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Kista ganglion (bible cyst), merupakan suatu pembengkakan yang sering muncul pada sekitar sendi dan tangan

pada tangan dan kaki. Ukuran dari kisa bisa bervariasi. Paling sering muncul di sekitar bagian dari dorsum pergelangan tangan dan pada jari- jari.

A ganglion cyst, also known as a bible cyst, is a swelling that often appears on or aroundjoints and tendons in the hand or foot. The size of the ganglion or cyst can vary over time. It is most frequently located around the dorsum of the wrist and on the fingers. The term "Bible bump" comes from a common treatment in the past that consisted of hitting the cyst with aBible or another large book.[1] Rupture of the cyst is rarely curative - which means, trying to pop it probably won't fix it and might make it worse. Although ganglion cysts can be unilobulated, they are most often multilobulated, with septa made from connective tissue separating the lobes or cavities.[3] Thornburg points out that because there is no epithelial lining of the cyst wall, a ganglion cyst is not a true cyst and, because of this histologic observation, the theories of synovial herniation or synovial tumor formation are not supported and may be disputed.[2] Hyaluronic acid predominates the mucopolysaccharides that make up the fluid within the cysts cavity, while collagen fibers and fibrocytes make up the wall lining.[3] The development of these cysts is histologically observable beginning with swollen collagen fibers and fibrocytes, followed by a degeneration and liquefaction of these elements, a termination of degeneration, and, lastly, a proliferation of the connective tissue, resulting in a border that is dense in texture.[3]
A myxoid cyst (also known as a synovial cyst or mucous cyst) is a ganglion (tissue mass) of the adjacent joint, caused by leakage of fluid from the joint into the surrounding tissue.[1] These cysts often appear clinically with osteoarthritic symptoms and are a red or bluish colour, producing a gelatinous material if punctured.[2] The cyst can be linked to the joint by injection of methylene blue; however, more recently, surgical techniques have been developed.[1] Common treatments consist of injection ofcorticosteroids, repeated puncture and drainage of the cyst or surgical excision. Total immobilization may lead to fixation of the joint and is not advised

A Baker's cyst, also known as a popliteal cyst, is a benign swelling of the semimembranous or more rarely some other synovial bursa found behind the knee joint. It is named after the surgeonwho first described it, William Morrant Baker (18381896).[1] This is not a "true" cyst, as an open communication with the synovial sac is often maintained.

In adults, Baker's cysts usually arise from almost any form of knee arthritis or cartilage(particularly a meniscus) tear. Baker's cysts can rarely be associated with Lyme disease. Baker's cysts in children do not point to underlying joint disease. Baker's cysts arise between the tendons of the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the semimembranosus muscles. They are posterior to the medial femoral condyle. The synovial sac of the knee joint can, under certain circumstances, produce a posterior bulge, into the popliteal space, the space behind the knee. When this bulge becomes large enough, it becomes palpable and cystic. Most Baker's cysts maintain this direct communication with thesynovial cavity of the knee, but sometimes, the new cyst pinches off. A Baker's cyst can rupture and produce acute pain behind the knee and in the calf and swelling of the calf muscles. Diagnosis is by examination. They are easier to see from behind with the patient standing with knees fully extended and then most easily felt with the knee partially flexed. Diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasonography, although if needed and there is no suspicion of a popliteal arteryaneurysm then aspiration of

synovial fluid from the cyst may be undertaken with care. An MRIimage can reveal presence of a Baker's cyst. A burst cyst can cause calf pain, swelling and redness that may mimic thrombophlebitis or a potentially life-threatening deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which may need to be excluded by urgent blood tests and ultrasonography. Although an infrequent occurrence, a Baker's cyst can compress vascular structures and cause leg edema and a true DVT

Tarlov cysts, also known as perineurial cysts,[1] are cerebrospinal-fluid-filled (CSF) sacs located in the spinal canal of the S1-to-S4 region, of the spinal cord, and can be distinguished from othermeningeal cysts by their nerve-fiberfilled walls. Tarlov cysts are defined as cysts formed within the nerve-root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion.[2] The etiology of these cysts is not well understood; some current theories explaining this phenomenon have not yet been tested or challenged. Tarlov cysts are relatively common when compared to other neurological cysts, but they are usually asymptomatic. These cysts are often detected incidentally during MRI or CT scans for other medical conditions. Cysts with diameters of over 1.5 cm (0.6 in) are more likely to be symptomatic; surgical treatment should be considered if all other symptom-relieving options have been exhausted. No current treatment so far has proven to be effective due to the unclearpathogenesis and pathophysiology of Tarlov cysts. Current treatment options include CSF aspiration, complete or partial removal, fibringlue therapy, amongst other surgical treatment approaches.

A tophus (Latin: "stone", plural tophi) is a deposit of monosodium urate crystals in people with longstanding high levels of uric acid in the blood. Tophi are pathognomonic for, the disease gout. Most people with tophi have had previous attacks of acute arthritis, eventually leading to the formation of tophi. Tophi form in the joints, cartilage, bones, and other places throughout the body. Sometimes, tophi break through the skin and appear as white or yellowish-white, chalky nodules. Without treatment, tophi may develop on average about ten years after the onset of gout, although their first appearance can range from three to forty-two years. They are more apt to appear early in the course of the disease in people who are older in age. In the elderly population, women appear to be at higher risk for tophi than men. Although less common, tophi can also form in the kidneys and nasal cartilage.

A ganglion cyst is a tumor or swelling on top of a joint or the covering of a tendon (tissue that connects muscle to bone). It looks like a sac of liquid (cyst). Inside the cyst is a thick, sticky, clear, colorless, jellylike material. Depending on the size, cysts may feel firm or spongy.

One large cyst or many smaller ones may develop. Multiple small cysts can give the appearance of more than one cyst, but a common stalk within the deeper tissue usually connects them. This type of cyst is not harmful and accounts for about half of all soft tissue tumors of the hand. Ganglion cysts, also known as Bible cysts, are more common in women, and 70% occur in people between the ages of 20-40. Rarely, ganglion cysts can occur in children younger than 10 years. Ganglion cysts most commonly occur on the back of the hand (60-70%), at the wrist joint and can also develop on the palm side of the wrist. When found on the back of the wrist, they become more prominent when the wrist is flexed forward. Other sites, although less common, include these: The base of the fingers on the palm, where they appear as small pea-sized bumps The fingertip, just below the cuticle, where they are called mucous cysts The outside of the knee and ankle The top of the foot Ganglion Cyst Causes

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The cause of ganglion cysts is not known. One theory suggests that trauma causes the tissue of the joint to break down forming small cysts, which then join into a larger, more obvious mass. The most likely theory involves a flaw in the joint capsule or tendon sheath that allows the joint tissue to bulge out. Ganglion Cyst Symptoms

The ganglion cyst usually appears as a bump (mass) that changes size. It is usually soft, anywhere from 1-3 cm in diameter (about .4-1.2 inches) and doesn't move. The swelling may appear over time or appear suddenly, may get smaller in size, and may even go away, only to come back at another time. Most ganglion cysts cause some degree of pain, usually following acute or repetitive trauma, but up to 35% are without symptoms, except for appearance. The pain is usually nonstop, aching, and made worse by joint motion. When the cyst is connected to a tendon, you may feel a sense of weakness in the affected finger.