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Volume 4, Issue 18 March 2013

ISSN No. 0976-254X


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IR BUDGET 2013

Special Issue with extra pages

` 100

FIRST WORDS Better to light a candle...


Is it thumbs up or thumbs down for the 2013 IR budget proposals? Clearly the proposals show less of populism and a heightened reality check. But equally many harsh facts are hidden in promises not backed by the figures. That apart, the core issue which requires a political and social consensus is that of subsidies. The modern state is certainly in a position to provide some (but not all) subsidised facilities and products to its citizens; it needs to be determined which sectors should receive such patronage from the government coffers. Recent decades have shown that uncontrolled subsidies can lead to national financial disasters. Witness the case of USSR post its communist era or recent upheavals in European countries like Spain and Greece. Indian polity seems to come round to the view of limiting subsidies to the middle class and continue them for the lower middle and lower classes. It is our view that the state should always support basic education, health, unemployment, environment and agricultural sectors in difficulties. Transport and energy are two sectors where existing subsidies or continuing losses need to be reduced and eliminated. There is certainly a case for improving transport efficiency but continuing subsidy to the transport sector directly or indirectly can only lead to inefficiencies. It is in this context that IRs passenger fare revisions enforced after a gap of 10 years need to be discussed. Railways in India have been charged long enough with cross subsidising passenger transport by high freight transport tariffs. Even though the trend has not been corrected fully in the last two financial years, the portents are that this need has been recognised. A pro-people plan would require greater money to go to basic health and education and people in penury. A seemingly populist plan of longterm transport subsidy creates local inefficiencies that pushes product and service costs. And that only helps the politician with a short term mandate. Thumbs up to the budget proposals for initiating the correction of prices offered in relation to actual costs. Thumbs down for not recognising that Railways cannot be self financing for growth. It is time for some plain speaking by the IR board, that would be pro-people and pro-future. Or as the wag said, just hide your thumbs for another day. The New Delhi IHHA conference was a successful event that should help sensitise decision makers for future technological requirements. The organising team particularly the conference co-chair RK Jain and his team including Girish Pillai, Neeraj Kumar and Jeetendra Singh deserve the gratitude of the Indian railway fraternity.

R von Garicke (South Africa) & Prof. Uday Kumar (Sweden) in IHHA Conference

(Vijay Raina)
Editor

...than to curse the darkness.


...Wiley, cartoon character in B.C.

Volume 4, Issue 18 March 2013

CONTENTS
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This publication is supported by Asian Railway Association & Asian Institute of Transport Development 13, Palam Vihar, New Delhi Consulting Editor Sumant Chak, AITD Principal Regional Associate N S KasturiRangan Editor V. K. Raina For Advertisements and Circulation Dr. Rajni Raina Business Manager Phone : +91 92306 39001 Disclaimer : Views expressed by various authors are personal and do not necessarily reflect the views of their corporates. European Correspondent: Ms Geetha Munikoti, Berlin IT Support Dilip & Rajat Delhi Coordination Vinod Raina Designed & Printed by Headliners Advertising Services Pvt. Ltd. 87, Monohar Pukur Road Kolkata 700 029 e-mail: headlinersadvertising@gmail.com

Young Researchers in the IHHA Conference, New Delhi, Feb.13

IR Budget 2013

Technology

1 2 3

Realistic projections
VN Mathur scans the budget proposal for things done or overload

Worrying compromises
S Jha concludes that IR has missed an opportunity

A non-event

A brief opinion by S Handa: low productivity is a worry

14 Heavier loads on bridges 19 Roll On Roll Off 22 Traction power supply


RDSO team summarizes design procedures for revalidation

Konkan experience on Ro-Ro needs multiplication and improvement Efficiency improvements with 2x25kV supply with Auto Transformers

How will that be?


Key issues and inconsistencies from the budget proposals

Heavy Haul Conference

24 Re-inventing the motor 31 Car transport


Successful prototype tests on new IR autorack wagon

A review on traction motor upgrade with permanent magnets

6 A competent show

Business

IHHA organises express satisfaction on the New Delhi Conference

International perspective

7 Tough to be the best 8

Panel discussion highlights worldwide experiences on growing Heavy Haul

17 28 21 33 34

Konkan Railway
Innovation have marked this oneofakind railway in India

Railway electrification
Forecast on electrification projects in Asia

A chat with Lisa Stabler, President TTCI, USA

IHHA Best Paper Awards


RDSO team distinguishes itself

Potpourri Lean manufacturing


Faiveley India gets the Economic Times Award

Freight Corridor Progress

10

Anybody for the dirty job?


An NGO initiative to assist in sanitation on rail network

Steady but slow


RK Gupta briefs on construction & land acquisition

A passion for steam


National Steam Congress in New Delhi

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I R BU DGE T 2 0 1 3 OP I N I O N S

Realistic projections, muted on reforms


The IR Budget was eagerly awaited as after many years it was presented by a Minister from the main ruling party rather than one from an alliance partner in an era of coalitions. Presented in the last year of its current term in office, it was expected to stamp efforts of trying to revive a slowing down economy. The Railway Ministry oversees important infrastructure that has a key role to play in economic growth. Whereas it is not possible to bring about big changes in one year or a single budget, experts were watching out for whether the focus and direction given to this vital infrastructure sector was adequate. In this respect the budget did not live up to expectations. During the current fiscal, despite various capacity constraints and a modest GDP growth, IR has been able to achieve growth of 4% + in originating freight traffic and about 5% for number of passengers transported. IR has now joined the small Billion Tonne Freight Club, as the Minister emphasised. The Operating Ratio (the ratio between Operating Costs and Traffic revenue) at 88.8% is somewhat lower than the 84.5% targeted for the year. IR also fell short of the Annual Plan investment target by ` 8000 Cr (` 52,000 Cr against ` 60,100 Cr). Many physical targets as for new lines and gauge conversion remained chimera, possibly due to financial constraints. Looking ahead to the next FY, originating freight tonnage is projected at 1047 mt, a growth of 3.9%; originating passengers should go up by 5.2%, maintaining the existing trend. Gross Traffic Receipts are budgeted at ` 143,742 Cr whereas Ordinary Working Expenses are estimated at ` 96,500 Cr The resultant Operating Ratio at 87.8%, which if attained, will be a good result taking into account the present circumstances. The growth projection is very modest, but perhaps more realistic when compared with the performance over the last few years.
More realistic projections The billion tonne freight club

... Vinoo Mathur

V. MittaI, IR Board Chairman & PK Bansal, Miniser of Railways at an event in February 2013 in New Delhi

For the rail passenger fares have not been raised directly but concomitant charges will increase realisations. Many schemes have been announced to cater to common complaints such as cleanliness, catering, safety and security (particularly for lady passengers). IRCTC- managed rail reservation system and e-ticketing has slowed down due to excessive traffic and a new portal capable of handling 7000 tickets per minute (up from 3000 currently) has been promised by the end of the year. This new portal was earlier targeted for the current FY and is overdue. The slow internet response for e-tickets on the IRCTC portal should ease. There has been justified adverse criticism for linking the proposed Fuel Adjustment Component to freight traffic only. This could result in freight rates going up by about 5%, with further diversion of non-mineral traffic to road as IR freight rates are already exceptionally high. The Minister also announced the process for setting up a Rail Tariff Regulatory Authority which has been long overdue. However, the regulators effectiveness will depend on the scope and powers given to it. So far no details have emerged into the public domain on IRs proposals that are said to be under inter-ministerial scrutiny now.
A goodie here and another there

The Annual Plan at ` 63,630 Cr is again not very ambitious and one wonders how IR will achieve the capacity building targets that it set itself in its Vision 2020 document and even the scaled down targets of the 12th Five Year Plan. However, a positive aspect is a significant change in sectoral focus with relatively larger outlays for track doubling, traffic facilities, signalling and telecommunication, rolling stock and track renewals. All these areas add to long term capacity and should always be top of the list. Increasing the target for doubling works vis a vis new lines is sensible. The Minister also announced priority scheme targeting the completion of 347 projects that would receive assured funding. This again speaks of a pragmatic approach in dealing with the large shelf of sanctioned projects. The investment targeted through Public Private Partnership schemes is also only ` 6000 Cr against a target for ` 1, 00,000 Cr in the 12th Plan. PPP is making little headway in IR, a definite cause for anxiety.

Being possibly the last budget before the next general elections, the Minister was unable to resist the temptation for populist announcements, though these were a bit muted than before. The usual new passenger trains and the grant of concessions to various categories of persons were on expected lines. The impact of new passenger services will further reduce capacity for freight traffic and severe constraints in maintenance facilities will affect quality of service and maintenance. The distribution of goodies to various states in terms of setting up new manufacturing units with a substantial Government investment e.g. coach manufacturing unit

Vinoo Mathur (Ex Member Traffic IR Board) Managing Director The Bharuch Dahej Railway Co. Ltd.

1047 mt of freight traffic, about 40 mt more than the current year

I R B U D GET 20 1 3 OP IN ION S
at Sonepat, a Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit Factory at Bhilwara and a Midlife Rehabilitation Workshop at Kurnool etc. is not understood as such units ,if at all required, must come up in the private sector. The Government is sanctioning every year creation of new coach manufacturing capacity for a loss making business without any subsidy for the business. In the long run this could have serious consequences. The Minister had few options. His grasp of the issues facing the railways is commendable; he did adopt a pragmatic approach, made the right noises about fiscal discipline and tried to balance populist announcements with the long term needs of the organization. We wish he had spoken something about Railway Reform that is urgently needed. One unfortunate conclusion is that in the near future because of the slow pace of growth in output and building of capacity there could be severe bottlenecks and a further decline in rail market share. On the whole, some realistic assessments and projections; but not much new really.

Lesser populism but worrying compromises


This railway budget shows some measure of fiscal prudence, actually emphasizing the need for financial discipline. This is a departure from the recent past. The books have been balanced by some worrying compromises. Expenditure on signal and telecommunication works is ` 953 Cr less than the budget estimate, on track renewal ` 661 Cr less and on bridge works ` 124 Cr less. All these will have a direct bearing on safety. Also disturbing is the ` 128 Cr reduction of spending under traffic facilities, works which add to the railways capacity to carry more traffic. The roll-back of passenger fare increases in 2012, reduced freight loading on account of the economic downturn and shortage of wagons in some areas has forced to cut a hefty ` 7,648 Cr from the combined budget estimates for the depreciation reserve fund (DRF), the development fund and capital fund from the earlier revised estimates. The maximum cut of ` 2,500 Cr is in DRF, which finances replacement of assets, primarily track. Not a very good step when safety is considered paramount. The Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) progress is very patchy. There was no emphasis on urgency, no desire to take up the project on mission mode. The creation of a railway liability reserve fund (RLRF) is a step in the right direction. However, the basis for appropriating ` 4,163 Cr to it is not explained. In fact, it is time IR got out of its ad hocism in appropriating amounts to DRF, DF, capital fund and the new RLRF. The ministry will do well to set up an expert committee to go into the mechanics by which railways funds should be used. The budget estimates for 2013-14 throw up some figures that should worry the rail traveller. Appropriation to DRF is only ` 7,500 Cr at a time when there are huge arrears in replacement of assets. So much so that there has been talk for some time that Indian Railways should propose a Special Railway Safety Fund-II to arrange additional money for urgent

All our plans are based on solid foundations of time tested excuses

Samar Jha Ex-Financial Commissioner IR Board

replacement of assets. Not only are these over-age assets a threat to safety, their presence is also slowing down train speeds as speed restrictions are imposed where the track is suspect, resulting in loss of traffic capacity. The calamitous reduction of appropriation to DF from ` 9,984 Cr (RE 2012-13) to ` 3,550 Cr (BE 201314) is unexplainable. DF finances safety and passenger amenities works which will cry for funds next year. This is not an election budget; neither is it one which will usher in a new dawn. IR has missed an opportunity.

Unnecessary emphasis on the non-essentials


I think all Railway budgets are non events. True some have exciting statements of intents, but most cease to be talking points very quickly. IRs delivery mechanisms being so slow, such dissipation is hardly surprising. Budgets ought not to be viewed as make or break documents; what matters more is a core agenda that should be pursued relentlessly over a decade so that change is visible. This budget was particularly retrograde; it raised freight rates in preference to passenger fares. The beaten path of diminishing returns was adopted once again. Railway disciplines that guided policy have all become dormant. Performance is now measured in terms of augmentation of protection force strength, recruitments effected etc., a recipe for disaster which is slowly taking its toll. Rising cost of fuel does not hit railways as much as the ballooning wage bill. I had once surmised indirectly that productivity on Bangladesh Railway is superior to IR: one has to suffer the mortification of a proclamation that in effect promises only 40 mt of incremental growth in freight and 60 new passenger trains but a burden of 1.25 lakh fresh recruits.

Sanjiv Handa Ex-Member, IR Board

2 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

I R BU DGE T 2 0 1 3 OP I N I O N S

How will that be, Mr Minister?


I do believe that one day Railways shall find ways to contribute to its infrastructure projects.... IR budget, 2013 A gross misunderstanding of the nature of railways (and many other infrastructure sectors) is that someday in future they will garner enough revenue surpluses so as to pay their expenses including debt servicing and share holder premium and then have a neat pile to invest in expansion too. And by implication, they do not have to raise debt or leverage it for creating value. The experience world over has shown that such a grand day does not happen ever, except for few lucky companies like Apple or Microsoft or the oil companies in the Arab world. Realistically, railways in India and elsewhere are lucky to recover their Opex and depend on state funding for new lines or even new technologies. India is and can be no exception. This fact has been understood well for Metro rail projects where state fund is the accepted norm. It is time IR Board made this amply clear. Continuing with a false hope is leading IR into a Lighting hopes for better IR Finances financial web that will restrict government investments, so necessary for railways expansion as well as economic growth. The IR Board has a long term responsibility to generate national support for rail expansion and that cannot be helped by glossing over the hard truths. The Annual Plan has to be integrated with the broad objectives and targets set for the 12th Plan. Yet, we must be realistic in setting targets, even if it means that IR would be faced with a stiffer challenge of enhancing investment during the remaining three years of the Plan. Total Plan investment (` Cr) Gross Budgetary Support Railways Share in Road Safety Fund Internal resources Market borrowings Private investment mobilization (PPP) 63,363 26,000 2,000 14,260 15,103 6,000

The thrust of the plan is on doubling of tracks, safety and passenger & staff welfare for which the outlays have increased from ` 11,410 Cr ( current FY) to ` 13,220 Cr, ( + 16%). Overall, the investments being made are severely restricted, with reduction on replacement account.

The myth about zero level crossings

Elimination of 10,797 level crossings during the 12th Plan and not adding any new LC henceforth...A disquieting issue is accidents at level crossings (LC) that account for 40% of consequential accidents and 60% of fatalities . While railways regularly undertake awareness drives, a permanent solution lies only in eliminating the crossings. Railway Safety Fund set up to finance safety works at LCs has been very useful, but is proving to be inadequate. Railways annual share from the Central Road Fund is only ` 1,100 Cr against a requirement of almost ` 5,000 Cr with a total estimated requirement of nearly ` 37,000 Cr at present day cost for eliminating the level crossings. The 31,846 LCs (13,530 are unmanned) would only be possible with enhanced support from the Central Road Fund.

Surface crrosings are convenient to local communities and cannot be eliminated

This is perhaps the biggest self deception IR has perpetuated and gets a repeat mention each year. In no case can all surface crossings be eliminated. For one, use of over bridges is extremely harassing to local transport, including non-motorised vehicles. In many cases, the surface crossings have been allowed to continue in parallel on this account. Most LC accidents occur on less frequented tracks where the road users rarely see trains. Replacement by overhead crossing (` 10 to 30 Cr each) is hardly an answer. Following successful completion of initial testing, the indigenously developed Train Collision Avoidance System is proposed to be put to rigorous trials to validate the Technology under complex operational conditions. This year, IR has added another version for anti-collision device to the growing list of desirables. The scene has become even more ambiguous than before.

Passenger service Anubhuti with better ambience & higher tariff

I R B UD GET 20 1 3 P OR TENTS
Upgradation of track structure using 60 kg rails, 260 meter long welded rail-panels and improved flash butt welding technology. Unlikely to make significant headway since overall spending on track replacements (all heads) is likely to reduce.

347 ongoing projects identified as priority projects and provided committed funding. We intend to ensure funding of these projects at required level during the 12th Plan so as to complete them in a time bound manner. It would require a judicious mix of strategies, including liberal funding of last mile projects and operationally important projects including the Dedicated Freight Corridors. No specifics have yet been announced. The very size of the list (347) seems to indicate a lack of focus, monitoring such a large tranche will just add another list to the process. It would perhaps be more prudent to shorten the list, simplify procedures, empower the project managers for these projects and assure funding within the sanctions based on ability to spend and not ability to fund. A disquieting feature is the lack of any specifics on likely expenditures on the DFC. A real assessment from the budget papers is not feasible since bulk of the funding is from Japan and the World Bank and not form the budget funds. IR will create a corpus for meeting committed liabilities for debt servicing of JICA and World Bank loans taken for the DFC Project and set up a new Debt Service Fund.

Project execution at the usual slow pace

A Corporate Safety Plan for ten year period 2014-24

The Governments plan for a Rail Tariff Regulator is reported to be doing the inter-ministrial round with no promised timeline for implementation. Increase in the rates of HSD oil in January 2013 has added ` 3,300 Cr to the fuel bill and electricity tariffs are also revised periodically. IRs finances need to be rationally insulated and a mechanism to neutralize the impact of fuel prices on operating expenses is required. Budget 2012-13 had proposed to segregate fuel component in tariffs as Fuel Adjustment Component . It is proposed that this component be dynamic in nature and change in either direction with the change in fuel cost, say twice a year. It is proposed to implement the FAClinked revision in only freight tariff from 1st April, 2013.

The regulator is coming, but when?

The rate of dividend has been reduced from 5% to 4% providing a relief of about ` 715 Cr annually.

Ticket Reservation
Congestion at the IRCTC website causes inordinate delay in accessing the system for e-ticketing...by end 2013, a Next Generation e-ticketing system to bring about a paradigm shift in internet rail ticketing. The system shall be able to support 7200 tickets per minute as against 2000 tickets per minute today. It will support 1, 20,000 simultaneous users at any point in time against the present capacity of 40,000 users with capability to easily scale up. An enhanced ticketing portal was promised in last FY also.

The Indian Railways Institute of Financial Management a new centralized training institute at Secunderabad

A bird sitting on a tree has no fear of falling, not because of the strength of the branch but because of faith in its own wings (from the Railway Minister's speech to Lok Sabha).

4 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

I R BU DGE T 2 0 1 3 PO R T E N T S

Private investments expected, but not much to show as yet


Rail infrastructure projects in the private regimes had limited success achieved so far. Elevated Rail Corridor in Mumbai, parts of the DFC, redevelopment of stations, power generation/energy saving projects, freight terminals are areas proposed for private investment during the 12th Plan period. Cooperation of state governments is also being sought to provide momentum to these initiatives. The recently revamped participative policy enabling partnership with ports, large mines, industry and investors addresses the specific concerns of private investors. The models seek to create a win-win situation by ensuring payback of investment mainly through freight apportionment. Expected investments; ` 9,000 Cr including ` 3,800 Cr for port connectivity projects, ` 4, 000 Cr for coal mine connectivity and ` 800 Cr for iron ore mines connectivity improvements. Projects under IR consideration are extremely limited and almost all have received delayed and tepid response so far. It is difficult to set up a list of projects in hand that could materialise to generate such investment. Good intent but lack of push.

A target of ` 1,000 Cr each for Rail Land Development Authority and IR Station Development Corporation

Multiplying manufacturing capacity, but lesser money for purchase


l l l l l l

Forged Wheel Factory at Rae Bareilly, an MoU signed with Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL) Greenfield Mainline Electrical Multiple Units Manufacturing facility at Bhilwara in collaboration with Rajasthan Government and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Coach manufacturing unit in Sonepat in collaboration with the Haryana Government Midlife rehabilitation (MLR) Workshop at Kurnool, in collaboration with the Andhra Government Modern signalling equipment facility at Chandigarh through PPP route.

No progress made yet for coach factories at Palakkad and Kolar and a wagon factory in Ganjam, Odisha, we are in consultation with respective state governments. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd and IR have signed an MoU in February agreeing to establish a factory at Bhilwara for electric multiple-units. The plant will be funded by BHEL, with the government of Rajasthan providing land and IR guaranteeing future orders. IR plans for a state-of-the art EMU manufacturing plant by the private sector in Kancharapara (off Kolkata) has not proceeded after a hectic round of prequalification round when 8 offers mostly in JV structure were announced. The project has been stuck for determination of the long term purchase agreement, now promised to BHEL. With multiple unit or coach manufacturing units announced for Haldia, Kerala, Bhilwara and Sonepat besides the likely streaming of coaches from the upcoming major plant in Rae Bareilly, IR finances for Capex and coach purchasing will go ballistic. An integrated policy document for coach and wagon requirements in the next decade would give a clearer picture that is anything but hazy at present.

In 2010-11 and 2011-12, Railways claimed to have completed 709 km and 727 km respectively of new lines. The 700 km target in the current year has been scaled down to 470 km. Inadequate resources are blamed but nobody is interested in backing up claims by facts. l The 800 km target for gauge conversion scaled down to 575 km. l 700 km target for track doubling will be marginally exceeded; target increased to 750 km for 2013-14 l Complete electrification of 1200 route km. A significant electrification project is the Delhi Sarai Rohilla Ahmedabad key route. IR will introduce one coach with higher travel comfort and modern facilities and services in select trains. Named Anubhuti the service will have a commensurate fare structure.
l

Missed targets for capacity increase projects

5 fellowships in national universities and a Chair at TERI

E V E N TS HEA VY HAUL C ON FER EN C E

Competent Indian organisation on display


book on heavy haul best practices. This compendium will update the earlier one on managing rail wheel interaction and should be issued before the 2015 Perth conference in Australia. IHHA books are almost a Bible for Heavy Haul practices. This fresh effort will be coordinated by Michael Rooney with John Leper and Roy Ellen editing the versions. They will be supported by Harry Tournay and Zakharov of RZD Russian Railways. For the IHHA, the book is a no profit effort aimed at spreading knowledge about the heavy all issues. This TTCI objective is furthered also by the preconference track technology training sessions which were attended by 115 engineers, including large number form IR. 17 experts from all over the world handled the 2 days' training, an opportunity that comes rarely outside the IHHA scope.
Scott Lovelace, President & Semih Kalay, Vice President of the International Heavy Haul Association share a relaxed moment at the conclusion of the New Delhi Conference in February 2013

It was not invented here!

Towards the end of the New Delhi conference, at the end of almost a week of hectic arrangements and unending technical discussions, the relief was visible when we met with Scott Lovelace, CEO, Semih Kalay (Vice President, TTCI) and the conference co-chair RK Jain of IR. At the end of a successful conference, both lauded the efforts put in by the Indian team particularly IRs Jeetendra Singh. They did an excellent job, both beamed in unison, in handling 652 delegates, including 301 from overseas. The gratitude was recognised in the closing session also. Lovelace had a successful 35 years railway carrier in the US Southern Railway. He was satisfied with the subobjectives set for this conference. Both the experts were impressed with the Indian participation and particularly with the high intellectual level of participation in various technical sessions. Kalay who has authored few papers in various technical sections was impressed with the depth and range of knowledge of the participants. Kalays coauthored technical contributions in the conference have stretched from technologies to improve efficiency, effects on car coupling systems to effects on premium rail steels and rail joining methods. That is an impressive spread of expertise. It is of interest that he is active in spreading the message of heavy all operations advantages.
Continuing the good work

Naturally the chat diverted to the issue of 25 t axle load implementation in India. In their unanimous view, IR should speed the 25 t switchover. Kalay pointed out that sometimes the it was not invented here syndrome comes in the way of managements adopting better practices. This is a pitfall IR has to learn to avoid while it switches to heavy haul operations. In their view certain requirements are mandatory for the transition to heavier axle and train loads: these include the use of head hardened rails, bridge monitoring and strengthening as well as rail lubrication in curves. Initially the US railroads did not emphasise rail lubrication but have learnt the hard way over the years that this practice is unavoidable. Interestingly IR experimented with rail lubrication quite some time back and gave up the loco flange lubrication trial too easily. Present practice and DFC plans do not include rail lubrication. Kalay asserted that TTCIs commercial operations emphasise that every research project has to determine deliverables and be high on the return on efforts and investment. In effect each project has to have a business case. Most projects undertaken by TTCI concern safety and reliability. The issue of test track for India is easily answered. Lovelace indicated that prior to the TTCI assimilation; the US railroads also had their sectoral tracks, say a short stretch on the Southern Railway where Lovelace was an expert.

The IHHA Board had now decided to develop the third

A train load of international experts


Small is not beautiful. KL Thapar, Chairman, Asian Institute of Transport Development, New Delhi was referring to the impressive growth of heavy haul around the world. He stressed upon the need for reduction in transportation costs that can lead to economic and financial sustainability. There is a pressing need for developments and research into sustainable heavy haul transport has become even more necessary. Consideration of social
6 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

benefits of transport and the pressures on land should help in growth towards heavy haul transport in India also. Thapar was chairing an experts panel discussion in the inaugural session. The type of developments taking place in the sector where highlighted by Peter Thomas, CEO, Fortesque Rail Australia, now the fourth major player in the hugely successful Australian mineral transport.

E V E N T S H E AV Y H AU L CO NF E R EN C E

Sharing their visions: Lisa Stabler (TTCI, USA), KL Thapar (AITD, New Delhi), Peter Thomas (Fortesque Rail, Australia) & Xi Jillian (China) led the panel discussions

Thomas expects growth from 45 to 150 mtpa within four years and an adjoining landmark to 45t axle loads (from the current 40t). Operations over the 300 km line are without any wayside signals and fully GPS-based. In Thomas view the incremental approach is unavoidable as new greenfield heavy haul projects will be rare. Fortesques safety record has been excellent in spite of the heavy axle and trailing loads. In an interesting aside, Thomas recalls that the only time he was informed on an accident was a lightning strike in the Australian wilderness. The panel discussion also heard Girish Pillai, Adviser Infrastructure, IR on the ongoing plans for the Indian freight sector. An electrification drive for over 6500 km in five years is targeted; 7000 km lines have been identified for 25t axle load operation by 2017. Of interest also is the range of ongoing surveys for other freight corridors on other arms of the Indian Golden Quadrilateral. Lisa Stabler, President TTCI, summarised the ongoing progress in the North America rail sector, where Freight volumes have now recovered from the pre-recession levels. Of particular interest was the average horsepower locomotive increase effective in the last decade: 1996: 3000hp, 2000: 3200hp, 2012: 3600hp. Heavy haul is obviously linked not only to the track but also to locomotive power and controls as well as signalling. Xu Jillian heads the government owned integrated Shuohuang group in China that handles above 200mtpa currently, with a plan to increase to 240 mt in next FY. These rail lines at present handle 20,000 t trains, up to 200 trains daily with headway of 8 to 10 min generally and 12 min for heavier trains. The group has developed a 50 km demonstration section for all new technologies linked to 30 + axle loads. CSR is now commissioning 9600 hp

locomotives. Capacity utilisation has gained attention with 3 to 6 % train dispatch optimisation improvement. The Chinese interest was stressed by the presence of a 30 member strong team from CSR.
Swedish model for development

Swedish growth has also been equally impressive with plans for 50 mtpa by 2020 from the current 27 mtpa. The network is planning axle load from 30 to 32.5 t. Their outdoor infrastructure system can be maintained mostly in the less than 6 months non-winter window. Of particular interest is that Swedish rail has tied up actively with three research centres for leading developmental processes. It is notable that a lot of the system is still on 54 kg/m rail and wooden sleepers. Their research efforts are targeted at 40 t axle loads that could touch loading density of16 t/m. Prof Uday Kumar of the Lulea University leads the research into rail structures for the Swedish heavy haul. He indicated that structurally all ongoing Swedish developments are centered about three university research initiatives in Lulea, Royal Institute for Technology (for vehicle dynamics) and Chalmers (for rail wheel interaction). The Dhanbad born professor was leading 6 students from the University, all actively engaged in railway research. His efforts were also lauded in the inaugural sessions. His presentation in the Conference centered on Geometrical degradations of switches and crossings. The inaugural event heard PK Bansal, Indian Minister for Railways make a strong case for greater dependence on railways. In a very communicative and erudite address, the Minister expressed his hopes for faster growth in the Indian freight sector. Vinay Mittal, Chairman, IR Board greeted the guests.

It is tough to be the best in the world


Lisa Stabler, President, Transportation Technology had been vice president of operations and training since moving from the BNSF Railway, where she was assistant vice president of quality and reliability engineering. At BNSF she chaired the advanced technology safety initiative program, which changed the way wagon maintenance is performed. Earlier she was with the Delphi in Ohio. Certified by the American Society for Quality as a quality manager /engineer and reliability engineer, she has masters degree in mathematics and a bachelor of mechanical engineering degree. TTCI has now become the gold standard for rail research and innovation around the world, advancing technology that enables rail to be the safest, most efficient and productive way to move freight and people.
The TTCI core

Whether addressing the heavy haul experts or espousing the TTCI cause, Stabler is humbleness to the core. In a chat Stabler stressed that TTCI s USP facilities for accelerated service testing is exemplified by 16000t trains with 105 wagons that have to be under unmanned operation for more than four years, totalling 164 m gross tonnes in 2012. Research programs concentrate on rolling stock performance liability as well as rail structures. Special
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

E V E N TS HEA VY HAUL C ON FER EN C E


array ultrasonic testing of rails. TTCI has been active also in furthering high-speed programs through association with testing of the Amtrak Acela service at 165 mph.
Joining IR efforts

The issue of cooperation with Indian Railways fetches only diplomatic answers as current commercial efforts are missing. Past cooperation with IR has included the on-going wagon design effort and possibility of consultancy on a new test track. She stresses that systems can grow following different paths, what is important is that there's a vision up front. She strongly advocates a test track facility for India without which the sort of improvements that TTCI is able to initiate and install would definitely not be possible. We could not resist the question of any discrimination as a woman when she joined and took the rather manly job of railway operations and research. She did have a period of assimilation, stressing that she took time to understand and get involved in the TTCI but is able to hold her own in the tough world of iron rails.

Lisa Stabler (TTCI) & Nitin Choudhry (Exec. Director, Development, IR) appreciate the interesting research presented in a poster session

programs include the ones on lightweight tied arch bridges, vertical switch design, insulated rail joints and phased

IHHA Best Paper Awards: RDSO on the podium


IHHA has a good practice of choosing presentations for the best paper awards at every conference. Considering the high quality of reported research, that should be pretty difficult at times. The closing session of the New Delhi Conference sprang a pleasant surprise when the award to an RDSO team was announced for their paper that presents the various design and validation models and rules followed on IR for rail bridges. The paper, coauthored by P Funkwal, Exec. Director (bridges) in RDSO and his team, was presented by Anil Kalra, Director. Other recipients were from Vale Brazil for rolling stock, CSR China, TTCI for track components, Y Zan of China for braking dynamics and rail/wheel wear, B Carvalheas for use of natural gas on GE Dash 300 loco and Harry Tournay of TTCI for next generation of integrated freight trucks. The Best Paper Awards are divided into various categories based on the conference structure and include Rolling Stock Technology, Vehicle/Track Interaction, Infrastructure Technology and Reliability and Network Efficiency.
P Funkwal Addl. Divisional Railway Manager Ahmedabad
(earlier in RDSO)

Of interest to us in India is the award to Geng Zhixiu in 2009 in Shanghai. Geng, Chief Safety Officer, is a key person for Chinas heavy haul technology, an academic pacesetter for heavy haul and electrification technologies. Geng has been instrumental in setting up the standards, ...for the Daqin line development, scientific verification showed that given a reasonable match between train speed and train density, if trainload was increased from 5000 or 6000 to 10,000 or even 20,000t, we could quadruple the annual traffic volume to 240mt... this would save two thirds of the investment and about 1600 hectares of land.

Waiting for an Avatar

It is a bit disheartening that we cannot think of any IR engineer/manager who can be inducted into this Hall of Fame in the near future. But wait and fast forward to 2033: the Indian Heavy Haul is talked about in admiration around the world for a new benchmark for efficient bulk transport that surpasses other systems as it sets new standards for costs, containers, food grains, other non-ore commodities and an efficient support industry. Avatar*, who in 2013 was working in a run-of-the mill job , managing locomotive crews, has gained international limelight. A chance conversation in the 2013 conference guided him to an abiding interest in the heavy haul technologies. Shiva, with Zuckerberg like set of ideas brewing inside him, went on to develop his own library of information and options. A career move to the emerging freight corridor setup and a series of events led to his heading the national design team, something that he had dreamt of. His passion was to fulfil his dreams. International recognition came along in bits and pieces ultimately leading to the Hall of Fame. An Indian avatar was at last recognised. Dream fulfilled.
(*a pseudonym editor)

From 1998, IHHA has recognized outstanding people who, through their dedicated efforts, advanced rail heavy haul. An individual is considered for induction into the Heavy Hall of Fame if he has a minimum ten years of active involvement in the industry, a significant contribution, recognition by peers of in-depth knowledge, a willingness to share this knowledge and experience, leadership and visionary attributes and above all , outstanding professional and personal character. The first recipient was Braam le Roux from South Africa, a person with the unusual skills of a designer and a doer. A former Chief Executive of Spoornet, he built the cape gauge heavy haul from conception to operation. Harry Tournay, awarded in 2005, was almost always visible in the New Delhi conference.

8 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

C O N STRUCTION F R EIG HT C OR R IDOR

Better progress on freight corridors


Framed with the support of the Planning Commission, the Railway Ministry and the World Bank, bid documents have been designed keeping in mind the Cabinet mandate for execution of the works through lump sum contracting. The normal process of pre-bidding conferences was followed to develop a workable document. An external consultant helped re-draft the bid documents based on the consultative process. In general, DFC follows the principle of accepting alternate technology on cross acceptance basis.
A precursor for more

At present it is difficult to foresee a definite time line for start of operations on the Dedicated Freight Corridors. But intermediate success and milestones cannot be lost sight of as these are reached after difficult processes. In a chat, RK Gupta, Managing Director, Dedicated Freight Corporation (DFC) pointed out key successes for this year: award of track construction contract for the KanpurKhurja slices, advanced preparatory work for other major construction contracts, land acquisition and enhanced social responsibility initiatives. The land acquisition process for the two corridors is almost complete.
Multiple concerns, delayed remedies

For the Kanpur Khurja track package, 26 bidders participated, 14 were pre-qualified after technical bids and 10 finally. Major Indian groups like Tata, Essar, and Adani etc. added to international bids from Chinese, Russian, Turkish and Spanish firms. Of the companies technically qualified, 10 put in financial bids, while Lance Infratech and Hindustan Construction decided to skip the race. It needs to be mentioned that current policy does not permit any post-bid negotiations. Prequalified bidders were: CRFG and Soma, Larsen and Toubro, OHL (Spain) and Punj Lloyd, Alarko (Turkey)NCC, KEC Remput+Simplex, STS+Era, TATA+Aldesa (Spain), IVRCL+KMB, HCC+Alstom, Gamon+CMC, Corsan+Kalindee+CandC, San Jose+ECI, Navayuga + SEW, DSC+Lanco Infratech, Leighton India+ Malaysia and Patel+BSCPL+Essar. The large scale participation augurs well for future major construction contracts. Indian capabilities are being built in the process. On the basis of this 3 stage tendering process, the JV of Tata Projects + ALDESA Spain has secured this nearly ` 3300 Cr contract for the 343 km long section. Aldesa is a major Spanish construction and leasing major with international footprints and a turn over touching Euro 900 m. This is the first such large project for Aldesa in India. This contract, the first on the World Bank segment, is likely to be completed in four years. It is a World Bank-funded design build lump sum contract that requires execution of the work within a specific time frame. For various reasons the contract on Tata+Aldesa comes in after a process time of over 2 years. Other packages have also stretched over long periods. The coming year will also witness other large-sized contracts being awarded for the JICA-funded Western corridor. The World Bank approved a loan of $975 million in October 2011 for the first phase of the Eastern corridor (Khurja-Bhaupur). With the DFCCIL's compliance with various triggers, the World Bank is also expected to sanction $1,050 million loan for the Kanpur-Ludhiana section. Bids have also been asked for the Rewari-Palanpur (640 km) stretch on the Western corridor. Two Japanese-led consortiums - Sojitz Corporation-Larsen & Toubro and Mitsui-IRCON Leighton - were expected to submit

Gupta illustrated the difficulties in various clearances, pointing out that a long standing issue of environmental clearance for the Western corridor route around the Sanjay Gandhi National Park is at last under decision by the Green Bench of the Supreme Court, after necessary acceptance by a Central Empowered Committee. This large protected area in Northern suburb of Mumbai, stretching over 100 sq. km., is one of the most visited parks in the world attracting more than 2 million visitors annually. The site also includes the 2400 year old Kanheri Caves sculpted out of rocky cliffs.
Slicing the elephant
RK Gupta Managing Director Dedicated Freight Corporation New Delhi

The construction strategy has been developed after quite some thought and a few iterations. The strategy has been to divide the entire track length into different slices and then package into contracts for turnkey delivery on these package and slice contracts. Thus the Eastern Corridor has been broken into 3 slices, with packages comprising of civil engineering and track works, electrical installations and signalling and communications. In an innovative approach, tenders have evolved permitting the bidders to quote for one or more slices. In fact, many companies have quoted different prices for multiple slices. Expectedly offered prices were lower when a bidder quoted for contiguous slices. Qualification criteria varied depending also on the slices quoted for.

10 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

CO N S T RU CT I O N FRE I GH T C O R R I D O R

Land: success based on empathy and integrated effort


financial bids for the Rewari-Palanpur section of the Western corridor. For the Eastern Corridor, construction had started earlier on a 66 km stretch which is targeted for operations within the next FY. Significant progress has been made on the various major bridges on the Western corridor where 14 of the 54 are targeted for completion within the FY. Land policies are now on the national agenda. A chat with AK Dutta, Director Infrastructure and Praveen Kumar, GM, illustrated the complexities faced. For effective land acquisition, an integrated model of following the legal processes in letter and spirit, frequent consultation with the affected persons and grievance redressal has given DFC good results. It is notable that in the coming few months the land acquisition process including mutation will be completed in various regions of the corridor projects. DFC has a standing policy of not handing over various project sites till 80% of the land is in physical possession and the balance 20% capable of being made available within 6 months thereafter. Such integrated efforts in land acquisitions and rehabilitation are now being emulated by other national sectors including through the Planning Commission. In addition to various rehab efforts, DFC has embarked on a Skill Improvement Thrust in its catchment areas with multi-disciplinary training for local youth. The skills chosen should come in handy when the construction activities garner pace. During the current FY, DFC has spent more than ` 20 lakhs on multiple locations, mainly on the Western corridor. The World Bank has also appreciated the efforts made. These efforts are particularly expected to mitigate the displaced land owners and gather local community support for the projects. Praveen Kumar stressed that the association of sublime emotional touch with ones land naturally gives rise to a plethora of problems when land is required for public purpose by invoking laws for compulsory acquisition through a project proponent. There is a dichotomy between the vision of the state for growth and that felt by the Project Affected Person (PAP), who is generally not satisfied by the protracted bureaucratic procedures that are unilateral and short on consultation and transparency. PAPs often feel that they do not have their due share in public consultation and perceive that instead of taking note of their genuine concerns and observations, the enforcing agency is just interested to fulfil the legislative formalities in a non-obstructed linear direction. Cerena Michael has pointed out that issue of compensations is multi-faceted and often the most widely debated. Most Resettlement Action Plans (RAP) are not supported by an economic feasibility analysis to examine whether the rehab promised by RAPs includes the establishment of alternative livelihoods and will lead to economic recovery. Thus the projects that forcibly dispossess people of vital productive assets and dismantle their existing economic systems, are seldom equipped by the project spon-

sors with sufficient financial and economic resources to rebuild the livelihoods they dismantle.
Indian laws

Laws that govern acquisition in India include the generic 1894 Act. Besides the Railway Act 1989, a sector specific act was amended in 2008 to make it more comprehensive and responsive with National Rehab and Resettlement Policy (2007) as one of the core components. All such prevalent legal provisions generally are composed of three macro processes: identification of affected parties, a fair process by which stake holders are notified of the acquisitions, consultation and grievance redressal and an acceptable compensation/rehabilitation package. The 1984 Act takes all these 3 coordinates into consideration. Section 4 ( 1) stipulates publication of preliminary notification in official gazettes and local dailies; section 5 A addresses hearing of objections about the acquisition; section 6 is associated with declaration of intended acquisition for public purpose and taking order by the state official (collector) . Under Sections 7 and 8 land is marked out, measured and planned followed by Section 9 about issuing notices to persons interested to claim and then finally an enquiry and award by the state official. Sec 16 bestows power to take possession and Sec 18 provides opportunities for reference to the courts.
The informal owners

The process of acquisition is too protracted and time consuming. These provisions are a clear basis as to how affected parties will be pinpointed. In a number of cases only a part of such PAPs could be identified; encroachers, squatters and land less labourers could not be compensated. A large number of land dependent persons are hardly registered and hence not found eligible for compensation. The discretion enjoyed by state officials was enormous resulting in ad hoc decisions and awards. Finally no clear formula was provided as to how the award shall be calculated. This led to the government officials considering
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

11

CO N STRUCTION F R EIG HT C OR R IDOR


nant grievances through a well settled process. Various forms of monitoring and supervision with process indicators, output and impact provide strength to the system of internal and external monitoring.
Impact of Multilateral funding agencies

heard to in a fair and effective manner.


The heavy haul lessons

the least value derived from all possible approaches and the final compensation arrived hardly met PAP expectations. Railway Act 2008 has incorporated legislative provisions to take care of these shortcomings. NNRRRP 2007 and RRP 2007 were given due weightage for providing a reasonable substitute in addition to the monetary compensation. It helped widen the base to take care of encroachers, squatters and landless labourers by providing an all inclusive entitlement matrix which offered minimum daily wages for definite time frame, displacement allowance and other lump sums for intangible losses. The time frame was further defined to render it smooth and swanky, with the provision for solatium. Compensation which is granted as a substitute or solace for what has been lost would seem to equate the intangible loss of something that cannot be replaced. This is often referred as householders surplus, reflecting the value of this with area, friendships made, social relations etc. i.e. items difficult to value.
Praveen Kumar General Manager Dedicated Freight Corporation New Delhi

JICA and World Bank advocate much more comprehension and all inclusive and lenient guidelines. They take due notice for social and environmental coordinates. Right from the base line survey to the final compensation amount, public sentiments and responses are taken care of by their agencies, with all diligence. This is part of the loan agreements. Due weightage is given to public consultative meetings so as to eliminate the dilemma and apprehensions of PAPs as also to incorporate their valuable suggestions. Additional emphasis by these agencies puts an extra pressure on the project proponent to ensure that these requirements are met in a fair manner. Improvement is visible between the erstwhile and the current Acts but nothing is perfect. Loopholes exist in the current Act too, especially with the determination of compensation at an old date and its disbursement at a distant one that ignores cost inflation for the intervening period. Also the system evaluation that primarily depends on the government rates that are often well below market rates and any compensation paid out is below expectations, if one relies on the artificially low assessment. The registered value of the sale is generally kept low for tax purposes. Often there are cases where sale data on comparable tracks of land are not available. All these result into a lower compensation that is further marred by the protracted process of money disbursement, diminishing even the lesser value into a least one.
Redressal

DFC had a reasonable presence and concentrated attention, including Gupta, in the IHHA conference. Naturally the issues highlighted in the conference came up during the chat. Some experts had opined to RAIL BUSINESS that any heavy haul track must have head-hardened rails and table top/flange lubrication on curves. All the heavy haul railways have been following these as cardinal principles. Gupta indicated that on the technology front DFC has decided to use head hardened 60 kg/m rails on the Western corridor. This may have been due to advice from JICA and to help source the rails from the Japanese Aid Component. Surprisingly the Eastern corridor, that will predominantly handle mineral and steel traffic and migrate faster to higher axle loads, will use 60 kg/m standard rails. As reported earlier, a long term decision of installing 32.5t compliant sleepers with combination liners has been taken. The sleeper design has been developed and approved by RDSO. Gupta assessed that the additional cost for the 32.5 ton sleeper would be around 5%, say ` 200 each. For the Electric Locomotives, IR is in the process of developing technical specifications and documents for procuring nearly 200 9MW locomotives, again possibly as part of the Japanese Aid Component.
Unaddressed concerns

DFCC pattern

Fortunately DFC land requirements are linear rather than concentric reducing potential displacements. 80 % of the DFC alignments are parallel to existing tracks; even for the 20 % detours, displacement has not been a notable issue. Notwithstanding that, liberal provisions of solatium are applied. Grievance Redress Mechanism for both compensation and RRP components has meticulously been designed. Arbitration and Ombudsman mechanisms are to redress rem-

To cope up with such situations, some states like Maharashtra have taken initiatives in a resolution requiring setting up a committee to assess the real land market value. Such initiatives by other states can redress the grudges of PAPs. Besides, taking recourse to arbitration process could also provide a reasonable platform subject to that all such grievances are

The multifold cost escalation over initial project estimates is un-nerving to IR planners. A special committee of IR experts (including RR Jaruhar, SB Ghosh Dastidar, Chandrika Prasad and VK Jain) was set up to reassess sectoral parameters like traction modes, double stacking requirements, issues connected with signalling and the clearance envelope. The Committee has submitted its recommendations a few months back but IR Boards decisions thereon have not been communicated yet to DFC. Current doubts and inherent delays would certainly ease if IR were to unequivocally decide on all pending technological issues one way or the other.

12 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

I R KE Y PO SI T I O N S

IR Appointments
RK Singh is now GM (Construction) in Guwahati. Singh is hopeful of speedy delivery on key projects in his charge. Agartala (Tripura) became the first state capital in NF Region to figure in the IR map in 2008 (on MG with BG concrete sleepers). The 21.8 km project for connecting Itanagar from Harmuti is targeted for end 2013. Work is also in full swing on the BG line from Jiribam to Imphal (110 km) with construction of bridges, tunnels & embankments simultaneously in the full stretch. The first Block Section Jiribam-Dholakhal (12 km) has been completed. The project is to be executed in 2 phases viz., Jiribam-Tupul (84 km) & Tupul-Imphal (26 km) and will include Asia's tallest bridge (141m height) in Jiribam-Tupul section.

Maduresh Kumar has taken over as General Manager, East Central Railway, Hajipur. Kumar has been successful in diverse positions including a previous stint as Chief Adm Officer for the large construction projects on the railway. Other positions have included Principal Chief Engineer on the Northern, Divisional Railway Manager, Jhansi and GM (Ops) on the Delhi Metro.

R Mishra has joined as General Manager, Southern Railway, Chennai. An officer of the Mechanical Engineering Service, Mishra was till recently Railway Advisor in Berlin. He has a diverse experienced base including in Production Units and as DRM, Malda.

KK Atal is now General Manager, North Eastern Railway, Gorakhpur. In his distinguished career, Atal has held various assignments including Executive Director in IR Board, Chief Mechanical Engineer and Divisional Rail Manager, Kota. He has also worked with U.N. World Food Programme at Tbilisi, Georgia.

Key positions in IR Board


M Suresh Addl. Member, Signals PK Srivastava Addl. Member, Telecom HK Jaggi Secretary, IR Board

Events
2013 Mega Event

Contact: Mr. Roy Jacob, Director Trade Fairs Division

Pragati Maidan | Oct 3-5, 2013

Kiev, Ukraine Sep 22-24, 2013


Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

13

B R I D GES D ESIGN VALIDATION

Upgrading axle loads on bridges in mixed traffic


rolling stocks for a particular loading likely to operate are selected. Using characteristic locomotives and other rolling stock parameters like axle load, axle spacing, tractive effort (TE), braking force (BF) etc., maximum value of bending moment (BM), shear force (SF), Tractive and braking efforts (TE/BF) for various spans are calculated for each combination using software developed in RDSO. The combinations which have maximum value for BM/SF/TE/BF for any span are retained and others ignored. Such retained combinations form a particular loading envelope, which are contained in Bridge Rules and used for design.
Design standardisation

A happy moment for Anil Kalra, Director, RDSO as the IHHA Conference Best Paper Awards are announced

Rapid enhancements in axle loads required several inputs towards assessment of suitability of bridges on IR network operating mixed traffic. 25t loading was introduced in 2008. The efforts have included standardised load conditions, revisiting large numbers of bridge designs for their suitability; redefine their use if required and development of guidelines for field assessment of bridges. RDSO evolved standard loadings for adoption in design and worked on an innovative approach for assessment of all standard bridge designs. This Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load (EUDL) approach enabled a quick assessment and thus faster implementation of higher axle loads. Only bridges not clearing EUDL approach were considered for detailed analysis. Besides this, field trials carried out by RDSO paved way for more rational approach towards ascertaining the suitability of bridges. IRs approach of close monitoring of bridges through a well regimented inspection system ensured safe introduction of higher axle load on a mixed traffic railway system. Such an approach can be effectively adopted on other systems aspiring to raise axle loads on existing bridges. The diversity of bridges on IR is reflected in their types triangulated steel, plate and composite girders, reinforced cement concrete or prestressed concrete (PSC) slabs, PSC girder, arch, box culvert, pipe etc.; materials of construction include steel, concrete, masonry and spans that vary from 0.61m to 158m. Running of higher axle load on bridges in mixed traffic on IR is a challenging task.
Load evolution

Certain span lengths have been designated as standard spans based on frequent usage. RDSO is engaged in development of design of bridges for standard spans. The standard designs facilitate mass adoption, validation through field performance and avoidance of duplication of design besides other obvious benefits, most important of which is theoretical analysis of limited number of designs while enhancing loading. Approximately 80% of the bridges on IR have been constructed using RDSOs standard designs/spans. RDSO generally undertakes work of design of superstructure of standard spans. The superstructure of non-standard spans and substructure are designed by Zonal Railways being site specific. Initially RDSO designs are issued as provisional (designated B). Once adequate field experience is gathered and the design and performance validated, the designs are issued for regular use (designation BA). IR Bridge Rules contain EUDL for calculation of BM/SF besides TE and BF corresponding to various spans for different loading standards. EDUL is that load which induces equal BM/SF on bridge components as induced due to worst combination of axles of moving rolling stock. Presently, new bridges on IR are required to be built for 25t loading except in case of DFC feeder routes on which bridge substructure is required to be built for DFC loading. Few corridors on selected iron ore circuit were built with HM loading. The combination of same loads is considered in design. For higher loading there is appreciable increase in live load (LL) only. The effect of increase in LL is compensated by reducing dynamic component so that total load coming on bridge is maintained the same for which it was designed. EUDL approach assumes that design criteria adopted for design of bridge is still valid. Further LL, IL and LF are considered for suitability as other loads will not have appreciable variation. Lastly, physical condition of bridge is assumed to be sound. EUDL approach is applicable only when it is confirmed that bridge designed for a particular loading has performed satisfactorily under that loading. The suitability of bridges

IR Loading standards have undergone major revisions over a period. Presently, new bridges on IR are required to be built for 25t loading except in case of feeder routes to DFC on which bridge substructure is required to be built for DFC loading. Few corridors on selected iron ore circuit of IR were built with Heavy Mineral (HM) loading. For standardization of a loading for design of bridges, all possible combinations of locomotives and
14 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

BRI DGE S DE S I GN VAL I D AT I O N


Existing bridge Adopt relaxation in provision as per IRS codes for existing bridges

Majority of designs were found suitable for 75 kph. Designs of OWG of spans equal to and more than 30.5 m were not found suitable for 75kmph. Detailed design checking of bridges for suitability may be called for when bridge is not found suitable by EUDL approach, while exploring increase in speed permitted by EUDL approach to optimally utilize bridge strength, dealing with major revisions in the provision of codes affecting load carrying capacity of bridge or when performance of bridge over a period is unsatisfactory.
Approach for suitability

Is the bridge suitable by EUDL approach for desired speed?

No

Is the bridge suitable in detailed design check for desired speed?

Yes Certify theoretical suitability

Yes

Is the condition sound?

No

Yes

Is the bridge suitable with reduced speed, or restricted TE No

Rebuild/Strengthen Yes

Permit enhanced loading

Process Flow Chart for Checking Suitability of Bridge for HAL

is affected by increase in vertical load and longitudinal force. The vertical load governs the suitability of superstructure and the longitudinal forces govern the suitability of bearings and substructure. In case of open web girders , suitability of bottom chord and bottom lateral bracing is also affected by longitudinal forces.
Vertical Load Consideration

is equal to or more than 0.1, otherwise the stock cannot be permitted at all on that particular span.
Considering longitudinal forces

Step 1 Design value of TE and BF* Step 2 Induced TE with or without dispersion & BF without dispersion* Step 3 Compare longitudinal forces (TE and BF) obtained in Step 1 and Step 2. If induced TE with dispersion and BF without dispersion exceed the design LF, the train cannot be allowed on such span. If induced TE with dispersion and BF without dispersion are within design LF whereas tractive force without dispersion was exceeding the limit, train can be allowed with the stipulation that the track on bridges and approaches shall be strengthened to allow dispersion. If the induced LF without dispersion is within designed LF, the bridge is suitable.
(*All values adopted from Bridge Rules)

The approach for checking the bridges for certifying suitability for higher loading is different from that in basic designing as specific and detailed analysis is done for checking suitability instead of generalized analysis done for designing. Further, conservatism taken at the time of design is avoided while checking for suitability. Often actual properties of materials are used instead of standard properties and actual loads, environmental condition landsite conditions are adopted, instead of worst combination adopted generally at the time of designing.
Relaxations in design Codes

Step 1 EUDL for BM and SF of loading for which bridge has been designed is computed using the EUDL versus span tables* Step 2 The impact factor (ID), equal to coefficient of dynamic augment for 125 kph, corresponding to span is adopted * Step 3 EUDL for BM and SF of loading for which suitability is to be checked is computed using EUDL versus span table *. Step 4 Speed is calculated from the consideration of BM and SF. The speed obtained is further reduced by 10% or 10 kph whichever is less. The maximum allowable speed is taken as minimum of speed obtained from BM and SF criteria. Step 5 CDA available is calculated using the expression considering EUDL for BM and SF. The value available is taken as minimum of CDA from consideration of EUDL for BM and SF. The speed calculated vide Step 4 is valid only if CDA available

IR Standard (IRS) Codes prescribe certain relaxations for checking suitability of existing bridges. These are given as the performance of bridge under loads and actual field conditions known:
l

CDA up to 20% can be diminished from calculated value in case of rail joint elimination for bridges up to 7.5 m spans Dispersion of LF up to 25% may be allowed; can be increased up to 35% for elastomeric bearing No LL to be considered for checking suitability when wind load exceeds 100 kg/m2 as against 150 kg/m2 in case of new design Overstressing in compressive zone upto 200% and 50% for masonry and mass concrete substructures respectively is permitted subject to good condition and close observation Simultaneous occurrence of forces such as hydrodynamic with
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

EUDL approach for 25t

The suitability check of standard superstructure drawings of BGML, RBG, and MBG loading for 25t loading was undertaken using EUDL approach. Although various designs may be suitable at varying speeds, considering that maximum speed of operation of 25t axle load trains is not likely to exceed 75 kph, the check was contained to this limit. For nonstandard spans and substructures guidelines for checking were issued to field units.

15

B RI D G ES DESIGN VALIDATION
ened. When theoretical analysis is not possible or where results of analysis are inconsistent with actual physical condition of bridge, stock with higher TE/BF can be permitted subject to sound physical condition and keeping bridge in close observation and limiting the extent of increase up to 20% over the level of TE/BF running over the bridge for past one year.
Guidelines for field engineers

tives have been taken for strengthening of inspection and monitoring of bridges to sustain HAL operation:
l

The 1887 built Malaviya (Dufferin) Bridge on the Ganges in Varanasi showing the early steel girders. (Photo taken in 1926, courtesy National Rail Museum, New Delhi)

The condition of bridges which are found suitable for HAL theoretically either by EUDL approach or detailed design check needs to be assessed in field and HAL is permitted on the bridge only if the conditions found to be sound. IR has a well regimented inspection and monitoring system which has helped in detection of adverse effect of running HAL at the incipient stage so that corrective action may be taken. The system includes visual & detail inspection at various levels and monitoring of inspection results based on objective rating system. The frequency of inspection/any other action is based on results of these assessments. The guidelines to field units covered methods for judging suitability (e.g. EUDL charts for BM, SF etc.). Various precautions included checking of physical condition of bridges before operation, one time inspection of all bearings and bed blocks for their soundness, keeping under observation OWG members with stresses from 95% to 105% of the permissible value and close monitoring of steel members in critical fatigue zones.
Case studies

Instrumentation of 85 representative bridges has been resorted to measure actual stresses, strains, deflections, longitudinal forces etc. and comparing these with the theoretical and permissible values. The results obtained so far have shown that actual values of strain, stress deflection and longitudinal force are by and large within permissible limits. Deployment of Advanced NDT equipment, Underwater Inspection substructures (330 bridges identified so far), emphasis on rehabilitation (more than1000 bridges annually) and elimination of early steel girders. Implementation of Bridge Management System has been initiated.

water current and wind with maximum scour is not to be considered for well foundation
l

Passive earth pressure and surcharge to be considered for checking stability of buried abutments with consolidated formations Suitability of arch bridge for HAL may be based on physical condition and load test, provided the crown deflection and spread do not exceed 1.25 and 0.4mm respectively in load test Overstressing up to 5% in OWG and upto 11% in plate girder may be permitted subject to bridge being kept under observation

The satisfactory performance of bridges over a large period of time and the results of instrumentation carried out on IR instil a confidence in approach adopted for ascertaining suitability of bridges for higher loading. The results of instrumentation are being critically examined for possible further rationalization of the existing provisions of codes leading to optimum utilization of bridges. The mixed traffic character of IR makes the decision to increase axle loads on existing routes a highly sensitive one. IR has been able to successfully raise axle load of its wagons from erstwhile 20.32t to 25t in a span of last 6-7 years using combination of various strategies. The EUDL approach employed by IR has resulted in quick assessment of strength of large number of standard spans bridges. This has substantially reduced need for detailed checking. The monitoring mechanism put in place has provided valuable data for further refinement of assessment methodologies. It is considered that the approach adopted by IR can be replicated gainfully by Railway systems carrying mixed traffic.
(This paper is based on the efforts of the RDSO team comprising P Funkwal, S Singhal, P Kumar, A Kalra, V B Sood, H O Narayan, S K Singh, P P Singh & S Kumar).

Check for superstructure

The checks of superstructures not found suitable by EUDL approach were undertaken. During the checking of suitability by EUDL approach, it was observed that the superstructure of OWG bridges of span 30.5, 45.7, 61 & 76.2m were not suitable for 75kmph. The checks are based on theoretical stress level and physical condition of substructure. In case of mass concrete abutment/pier, up to 50% overstress in compressive stress is allowed subject to good condition of concrete and close observation, beyond which substructure is required to be strengthened. Based on the above stipulations, profile of abutment and piers for higher loading can be easily developed for use as ready reckoner. If the dimension of existing structure is smaller than dimension of these profiles, the substructure needs to be strength16 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

24.4 m PSC Box Girder for MBG Loading (Drawing BA-10243). The bridge is suitable for 82 kmph. TE/BF does not affect suitability of PSC Superstructure. 76.2m OWG Designed for RBG Loading (Drawing BA-11382).
HAL (25t) experience

The experience of introduction of HAL has been satisfactory till now with isolated problems reported in bed blocks, bracing and other minor problems. However it is likely that the problems due to fatigue in steel structures and in mass structures might appear after some time lag. To ensure long term safety several initia-

I R KO N K A N R A I L

Konkan Rail: mostly good but some not so


For decades the collective wish of the people of Konkan region was for a railway line to open up the coastal region and connect Mumbai, Goa and Mangalore cities. The initial surveys in the 1960s and 70s finally led to action under the strong political will of Madhu Dandvate and George Fernandes, both Railway Ministers and IR took up the challenge. Konkan Railway Corp Ltd (KRC) was created in 1990 as a government owned SPV when E. Sreedharan, Member Engineering ( IR Board) was appointed its Chairman, post retirement from IR. Sreedharan came in with a huge construction experience from the Assam projects, the Rameshwaram Bridge site and many others. The construction of Konkan Railway was the biggest single railway construction project post independence. Sreedharans leadership was critical in the project completion in seven years and the line was opened on 26th Jan 1998. A lot has been written about the challenges faced and overcome during the construction of Konkan Railway and it made Sri E Sridharan a legend, but that is recorded history. The Konkan line has been a boon for the coastal regions of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. The much faster access to the financial, business and industrial sectors in the region has provided more economic opportunities. Since the opening of the line the number of domestic tourist arrivals in Goa has increased tenfold. For the region to move into a higher economic development orbit, the ports and mineral wealth of the region will have to be opened up a lot more.
Features and innovations
l Unloading of Roller from MI-26 Helicopter at Surukot Helipad (Katra-Banihal Rail Project)

track maintenance. KRC has the lowest staff strength per track km (4672/740 = 6.3 men/km). Another unique feature is the Roll On Roll operation of RORO service (See accompanying report).

Konkan Railway is not just another long single track in a difficult region; it is unique in many ways:
l

The only Railway PSU that owns and operates a 740 km long rail infrastructure and could be considered the 17th operations zone in the IR network. KRCs top management and financial structures are that of a public limited corporation, with its own Board of Directors. It reports its Annual Balance sheet and Profit and Loss Account independent of IR finances. The only railway track in India that is constructed in hilly terrain but with an easy maximum gradient of 1:150 and max curvature of 2 degrees. This has been achieved with the help of 179 major and 1819 minor bridges and 91 tunnels with a cumulative length of 84.496 kms. The longest bridge is 2.065 kms and the longest tunnel stands at an imposing 6.5 kms. The track maintenance work is fully mechanized with modern track machines. KRC is the only IR region that uses Rail Maintenance Vehicles (RMVs ), self propelled four wheel rolling stock that ferries men and material for need based track attention . Each RMV has a beat of 100kms. The modern maintenance and operational practices were built in from the start, helping in optimizing the number of staff required for

IT systems have been extensively used for administration and operations from the very beginning. It was one of the first regions to lay a fiber optic cable along the length of the track. All train control and communication requirement is routed on this system. An intranet with various software modules services different departments. All commercial transactions, administrative accounting, personnel records are based on this intranet. The Personnel module has been accessible to every employee. Computerized train charting has been working for the last ten years. Sreedharans KRC was rather maverick in refusing to copy IR culture fully. KRC has effectively branched itself into more than a traditional railway unit by taking up construction projects (mainly for its parent IR) or pioneering technical innovations like the monorail and the much viled Anti collision device (ACD). KRC has been successful in marketing the sky bus (moorail) concept. Starting with an expert committee report in 2005, IR provisioned ` 25 Cr in 2006. The first sky bus clone ( by the reliance Group) is expected to be commissioned later this year in Mumbai though projects in other cities are still in conceptual stages. The Konkan line was a trend setter as state and central governments pooled equity to form KRC. The equity distribution was IR 51%, Maharashtra 22%, Karnataka 15%, and Kerala and Goa with 6% each, approximating the geographical proportion of the line. The project costs were at best guess-timates, starting with ` 867 Cr in 1989, ` 1043 Cr in 1991, updated to ` 1640 Cr and the project was completed at ` 3555 Cr, including ` 1035 Cr financing cost over the construction period.
A different structure Towards an integrated company

BP Tayal Managing Director Konkan Rail

Sanjay Gupta Chief Mechanical Engineer Konkan Rail

Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

17

I R K ONKAN RAIL
Anti-collision device... an unending story

After the horrific Gaisal train collision in 1999 that caused more than 400 deaths, B Rajaram , then MD, pioneered an idea of using the GPS location system to warn a driver or apply emergency brakes in case of an impending train collision. This was enabled by detecting a change in angular movement that establishes change of tracks. The system was built around t a UHF radio communication network between loco and stations/level crossings/other locos and creates an independent track identification, guidance and warning system as a safety overlay in addition to the existing train control systems. The system resurrection crops up with predictable regularity after every train collision and IR is prone to brandish it post-collision as its future answer. However, this ACD system has been the subject of endless internal debate and decision flip flops. The top echelons of the Railway Ministry, over the last ten years have variously classified it as successful to failure and one also called it a joker in the pack . The system is said to be under field trial even after a decade of large scale application, initially on the NF Railway. The choice of NFR (Gaisal is located within) was a strategic mistake, at best a knee jerk media response to the undependable events in Gaisal. IR management apparently wants a 100% perfect tried and tested product suitable for Indian conditions. While GPS forms the base of advanced signalling systems like the European ETCS or the US version PTC, a ready-for application version for IR is not available at the price levels IR can afford. Meanwhile, even as the ACD experiment has not been officially given up, an attempt is being made by putting together every conceivable requirement into a new product, Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Concept trials have been held in Secunderabad, mainly for senior management and the fate of both the systems remains uncertain. Only time will tell how long this debating and prototyping will last. Apparently a decade long trial on a few hundred locomotives is not good enough to arrive at a decision. Prevarication in signalling controls can only add to safety concerns and costs. That is hardly surprising for a government railway project. The project pace was hampered for over 9 months in Goa on environmental challenges. IR used to provide interest free loans up to 2001 to meet debt servicing obligations. The delays added to cost worries as coupon rate for tax free binds was increased from 9 to 10.5%. In a way the intention was to build the line even while camouflaging the costs and construction financing. The income streams projections were totally off mark. Expected industrial expansions never took off and IR did not divert south bound traffic adequately over the Konkan alignment. Naturally, KRC wiped off its equity fairly fast, gaining resurrection from IR funding over the years. With the debts cleared by various means, KRC is now able to meet its Opex, indicating a healthy portent for future projects: such railway expansion has to be financed by Capex
18 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

tion. Even MI 26 helicopters, which are the largest helicopters in the IAF fleet, were used to airlift construction equipment to sites so that work could be started from multiple locations. The most formidable single span rail bridge with a length of 467m and height of 359m on the Chenab is being constructed by the project organization. The KRC portion has now been reduced to approx. 35 kms due to various reasons. The project organization has also successfully completed many roads over bridge works in Jharkhand. An important connectivity work in hand is for Udipi Power, Yellur for coal transport form Mangalore Port. This 9.6 km link at ` 64 Cr should add a regular traffic stream to Konkan. A key future project is the Indapur to Dighi connection that has a potential of initiating 20 mtpa traffic form Dighi Port (lying just 45 km off JNPT, Dighi could relieve this major port too).
Operations

KRC today runs nearly 50 passenger and freight trains every day, a near saturation level on a 740 kms long single line section. A major increase in passenger and freight traffic in the last 5 years has been effected. Board for Reconstruction of Public Sector Enterprises awarded the Turnaround Trophy for 2012 to KRC considering the outstanding financial turnaround. It can be added that had the IR fares and freight rates kept pace with input inflation, KRCs financial position would have been much better.
A continuing turn round

grants and the operators should be able to meet with their Opex (that is the EU norm now). For outsiders, the Konkan line was essential, an adequate engineering and project feat but a financial misadventure. Even now, the line generates about ` 1 Cr for each km, hardly much to talk about. Considering the reputation built during its construction phase, IR contracted KRC for construction of a difficult part of the new railway line from Katra (Jammu) to Banihal (Kashmir) in 2002. The estimated cost of the KRC portion is ` 5000 Cr. Until recently 70 km of the project was being executed by KRC. This stretch consists of 59.47 km of tunnels and 6.6 kms of bridges and the rest in cuttings and embankments. A network of 166 kms of roads has already been developed to assist in construcConstruction projects

Konkan has a brighter future. The average age of KRC employees is approximately 45 years, an age group when productivity is the highest. There is continuous demand for additional trains for Goa and the Konkan region. The region has more tourism potential waiting to be fully exploited. KRC serves two existing major ports, Murmagao (Goa) and Mangalore which are expanding their operations. Seven other ports (Dighi, Jaigarh, Vijaydurg, Redi, Belekeri, Tadadi, and Karwar) are in various stages of evolution. A new imported coal based power house at Udipi has expansion plans

O PE RAT I O N S RO LL O N R O L L O F F
that are likely to be executed once the power tariff scenario becomes clearer. Two steel plants, under development in Satarda in South Coastal Maharashtra by Uttam Galva and under expansion by Sesa Goa in Goa, will add to the freight traffic. These upcoming industrial setups are struggling like elsewhere in the country with issues like land acquisition, environmental hurdles and mining controls. Other issue is about the IR policy issues whereby these new units will need to be connected to the Konkan line. As these issues get ultimately sorted out, the growth trajectory of Konkan Railway will then be exponential. KRC has established that quasiDescription Passenger GTKM m Freight GTKM m Originating Loading (mt) Passenger Earning ( ` Cr*) Freight Earning* Project Earnings ( Net)* Net Profit/( Loss)* 20072008 4331 5019 1.2 223 269 23 -2009 -2010 -2011 -2012 4612 5501 1.1 266 309 14 4973 5572 1.5 276 302 10 3.3 5305 5299 1.5 292 297 24 3.48 6000 5746 2.4 332 329 23 23.9

(143.3) (78.8)

independent rail companies can add efficiencies not feasible in the large unitary IR establishment. This lesson has not yet been duplicated even as the network continues to grow. There

is a case for relooking at where KRC has succeeded and strategically copying its structure and methodology for future rail links in the country.

Green profits: Ro-Ro is the way to go


Rail technology is a superior technology of transportation as it consumes substantially less energy per t-km (tkm) compared to other modes. Differential of energy consumed in road and rail transport for a heavy, long lead payload can generate sufficient savings to make piggy back ride of trucks on wagons viable. Further, annual cost of maintenance spares for the vehicles on Indian roads is nearly 15% of asset value but only 4-6 % for rail stock. Charging tariff to truckers equal to their cost of consumables for the service fetches railways almost same revenue per tkm as exim containers. The mobile nature of payload allows off destination services via other routes, avoiding congested terminals. Faster turnaround brings more business to truckers as well. Viability of the project increases with rise in cost of diesel which is easily foreseeable. India has nearly 3 lakh route km highways (including state highways) and 67000 route km of railways. Share of diesel consumed by rail transport and road transport is 2% and 20% of total national consumption respectively. Similarly railways share in transport of national goods movement is 30%. Transporting more goods by rail after having invested in rail infrastructure can lead to significant savings of energy. However, the concept of single wagon-single truck adopted on Konkan Railway results in poor wagon capacity utilization. The same could be modified to 6 road axles/wagon by designing a specific wagon for increasing rake throughput by about 40%. This would mean app. 62t of payload per wagon, considering permitted maximum of 10.3 t per road axle under the Motor Vehicle Act 1988. Low floor wagon design will enable operation as A Class Over-dimensioned Consignment (ODC) at 75 kmph in both electrified and non electrified territories.
Ro-Ro: the way to go

Towards higher efficiency: a Ro-Ro Train at Pernem Station in October 2010

less to pollution and warming of climate. Such services have been in regular and successful commercial operations for decades, including across the Swiss Alps and the Amazon forest. In India, Ro-Ro services have evolved as a singular effort only on Konkan Railway and no plans exist for duplication or further productive improvements. Loaded trucks with gross weight up to 40 t and maximum height up to 3.425 m are moved 720 km piggy back on rail wagons between Kolad and Surathkal. Five mixed rakes of BRN flats and BOXN (Gondola wagon) are plying on this route. The rake composition is mixed to cater to both 3 axle body trucks and 4 axle trailer trucks. Ratio of mix in the rake is based on practical study of offering of such trucks in the region. A 35t loaded truck consumes nearly 300 liters of diesel to cover the distance. For the same service by rail, diesel consumption has been estimated by Konkan Railway at 110 liters per truck. Thus, a saving of nearly 200 liters of diesel per truck of gross weight of 35t is possible by Ro-Ro transportation.
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

Roll-onRoll-off (RoRo) service is a piggy back ride given to road trucks on railway wagons. It uses less fuel due to change of technology of transportation, thus contributing

19

O PE RATIONS ROLL ON R OLL OF F


Comparison of rake throughput Wagons/ rake Konkan BOXN30 BRN 20 Road axles/ Max Throuwagon t/wagon ghput t/rake 3 4 30 40 900 800 Total 1700 IR proposed BLCX40 6 60 2400 truck, carried atop a 20 t wagon over a distance of 1000 km, would consume 114 l of diesel. Annual cost of consumables in case of rolling stock is only 4-6% of the asset value (budget data from NW Railway). Maintenance towards material consumed on coaches add to ` 13 Cr in the depots and ` 36 Cr for workshops annually for a holding of nearly 2000 coaches, about 5% of asset value. Similar figures can be worked for diesel locos and wagons too. This is in sharp contrast to road industry which has an average of 15%, expected since moving parts in a train are much lesser than road trucks. The cost of consumables (fuel and maintenance spares) for such service by rail comes to ` 0.24 per t-km. Maintenance cost per unit of service generated by rail is significantly less, about ` 1400 per trip of 1000 kms leading to a total consumables cost say ` 6000 per trip against ` 20,000 of truck service - a clear lead for rail technology. Of course, the economic lead is amplified by bad road conditions and an environmental load. For IR, operating RoRo service and charging only the amount spent on consumables by the trucker towards railway tariff could be more profitable than containers, or even other commodities considering that this service would run loaded in both directions. For truckers it would only mean passing on their fuel and consumables cost to IR, keeping their other receivables same as before. Truckers can even further their business by plying more trips due to fewer days to turnaround, owing to faster average speed of railways. However, for viability purposes, IR should admit only heavier trucks above 30t gross load and near 1000 km service to maintain large differential between road and rail costs.
Ro-Ro: not universal

service at this speed will not be viable for operations on IR. Floor height of container flat wagons BLCA/B is 1000 mm from rail level which is 273 mm less than general flat wagons like BRN, DBKM. A flat wagon with a floor height of 1075 mm from rail level with modifications to suit truck loading can lower the ODC class from B to A. This will enable the operations to be conducted at a maximum speed of 75 kph, acceptable for a goods train on considerations obtaining in field. MMD & fixed structure dimension in electrified and non-electrified territory pose a constraint. In general, vertical and lateral clearances between fixed structure and MMD are 900mm and 510 mm, respectively.
The need to multiply

Rail and heavy haul

Rail technology, if looked through peep hole into the past, started with a horse pulling carts loaded with coal on wooden rails. Rail technology enables lesser pulling power to work heavier loads. Heavy Haul is reincarnation of the same technology scaled up thousands of times and is an appropriate use of technology, fetching economic value. Heavy haul is an economically necessary and profitable business everywhere in world. RoRo capitalizes on this advantage of rail traction over road traction. In Ro-Ro application too, it is more economical to carry heavier truck loads (on increase now a days) through larger distances to generate enough cost differential, making it viable. Even IR's fare structure for containers has been based on tonnage instead of TEUs which brings competitive advantage over road industry. A 40 t truck with a 25t payload consumes nearly one liter of diesel for 2.5 km of travel. For a 1000km travel (app Delhi - Ahmedabad) it would consume 400 l of diesel and nearly ` 2.5 lakh worth of tyres in a year and nearly ` 1 lakh worth of other consumables. Thus, nearly 15% of asset value of truck is spent on maintenance spares annually, arising directly out of its operations, converting to nearly ` 4000/- trip. Total cost of consumables (fuel and spares) for the operation is about ` 20,000/ trip at diesel price of ` 65/l . It implies a cost of ` 0.80 per t-km by road transport, exclusively on consumables. As per data available, such a truck would be charging ` 32000 for the service, equivalent to ` 1.28/t-km. An IR diesel locomotive like the WDG4 reports a fuel consumption of 1.9 l/1000 gtkm. Therefore, a 40t
20 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

Rail and road operation costs

Since operational costs on rails is significantly less and our trunk routes are nearing saturation, RO-RO services can adopt unsaturated marginally longer other routes. They can also run off-destination service due to mobile nature of payload avoiding congested terminals. As an example, between Ahmedabad and Delhi regions, an alternative route can be via ViramgamSamadariBhiladiJodhpurPhuleraRewari, which is just about 90 km extra compared to the direct Abu RoadAjmerRaipurRewari route. Off-destination service can be terminated at Rewari for trucks to move onto Delhi by road.
Conceptual wagon design

S Chandra Chief Rolling Stock Engineer North Western Railway, Jaipur

Maximum Moving Dimensions: Konkans Ro-Ro operates as class A ODC with trucks to a maximum height of 3.425 m and a maximum speed of 75 kph. A truck with a height of 3.425 m on BG flat wagon would work as a class B ODC on IR, severely slowing its movement. Military specials with their accompanying trucks move as class B ODC with a restricted speed of 40 kph. A commercial

Konkans one wagon-one truck loading is underutilization of carrying capacity and earning of the 22.9t axle load wagon since loaded trucks weigh just 2540t. As per MV Act 1988, trucks can carry 10.3t per axle. Therefore, wagons should be designed to accommodate 6 axles per wagon while accommodating different truck formats for a loading of 60+t payload, a figure closer to payload capacity. Such wagon can be of 15.5 m length, sufficient to accommodate two 3 axle trucks of approx. 7.5m length (most popular truck format in India). Trailer trucks with 4 axles can be loaded in combination with another truck where truck axles are shared between adjacent wagons. This should be possible with steering wheels and links free to position as per requirement of

O PE RAT I O N S RO LL O N R O L L O F F
wagon body negotiating a track curvature. Wedges for steered wheels will need to be designed to permit small swivel to permit wagon body to steer the wheels on curve. This would lead to full utilisation of rake length for payloads (trucks) minimising loss of rake length due to wagon coupler gaps, even after ensuring required gaps between trucks. A rake of such wagons would consist of 40 wagons. Thus, an increase of over 40% in rake throughput is possible over the Konkan format by adopting a dedicated wagon design to above parameters. Considering Ro-Ro requirement to be an A Class ODC over IR, smaller diameter wheel bogie , in place of Casnub bogie ( 1000 mm dia wheels), will have to be adopted for this service, to give a floor height of 1075 mm. With a truck height of 3425mm, it will give a total height of 4500mm making the A class ODC feasible. The buffer connection on BLCA wagon has a height of 330 mm over the wagon floor. Height of differential gear casing of trucks and its front axle from road level is nearly 280mm. In order to clear the differential gear casing and front axle of truck, a clearance of 325mm over wagon floor is required so that the truck can negotiate the coupler hump of BLCA wagons. A qualifying barrier for the trucks will need to be placed at the entry of end on loading of the rakes. Wagon will have to have stronger sole bars to carry the point loading of truck tyres. A box section design for sole bars will give less weight with enhanced bending strength. The side bearers for the wagon can be contactless roller design to reduce wagon bogie turning resistance caused by steering wheels of trucks.
CO2 emission reduction (CER)

be ` 6.2 Cr (incl a geographical weight factor for India of 0.916). Thus, this is a win-win-win situation for trucker, train operator & climate.
Strengths for Ro-Ro extension

Any reduction in carbon emission has been turned into a tradable unit CER in international emission market (Certified Emission Reduction by United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change.) 1CER = 1t of CO2 equivalent released into atmosphere. When RoRo service is introduced in a particular stream of road traffic, large amount of fuel saving accrues on continuous basis. This can earn carbon credits which can be traded in international carbon trading market. A sample calculation of Carbon Credits for Delhi Ahmeadabad route: for three such daily trains trips each way, annual earnings of CO2 credits would

Required rail infrastructure is already in place. By carrying out the operation via marginally longer routes, not much extra cost is incurred while a new door to door traffic is captured. Higher the price of diesel, more viable does this service become due to increased value of the saved diesel. This implies that the service is viable even in longer run. Higher average speed of rail service would mean faster turnaround time for trucks, which in turn would mean more business for the truckers. IR has been losing certain segments of freight due to its "station to station" nature of service while the customer desires "door to door" service. Through the Ro-Ro service, railways can offer a competitive door to door service. There is possibility of winning back such traffic with definite long term implications. Ro-Ro can revamp IR image as the greenest mode, give it more visibility that could be of strategic importance for the future investments and revenue growth.

Faiveley is lean & healthy

Over the next 3 years, Faiveley will reinforce presence in strategic areas of freight and urban transport (Metro, tramway and suburban). Indian manufacturing is based in 2 locations with mother plant in Hosur (off Bangalore) and another smaller unit in Baddi (off Chandigarh). Both sites have been rated among the best entities within the Faiveley Group in terms of industrial excellence and had a turnover of over ` 300 Cr in 2012. S Srinivasan, MD India, is rightly proud of this singular achievement. He adds that Lean Faiveley is a continuous improvement program aimed at application of Faiveley Management System (FMS) which comprises of best practices, proven mantras of successes, already being followed in sister entities.

Left: D Dinesh Kumar, Senior Manager, Production Engineering & Middle: Mr. P K Premanand - General Manager, Manufacturing

The Economic Times has awarded Faively Transport (India)s Hosur plant with the Gold Certificate of Merit for exemplary best practices in Lean as a strategic manufacturing tool. Faively is already well known in the Indian market for railway brakes, on-board equipment, coach couplers, Metro door operating systems etc. Internationally Faiveley Transport covers six market segments (high-speed trains, locomotives, passenger carriages, Metro, mini-Metro, automated light vehicles, light rail vehicles and tramways & freight wagons).

The unique feature of the Faiveley program is to apply Lean as a strategic business tool in supply chain management. The key drivers are: Manufacturing Production Scheduling (MPS) and Efficiency. MPS focuses on Weekly Operational Ratio which determines the capacity and capability of the supply chain and manufacturing. Efficiency is driven through Kaizen workshops to identify and eliminate the 7 wastes in value chain. Lean Practice has led to a total transformation in internal processes including empowerment and boosting morale of employees and a spirit of self-sustaining continuous improvement. The Hosur plant has now broadcast this success effort to other sites in the Faively Group.
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

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E L E CTRIFICATION P OWER SUP P LY

2x25kV supply with auto transformers


Conventional 25kV Traction Currents
TSS 263A 15 KM 24.3kV 1386A 904A LOCO SSP 22.9kV 15 KM 22.3kV 446A LOCO LOCO EARTH SP

... Dinesh Bansal

electrification is not a new concept waiting to be tried: IR introduced this with Japanese assistance on the freight operations intensive Bina Katni section 18 years back, adopting SNCF practice of polygonal 150 sq. mm crosssection contact wire and Sub-station spaced 60-80 km apart. The Neutral Sections were located at the Substation and Sectioning Post (SP), to prevent shorting of supply feeds with a phase difference. The main transformer, with 25kV-0-25kV secondary windings was designed with four ATs at TSS, two at Subsection & Paralleling post (SSP) and four at SP. The neutral connections of the main transformer secondary as well as ATs were earthed to rails carrying the return current. A study of currents in main transformer windings using PSPICE circuit software can evolve an optimum system design.
Existing 25kV supply design suffers from limitations:
l

25kV 132kV 1386A 25kV 0A

FEEDER

Main Transformer 132 kV/25kV, 40 MVA Locos - 50 Ohms Resistive Load

The 25 kV AC overhead supply for electric traction on IR, adopted from the French SNCF experience, has served IR well. However as train densities and loads increase continually, better power supply performance is necessary. Operational mis-experiences so far have included frequent low voltage limits and large number of transient tripping that retard trains. IR supply design provides traction sub stations (TSS) every 40 to 50 km (depending on traffic density and local conditions), necessitating electric isolation between adjoining supplies through isolation Neutral Section (NS). The train driver is expected to switch off power supply at the start and switch on at exit from such a location. Temporary loss of power can be distracting and also reduces train speeds marginally. Improved operations will require better technological options. In a system improvement, IR has already decided to use a 2x25 kV supply for its upcoming Dedicated Freight Corridors.
Adding equipment

l l l l l

Excessive voltage drop due to heavy train loading, contact wire overheating and excessive wear, leading to sub-stations and neutral sections in closer proximity Consequent inadequate supply voltage, limiting maximum power and train acceleration Distraction of train drivers attention while crossing closely spaced NS Loco failure possibility while resuming traction power after NS Loss of travel time at NS, in notching down, coasting and notching up Complicated switching for distributed locos in future 1200m long freight trains.

Dinesh Bansal Chief Electrical Engineer (Retired) Indian Railways

The 25kV supply can be augmented by installation of Auto-Transformers (AT) at 15 km spacing to improve supply voltage , that is needed critically for long 6000t freight and 24+ coach passenger trains. AT installations could reduce the need for additional Sub-stations and Neutral Sections that cause frequent diversion of train drivers attention and transient reliability issues. IR had also provided a Return Conductor (RC) for reducing electromagnetic interference on adjoining communication cables. Subsequent experience has shown that these are redundant and have mostly been removed since. The vacated space on the traction masts could be used to locate the additional 25kV AT feeder wire. The AT provision can halve the voltage drop and also conserve energy.

The Booster Transformers and Return Current Conductors (RC) have been removed progressively starting about 15 years back, as field observations did not indicate any advantage by way of reduced induction in well shielded telecom cables. SNCF also does not use RC. The existing traction masts, which used to carry these, are capable of carrying a 25kV feeder wire. The possibility of carrying it across bridges and tunnels needs to be examined. It should be possible to upgrade the existing sub-station feed to 220 or 132kV/2x25kV with 60-80 km spacing, with Autotransformer Station located at SSPs, 15 km apart, avoiding additional TSS installations. This would convert to a supply side sequence of TSS, SSP, SP, SSP and next TSS. Standard 21.6/25MVA transformers could be used in Open Delta (or V) to balance the phase loads on the supply grid. The study of traction wire current, main transformer secondary current unbalance and minimum voltage at SP has been made, with nominal 500 A (12,000kW) loads at TSS, SSP and SP, representing very heavy trains movement, for the following systems: l Main transformer (MT) secondary and AT neutral points connected to earthed return rails at TSS, as in Bina Katni section.

bansaldinesh@hotmail.com

The practice in US, French and other European railways does not include any AT at the TSS. However, 2x25kV

22 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

E LE CT RI FI CAT I O N PO WE R SUP P LY
RMS Voltage drop at sectioning post
25 kV conventional without auto transformers

2 x 25kv Japanese system TF Secy Neutral Floating


TSS 15 KM 24.2kV 271A 712A AT 425A SSP 23.6kV AT 15 KM SP 23.3kV AT

Main transformer sec. N earthed Main transformer sec. N floating

25kV 132kV

LOCO

LOCO

LOCO EARTH

25kV

MT secondary neutral point earthed and no AT at TSS but AT provided at SSP and SP, as practiced on SNCF ( a la Systra) and most other European railways MT secondary neutral floating and AT neutrals at TSS, SSP and SP earthed, as practiced on Japanese Railways. No AT TSS, SSP and SP, conventional single phase 25kV system. Traction wire current near TSS reduces to half with AT installation, if MT secondary neutral is not earthed Voltage drop is lowest with Japanese system in which the neutral of MT secondary is kept floating, while the neutral of autotransformer at TSS is earthed to return rail. It would permit maximum distance between TSS feeding posts and reduced energy losses in overhead trolley wire supply system.

The way ahead

Observations
l

The provision of auto-transformers at Traction Sub-Station of Feeding Post, Sub-Sectioning and Sectioning Post, also a Neutral Section should be considered, providing two each at TSS and SP and one at SSP. The neutral of secondary winding of main transformer at TSS should not be earthed, to eliminate current unbalance and reduce trolley wire current. Accruing advantages would include: l Reduction of traction current to half ( typically from 1386 to 712A), resulting in half the voltage drop and transmission losses in existing conductors, extending the contact wire life and reduced energy losses in overhead system l The train driver would not have to face additional NS, associated with new TSS additions, improving safety and reliability l Trains could accelerate better at maximum power with improved voltage conditions at contact wire l The electromagnetic flux would be reduced by the magnetic flux

712A

FEEDER

Main Transformer 132 kV/25kV, 40 MVA; Auto Transformer (AT) - 25 kV/25kV Locos - 50 Ohms Resistive Load

created by feeder wire current, flowing in opposite direction Installation of 2 AT at TSS, 2 at SP and 1 at each SSP, total 48MVA, installed at 6 ATs per TSS, should be adequate. It could save capital expenditure and annually up to ` 1 Cr in saved energy losses and maintenance cost per TSS, as in the Bina-Katni provision.

It may be possible to reduce the Voltage drop and increase train hauling capacity of existing 25kV system, with the installation of auto-transformers at one third the cost, using indigenously available main and auto transformers. The electrification of future high capacity and high speed routes could be considered with provision of the auto-transformers right in the installation stage to increase hauling capacity with optimum spacing between the feeding posts.

Important Landmarks of Railway Electrification Date & Year Railway Route km. Landmarks Feb. 1925 Central 16 First electrified train on 1500VDC from Mumbai VT to Kurla. Upto 1947 Central, Eastern & 388 Total electrification on Indian Railways. Southern 1954-58 Eastern 142 3000 VDC electrification on HWH-Bardhaman and Sheoraphulli-Tarakeshwar Sections. 14.12.1957 Eastern 142 Inauguration of EMU services on Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister. 1957 Adoption of 25kV AC single phase electrification on Indian Railways. 11.8.1960 South Eastern 75 First section electrified on 25 kV AC - Raj Kharswan - Dongaposi. 1960 Starting of Production of indigenous electric locomotive at Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. 14.10.1961 Inauguration of first 1500 V DC electric locomotive for Mumbai area (Lokmanya) by Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, first P.M. September Introduction of first indigenous Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU) 1962 for services. 1966 Eastern & 3KV DC converted to 25 kV AC. & 1968 South Eastern
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

23

T E C HNOLOGY TRAC TION

Evolution of permanent motor technology for Railway Traction


... Lalit Tejwani

AGV Motor Bogie with 760kW PMM

Iconic automobiles like Toyotas Prius Hybrid ride partly on a new technology of permanent magnets for drive motors. Currently, permanent magnet motors with rareearth magnets up to 100kW per motor are almost universally used in hybrid and electric automobile vehicles. Similarly technology and innovation has driven railway traction motor suppliers for increase in power-density and efficiency on one hand and decrease in volume and weight of the motors on the other. Today's premium efficient motors, typically manufactured with premiumgrade electrical steel and additional copper in the windings and aluminium cast rotors, have reached a point of diminishing returns. Achieving higher efficiency with induction motors will require either using more or costlier materials. Both these are suboptimal & costly options that must be weighed against the small efficiency improvement that would result. In the past few years key manufacturers have developed motors with permanent magnets (PMM) in rotors in order to improve kW/kg ratios. In the first major effort in 2007, Alstoms AGV V150 high speed train set the prove out trend. The requirement from various sectors of industry was led in case of traction by the development of electric and hybrid road vehicles. In the rail industry the power required from traction motors can be from approximately 40kW for trams and up to 2000kW for locomotives. Although permanent magnet motors for rail vehicle application are still under development, rolling stock with PMM from low floor trams to high speed trains, notably the high speed AGV train set with 760kW PMM, are already in regular commercial service.
Some current applications
l

Tokyo : Metro EMUs by Kawasaki and Toshiba. l Prague : Trams by Skoda ( motors by another manufacturer). l Swiss Twindexx double deck EMUs by Bombardier. l Siemens and CNR are also reported to have trials versions on run. Adaptation Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and currentcarrying conductors to generate torque. They may be powered by direct current, e.g. a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. Motors used in electrically powered rail vehicles such as electric multiple units and electric locomotives, other vehicles with electrical transmission systems such as diesel-electric, electric hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles are referred to as Traction Motors.
l

AC induction motors have become the mainstay of industry for nearly 100 years now. Over the past two decades, a lot of serious effort has been focused on improving their efficiency. Today, these efforts are reaching the point of rapidly diminishing returns. A permanent-magnet motor does not have a field winding induced from the stator winding, but instead relies on permanent magnets in the rotor to provide the magnetic field against which the stator field interacts to produce torque. The same technology can be applied for brushless permanent magnet generators when driven by a prime mover like a diesel engine.
Successive developments

Lalit Tejwani India Country Manager Severn RXPE Drives & Energy

The DC motor was the mainstay of electric traction drives on electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles for many years. However, these motors had limitations on their use because of windings on the rotor and assembly of commutators, making these vulnerable against centrifugal forces, requirements of satisfactory commutation and maintenance. The evolution of the PMM rides on successive developments of (electronic) choppers supplying separately connected DC machines, synchronous AC machines and asynchronous 3 phase drives. The AC 3-phase asynchronous motor with a squirrel caged rotor is robust and does not have the surface speed or size limitations like the DC versions. However until the advancement of power electronic technology in the 1980s, the speed controllers or traction converters for

SNCF : Citadis-Dulais Trams in Lyon (commissioned 2012) , Regional EMUs, AGV High speed , all by Alstom; Omneo EMUs by Bombardier

24 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

T E CH N O LO GY T R A C T I O N
3-phase AC induction motors were not practical. Since then, a lot of innovation has gone into making efficient and accurate traction converters for AC induction motors with power devices such as IGBTs and complex microprocessor controls. Hence in the past few decades AC 3-phase squirrel caged induction motors have replaced DC motors in traction application from the smallest right up to 2MW for large locomotive application.
Unmatched improvements

EMF that increases directly with motor speed. Normally, the motor and controls are designed to operate well below the maximum voltage of the components. If motor speed exceeds the design speed range (either powered from the control or driven by the load), it is possible to exceed the maximum voltage of the drive component. In a situation when the train is coasting, the rotating permanent magnets continue to induce currents in the stator winding. PMMs provide higher flux density than a comparable induction motor. This means that more power (and torque) can be produced in a given physical size, or equal torque produced in a smaller package. This helps to make a PMM up to 30% smaller in size compared to its equivalent induction motor. The PMM saves energy directly by increased motor efficiency as well as indirectly by reduced vehicle weight. Using compact PMM allows realization of direct drive systems to increase available torque, reduce noise and space saving for low floor vehicles. There are many advantages in having axles driven individually rather than as groups. One of these is that there is no longer any constraint on behalf of diameters differences of the wheel sets when re-profiling. Thanks to active conditioning implemented in a modern slip-slide traction control, it is possible to increase the adhesion between the wheel and the rail when the initial friction coefficient is low. Vibrations are much lower when the slip-slide control acts on individual wheel sets. PMM has reduced heating and losses in the rotor. This offers significant advantages in cooling circuits, noise emission and to wider speed control applications. PMM stators are sealed

Efficiency % 55

PM motor

IM high-efficiency motor

Standard motor 0.75 75 100 250 315 Output (kW)

PMMs are inherently more efficient due to elimination of rotor conductor losses, lower resistance winding and flatter efficiency curve. Due to their synchronous operation, PMM offer more precise speed control and provide higher power density due to the higher magnetic flux as compared with induction machines. PMM also generally operate cooler, resulting in longer bearing and insulation life. PMMs already have a fixed and permanent magnetic field. This means that the energy used in an AC induction motor to generate the magnetic field in the rotor is not required. This instantly gives PMMs an advantage as it is saving energy continuously. Due to this inherent efficiency advantage, depending on the design and rating, , manufacturers realize up to 2% increase in efficiency over most of the operating range compared to an equivalent induction motor. For train operators considering investment in new rolling stock, energy consumption is one of the key qualifying criteria and rolling stock designed with PMM offers a substantial advantage.
The back EMF story

and cooled by a coolant like water leading to better life performance. Dynamic braking performance, particularly at low speeds, is greatly enhanced.
The rare earths

Industrial permanent magnets are commonly manufactured using Rare Earth elements. Magnets made of rare-earth metals are particularly powerful alloys with crystalline structures with high magnetic anisotropy. This means rare earth magnets readily align in one direction and resist it in other and hence are one-third to two times more powerful than traditional ferrite magnets. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply and/or very high cost of rare earths as they are mined in a limited region in the world. This could make PMM with rare earth more expensive and may be even unavailable in the future. There is a wide variety of rare-earth magnet compounds and not all
Mass (kg) 3000 2000 1000 0 30 40 Mass comparison

Induction motor PM motor 75 110 Output (kW) 160 250 315

Back EMF is the voltage generated by a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor. As PMM has a magnetized rotor, its speed is limited by back

Traction Motor Evolution

Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

25

T E C HNOLOGY TRAC TION


PMM range available from a key manufacturer Item Rate output/Voltage RPM Control method Standard Specification 200V class: 30 to 90kW; 400V class: 30 to 315kW

500 to 1800 Sine wave PWM control vector, full digital, speed & torque control, field reduction control Overload capacity 150/min. Braking method Free-run stop/option: engine braking (with braking resistor used) Operation command Analog input 0 to 10V (12 bit AD conversion) Reversible operation Switched according to command input polarity or contact point Speed control range 1:500 Speed control Speed fluctation rate Digital setting 0.01%. Analog setting: 0.1% Acceleration / Linear acceleration-deceleration/S-acceleration-deceleration Deceleration changeover 0 to 6000 sec. Speed feedback Encoder (A, B, A, U, V, W) Torque control Torque command input 10VDC/max. current experience severe price and availability pressures. For example, samarium used in samarium cobalt (SmCo) alloys does not suffer from as high a price premium or availability as do neodymium, dysprosium and terbium. SmCo offers performance equal to certain grades of NdFe. Alternative Ferrite magnet designs have been used to avoid the rare-earth pricing challenge. These motors, however, suffer 25%+ reduction in output from the same size motor.
Disadvantages

High current or high operating temperatures can cause magnets to lose their magnetic properties. Permanent magnets, once demagnetized, cannot recover even if the current and/or temperatures return to normal levels. The over-current protection provided by traction converters, together with in built temperature sensors, reduce the risk of high current. Due to the above requirements, special design in control and hardware features are built into traction converters to effectively control and protect PMM. Technically, despite the obvious advantages of PMM (i.e., energy effi3 Mass 2 1 0 30 40 45 Mass-capacity comparison

ciency and torque density) there are also several disadvantages. These include greater sensitivity to shock, overheating and complex production/ maintenance procedures. It is not possible to run a PMM direct-online and it always needs an inverter to control its excitation. In traction applications this does not matter as railway application anyway calls for speed control using traction converter. The converter driving a PMM has to deal with its nearly fixed level of magnetic excitation over the entire speed range. A PMM produces ripple in the torque primarily due two reasons. Cogging torque results from interaction or attraction of the permanent magnets and the steel structure of the stator as the motor rotates. Another source is the interaction due to harmonics of the rotor magnets and the stator winding when it is energized. These attractions and overcoming them prevent the rotor from turning smoothly, causing long term deterioration of the mechanical drive chain. Apart from complex manufacturing processes, the converter controlling PMM has to induce harmonics to cancel out this ripple on the motor shaft. PMMs and the attendant controls present complex developmental challenges. These include limitations on size and kW capacities. Technically the magnetic field cannot be weakened as in a conventional machine; field weakening by opposing currents has to be deployed. The consequent copper losses do diminish the PMM

efficiency advantage. The magnetic field available from the PMMs is also dependent on operating temperature and has to be sensed and corrected for by the controls. High operating temperatures can result in a permanent loss through demagnetisation. Again at idling operations, the permanent magnetic field causes induced currents in stator and resultant iron losses. PMM gives all industries a compact, efficient and light weight alternative to AC induction motors. In the general industry PMMs still hold a significant efficiency and package-size advantage for motors under 3 kW. Hopefully the rare-earth magnet issues of late will be only a temporary supply issue. In addition, many manufacturers are using alternative materials to counteract the rare-earth supply issue. With the current technology level, PMM fits railway industrys need of compactness and gearless drives. Hence we can expect that application of PMM will become more popular in the coming years, especially for range of low floor rail vehicles and up to EMUs. Several motor manufacturers are currently working towards developing feasible PMM solutions for powers larger than 1000kW suitable for high speed trains, locomotives without the use of rare earths. Until science gives us new alternatives, we can only say that technology is not evolving, but Technology is Evolution.

Induction motor PM motor 75 110 Output (kW) 160 250 315

26 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

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B U S I N ESS ELECT R IFIC ATION

Growth forecast for railway electrification


Market volumes for Railway Electrification in Asia China: high investment regime

million Catenary Traction power supply Total Renewal and maintenance Development and upgrade Total High-speed rail Conventional Metro Light-rail transit Total

Current volume

CAGR 20112016 %

Volatility 20112016 % 7.5 7.1 7.2

By product group 1 310 -0.2 720 -1.0 2 030 -0.4 By investment purpose 490 +5.1

1.1 9.5 7.2 15.7 7.3 10.9 44.4 7.2

1 540 -2.4 2 030 -0.4 By transport mode 270 -5.1 1 210 -1.1 510 +3.0 40 +2.7 2 030 0.4

In China, huge investments are being made into new railway infrastructure, mainly "Passenger Dedicated Lines" (PDL) some are high-speed lines as well as the multitrack upgrading and electrification of existing lines. The government provided 130 b for investments in new development and upgrading of railway infrastructure between 2009 and 2010 within the scope of the economic stimulus package. The construction of new railway infrastructure is considered an economic driver and the construction and completion of many projects is therefore being brought forward rather than postponed. However, the government has announced that it is going to reduce investments in the development of the railways from around 2012/13. Starting from a currently high investment level for railways covered by the economic stimulus package, future investments will stabilise on a lower level. In the twelfth five-year plan (by 2015), the Chinese railway ministry envisages annual investments to the amount of more than 60 b. India is also investing large amounts in the construction of an independent rail freight transport network. Investments in the two nations also focus on the new development and upgrading of Metro systems. In Japan, the railways already represent the backbone of passenger transport, thanks to efficient high-speed lines and welldeveloped public transport, but are of minor importance in freight transport. Many railway lines are single-track lines, which limit the efficiency of long-distance freight and passenger transport. In several countries, efforts are therefore focusing on the double-track upgrading of railway lines and the electrification of existing lines. So far, about one third of all lines in Asia are electrified.
Market development

Asia is currently the largest region for new development and upgrade of railway electrification in the world, even larger than Western Europe. 27% of the electrified lines worldwide can be found in Asia. While electrified network lengths will remain at a constant level in Japan in the future, these will grow rapidly in China, followed by India. In the past five years, China has electrified around 1 500 of non-electrified lines per year. The networks in Japan are not only very complex, but also electrified to suit the market need. The demand for further electrification is therefore low and limited almost entirely to the extension of the mass transit systems and the high-speed network. Asia is dominated by the two mega nations China and India as well as Japan, the second largest economy in the region. Chinas economic growth has been at a constant high level for 25 years at an average of 8% annually. In 2012, the IMF expected GDP with growth rates of 8% despite the worldwide recession. The comparatively well-developed industrial nations in eastern Asia have a high GDP, mostly as a result of Japans economic strength. However, the GDP in Japan is stagnating; its export-dependent economy has fallen victim to the global economic crisis. The average GDP per capita in purchasing power parity is still very low in Asia compared to other regions, offering long-term growth opportunities. Some political upgrade plans are promoting the railways as the cornerstone of the regions transport routes. This is also reflected in the large investment funds made available for this transport mode. The modal split is very high in both freight and passenger transport.
28 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

Between 2011 and 2016, SCI Verkehr expects market volumes in Asia to drop slightly, mainly because of decreasing investments in China. Important high-speed corridors will be going into operation in China in 2012 and the speed for building further high-speed lines will then slow down. Growth in other Asian markets (mainly India and Southeast Asian countries) cannot compensate for falling market volumes in China. The new development of the Dedicated Freight Line in India is providing momentum for future market growth. IR has decided to electrify both the Western and Eastern corridors. This would be the first attempt in the world to operate double-deck 40-foot containers under an overhead line. Initially, diesel operation was planned on the line, but the Japanese International Cooperation Agency insisted on electrifying the line. Major projects are planned in other Asian countries: e.g. the electrification of the 155 km-long Hualien Taitung line in Taiwan and electrification of Gemas Johor Baharu in Indonesia.

BU S I N E S S E LE CT RI F I C AT I O N
In the long term, SCI Verkehr expects solid market volumes at a high level.
Market shares

The two Chinese state railway companies, China Railway and China Railway Construction Engineering, have a market share of more than 60%. Their area of business includes the installation and planning as well as the production of systems and components. With the rising technological standard of the two state companies, the Chinese market will increasingly remain closed off to international suppliers. IRCON International is the leading supplier for electrification in India. The global players Siemens, Alstom and Balfour Beatty Rail mainly receive turnkey projects and dominate in electrification of Metro systems. For large-volume high-speed projects, the global players often only take on the role of supervisor for construction activities and deliver components to local construction companies. The Japanese market is inaccessible for international suppliers due to the strong domestic industry. In other Asian countries, the two Chinese companies, IRCON International, the global players Siemens, Alstom and Balfour Beatty carry out most of the electrification projects, at least as supervisor.
Chinese investment trend

high debts of the railway ministry and high investments in 2009-10. Despite the decreasing market volume, China will keep its position as market leader in the worldwide railway sector in the next five years and will remain one of the most important countries for railway technology in the foreseeable future. However, fact is that the country invested high amounts in the railway sector in 2009-10 and cannot keep this level in the long term. Longterm investments in railway technology in China will remain at a constant high level. However, the top level of the years 2009/2010 will not be achieved again before 2020. The current market volume for new development and upgrade of railway electrification is estimated at around 1 060 m and will decline to 730m in 2016. Whereas the market volume for conventional railways and highspeed transport is declining, urban rail transport remains on the course for growth. Unlike the railway transport market, investments in urban transport are rather financed by the local government than by the Chinese government or the MoR. Despite the current huge investments in urban transport, many metropolitan areas suffer from catastrophic transport conditions and environmental problems. In 2010, public transport had a

share of 20% in the total Chinese urban transport, urban rail transport's share was 5%. Most of the municipal governments have set themselves the objective to increase the share in urban rail transport. The official forecast assumes around 200 cities with a population of more than 1 m in 2025. 13 cities currently operate underground lines, and there are projects under construction in another 17 cities. Further, four cities are planning the construction of a Metro system in the medium term. In the long term, seven more cities will develop an urban rail transport system.
Indian hopes

IRs "Vision 2020" lays the foundation for:


l

Prioritization of the Dedicated Freight Corridors as important framework. Upgrade of further line capacities: around 16% of the line network is responsible for 50% of the total transport performance. Due to the insufficient railway infrastructure, there is a lack of capacities and the railway will lose further shares of the total freight transport to the road which also has capacity bottlenecks. Refurbishment and technical

The development of the Chinese rail transport market began very late in comparison with European countries, with more than half the network being less than 50 years old. Despite the huge investments of recent years, there is an enormous need for the country to catch up. In the last few years, China has become the largest and most dynamic railway market in the world. Investments in the railway sector amounted to more than 90 b in 2009-10. This means 20% of global investments in the railway sector were spent in the railway sector in China. Starting from the currently very high level, SCI Verkehr expects decreasing market volumes for new products and services in railway technology in the medium term. Decreasing growth rates between the current and future market volumes are mainly due to the

A corporate profile
SCI Verkehr, Germany is a consultancy company specialising in the technology and economics of transport. SCI has close connections to the rail industry, an extensive network of experts and with consultants in a wide range of specialist fields. SCI specialises in market and strategy aspects for the mobility sector, with activities focusing on transport and rail industry, logistics, public and private transport companies and public administration at federal, regional and municipal level. SCI offers qualitative and quantitative trend analyses based on existing stocks and regional markets for individual segments of the railway industry in the form of Multi Client Studies. The current study delivers an analysis and well-founded estimate of the market for railway electrification. SCI Verkehr delivers market and business information of competitive relevance on the current volumes in the worldwide market for new development and upgrade as well as maintenance and renewal. This multi-client market study of railway electrification includes:
l

Overview and analysis of the worldwide market for railway electrification, divided into eight world market regions and 19 countries. The size and development of the markets for catenary equipment and traction power equipment in the period 2011 to 2016, differentiated by four types of transport and the purpose of the investment (new development, upgrade, renewal and maintenance). Information about the leading suppliers of catenary equipment and traction power equipment and their market shares in the market regions. Length of the electrified line networks, major new development and upgrade projects.
Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

29

B U S I NESS ELECT R IF IC ATION


l

New structuring of ticket and transport price policy: So far, high tariff of the higher passenger classes and freight transport provide subsidy for standard prices in other passenger segments. High transport prices in freight transport strongly favour the road. Better structures to acquire private investors to promote selfeconomy of the railway sector.

erating economic growth in the Indian metropolises. Thanks to the electrified existing network of more than 20,000 km, a high market volume for maintenance and renewal are generated, which is growing with the constant increasing electrification. Similar to China, existing lines are being electrified alongside the new development and upgrading of infrastructure. IR plans to electrify an additional average of 1 400 km p.a. The new development of the Dedicated Freight Line and Metro systems provides momentum for future market growth. The market volume in the period under consideration focuses on the transport modes, conventional railway and Metro. There are plans for high-speed rail services, which will be financed via PPPs. However, these will not be implemented in the medium term.
(adopted from a forecast report by SCI Verkehr, Germany)

overhaul of existing infrastructure and fleet: the acquisition of modern and light freight wagon fleets as well as modern signalling technology would considerably increase speed and capacities.
l

Upgrade of high-speed corridors with transport services of more than 150 km/h in passenger transport: Indian Planning Commission estimates the demand for high-speed line network to around 2000 km in the next 10 years.

The transport situation in the Indian landscape has worsened in the past few years. The unregulated influx of segments of the population from rural regions and growing household incomes are leading to a rise in the demand for urban transport facilities. So far, the cities have not been in a position to adequately react to these challenges with integrated concepts. The transport situation in the urban centres is therefore likely to continue to worsen in the years to come. The Ministry of Urban Development considers the inadequate transport infrastructure the largest obstacle to accel-

Jerk jitters in LHB passenger trains... an update


RDSO has revised its technical specification (Oct. 2011) for LHB coach couplers to make it mandatory for all manufacturers to offer only a Balanced Draft Gear (BDG) with an AAR H-Type Tight Lock coupler head in the front. In an attempt to make it feasible , RDSO had reduced the minimum level of dynamic energy absorption capacity from 45 KJ to 35KJ. Thereafter RCF, the Kapurthala coach factory, placed contracts for 680 coupler sets on Escorts, 300 sets on Dellner, Sweden and 180 sets on Faiveley . Limited deliveries to the revised design have since been made. Escorts has delivered 260 sets so far, but 60 were delivered in 2011 against a previous order. Escorts couplers on the Sealdah-Delhi Duranto Express perhaps did not provide performance acceptable to RDSO. Escorts has effected minor changes in the linkages between coupler and draft gear. 200 sets have been supplied recently against the new order and the first train equipped with these is slated for trial runs between Ahmedabad and Ajmer in coming April. RDSO is expected to take a call on later for the balance supplies. Dellner's very first train (SecunderabadMumbai Duranto) is claimed to be running relatively jerk free. However, Dellner has not delivered any CBCs to the latest contract, presumably as RDSO has not accepted their Type Test results. The information available is somewhat ambiguous : RDSO claims that the firm had confirmed full compliance with the 35KJ min. energy capacity level stipulated (and even with its earlier 45KJ minimum) but have failed to meet the parameter. Dellner tests were reportedly carried out under UIC 524 scheme at an energy absorption value of 20 kJ rather than 35 kJ. These tests were not witnessed by RDSO. An expert indicated that Dellner contends that 'the worst load in normal operations occurs during shunting; RDSO mentions a coupling speed of 3 kph and the 20 kJ corresponds to 5 kph'. Dellner seem to be reluctant to repeat the tests leading to the current standoff. The issue of energy absorption limit of the draft gear has been contentious and it seems like everybody is describing the elephant in his own perception. The third vendor Faiveley has been cleared recently by RDSO for an initial offering of 4 sets with BDG. Faiveley has committed to deliver 60 sets to RCF within March 2013. Faiveley has delivered nearly 900 with its earlier floating plate draft gear design FPDG. At least 4 different trains are in service with such couplers, the first one dating to Jan 2010. The FPDG is also conceptually a 'balanced' draft gear but would not qualify under the revised RDSO specification. Around 3800 coaches are in service with various versions of the couplers. IR will do well to decide soon on its options. RCF is scheduled to manufacture about 480 LHB coaches this year (likely to increase every year) and with more such coaches scheduled in coming year from ICF and the new plant at Rae Bareilly, the issue can assume unacceptable dimensions.

30 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

WAGO N S CAR CA R R I E R S

Fast-tracking the autorack wagon design


The overall car transport market in India borders around ` 2000 Cr annually. Cars are a high volume to weight ratio consignment and movement from manufacturing to sales points poses a big challenge for the transport industry. The automobile industry accounts for app. 7 % of Indias GDP and production has increased at 13.1% CAGR from FY 2005to 2011 (GDP growth at 8.2 % CAGR). Automobile production is expected to double to app. 40 million units by 2020. Two wheelers hold a dominant 77% with four wheelers adding 15 % of the total sales. About 80% passenger cars sold in India are in the small car segment, almost consistent since the last ten years. 2.62 million cars were sold in India in the last FY. Given the growth drivers behind the industry, estimates are that the production of passenger cars shall quadruple by 2020.
A logistics nightmare

Currently, cars are transported mainly by specialised road trailers, predominant with a fleet of 53 feet long carriers, each carrying 10 cars. The car carriers do offer last mile connectivity, but road haulage is fraught with problems of damage and long delivery time due to congested roads. The transportation costs vary with load, distance travelled, differing local taxation and the delivery locations. The social costs of long traffic jams and increased over dimensional road presence on already overburdened Indian roads are major concerns for the automotive manufacturers ; worries stem from the financial as also the dents on their corporate social responsibilities.
Railway Transport: opportunities

Inside the lower deck of the prototype car carrying wagon

ed parcel van (NMG) rakes and the container flat wagons (BLC converted twin deck) BCACM wagons (limited numbers). The single deck NMG Rakes had low throughput with only 125 cars per rake; the BCACM Rakes, a stop gap measure, did not take off due to issues relating to loading/ unloading and safety of cars. The BCACM wagons were built from flats by the Jagadhari workshop. 2010 brought about a key public private partnership policy initiative by IR with the announcement of the Automobile Freight Train Operators policy (AFTO). The intention was to invite logistics providers/manufacturers to own car carrying wagons and commercialise Autocar Transport services with shared revenue accruals. This policy did not yield any immediate takers but a feedback from the industry has led to a revision in Feb, 2013. Most wagons running on the IR tracks have been designed and developed by RDSO. With established design infrastructure and human capital, RDSO is the only organisation in India which can design wagons amenable to Indian conditions, even while adapting the best foreign railways practices. The advent of the AFTO policy threw up a challenge to RDSO to provide to the industry, in a reasonable time frame, a low cost car transport solution that offered an appreciable increase in car throughput per train. Time was of essence in the project. The seeds were laid in a meeting in the Society of Automotive Manufacturers (SIAM)s office in late 2010 that provided key inputs to designers from the industry participants. The constraints on usage of the Autocar Wagons in transport were also better understood.
The BCABM prototype

Railways in India, despite having conventional bulk movement and safer transport advantages, currently hold only 4 % Autocar transport market share. Non-availability of specialised wagons, inability to lay down strategic and suitable policies and lack of initiative by the industry over the years are some plausible reasons for this low share. Experience of advanced countries like the US has shown tremendous promise in rail transport. Motor vehicles made up 1.6 % of rail tonnage, with dedicated Autorack Unit trains carrying more than 800 vehicles per train (AAR Class I Railroad Statistics 2006). The average rail journey for a new car manufactured in the US is about 2100 km; Honda US transports 82 % of its new cars by rail and has the highest rail coefficient of any automaker. The rail coefficient for new car transport in the US is 40%. The double digit growth of the automobile market, increasing congestion on the roads and bulk removal of finished inventory from manufacturers end are the key drivers for the increase in railway share of this transport market. An easy 50 % market share of this special freight segment can help IR garner approximately 1 % of its revenues.
Opening a new door

Vishal Kapoor Director Wagon Design RDSO Lucknow

Prior to 2010, IR predominantly transported cars in adapt-

A conceptual design for a new Autocar Wagon BCACBM was formulated in February, 2011 and the final detailed design evolved later in April. The BCACBM design incorporated a 17% increased throughput of cars over the BCACM Wagon version. The wagon is optimized for carrying a max of 318 cars of the size of Maruti Alto/A-Star in the upper

Amitabh Sinha Sr. Exec. Director Wagon Design RDSO Lucknow

Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

31

WA G O NS CAR C AR R IER S
Main Design Parameters (all dimensions in mm) Key Parameters BCACM BCABBM (new design) 22626 23555 14345 2900 3 per rake 2 A & 7 B-Wagons 27 Wagons (6A & 21B Wagons) 318 All cars including SUV's Movable, with counterweights CBC between all wagons 935 Mild steel Mild steel Length over head stock A Wagon-13625, B Wagon - 12212 Length over coupler A Wagon-14569, B Wagon - 13171 Bogie center distance A Wagon-96755, B Wagon - 8812 Width Maximum 2600 Units 9 per rake Wagons per unit 2 A & 3 B-Wagons Wagons per rake 45 Wagons (18A & 27B Wagons) Cars per rake max. Type of cars Upper Deck Bogie Coupler 270 Alto Fixed LCCF bogie with 840 mm wheels CBC: A Wagon to A Wagon and SLDB between other Wagons Floor height 1009 Material: underframe Micro-alloyed steel superstructure Mild steel deck with Omni, Wagon R, i-10 and Nano in the Lower Deck. The rake is also optimized for same car combinations of 318 cars per rake-Alto, A Star, Santro, i-10. Other combinations enable carrying of 264 to 291 Cars with Alto/A Star in upper deck. The bi-level concept incorporated innovative techniques for a movable deck with counterweight arrangements to enable transport of car combinations of various heights. It is possible for a one or two persons with average strength to move one middle deck (out of a total of four in one wagon), weighing app. 1t, to the desired location from 1550 mm to 2100 mm from the lower floor level. This movable deck ensures that almost all cars on Indian roads including SUVs can be transported by these wagons. Special efforts were put in place to ensure that the wagon incorporates standard IRS components and mild steel construction to ensure easy manufacture. Low cost of acquisition of the wagons was a major deliverable for the project; the estimated cost of the BCACBM wagon rake is less than ` 10 Cr. Converting a wagon design to operation on the tracks is a major challenge that all railroads in the world face. Long leads of procurements on IR particularly for Capex, testing and trials of the prototype wagons lead to
32 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

ric capacity commercially usable ones that can be run at higher speeds (than freight stock) in train paths following passenger trains (shadow paths). Amongst the din of various designs of Autoracks being discussed in various fora, the BCACBM is the only actionable optimised Autorack design available to the industry, now or in near future. In addition, the IPR being vested with RDSO, the Design has no element of exclusivity and is available on payment of the requisite Design loan charges to all industry participants, wagon Builders and AFTO licensees for construction.
The end of the tunnel

delays in design implementation. A case in point is the BTFLN Wagon, which took 6- 7 years from the design board to the tracks. With the IR policy initiative in place along with a suitable wagon design, the last frontier to overcome the low railway share in auto transport market was that of an industry initiative. This was provided by the Indian segment leader Maruti Suzuki MSIL, which offered to finance and contract the prototype wagons for testing and trials. As a marked departure from the normal long lead path, IR approved in 2011 MSILs request for funding these prototyping. A contract for construction of the prototypes was placed by MSIL on a Kolkata based wagon builder in December, 2011. After the completion of the prototype construction, instrumented oscillation trials were carried out by RDSO in December, 2012. As a measure to ensure expeditious trials and testing, statutory Speed Certificates and other procedural requirements were processed in advance and various clearances obtained in parallel with the wagon construction. The design rights will rest with IR that conducted the various tests at its cost. The prototype wagons have now cleared the Safety Criteria requirements for speeds of 100 kph in empty and 95 kph in loaded condition. This makes these wagons the longest and highest volumet-

With the new AFTO policy having been published recently, there are no AFTO licensees in place yet. Licensed AFTO operators, concession agreements and IRs permission for purchase of the special wagons will be needed prior to the series manufacture and commercialisation of the service. Manufacture of the wagon rakes should not be a time consuming process, as the design is amenable to easy manufacture at any wagon manufacturers premises. The service is likely to be operational within 2013. IR and prospective AFTOs have a tremendous opportunity to increase their revenue share of the Automobile transport market with the revised AFTO policy and a high capacity Autocar wagon in place. Diesel prices, having been deregulated, are increasingly likely to favour railway transport over the road sector in the times to come. At the same time the road sector, the predominant player in logistics, shall manoeuvre vigorously to maintain their market share. Also, GST regime is likely to come into force in the near future, which shall bring all the taxes under one roof and make road transport relatively hassle free. The industry is therefore faced with a big challenge to introduce rail transport solution for the Autocar market not only from business perspective but also for social and environmental responsibilities. Time is ripe for all stakeholders to take a plunge to increase Rail transport solutions for Autocar segment rather than wait for perfectly conducive solutions. After all, if opportunity doesnt seem to knock, it is better to build a door!

E N V I RO N ME N T N E W I N I T I AT I VE

Anybody volunteering for the dirty job?


Most passengers on IR trains have one common complaint: the premises and the trains are less than clean. IR has made definite efforts to augment resources for cleaning, including on board housekeeping staff, toilet cleaning in short stops at nominated stations (Clean Train Stations), construction of washable concrete aprons on tracks at major stations, outsourcing of station cleaning, formation of oversight teams. Earlier coach designs were improved by usage of stainless steel on coach under floors and the toilet spaces, moulded bathroom modules, deodorisers etc. Increase in use of indigenously developed bio-toilets is going on at a good pace. The harsh Indian summer and frequent shortage of water in many stations do not ease the situation. The problem is likely to be contained but improvements require multiple efforts too. A group of Non-resident Indians, sensitive to the negative images of India when it comes to general sanitation, has now embarked on a dirty job project under the appropriately named SAAF India Foundation. IR efforts have generally been internal. The involvement of a voluntary organisation to fathom possible solutions and lay them out on a pilot scheme is laudable. In India few people seem to have a sense of shared ownership of public spaces Dr. Rajendra Pachauri (TERI). The SAAF Team drawn mainly from THNK, the Amsterdam School of Creative Leadership includes Shammy Jacob, Dinesh Sonak, Retina Dhall, Rupa Chaturvedi and the Delhi based Bindu Sharma. SAAF started with the passion and purpose of a global team of Indians. THNKs mission is to catalyze breakthrough societal innovation and to accelerate future creative leaders at the intersection of business, public and social sectors. SAAF has a long term plan for different sectors in India but has started with a strategy to leverage the Railways as a platform for innovation and inspiration. Future projects include SAAF CITY and BEACH. The design team has opted to apply the THNK processes of creative flow [involving Sensing, Visioning, Prototyping and Scaling].
A passion and a vision
In conversation: Shammy Jacob of SAAF India Foundation and Hemant Kumar, Chief Mechanical Engineer, Eastern Railway

with their expertise and out of box approaches. In a freewheeling chat with Hemant Kumar, Chief Mech Engineer ER, Shammy brought out how SAAF Team has chosen IR for their first pilot, considering the scope and IR keenness to address the problem. SAAF has been able to identify seed up finances and is hopeful of impressing Indian corporates to chip in as part of their CSR efforts. During the chat the broken window syndrome was often referred to: IR efforts to improve will be met with support from the passengers. This syndrome essentially implies that a dirty place will be made dirtier and a clean place will tend to stay clean. That is why Kolkata Metro is clean and free of disposable packages unlike roads above.
Difficult milieu

Many IR staff do feel that the Indian sensitivity and habits do not lend to easy improvements. Passengers are prone to discard rubbish at any point and left over food is thrown about carelessly etc. The blame game does not end in any tangible solutions. SAAF has recognised the need for major communications efforts for the average passenger and will be able to help IR in deciding upon and delivering such a package. The SAAF team has zeroed in on the catering chain for the first pilot. Shammy laid out that they would be looking at the entire supply and disposal chain, from the design, to packaging, waste disposal and value additions at various points. For them a 6 to 12 month time span appears reasonable to develop the first approach. For Shammy the pilot is critical to impress upon IR managers for a long term support for this campaign.
Indias waste crisis
l l l l l

Indians love diversity: start (1987) with a Mech Engg degree from BITS Pilani, shift to the National Institute of Fashion Technology for a one year special course in fashion , have a long career stint with Nike and other brands , branch out into international design consultancy, found a design institute in Netherlands. As if that is not enough diversity, adopt an orphan project like sanitation improvement in India. That is Shammy Jacob, the SAAF team leader for you. The passion is palpable and the road map is chalked out. The group is right now in the sensing mode: understanding the issues, mapping the actual, meeting people and developing an approach for a prototype.
Sensing; the first stage

Total waste 70-100 mt per year. Urban solid waste growth estimated 500% by 2030. Over 40% of waste remains uncollected. Recycling and waste-to-energy are rare. Cost of environmental damage: 2.5-4% of GDP.
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SAAF will take on the dirty job to supplement IR efforts

Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013

H E RI TA GE STEAM LOC OMOTIVES

Last word

WL 15005 in steam and enthusiasts pose. Sitting L to R... G Shankar, Samarendra Kumar, David Barrie, Cedric C. George, Ashwani Lohani, Keshav Chandra, L K Sinha, G G Saxena, Bill Aitken, M L Khanna, Sir Mark Tully

The 10th National Steam Congress on 24 Feb 2013 at the National Rail Museum, New Delhi, brought together the best of steam aficionados India can gather: David Barrie and Cedric C Lodge from the UK, eminent writers Mark Tully and Bill Aitken, the doyens of Indian tourism Amitabh Kant and Subhash Goyal, GG Saxena MD Delhi Tourism, SK Misra, Ex Sec to PM, LK Sinha and Keshav Chandra, Member Mechanical in IR Board were key among the over 200 delegates.

National Congress: steaming the locomotive traditions

the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Society (UK) brought out that over 1000 steam locomotives are running on various UK tourist railways where steam heritage tourism has over time emerged as a prime tourism segment. A technical presentation by M D Bhutia Director, Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, covered salient features of steam operations and proposed development measures on the line. Jai Prakash, Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Golden Rock Workshop, made a detailed presentation on the manufacture of X class MG steam cog-wheel locomotives for the Nilgiri Mountain Railway. A stamp exhibition on railway themes by Anil Kumar of Amritsar locomotive workshops, a photo exhibition on the steam locomotives of Rewari, many steam locomotive models and a working miniature of WG class of locomotive completed the ambience... The Society website www.indiansteamrailwaysociety.in was also launched. Keshav Chandra lauded the efforts of the society and assured all help in keeping the steam locomotive movement alive. He also presented awards of excellence to the Amritsar workshops, G Shankar, Secretary of the society and eleven others for their contribution to the cause of steam locomotives.

Tributes were paid to Romesh Sethi (died 2012), founder President, who had been instrumental in the resounding success of the society. Ashwani Lohani, Working President of the Society highlighted the genesis of steam heritage tourism and also a vision for the future. The historic run of the fairy queen steam locomotive on 17 Oct. 1997 and conferment of a Guinness World Record in Jan. 1998 marked the birth of the niche steam heritage tourism segment in India. Lalit Sinha, President regretted the large scale destruction of steam locomotives that followed their phasing out from the railway operations. In his keynote address CC Lodge highlighted the salient features of steam operations on the Welsh Highland Railway. David Barrie, Co-chair of
34 Rail Business [Focus-India] March 2013