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Low cost Ultra Wide Band hybrid radar design using virtual reference tags as road safety feature in vehicles
Hadi Abdullah, Ijaz Khan and MohdShamian Bin Zainal
AbstractThis paper presents a hybrid radar technique of received signal strength (RSS) and time of arrival (TOA) as an application in vehicles. Both techniques are used to locate intruding vehicles within a specific area. Received signal strength and time of arrival technique require high level transmitter and receiver synchronization. To overcome this drawback virtual reference tags (VRTs) are used. These VRTs are spread symmetrically over the covered area of radar design. Being virtual their information is only stored in receivers. The radar design is multistatic radar consisting of one transmitter and three receivers. Transmitter is placed in back, two receivers on sides and one receiver in front of vehicle. Ultra wide band (UWB) signal pulses are used, giving radar system accuracy even when vehicle is at high speeds. Also in this paper three different cases of intruders are discussed considering a static radar system for intruder detection. After calculating accuracy and number of VRTs, mobile radar system is designed for vehicles and two different scenarios are discussed.

Index TermsRSS, TOA, VRTs, UWB, Surveillance area, Radar.


NCREASING technology in vehicles make them faster, comfortable and easy to drive. But on the same time making drivers too comfortable makes them unaware of the ground situation on which they are driving. Many systems are presented that either detect drowsiness of driver, either by monitoring eyes, facial expression or by detection yawning state of driver [1],[2],[3]. These systems lack in accuracy in many cases. For example, if driver wears sun glasses eyes monitoring fails, in yawning detection if driver puts his hand in front of his mouth while driving yawning state cannot be detected and every person has his own facial features so having system suitable to extract all types of feature is difficult and cost high. This research presents a low cost and highly efficient system that monitors a specific region around the vehicle rather than concentrating on drivers behavior and facial features. The design consists of radar sensor network comprising of multiple nodes acting as transmitter and receivers, which alert the driver if any other vehicle crosses that specific region. According to radar jargon, radar is classified as monostatic radar in which transmitter and receiver are colocated. Bistatic radar, as its name express is one having one transmitter and one receiver that are separated by a distance that is comparable to the target distance[4],[5]. The expression multistatic radar refers to systems in

which there are multiple transmitters and one receiver or multiple receivers and one transmitter. Using multiple transmitters or receivers increase the sensitivity of radar system, increases the ability to classify and recognize target. Also it helps in clutter problems and received signal fading. But multistatic radars suffer with high level transmitter and receiver synchronization[6]. Ultra wide band (UWB) technologies provide a promising solution for anti intruder scenario. In USA according to the Federal communication commission (FCC) a signal is classified as UWB if it has a bandwidth of greater than 500MHz or a fractional band width of greater than 0.2 [7]. In Europe a signal is classified as UWB if it has a bandwidth larger than 50MHz[8]. Due to large bandwidth UWB signals can penetrate through common materials like walls, wooden partitions and many materials of foil giving accurate location and characteristics of objects behind[9]. The reason why UWB is preferred in our design is that multiple radar systems can work in a small place without getting interrupted, requires less transmitting signal strength (consumes less battery), high accuracy and less chances of interruption[10]. Most of the recent literature on UWB radar sensor in vehicle is using UWB sensors as inter-vehicular communication [11],[12],[13],[14]. Others using UWB systems to track vehicles on road are limited to the use of Time Of Arrival (TOA) or Received signal strength (RSS) tracking techniques[15],[16],[17]. TOA techniques itself is accurate Hadi Abdullah is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University Tun only if transmitter and receiver are highly synchronized, Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia. whereas slight signal distortion can produce ambiguity in Ijaz Khan is a researcher of Electrical engineering at University Tun intruders location while using RSS (discussed in section Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia. MohdShamian Bin Zainal is head of laboratory-Faculty of Electrical and 2). Our design presents as solution to this situation by Electronics Engineering at University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia using a hybrid of both RSS and TOA technique[18]. To (UTHM), BatuPahat, Malaysia. further increase accuracy of radar system we are using

Virtual Reference Tags (VRTs). Reference tags are used in some narrow band tracking systems providing reference to track intruder or object. These systems use a number of sensor nodes (mostly nine) spread at the edges of surveillance area. Reference tags are symmetrically placed over the surveillance area and a tag is given to the intruder while entering in surveillance area[19]. There are number of limitations to these kind of systems. For example for an unknown intruder with no tags cannot be located, spreading reference tags all over surveillance area makes system difficult to install, radio frequency can easily be breached if intruder carries a transmitter transmitting same frequency signals, number of sensor nodes are high and also these system are not suitable for large surveillance areas. In our design we have virtualized reference tags and saved their information in receivers, reduced number of sensor nodes to four (having one transmitter and three receivers), and used hybrid of TOA and RSS tracking techniques in which there is no need of intruder to carry a tag. Whenever intruder arrives in surveillance area it is monitored with RSS and TOA hybrid radar technique and VRTs provide reference point closest to actual intruder location giving our design high precision. To design UWB radar we must have the information radar cross section (RCS). Since we are discussing two difference cases one is for human intruder and second for vehicle intruder we will design our system with different RCS [20],[21],[22],[23]. Different clutter removal techniques can be also used to enhance systems performance. Simple and efficient techniques are frame-to-frame and empty room techniques[24].

tion effect [25].

Fig. 1. TOA positioning principle.

2.2 Received Signal Strength (RSS) In this technique the strength of the signal which is reflected from the target is measured at all corresponding receivers. If we consider an ideal case each measurement of the signal strength at receivers will give the distance of receiver from the target, same like in case of TOA. But in RSS the accuracy decreases in case of multi path fading environment and shape of circle gets distorted. So it becomes difficult to get an exact intersection of distorted circles. This can produce a considerable amount of error in the target positioning [26],[27].


There are different intruder tracking techniques using Ultra wide band frequencies [25]. Received signal strength and Time of arrival techniques are accurate and commonly used. A hybrid of both techniques provides better solution for intruder localization. As discussed in section 2 both the positioning techniques have some drawbacks. To overcome these drawbacks we have designed a system that uses both TOA and RSS along with virtual reference tags. These VRTs contain information about the characteristics of target reflected received signal in respective three receivers. Each VRT has its own information. Table 1 shows the information stored at that each VRT. Table 1 Information or data stored in each VRT
Information Distance from VRT RSS from VRT Receiver 1 Distance of VRT from RX1 RSS at RX1 considering target location at VRT Receiver 2 Distance of VRT from RX2 RSS at RX2 considering target location at VRT Receiver 3 Distance of VRT from RX3 RSS at RX3 considering target location at VRT

2.1Time Of Arrival (TOA) In this positioning technique the time signal took to be reflected by the object or target is measured at each receiver. When the propagation time of the signal is known, the measured time provides the distance between the target and respective receiver [25]. Considering three receivers as center of circles and their respective distance from target as radius of circle we get three circles that intersect on a single point. This intersecting point of three circles is the position of target. Figure 1 shows an example of TOA positioning system. This system is very easy to implement but the main drawback is that the transmitter and receivers must be synchronized with the same clocks. Even a small error in synchronization can cause huge error. For example a clock error of just 1s can cause an error of 300m. Also this system can generate error from multipath propaga-

Since location of every VRT is known, we can calculate distance of VRT form three receivers using simple distance formula.

2012JICT www.jict.co.uk

(2 1 )2 + (2 1 )2


To calculate the Received signal power we use Friis formula for narrowband (NB) pulses [3].
= 2 2 (4 )2


Here represents the line-of-sight received signal power at receiver. Pt is the transmitted signal power, Gt and Gr represents transmitter and receiver antenna gains. l islength between transmitter and receiver and is the wavelength. For received signal power calculation of a signal in narrowband (NB) that is reflected from the target equation (3) is used. = (4 )3 ( .

2 1 2)


Fig. 2. Radar sensors and Virtual reference tags.

In equation (3) l1 and l2 are distances from transmitter to target and from target to receiver. represents radar cross section. Radar cross section for different shaped object is different, depending on objects physical shapes and reflection properties[28],[29]. In our case we take RCS 2 to be 1 m (approximated RCS of human body).To calculate received signal power for UWB, we integrate the equation over all wave lengths of signal band ( f L , fU ). This will give us equation (4) and (5) which can be used to calculate received signal power [30],[31].
= 2 2 4

In this section we have some numeric results that ex-plain our design in more practical manner [34]. We have set our surveillance area as 90X90 m. On this surveillance area we will take three scenarios in which target or intruder path will be same but number of VTRs will change. This will help us analyze radar performance. The target path is predefined and will remain same in all three cases. Table 2 shows the actual path of target compared with calculated path having different number of VRTs. As number of VRT is increased references for our radar are increased giving our system a better ground for locating position and monitoring path of intruder. Table 2 Target actual path compared with calculated values for 29, 105 and 1681 VRTs
Time Actual Path Calculated path with 29 VRTs Not in area X: 70.000; Y: 55.000 X: 55.000; Y: 55.000 X: 25.000; Y: 55.000 X: 85.000; Y: 85.000 Not in area X: 25.000; Y: 55.000 X: 85.000; Calculated path with 105 VRTs Not in area X: 66.000; Y: 58.000 X: 58.000; Y: 58.000 X: 26.000; Y: 50.000 X: 82.000; Y: 90.000 Not in area X: 26.000; Y: 58.000 X: 90.000; Calculated path with 1681 VRTs Not in area X: 68.000; Y: 62.000 X: 56.000; Y: 58.000 X: 26.000; Y: 48.000 X: 82.000; Y: 88.000 Not in area X: 24.000; Y: 54.000 X: 88.000;




= ( . )2(4 )3 (
1 2


Here c is the speed of light, S t is one sided power spectral density and B fU f L is the bandwidth of the transmitted signal. Minimum transmitted power P t m in for a particular region can be calculated by measuring range of a TX-RX pair and then adjusting it for three receivers instead of one [32].


Before designing our radar system to be mobile, we first need to design it in static state and check error and accuracy. The layout of radar is simple; it consists of one transmitter and three receivers. Transmitter and receivers are placed such that they are at the edges of surveillance area. The placement of radar sensors are shown in Figure 2. Once TX-RXs are placed at their location, virtual reference tags are planned at different positions within the surveillance area [33]. The number of VRTs can vary in different configurations depending on radar design and characteristics of surveillance area. Figure 2 demonstrates a case in which we have 25 VRTs.

At time: 0.1s At time: 0.2s At time: 0.3s At time: 0.4s At time: 0.5s At time: 0.6s At time: 0.7s At time:

Not in area X: 67.517; Y: 61.988 X: 56.000; Y: 58.000 X: 27.000; Y: 49.000 X: 83.000; Y: 89.000 Not in area X: 23.130; Y: 54.036 X: 89.000;

0.8s At time: 0.9s At time: 1.0s At time: 1.1s At time: 1.2s At time: 1.3s At time: 1.4s At time: 1.5s At time: 1.6s At time: 1.7s At time: 1.8s At time: 1.9s At time: 2.0s

Y: 82.000 X: 60.000; Y: 50.000 X: 22.000; Y:43.000 X: 14.000; Y: 87.000 X: 14.000; Y: 87.000 X: 12.000; Y: 13.000 X: 25.000; Y: 43.000 X: 83.000; Y: 12.000 Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area

Y: 85.000 X: 55.000; Y: 55.000 X: 25.000; Y:40.000 X: 10.000; Y: 85.000 X: 10.000; Y: 85.000 X: 10.000; Y: 10.000 X: 25.000; Y: 40.000 X: 85.000; Y: 10.000 Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area

Y: 82.000 X: 58.000; Y: 50.000 X: 18.000; Y:42.000 X: 10.000; Y: 90.000 X: 10.000; Y: 90.000 X: 10.000; Y: 10.000 X: 26.000; Y: 42.000 X: 82.000; Y: 10.000 Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area

Y: 82.000 X: 60.000; Y: 50.000 X: 22.000; Y:42.000 X: 14.000; Y: 86.000 X: 14.000; Y: 86.000 X: 12.000; Y: 12.000 X: 24.000; Y: 42.000 X: 82.000; Y: 12.000 Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area

At time: 2.1s At time: 2.2s At time: 2.3s At time: 2.4s At time: 2.5s At time: 2.6s At time: 2.7s At time: 2.8s

Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area X: 37.355; Y: 37.355

Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area X: 40.000; Y: 40.000

Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area X: 34.000; Y: 34.000

Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area Not in area X: 38.000; Y: 38.000

Figure 3 shows all three cases compared with the actual path of intruder. We can see when VRTs are increased; the calculated path comes closer to actual path. This increases accuracy of our radar design and decreases a considerable amount of error. From these results we can conclude that for a surveillance area of 100x100 meters if we make 2500 VRTs we

can monitor target path with 0.2 meter accuracy. And by

Fig. 3. Target movement in 2-D surveillance area of 90x90 meters, (a) Actual path of target, (b) Calculated target path with 29 VRTs, (c) Calculated target path with 105 VRTs, (d) Calculated target path with 1681 VRTs.


increasing VRTs from 2500 we can get even more accurate results. Figure 4 shows how error is decreased exponentially by increasing VRTs.

Fig. 4. Error mean(y-axis) Vs number of VRTs.


To make our radar mobile we rearrange our transmitter and receivers by placing transmitter in back, two receivers on side and one receiver in front of vehicle.

be changed. For this first on ground situation needs to be observed. U.S interstate highway system uses 11foot (3.4m) lane width as standard [35]. Considering a highway of ten lanes the total width of road will be 34meters. To take size of vehicle we have taken approximated size of GLK-CLASS Mercedes-Benz, length is 178.3inches (4.5m) and width 74.3 inches (1.88m) [36].We have designed our system in such a way that it can monitor road in front of vehicle up to 62.5m, 8m distance from each side and 12.5m from behind starting from end points of vehicles dimensions. Figure 6 shows the position of vehicle in rectangle. The outer ellipse shows the total range of our radar design. All the points inside outer ellipse are positions of virtual reference tags, whose information is stored in three receivers. We can observe that range of radar system is high and for a busy road even at greater distance driver can be alarmed. To overcome this situation our design consists to two level intruder alerting system. The inner ellipse in Figure 6 shows the second level of intruding vehicle detection. This level can be considered critical because when intruding vehicle breaches second level it will be very close of our vehicle. Table 3 shows the dimensions of surveillance area of radar system in different levels. The second level of surveillance is the critical region, in which the driver will be notified either verbally or by a beeping alarm if any vehicle enters in that region. Table 3 Dimensions of Surveillance area around the vehicle
Level Front of vehicle Right side of vehicle Left side of vehicle Back of vehicle

First level Second level

62.5m 32.5m

9m 4m

9m 4m

12.5m 6.5m

Using these system specifications we have considered two different cases in a region of 40X5000m to obtain performance of our radar system. In first case we will have two intruding vehicles moving at high speed, second case will have seven intruding vehicles at different speeds.

6.1 Case 1: Two intruding Vehicles In this case two intruding vehicles enter in the surveillance area of radar system.
Table 4 Intruding vehicle speeds Fig. 5. Transmitter and receivers location in vehicle.

We Figure 5 shows the location of transmitter and receivers in radar system designed for vehicles. Also the number of VRTs and their positions need to

Intruding vehicle Intruder 1 Intruder 2

Speed 200Km/h 250Km/h


Fig. 6. Radar system surveillance area corresponding to location of vehicles

Speed of vehicle with radar system is kept variable between 50Km/h to 200Km/h. The distance of 5000m is covered by our vehicle in 3minutes. Detection of intruding vehicles is shown in table 5. Table 5 Intruding vehicles detections in simulation time of three minutes
Different time intervals Location of interruption Status

The speed and initial point given to intruding vehicles are shown in table 6. Table 6 Initial points and speed of intruding vehicle simulation

At time:1s At time:6s At time:36s At time:41s At time:47s At time:56s At time:60s At time:67s At time:114s At time:114s

X:100 Y:18 X:20 Y:24 X:1098 Y:16 X:1600 Y:16 X:2100 Y:16 X:2598 Y:16 X:2520 Y:23 X: 3020 Y:23 X:4800.0 Y:15 X:4800 Y:23

Critically close Critically close Critically close

Intruding vehicle Intruder1 Intruder2 Intruder3 Intruder4 Intruder5 Intruder6 Intruder7

Speed 50Km/h 100Km/h 0Km/h 50Km/h 150Km/h 200Km/h 250Km/h

Initial location X:200 Y:25 X:500 Y:18 X:600 Y:10 X:750 Y:10 X:900 Y:32 X:10 Y:23 X:50 Y:17

Radar system successfully located positions of interruptions and also notified status of interruption. Table 7 shows the interruption times with location and status. Table 7 Intruding vehicle detection

Critically close

Using just 180 VRTs radar system successfully pointed the interruption location and also indicated the status of interruption. The accuracy of radar system was up to 0.52 , which can be increased by increasing the number of VRTs.

6.2 Case 2: Seven Intruding vehicles In this case we have seven intruding vehicles which are placed at random initial positions and given different speed in simulation.

Different time intervals At time:1s At time:6s At time:6s At time:11s At time:18s At time:21s At time:30s At time:35s At time:41s At time:49s

Location of interruption X: 100 Y:18 X:20 Y:24 X:512 Y:26 X:641 Y:26 X:760 Y:26 X:801 Y:26 X:912 Y:26 X:1098 Y:18 X:1000 Y:24 X:1598 Y:16

Status Critically close

Critically close Critically close Critically close Critically close Critically close Critically close


At time:50s At time:54s At time:54s At time:54s At time:60s At time:60s At time:60s At time:67s At time:67s At time:67s At time:76s At time:78s At time:80s At time:91s At time:96s At time:102s At time:108s At time:114s At time:114s At time:114s At time:114s

X:2078 Y:16 X:2298 Y:12 X:2600 Y:16 X:2398 Y:12 X:2778 Y:20 X:2520 Y:24 X:2498 Y:12 X:3002 Y:20 X:3020 Y:22 X:2598 Y:12 X:3200 Y:20 X:3398 Y:20 X:3600 Y:22 X:3798 Y:20 X:4002 Y:22 X:4200 Y:22 X:4398 Y:22 X:4600 Y:22 X4800 Y:16 X:4800 Y:24 X:4798 Y:22



Critically close







Figure 7,8,9,10,11 show simulation scenario at different time. Node 0, 1, 2 and 3 are located inside the vehicle representing transmitter and receivers.




In this research we have seen a hybrid radar design of Time Of Arrival (TOA) and Received Signal Strength (RSS). Also to overcome synchronization problem in this hybrid we embedded it with Virtual reference tags. By analyzing experimental results we saw how increasing number of VRTs effected our systems performance. Then same design was made mobile to be implemented in vehicle for road side monitoring. Up to seven different vehicles with different speed were used in simulation and were successfully detected in surveillance area with accuracy of 0.52 . Also by increasing number of VRTs the performance and accuracy of radar system can be increased. This radar design can be easily implemented using FPGA and Ultra wide band antennas, which makes our system easy and low cost in designing and implementation compared to other systems.





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Hadi Abdullah received his bechlour degree in Electrical engineering from COMSAT Abbottabad, Pakistan in 2011. In 2012 he joined University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia as a research student of M.S in Electrical engineering. The major fields of his research are wireless senor networks, Ultra Wide Band applications and FPGA design of wireless radar as a road safety feature in automobiles. Ijaz Khan joined University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in 2012 as a student of M.S Electrical engineering. He did his Bachelor in Electrical engineering from COMSAT Abbottabad, Pakistan. His major research focus is FPGA designs of security systems, Wireless intruder tracking systems using FPGAs, economical solutions for large scale monitoring systems and face monitoring systems as road safety feature in automobiles. MohdShamian Bin Zainal received his Ph.D degree in Electrical engineering from Hokkaido University, Japan in 2010. He did M.S also in Electrical engineering from UniversitiTun Hussein Onn, Malaysia in 2003. His Bachelor is from UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia in 2001. Since 2004 he has been with UniversitiTun Hussein Onn Malaysia. He is now Senior Lecturer in Faculty of Electrical and Electronics. His research interests are in the areas of signal processing, wireless communication and FPGA implementation. He is a member of the IEEE and the IEEE Computer Society.


Fig. 7. Simulation starting positions.

Fig. 8. Simulation at time 1s.

Fig. 9. Simulation at time 6s.


Fig. 10. Simulation at time 60s.

Fig. 11. Simulation at time 120s.