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Agricultural Development in the Lowlands: Dynamics, Perspective and Time Frame Lesson Learned from STLD and the

e Way Forwards


The integration of the programme conducted to support the food production in the lowlands schemes under the Strengthening Tidal Lowlands Development (STLD) is only possible with the support of related parties. i.e.: The Directorate General of Water Resources, Ministry of Public Works; Rijskwaterstaat Partner for Water of the Netherlands, Local government of South Sumatra province, Banyuasin district, West Kalimantan province, Kubu Raya and Sambas districts, the support from the Ministry of Agriculture, the Republic of Indonesia; the Water Users Association/ Farmers Group, and the Community Organizers

Dr. Robiyanto H. Susanto, Sriwijaya University robiyanto@tidal-lowlands.org Integrated Lowland Development Workshop, Jan 21, 2009, Jakarta, Indonesia

Food security in Indonesia and the global challenge Room for intensification of existing agriculture (rice, other food crops, tree crops etc, linked to the optimalisation of the lowlands schemes) The Lesson learned from LWMTL/ STLD: Assessment needed Water Control Infrastructures, Operation and maintenance with Water Users Association (WUA); Farming system technology with farming systems approach; Mechanized operation and maintenance Multi stakeholders participation: Governments-Farmers/WUANGO-Academics-Private Sectors Capacity building and human resources development on the lowlands issues The way forward to propagate the success stories in the lowland for food production to other prospective existing lowland schemes Closing remarks


Present and Future Population 2000-2025 (x 1000)

180.000,0 160.000,0 140.000,0 120.000,0 100.000,0 80.000,0 60.000,0 40.000,0 20.000,0 0,0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Sulaw esi and Maluku Papua Sumatra Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara Kalimantan

Achievement Level of Predicted Self Food Sufficiency, 2006-2025

Assumption : increase area 0,37%, increase productivity 0,48% 30.000-40.000 ha/year in Java to non-agric. uses
70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 (10,000) 2006 Harvested area(000 ha) 2010 2015 Productivity (ton GKG/ha) Balance (000 ton GKG) 2020

2025 Yield (000 ton GKG)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:World_population.PNG Source: BPS, 2007

Demand (eq. 000 ton GKG)

Source: Litbang Deptan, 2007


Tidal-Lowland & Coastal Areas in Indonesia

Type of Lowlands according to Ramsar Convention (Davies et al, 1995)

1200 1000

Price in US$/ton

800 600 400 200 0 Jan Feb Mrt Apr

Figure 1. Tidal Lowland Distribution in Indonesia

Lowland-Wetland Ecosystem Biodiversity

Reclaimed Lowland Area in Indonesia Sponsored by Government: Mainly for Transmigration and Food Production areas
Mangrove forest: 90.00 ha
Area of Lowlands Lokasi Tidal (ha) Sumatra Kalimantan Sulawesi Papua 6,604,000 8,126,900 1,148,950 4,216,950 20,096,800 Inland (ha) 2,766,000 3,580,500 644,500 6,305,770 13,296,770 Total (ha) 9,370,000 11,707,400 1,793,450 10,522,720 33,393,570 Developed Lowland Area to be Cultivated Area Tidal (ha) 691,704 694,935 65,930 1,452,569 Inland (ha) 110,176 194,765 18,780 23,710 347,431 Total (ha) 801,880 889,700 84,710 23,710 1,800,000


(estuarine mangrove, with more then 20 small rivers menadering within the areas)

Sources of fishery for the nearby areas

Migratory birds nesting place

Areas for wildlife, such as: Sumatran Tiger, Estruary crocodile, Tree tiger, etc..

Note: In addition approx. 2.4 mil ha was reclaimed by spontaneous settler and the private sector

Source : Directorate of Lowlands and Coast, Directorate General of Water Resources 2007

Clay Soil vs Peat Surveying and Mapping

Kondisi vegetasi rawa di lokasi Desa Pedamaran.

Pengeboran dititik 47, vegetasi dominan kumpai&purun, kedalaman gambut 3,5 m, karakteristik kematangan saprik-hemik

Kondisi lahan rawa yang terbakar


Pengeboran di titik 77, vegetasi dominan pakis&perpat, kedalaman 3,5 m, karakteristik kematangan saprik-hemik

Lokasi survey yang ditanami padi sonor

Perkampungan nelayan Jungkal

Paddy floating nursery

Consideration for the Development and Management of Lowland-Coastal Areas Geology and Physiography Lowland Reclamation Schemes Climate and Hydrology Hidrotopography Soil/ type of peat Farming/ Cropping System Socio-Cultural Issues Economic Setting Institutional Issues Environmental issues


Lowlands of Sumatra

Lowland Development in South Sumatera

(Income of 500 US$/year/family: OKI, Muba, Banyuasin )

Lowland Development in West Kalimantan

Soil moisture distribution under different water table/ soil surface condition (Skaggs, 1990a)

Water table profile under modified rooting zone condition (with surface or subsurface drainage systems) (Skaggs, 1990c)

Rooting zone under shallow and deep water table (right, 30 cm below soil surface; and left 60 cm below soil surface) (Skaggs, 1990b)

Consideration on topography and natural layout for the drainage systems development (contour) (Skaggs, 1990d)

Drainage flapgate + sliding gate Secondary canal Saluran sekunder

Pintu klep + pintu sorong

Bridges, gates, canals within the lowland scheme

Drainage development under the help of government: Telang I, Banyuasin, South Sumatra

Agricultural fields

Lahan pertanian

Public and economic facilities, home yards

Primary canal

Saluran primer

Saluran tersier

Fasilitas umum dan ekonomi, lahan pekarangan

Before upgrading

Movable flap gates

Pintu klep yang dapat dipindahkan

After upgrading

The Lesson learned from LWMTL/ STLD: Assessment needed Water Control Infrastructures, Operation and Maintenance with Water Users Association (WUA); Farming system technology with farming systems approach; Mechanized operation and maintenance

Land and Water Management Tidal Lowlands LWMTL Strengthening Tidal Lowlands Development STLD

Paddy field based reclamation condition in Telang - Saleh 2008 (Community based development)

June 2004 July 2008

Farmers meeting in Tekarang, Sambas, West Kalimantan, July 8 & Nov 20, 2007

Farm machineries

Structure with flapgate that can be operated for irrigation or drainage (high tide/low tide) by changing flapgate position. Design recommended by STLD project; inputs from Indonesian Government


Februari Maret April

Trials in Sumber Mulyo, P6 Telang-Banyuasin

Mei Juni Juli Agustus

Mechanized canal maintenance survey.

Hand-over of granted equipments: Bupati, DGWR, Prof. Schultz - Holland

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 rice rice rice rice rice rice

Yield in ton/ha

2004 2005 2006 2007

Pilot area 1

Pilot area 2 First and second crops

Pilot area 3

September Oktober November

Flail Mower trial.

Total yield for first and second crop in tons/ha for the example tertiary blocks of the three pilot areas in South Sumatra (LWMTL-STLD, 2004-2008)
Mowing Bucket trial Dredging Bucket trial.

P8-12S Telang Banyuasin: Farmers Participation


An example of integrated lowland development in Banyuasin district, South Sumatra Province

Kemitraan PUSRI Darmaga Air Simpang PU Bank BRI Pilot Area IndonesiaBelanda 750 ha Darmaga Air di P8, Telang I


Single use vs Multiple uses Spatial Planning Data availability Misconception wrong way of thinking Lack of knowledge

Lumbung Desa Modern Deptan, P17 Telang II

Puskesmas Terapung

In appropriate site or program selection Sectoral egoism Coordination Sustainability Transportation and Accessibility Water supply and Sanitation Environmental Issues Conservation of Natural Resources Socio-Cultural (local people, transmigrant) Funding

Perbaikan Tata Air UPGB Perum BulogRice Estate Air Bersih & Sanitasi

Peran Pupuk Organik

High rice yield in West Kalimantan after introduction of new water control infrastructure and proper agronomic inputs. All inputs from farmers and local government; only assistance from STLD

Darmaga Air di Gasing

Agropolitan DepTrans di Muara Padang Kemitraan Swasta di P10Telang I, 700 ha

Dissemination of

GIS - Support
MIS, Management Information System

Data & Information

Seminar Workshop Field trip Journal Prosiding Books www.tidal-lowlands.org Lectures Notes Brosur Leaflet Websites Research & Development for undergraduate, Master, Doctor programs


stakeholders participation: Governments-Farmers/ WUA-NGOAcademics-Private Sectors-Banks



Visit of BI - Banks to the lowland Banyuasin, January 9, 2009

Batan Balit Padi INS PolyAgro

Pemkab Banyuasin


Dep. PU

Departemen Pertanian

Komisi II DPR-RI


Universitas Sriwijaya

Institut Pertanian Bogor

BPTP Sumsel- Deptan




Multi stakeholders partisipation on Integrated Lowland Development in Banyuasin district, South Sumatra

Australia & Korea



Advisory committee (1993-2008)

Capacity building and human resources development on the lowlands related issues


Task-Concept : Tim Pendamping terdiri dari tenaga ahli dan tenaga lapangan mengerjakan sendiri hal-hal yang dianggap perlu demi kelancaram kegiatan Technical Assistance: Tim Pendamping memberikan bantuan teknis kepada pihak lain yang melakukan kegiatan terkait dengan sistim usaha yang dilakukan Dissemination of Info: Keterlibatan Tim pendamping pada kegiatan Lokal, Regional, Nasional, dan Internasional membantu penyebaran informasi


Capacity Building & Human Resources Development on Lowlands-Coastal areas Management

National Training on Lowland Management for State University Lectures year of 2002 and 2003 conducted by Sriwijaya University & Ministry of Education, HRD project

Students Lowland Soil Judging Contest, Dec 2008, Telang, Banyuasin, South Sumatra

First Group 2002

Research for Undergrad-Master-Doctorate

Training & Extention

Participants : Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU), Medan, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Sumatera Barat Univeritas Riau (UNRI) Pekanbaru, Riau Universitas Jambi (UNJA) Jambi Universitas Bengkulu, Bengkulu Universitas Lampung, Lampung Universitas Lambung Mangkurat (UNLAM) Banjarmasin Universitas Palangkaraya (UNPAR) Kalteng Universitas Tanjung Pura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat Universitas Syam Ratulangi (UNSRAT) Menado, Sulut Universitas Hasanuddin (UNHAS) Sulsel Universitas Mataram (UNRAM) NTB

Second Group 2003

15 groups of 3 stdns from UGM IPB Unpad UNS Unila Unja Usu Unri Unlam


collaboration National Planning Agency Local Governments Sriwijaya University

Media Response on the Double Degree Program on Integrated Lowland Management

NON DEGREE program: Development Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Program and Project Management Investment Planning Management of Grant and Overseas Loan Performance based Budget Planning Planning of Coastal Areas DEGREE program : MSi - MSc Double Degree on Integrated Lowland Development and Management

Lowland Development Workshop Delft, Netherland, February 27 March 3, 2006

City Drainage Systems,

Class 2008

DD-ILDM Students, 1st Group in the Netherlands, 2nd group at Sriwijaya University

Meeting of Prof. Bart Schultz with Bappenas Directors Jakarta, August 28, 2006

REGIONAL REFRESHER SEMINAR climate change and coastal lowland development in (sub)-tropical environments Palembang, Indonesia, July 21-25, 2008
Tjg Api-Api

Visit of the Iranian ICID delegation to Palembang and Telang, August 24-26, 2008


P8-Telang I

40 Unesco-IHE alumni from 9 South East Asia countries

way forwards to propagate the success stories in the lowland for food production to other prospective existing lowland schemes

South Kalimantan - Lowlands

South Kalimantan Existing Schemes

Belawang Sei Seluang Danda Besar Sei Muhur Terantang Belandean Jelapat Jejangkit Barambai

South Kalimantan Scheme: Danda Besar


Gambar Saluran dan Bangunan Di Danda

Visit of Bappeda-Agric-Water Resources Riau province to Telang 5 Desember 2008

Provinsi Riau
Jambi Interest of Lowlands Development Visit to Telang - December 2008

Examples of process for yield increases in Tidal Lowlands Rolling Train

Yield: 1-2 ton/ha (GKP) Application of land preparation system TOT (no plowing) Traditional rice varieties Areas now bush land (acids,/ stagnant water or peat soil. Also not yet reclaimed areas with potential for development including environmental considerations.

Required time period 2-3 years

Training of local NGO/ Consultant. Manpower Capacity Building local government by PDTL team

Mechanical land preparation, HYV, fertilizers, herbicides/ pesticides

Inventory by Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) Assessment of needed additional infrastructure in relation to potential for yield increases.

Need for extra or improved Tertiary structures Need for TAM (on-farm water management) Budget TB and Regular Maintenance

Planning. (DAK) Need of Dikes, extra canals, secondary structures

Required time period 5 years

Legalization P3A/Gapoktan including PUSRI fertilizer supplier/storage facility Empowerment of UPJA Government Budgets for hand tractors, workshop, milling facilities, rice storage

Priority Development Planning Water Management

Upgrading present water management system. Special Budget

In order to get an idea of the work to be done and the approach to be followed it has to be realised that it concerns 4 million ha existing areas where P3As will have to be established and legalised, water control structures will have to be improved, or newly installed and the TAM programme will have to be applied. If this would have to be done in say twenty years, it would mean about 200,000 ha per year. This is an enormous challenge and can only be realised when really a rolling train can be established.

Yield: 4-6 ton/ha (GKP)

Required time period 2-3 years

Training of farmers for proper water management/ land preparation, farming system technology. O&M inputs by P3A/ Gapoktan

Implementation of improvement water management control system at secondary at Flooding type C/D and at tertiary level for Flooding type A/B/C

(Pamusiran, Jambi)
Yield: 6-8 ton/ha (GKP) or double cropping

Training farmers for proper farming system technology, Enforcements of UPJA and P3A/Gapoktan and their yearly budgets including those for O&M and ALSINTAN/SAPRODI

Established O&M, Rice milling, rice storage, workshops, fertilizer storage and supply. HYV

Needed inputs for higher rice production (STLD 2008)

Inventory / investment planning. Ownership model: Community based or Industry based

In formulating future developments and directions in the tidal lowlands a distinction will have to be made in the improvements in reclaimed areas, new reclamations and the conservation of areas not to be reclaimed (Schultz, 2006) improvements in reclaimed areas. new tidal lowland reclamation projects. environmental considerations and sustainability. first generation problems.

improvements in reclaimed areas. Related to the improvement options in reclaimed areas quite some experiences are available now (Hartoyo Suprianto, et al., 2006). Based on these experiences the first priority would have to be to make better use of the developed infrastructure by a better operation and maintenance, both at on-farm and main system level. The experiences as outlined above may serve as a guidance; new tidal lowland reclamation projects. In general terms the areas that have a potential for reclamation have been identified in the Nation wide study of 1984 (Ministry of Public Works, 1984). It may be expected that sooner, or later the remaining potential tidal lowland areas (about 4 million ha) will be reclaimed. This is still a very substantial area compared to the present total cultivated area with paddy rice in the country of about 8.5 million ha;

environmental considerations and sustainability. Until some twenty years ago, ecological data were not often used in reaching a decision on lowland development projects. This has led to various unforeseen consequences. Increasingly ecological data are used in all decisions on future lowland development projects. In the tidal lowland areas especially the deep peat areas are basically unsuitable for development and would have to be preserved; first generation problems. In newly reclaimed areas, several problems can be regarded as first generation problems.

The steps taken would be:

I. General inventory of the conditions in potential area/scheme, based on rapid rural assessment (RA) approach. Consultation with Kepala Desa(s) on application II. Application to the District Government for integrated improvement at tidal lowland scheme, or the secondary block level by the Kepala Desa III. Participatory planning on improvement needs in the concerned arena in close consultation with the Water Management Agencies and the District Agricultural Service (TAM) and the Preparation of a draft improvement plan, including operation rules for the water control structures at tertiary and if required at secondary levels IV. Presentation of draft improvement plan to the Kepala Desa and the farmers. Reactivation/establishment/training/legalization of P3A/Kelompok Tani at secondary block level V. Finalization of improvement plan and approval by the P3As/Kelompok Tani that in the mean time would have been legalized. Also approval by the concerned Government Agencies
VIa. Submission TAM provisions and materials for the tertiary water control structure, construction by the farmers under supervision of District staff, Clearing of tertiary canals by the P3A, Improved supply of farm inputs, improvement of farming systems technologies and post harvest processing.

Integration The

to work out the proposed approach in such a detail that decisions can be taken; to explore for some selected areas the willingness of farmers, provincial and district authorities to enter in such an approach (I) to prepare standard formats for: application forms (II), participatory planning (III); draft improvement plans (IV), finalization of the improvement plan (V); operation rules at tertiary (VIa) and secondary level (VIb), required maintenance at secondary (VIIa) and tertiary level (VIIb); and maintenance to specify the facilitation activities for which the Netherlands has indicated its willingness to give support. The actual facilitation would have to be implemented by local NGOs or specialised local consultants. determination of the indicative cost per ha for facilitation at a declining basis, related to the gradual development of this activities on a routine basis.

VIb Clearing of secondary canals, if possible by P2As under contract with the District PU, otherwise by contractors. If required construction of secondary water control structures by contractors. VIIb If secondary water control structures have been installed, operation of theses structures by District staff, or subcontracted to P3A, based on the agreed operation rule

VIIa. Operation of tertiary water control structures by the P3A, based on the agreed operation rule. Monitoring and evaluation functioning of TAM, farming systems, agricultural practices and water management VIIIa. Maintenance of tertiary canal and tertiary water control structures by the P3As

(vertical, horizontal, area) technology know how to have better lowlands development under existing scheme for food crops is there Food security is critical in the coming years How to propagate development tidal lowlands The answer is with us

Figure 2. Proposed development for integrated improvement of the reclaimed tidal lowlands (PDTL Proposal 2008)