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OFFICAL COURT PROCEEDING DOCUMENT The expert testimony presented by the following Commission, appointed by the Court to conduct

genetic tests with the sole intent of identifying the murderer of the victim, has concluded that, based upon the genetic evidence of the suspect collected at the crime scene and the results of genetic tests, the detained suspect Ms. Brown has committed the murder. This conclusion is based upon the genetic tests conducted in the laboratory consisting of ABO Blood Typing and DNA Fingerprinting. The subsequent report will identify and explain the credibility and findings of the conducted tests. ABO BLOOD TYPING In the case of the ABO Blood Typing Test, the suspects blood type matched the blood found and collected at the crime scene. To better understand the evidence, a quick explanation of blood typing is in order: Blood type is determined by multiple alleles that are inherited by offspring. An allele is a representation of a gene by a letter; for example A. There are four basic blood types: A, B, AB, and O. These blood types are determined by the presence of antigens on erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells. Each of these blood types can then be negative or positive, as determined by the Rh factor. To begin, antigens are specific agglutinogens found on the surface of red blood cells. The presence or absence of these agglutinogens characterizes the blood type: Blood type A contains antigen A, and antibodies B. Blood type B contains antigen B, and antibodies A. However, a mix in-between, also defined as co-dominance, is AB blood type. This blood type has antigen A and antigen B, but neither antibodies A or antibodies B. The final blood type, O, has neither antigen A nor antigen B, but has both antibodies A and antibodies B. The application of an anti-serum to an unknown blood type will indicate what type of blood it is. For example, if anti-A serum, when applied to an unknown blood sample, aggulates, then that in indicative of A type blood. Aggulation, or the clumping of particles in blood, occurs when an anti-serum is applied to its blood type. In this present case, the blood type collected at the crime scene of the suspect had no aggulation when applied with anti-A serum and anti-B serum. This concludes O blood type, since O type blood does not contain either antigen A or antigen B. 1

OFFICAL COURT PROCEEDING DOCUMENT However, it must be remembered that blood types can be negative or positive. This is determined by the Rh factor. With the application of the anti-Rh serum, if there is aggulation observed, then the blood sample is positive. If aggulation is not observed, then the blood sample is negative. This is similar to the aggulation observed in the previously discussed blood typing. In this present case, the blood type collected at the crime scene of the suspect had aggulation when applied with anti-Rh serum. This concludes, based upon previous finding, an O negative blood type. Afterwards, the same tests were done upon the four suspects blood samples collected: Suspect 1: after tests were conducted, was found of having blood type A positive. This did not match the blood type, O negative, found at the crime scene. Suspect 2: after tests were conducted, was found of having blood type A positive as well. Again, similar to the Suspect 1, this did not match the blood type, O negative, found at the crime scene. Suspect 3: after tests were conducted, was found of having blood type B negative. This did not match the blood type, O negative, found at the crime scene. Suspect 4: after tests were conducted, was found of having blood type O negative. This did indeed match the blood type, O negative, found at the crime scene. This association can only conclude that the murder is in fact, Suspect 4, Ms. Brown.

Ms. Brown did not have any aggulation with her blood in any of the anti-serums, so it can be concluded that the accused blood type is O negative. The crime scene blood also did not have aggulation with the applied anti-serums, making it also type O negative. Recall that aggulation occurs when there is a correct match between the blood types and corresponding anti-serums. Anti-A serum will cause aggulation in a sample with type A blood. Since there was no aggulation observed, that concludes that the accused has type O negative blood. Type O does not have any antigens that would react with the anti-serum. The Rh factor determines that it is negative. In conclusion of this finding, the blood collected at the crime scene, O negative, was a clear match with the blood of Ms. Brown, O negative. However, with the amount of people who possess O negative blood, it could be anyone. To confirm that it is indeed Ms. Brown, the second test must be performed: DNA Fingerprinting, 2

OFFICAL COURT PROCEEDING DOCUMENT Unfortunately, it must be admitted that the DNA Fingerprinting results were inconclusive. This is because, to the surprise and disappointment of the committee, the DNA samples obtained from the suspects has disappeared. When the DNA was inserted into the machinery that was going to test it, the following morning the evidence was missing. Unfortunately, we cannot identify where the evidence has gone, and cannot speculate upon its conclusion or data it will offer. There is an investigation under way upon the disappearance of the evidence, and whether there was possible, unlawful interference with the laboratory proceedings. At this point in time, the only evidence that can convict the accused lies in the ABO Blood Typing Tests. The committee suggests that the Court postpone the hearings and verdict until further tests are conducted. Thank you. We yield the remainder of our time to the Court.

The Ravenwood High School Biology I Honors Genetics Committee, appointed by The Department of Justice of the United States of America, does hereby acknowledge that the information presented in this Official Court Document to be accurate and truthful in substance and reason and wholly applicable to the resolution of the case it is so used in. Jones, Trent: ____________________________________________ Kastritis, Elias: ____________________________________________ Kenyon, Jenica: ____________________________________________ Kobrick, Riley: ____________________________________________