3.9 5 0.8 1.5 0.2 1.1 0.4 1.8 3.3 1.7 2.4 1.6 7.1 8.5 12.6 10.2 11.2 5.3 5.1 7.5 5.1 6.8 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.9 1.5 1 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.2

*DuringStudyplantwasrunningwith100VacinputtoRectifierTransformer.

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 1 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Date: 12/02/13

Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8105KW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic Capacitor bank ON: 260Amps. , 13th Harmonic-OFF

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 2 Location: 1.5MVA Aux. Transformer-1 at 11KV, (LOAD) Status: Plant on full load Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic Capacitor bank ON: 260Amps. , 13th Harmonic-OFF Date: 12/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 3 Location: 2MVA Aux. Transformer-2 at 11 KV, (LOAD) Status: Plant on full load Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic Capacitor bank ON: 260Amps. , 13th Harmonic-OFF Date: 12/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 4 Location: Ion-exchange Membrane Plant, Rectifier Feeder at 11KV, (LOAD) Date: 12/02/13

Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.4MW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic Capacitor bank ON: 260Amps. , 13th Harmonic-OFF

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 5 Location: Capacitor Bank Feeder at 11KV, (CAPACITOR FEEDER) Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.4MW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic Capacitor bank ON: 260Amps. , 13th Harmonic-OFF *Please note the CT Ratio of Y-phase is half of CT used in other two phases. (So the difference) Date: 12/02/13

Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics: Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 6 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Date: 12/02/13

Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8105KW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 7 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8105KW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th Harmonic: ON and 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 12/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 8 Location: Capacitor Bank feeder Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8105KW, 80KA at 98.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th Harmonic: ON and 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 12/02/13

Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics: Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 9 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Status: Plant on 75% load, Rectifier load: 5830KW, 60KA at 94.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic: ON and 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 13/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 10 Location: Capacitor Bank feeder Status: Plant on 75% load, Rectifier load: 5830KW, 60KA at 94.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic: ON and 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 13/02/13

Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics: Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 11 Location: Ion-exchange Membrane Plant, Rectifier Feeder at 11KV, (LOAD) Status: Plant on 75% load, Rectifier load: 5830KW, 60KA at 94.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th & 11th Harmonic: ON and 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 12/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 12 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.2MW, 80KA at 99.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th & 7th Harmonic: ON and 11th & 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 13/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 13 Location: Capacitor Bank feeder Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.2MW, 80KA at 99.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th & 7th Harmonic: ON and 11th & 13th Harmonic Capacitor bank OFF Date: 13/02/13

Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics: Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 14 Location: OPM Main Incomer at 11KV, (Q2) (MAIN-INCOMER) Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.2MW, 80KA at 99.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic filter banks: ON Date: 13/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 15 Location: Capacitor Bank feeder Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.2MW, 80KA at 99.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic filter banks: ON Date: 13/02/13

Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics: Current Harmonics:

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Harmonic Study at M/s HJI Division of Orient paper mill


Sheet: 16 Location: Ion-exchange Membrane Plant, Rectifier Feeder at 11KV, (LOAD) Status: Plant on full load, Rectifier load: 8.2MW, 80KA at 99.16Vdc (at 100Vac Input) Capacitor Detail: 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th Harmonic filter banks: ON Date: 13/02/13

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Harmonics: Voltage Harmonics:

Current Harmonics:

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