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Pakistan International

ETOPS FLIGHT CREW GUIDE

7 -'7 - 240 E RI L R - 3 4 0 E R

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SEP/2006

ISSUED BY OPERATIONS ENGINEERiNG TECrlNICAL DIVISION FLlGI-fT OPERATIONS F-AKISTAN INTERN"ATIONAL

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PakistanIntemational

REVISION RECORD

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ETO PS Training

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ETOPS TRAINING
The ETOPS training programs provide flight crews, maintenance personnel and dispatchers with ETOPS knowledge/requirement related to their task in order that they can effectively and safely, operate and support aircraft operating under ETOPS rules. The training pertains to the following areas: FLIGHT CREW TRAINING A. INITIAL TRAINING Prior to the commencement of ETOPS operations each Flight Crew member will undergo ETOPS training, consisting of ground school, simulator LOFT scenarios and line training. The line training consists of two sectors for each crew member, during which the ETOPS planning and procedures will be highlighted.

Session-1(02 Hours)
Regulations . Pakistan CAA ANO NO: 91-0013 ISSUE ONE

Benefit of ETOPS
. . . Large area of operation Direct routing/fuel saving Use of distant enroute alternates

Conditions that made ETOPS possible

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Engine reliability System reliability System redundancy Improved systems Decrease in crew workload Progress from 60 minute to 180 minutes

Manufacturer's responsibilities

.. Type design approval

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Design eligibility

Systemreliability Electricalpower redundancy APU design

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Emergency standby electrical generators design Minimum crew workload System redundancy Time limited equipment Ice protection Safety Assessment Flight testing ETOPS design capability

ODerator's resDonsibilities . . . Determination of diversion time Aircraft configuration Maintenance practices

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Procedures Reliability reporting Modification and inspection Despatch Maintenance program Engine condition monitoring Oil condition monitoring (Engine and APU) Service check ETOPS Training

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Flight Crew Maintenance Despatchers

In service reliability . Operational readiness/documentation . Ops Specs . Operations manual . MEUDDG . Fuel requirement . Flight Documentation . Validation flight Accelerated ETOPS Approval

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Requirements Approval considerations Operations limitations Surveillance

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BREAK

30 MINUTES

Session-2 (02 Hours)

Definition

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Adequate Airport Suitable Airport Diversion I En-route Alternate Airport Maximum Diversion Time Maximum Diversion Distance ETOPS Area of Operations ETOPS Entry Point (EEP) ETOPS Segment Equitime Point (ETP) Critical Point (CP) One-engine out Diversion Speed ETOPS Exit Point (EEP)

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Area of operations

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Aircraft reference weight Diversion speed I distance

DiversionStrateaies

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Operation Criteria for selecting diversion strategy.

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Fuel reQuirement

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Performance factor (ADP) Standardfuel planning Criticalfuel scenario . Aircraftdepressurization . Enginefailure I depressurization Fuel reserves

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TAT Relative humidity

Desoatch weather Minima

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Lower than published weather minima Period of Validity Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Computerized flight plan

BREAK - 30 Minutes
Session - 3 (02 Hours) ETOPS Despatch

. Checklist .MEUDDG . SuitableAirport


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NAV. Charts Weather Dossier Computerized flight plan Correction of location of ETP for wind

In flight procedure

PIA checklist

Discussion on one sDecific PIA route.

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B. INSTRUCTOR Initial classroom training will be given by a qualified Instructor pilot or Operation Engineer. C. RECURRENT TRAINING ETOPS Recurrent class room training is required once a year. Training division will provide list of ETOPS cleared pilots to planning and Scheduling Division, so that only ETOPS cleared pilots are scheduled on such routes.

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ETO PS GVIDE

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777 -240ER/LR -300ER ETOPS FLIGHT CREW GUIDE INDEX/LIST OF EF:FECTIVE PAGES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

1. GENERAL 2. DEFINITIONS

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1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

2.1 ETOPS Operations


2.2 Adequate Airport 2.3 Suitable Airport

2.4 Diversion I En-route Alternate Airport 2.5 Maximum Diversion Time 2.6 Maximum Diversion Distanc;e 2.7 ETOPS Area of Operations 2.8 ETOPS Entry Point (EEP) 2.9 ETOPS Segment 2.10 Equitime Point (ETP) 2.11 Critical Point (CP) 2.12 One-engine out Diversion Speed 2.13 ETOPS Exit Point (EE?) 3. AREA OF OPERATIONS 4. DIVERSION STRATEGIES 5. ETOPS FUEL REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Standard fuel planning 5.2 ETOPS fuel planning 5.3 Critical Fuel Scenario 5.4 fuel Reserves

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 6. DISPATCH WEATHER MINIMA 7. FLIGHT CREW PROCEDURES 7.1 Pre-flight - Cockpit Preparations 7.2 In-flight ETOPS Procedures 8. IN-FLIGHT DIVERSION ST~TEGIES 9 FLIGHT DISPATCH 9.1 Basic Function 9.2 Responsibilitie 9.3 Aircraft In Flight 9.4 Post Flight 95 Determination of Suitable Air\>orl 9.6 Aircraft Maintenance Stall'S 9.7 Documentation 9.8 Flight Tracking 9.9 Weather Monitoring

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1.15 1.15 1.15 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.20 1..20 1.20 1.20 1.20

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ETOPS 1.2-

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1.GENERAL
This document represents Pakistan International Airlines guidance for all 777240ER/240LR and -340ER ETOPS flights. They are in compliance with the regulations set by the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan. The primary reference used herein is the FAA AC 120-42A and Pakistan CAA ANO NO: 91-0013 ISSUE ONE. 2. DEFINITIONS 2.1 ETOPS Operations ETOPS operations apply to all flights conducted under FAR part 121, JAR Ops 1, Pakistan CAA ANO NO: 91-0013 ISSUE ONE or equivalent, in a twin-engine aircraft over a route that contains a point further than 60 minutes flying time from an adequate airport at the selected one-engine-out diversion speed schedule in still air and ISA conditions. It is based on single-engine flying time to an adequate airport (up to 120/180 minutes). ETOPS operations require specific operational procedures and appropriate authority approval.

2.2 Adequate Airport An airport is considered adequate when it satisfies the aircraft performance requirements
applicable at the expected landing weight. A list of the adequate airports that will be considered for a specific area of operation must be presented to the local operational authorities as part of the operational approval; this list then becomes part of the Operational specifications. It is worth noting that it is not necessary to meet the runway pavement requirements normally to be considered for the regular use of an airport. In accordance with the provisions of the ICAO Convention - Annex 14 and ICAO Airport Manual (Document 9157 - AN/91), the aircraft ACN (Aircraft Classification Number) is allowed to exceed the runway PCN (Pavement Classification Number). when an airport is used in case of emergency. The amount of possible exceedance can be obtained from the above referenced ICAO document or from each individual national or local airport authority. The following should also be met at the expected time of use: - availability of the airport, - over flight and landing authorizations, - capability of ground operational assistance (ATC. Meteorological and Air Information Services Offices, Lighting), - availability of navaids such as ILS, VOR, NDB (at least one compatible navaid must be available for an instrument approach), - airport category for rescue and fire fighting (ICAO Doc 9137 - AN/898 Part 1). The following criteria may also be considered: - capability of technical assistance, - capability of handling and catering (fuel, food, etc.,) - ability to receive and accommodate the passengers.

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"" 2.3 Suitable Airpon

A suitable airport for dispatch purposes is an airport confirmed to be adequate which satisfies the ETOPS dispatch weather requirements in terms of ceiling and visibility minima (refer to weather reports and forecasts) within a validity period. This period begins one hour before the earliest Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) at the airport and ends one hour after the latest ETA. In addition, cross-wind forecasts should be acceptable for the same validity period. Field conditions should also ensure that a safe landing could be accomplished with one engine and/or airframe system inoperative (refer to possible NOT AMs SNOWT AMs. approach procedure modification).

2.4 Diversion I En-route Alternate Airport A "diversion" airport, also called "en-route alternate- airport, is an adequate I suitable
airport to which a diversion can be accomplished.
2.5 Maximum Diversion Time

The maximum diversion time from an en-route alternate airport is granted by the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan. It is only used for determining the area of operation, and therefore is not an operational time limitation for conducting a diversion. Prevailing weather conditions. or other factors can influence actual diversion time.
2.6 Maximum Diversion Distance

The maximum diversion distance is the distance covered in still air and ISA conditions within the maximum diversion time at the selected one-engine-out diversion speed schedule and at the associated cruise altitude, including the descent from the initial cruise altitude to the diversion cruise altitude (also called dirftdown). It is used for dimensioning the area of operations.

2.7 ETOPSArea of Operations


The ETOPS area of operations is the area in which it is authorized to conduct a flight under ETOPS regulations and is defined by the maximum diversion distance from an adequate airport or set of adequate airports. It is represented by circles centered on the adequate airports, the radius of which is the defined maximum diversion distance. 2.8 ETOPS Entry Point (EEP)

The ETOPS Entry Point is the point located on the aircraft's outbound route at one hour flying time, at the selected one-engine-out diversion speed schedule (in still air and ISA conditions), from the last adequate airport prior to entering the ETOPS segment. It mark$'
the beginning of the ETOPS segment. .;

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2.9 ETOPS Segment

The ETOPS segment starts at the EEP and finishes when the route is back and remains within the 50-minute area from an adequate airport. An ETOPS route can obtain several successive ETOPS segments separated from each other. 2.10 Equitime Point (ETP) An Equitime Point is a point on the aircraft route which is located at the same flying time from two suitable diversion airports. The ETP position can be determined using computerized flight plan that features such capability, Mathematically or graphically on a navigation or plotting chart. 2.11 Critical Point (CP) The Critical Point is the point on the route which is critical with regard to the ETOPS fuel requirements if a diversion has to be initiated from that point. The CP is usually, but not always (depending on the configuration of the area of operations), the last ETP within the ETOPS segment. Note that the last ETP is not necessarily the ETP between the last two alternate airports).

2.12 One-engine out Diversion Speed


The orie-engine-out diversion speed is a Mach/iAS speed combination selected by the operator and approved by the operational authority. The Mach is selected at the beginning of the diversion descent down to the transition point where the Indicated Airspeed (IAS) takes over. The one-engine-out diversion speed for the intended area of operations shall be a speed, within the certified operating limits of the aircraft between minimum maneuvering speed and VMo/MMo (maximum certified operating speed), considering that the remaining engine thrust is at Maximum Continuous Thrust (MCT) or less.

This diversion speed is used in: - establishing the area of operations, - establishing the critical fuel scenario for the single-engine diversion, -establishing the net level-off altitude to safely clear any en-route obstacle by the appropriate margin as specified in applicable operational rules. This speed is used in case of diversion following an engine failure. However, the pilot in command has the authority to deviate from this planned speed after assessment of the actual emergency situation. For PIA the speed will be .84/320 kts.

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2.13 ETOPS Exit Point (EEP)

The ETOPS Exit Point is the point located on the aircraft's route, where the aircraft has been flying in an ETOPS segment, it enters an area of one hour flying time, at the selected one-engine -out diversion speed schedule (in still air and ISA condition), to an adequate airport. It marks the end of that particular ETOPS segment.

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Area of Operation

3. AREA OF OPERATIONS ETOPS operations are allowed within a well-defined area. The size of this area depends on: . The maximum diversion time, . The selected one-engine-out diversion speed schedule and . The number and location of the selected adequate diversion airports. The area of operations is determined in still air and ISA conditions. considering the relevant aircraft performance with one engine inoperative. the remaining engine being at MCT or .s. Therefore, the area of operation is determined once, and does not need to be ~assessed for each flight (considering the en-route weather forecast or the aircran performance depending on the take-off weight) unless one or more adequate diversion
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airports happen to be unsuitable.

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The aircraft performance level considered for the calculation is associated with a unique aircraft weight, which is called the aircraft reference weight. a) Aircraft reference weight Aircraft reference weight is defined as the highest of the estimated gross weight values at the critical points of the various routes being considered within the given area of operation. The computation is done considering a take-off at the maximum take-off weight (structural or runway limitation) and standard speed schedule, in still air and ISA conditions after an elapsed time as per the area of operation. For PIA's 777-200ERn77-200lR/777-300ER the reference weight will be 265000 kg /324000 kg /324000 kg for 120 minutes and 260,.000 kg / 316000 kg / 316000 kg for 180 minutes determined after an elapsed flight time of two and three hours respectively.
b) Diversion

speed schedule and maximum diversion distance

Using the aircraft reference weight and the selectedone-engine-inoperative diversion speed schedule, it is possible to determine the optimum diversion cruise flight level, providing the best True Air Speed (TAS).

The"resulting TAS at the diversion flight level, combined with the maximum diversion time
allowed, provides the maximum diversion distance. However, an agreed interpretation of the regulations is to take benefit of the descent (during which the T AS is higher than during the diversion cruise) to Increase the maximum diversion distance as represented in the following figure.
I~ condiiona:

Nonn8I Cruile L8v8I Norm8 cn-. Ip88d

Point of Engine Failure ./ A./ ~.--,//

~Cruise8\ S8I8dId Speed IAS

Diversion Profile For PIA operations, with the selected one engine diversion speed of 0.84M/320kts, determined distance shall be 432 nm, 850 nm and 1272 nm for 60 mins , 120 mins and 180 mins respectively. 4. DIVERSION STRATEGIES Determination of the area of operation is based on a diversion at a selected single-engine Mach/IAS speed schedule (in still air and ISA). In practice this speed can vary between Minimum Maneuvering Speed and Vmo I Mmo. The aircraft has been designed, flight

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tested and certified to safely fly within this range of speeds even with one engine inoperative. The choice of the ETOPS diversion is as a function of route structure and

associatedconstraints. Therefore a diversion at high speed will maximize the maximum diversion distance and hence the area of operation, whereas a diversion at low speed will reduce the maximum diversion distance during the allowed maximum diversion time while permitting a higher diversion altitude. But, at the same time, this will minimize the fuel consumption. For non-ETOPS operations, in case of an engine failure, either the standard strategy or the obstacle clearance strategies are considered for diversion. The standard strategy corresponds to a descent at cruise M.84/300kt down to an altitude close to the LRC ceiling. and a diversion cruise at LRC speed.
The obstacle clearance strategy corresponds to a drift-down at Minimum Maneuvering speed until the obstacles are cleared. Once the obstacles are cleared, the standard strategy is applied. For ETOPS operations, in case of an engine failure, Boeing recommends that operators may use either the standard strategy or the obstacle clearance diversion strategy. However. the associated diversion speed, respectively LRC speed and minimum maneuvering speeds, which are substantially low speeds, would restrict the maximum diversion distance. Consequently it may result in a restricted area of operation, reducing operational capabilities. Therefor~, for ETOPS operations, higher one-engineinoperative diversion speeds will extend the area of operations.

J' The typical ETOPS diversion strategy is now called "Fixed Speed Strategy" in order to differentiate it from the standard obstacles strategies. The word "fixed" is used to emphasizethe fact that a selected speed schedule is followed during both the diversion descentand cruise phases, (exceptin case of cabin pressurization loss) whereasstandard and obstaclestrategiesconsiderduring descent M O.84/300kt and minimummaneuvering speed respectivelyand during diversion cruise, LRC speed which is a function of the aircraftweightand flight altitude. In addition, it must be ensured that the net flight path and net ceiling for the selected ETOPSdiversionspeed clear any en-routeobstacleby the appropriatemarginas specified in the applicableoperationalregulations. 5. ETOPSFUEL REQUIREMENTS A} Fuel Planning Unlike the area of operation, which is determinedin still air and ISA conditions,the fuel planningm.ust considerthe expectedmeteorological conditionsalongthe consideredroutes (forecastwind componentand temperature). For dispatchingan aircraft for an ETOPS flight, the dispatcher must determine,for the consideredroute. both a standardand an ETOPSfuel planning.The highest of both fuel

requirements shall be considered as being the minimum required block fuel for the flight.

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B) Performance Factor For determining a dependable fuel planning, the operator should always consider the latest updated aircraft performance factor, for ETOPS operation the determination become mandatory or a blanket 5% degradation factor is to be applied. The performance factor reflects the airframe/engines deterioration with time and is used to determine the actual fuel consumption. It is determined by the processing of in-flight
manual (or automatic) recordings of engines and aircraft parameters. For a brand new aircraft whose performance is equivalent to the baseline, the performance factor is equal to 1 (one). The performance factor is defined for each individual aircraft within the operator's fleet. 5.1 Standard fuel planning

This fuel planning is the same one as the one used for a non-ETOPS operation. The standard block (ramp) fuel requirements are as follows: - Taxi-fuel,

- Tripfuel,
- Contingency fuel, - Alternate fuel - Holding fuel, - Any stored fuel, - Discretionary fuel, if any. The sum of the above fuel quantities constitutes the block fuel, which should be corrected by the relevant performance factor. 5.2 ETOPS fuel planning For ETOPS operations, a specific ETOPS fuel planning (also called Critical Fuel Reserves in the regulations) should be established. The ETOPS fuel planning is split into two parts:

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The first part corresponds to a standard fuel scenario from the departure airport to the Critical Point (CP) and The second part corresponds to the critical fuel scenario from the CP to the diversion airport.

The ETOPS critical fuel scenario is based on the separate study of two failure cases, occurring at the critical point, with their respective diversion profiles. 5.3 Critical Fuel Scenario

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This scenario based on the failure case occurring at the CP and requiring a diversion. The point of occurrence Is so-called Critical because in terms of fuel planning a diversion at this point is the least favorable.
I ne OlVer'5ton prorne IS oeTlnea as fOllOWS:

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descentat a pre-determinedspeed to the requireddiversion flight level, diversioncruise at a pre-determinedspeed, normaldescent down to 1,500ft above the diversionairport, 30 minutes holding at this altitude, first approach (IFR) and go-around, secondapproach (VFR) and landing.

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The two separatefailure cases should be reviewedas follows: I) Aircraft depressurization

emergency descent at Vmo/Mmo speed-brakes extended down to FL100 or MORA whicheveris higher,
diversion cruise performed at Long Range Cruise (LRC) speed.

Decressurization Fliaht Profile However, flight above FL 100 may be desired or required. This is allowed if the aircraft is equipped with supplemental oxygen for the maximum diversion time for the flight crew and a required percentage of passengers in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements and could be mandatory in case of obstacles. In this case the diversion cruise

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may be allowed at a level up to FL 140. In case of PIA the oxygen regulatory requirements are calculated by Operations Engineering Section and charts prepared accordingly.

ii)

Engine failure and aircraft


emergency descent at Vmo/Mmo (speed brakes extended) down to FL 100 or MORA

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whicheveris higherI
diversion cruise at the speed schedule adopted for the determination of the area of operation.

One Enaine Out DeDressurization Fliaht Profile

However, cruise above FL100 is allowed if the aircraft is equipped with supplemental oxygenas mentioned above. For each scenario, the required block fuel must be computed in accordance with the operator's ETOPS fuel policy and with the regulatory ETOPS critical fuel reserves describedin the following section.
Depending on the strategy and on the one engine-out speed selected for the single-engine diversion scenario, one of these two scenarios will result in the highest fuel requirement.

The scenarioresultingin the highestfuel requirement is referredto as the ETOPScritical fuel scenario.the associatedblockfuel requirement is referredto as the ETOPScritical fuel.
5.4 Fuel Reserves ETOPS regulations require the addition of specific fuel reserves to the ETOPS diversion fuel.

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For the computation of the ETOPS critical fuel reserves and of the completed ETOPS --"'__'6_'_'__-'-"'" '. "". ..., .. criticalfuel planning, the diversion fuel shall include the follow1ng provisions:

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for any MEUCDL(RefMEL), . . Penalty . If icing conditions are forecast, the


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fuel bum- from the CP to the diversion airport(understood to be 1500ftoverhead the airport), 5% Contingency, APD as issued by OperationsEngineering, 30 minutes holding at 1500ft at minimum maneuveringspeed, first (IFR) approach/goaround/second(VFR) approach, 3% for Nacelle/WingAntice (NAI/WAI)system

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6%/3% for severe/moderate ice accretion on unheated surface (Divertionperiodonly)

For PIA 120/180 mins operations, a constant fuel provision of 5% is used for anti-icing usage irrespective if icing is forecasted or not. APU fuel consumption, if required as a power source (MEL).

The fuel factors to be considered for standard and ETOPS fuel plans (before and after the

CP) are summarizedin the two tables below:

The complete ETOPS critical fuel planning for the ETOPS critical fuel scenario (i.e. from the departure to the CP and then from the CP to the diversion airport) must be compared to the standard fuel planning (i.e. from the departure to the destination and destination alternate) computed in accordance with the company fuel policy and applicable operational requirements. The highest of both fuel requirements shall be considered as the required block fuel for the flight. Therefore, the pilot is then assured of safely completing the flight whatever the flight scenario is (normal flight or diversion).

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6. DISPATCH WEATHER MINIMA For the FAA. higher than nonnal ETOPS dispatch weather minima are meant to account for the possible degradation of the weather conditions at the diversion airports. The FAA requirements (AC 120-42A)generally are given in the table below:

Circling minima are normally not taken into account for ceiling minima. However, if the weather forecast requires the consideration of a circling approach, add 400ft to the published circling minima. Period of validity For each alternate airport, the dispatch weather minima must be ensured during a certain time period. This period of validity begins one hour before the earliest ETA at this airport and ends one hour after the latest ETA. The earliest ETA at an alternate airport is, in practice, the departure time plus the normal flight time to reach the ETP between the considered alternate and the previous alternate airport along the route, plus the diversion flight time from this ETP to this alternate airport, considering a diversion at the normal cruise speed and flight level. The latest ETA at an flight time to reach the along the route, plus considering a diversion alternate airport is, in practice, the departure time plus the normal ETP between the considered alternate and the next alternate airport the diversion flight time from this ETP to this alternate airport, at LRC and FL 100 (FL140) or MORA, whichever is higher. .;

The validity period can be illustrated by the following figure:

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Estimated flight time from: Departure Airport to ETP1 = T1

Departure Airport to ETP2 = T2 ETP1 To Alternate airport = TA1 ETP2 To Alternate airport = TA2
-1 Hour +1 Hour

Departure time = Dr Period of validity start Period of validity end

DT+T1+TA1 = DT+T2+TA2 =

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7. FLIGHT CREW PROCEDURES


7.1 Pre-flight - Cockpit Preparations Flight crew should note that there are additional MEL restrictions for ETOPS Operations. All FMS preparations are to be cross-checked by both pilots as for non ETOPS operations, all track and distance between waypoints are to be verified. ETOPS waypoints such as ETPs can be added to the legs page by entering a LAT/Long waypoint from a computer flight plan or using an along track waypoint. Diversion airports may be added to the Fix page as the Flight progresses 7.2 In-flight ETOPS Procedures Operations Fliaht watch I following Depending on the profile of the intended flight route, a flight watcR I following from the dispatch office to support the crew during the flight is recommended. The flight watch I following office should be equipped with appropriate means of communication to contact the aircraft in the air at any time. Normally an HF communication system is used, but ACARS or SATCOM systems could also be used.

The flight watch team should collect any relevant information for the current flight operation including:

update of weather forecasts and reports for ETOPS en-route alternates, update of en-route weather forecasts at cruise altitude but also at lower altitude including FL100, SIGMET, NOTAMs, SNOWTAMs etc.

The flight watch should also be ready to assist the crew if a diversion is required following a failure re-routing, fuel status reassessment. Weather Update A. before ETOPS Entry Point: The crew must make every effor1 to obtain weather forecasts and repor1sfor ETOPS enroute'alternates.
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NOTE: The ETOPS dispatch minima do not apply when airborne. If weather forecasts are
lower than the normal minima, then re-routing is required, or turnback if no route at the authorized distance from an en-route alternate airport can be used.

B.

After ETOPS Entry Point:

The crew should continue to update the weather forecasts and reports for en-route alternates. There is no requirement to modify the normal course of the flight if enroute alternate weather degrades below normal minima. As for a normal flight, the crew must make everyeffort to keep themselves informed on the weather at the destination and the destination alternate. Fuel Monitorina
The procedures normally used as per airline policy are also applicable for ETOPS. This is true even for flights where ETOPS fuel planning is the limiting factor. There are no requirements in the ETOPS rules to reach the CP with the Fuel On Board (FOB) being at least equal to the fuel required by the critical fuel scenario. This means that CP should not be considered as a re-clearance point. Therefore, if during the flight it appears that the estimated FOB at the CP will be lower than the fuel required by the critical fuel scenario, there is no requirement to make a diversion, provided th~ estimated fuel at destination is above the minimum required to divert to the destination alternate. However, it is recommended that if the CP is regularly overflown with a FOB lower than the fuel required by the critical fuel scenario, the appropriate corrective actions should be taken in the way the required fuel is determined at dispatch (i.e increase performance factor, route reserves, etc.) Diversion decision-makina Re-routing or diversion decisions consider the following:

- loss of MNPS or RVSM capability, before entering the area (as applicable), weather
minima at diversion airport(s) going below the company I crew en-route minima, before reaching the EEP, or diversion airport(s) becoming unsuitable for any reason. failure cases requiring a diversion to the nearest airport (cases leading to a "Plan to land at the nearest suitable airport" message in the QRH), excessive fuel consumption, exceeding the available fuel reserves.

Whatever the one engine-inoperative speed schedule assumed in the determination of th( area of operation, the crew is free to adopt the strategy it considers the most appropriate after assessment of the overall situation. This means that in conducting the diversion the application of the pre-planned speed strategy is not mandatory.
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The final decision belongs to the crew who should choose the safest course of action, to include diversion airport. as well as appropriate diversion speed and altitude.

a.IN-FLIGHT DIVERSION STRATEGIES


This section provides the single engine performance data to be used for the conduct and monitoring of the flight following an engine failure. The diversion strategy (descent and cruise speed schedule) will be selected as a function of the prevailing operational factors (e.g. obstacles clearance requirements and/or ETOPS operations). Depending on the prevailing operational constraints. the most appropriate diversion strategy shall be selected. out of the following options.

The use of these strategies is at the discretion of the pilot. As a guideline, the considerations are as follows: standard strategy gives you the best fuel bum-off but the maximum diversion time required. -

Fixed Speed Strategy will give you the minimum possible diversion times at the expense of fuel. obstacle strategy should be used until clear of all obstacles.
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9 FLIGHT DISPATCH

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9.1 Basic Function

To provide flight dispatch services to aircraft in a safe and efficient manner, and, complying with all the laid company policies and regulations.

9.2 Responsibilities A summaryof the general responsibilities is outlined below: -i. Upon reportingfor duty, evaluate the weatherfor present conditions and future trends, as it will affect the areas of the systemover whichhe will exercisecontrol.
-ii. Check the company FOM, AlP and the Technical Support Cell of flight operations for current instructions and policies.

- iii. Checkfield conditionsand NOT AM files for currentconditionsof en route and terminal facilities. - iv. Discusswith the dispatcherbeing relievedthe operationalplans for his area.

- vi. Plan the proper fuel loads for the flight under his jurisdiction,giving due consideration
to the relativecost of fuel at the various stations.Notify appropriatepersonnelconcerning J the fuel requirements. - vii. Computeflight plans. - vii. Coordinatewith the supervisorproblemsof equipment substitution, maintenance, and the like.
- Ix. Adjustments of payload as d ictated by Fuel/Weight analysis. - x. Exercise a continuous watch over each aircraft in flight, keeping the captain fully informed of all conditions which might affect its operations and of which he may not already be aware.

- xi. Assist'the Maintenance Department in planning the return to service of any aircraft that
has a mechanical malfunction on a scheduled trip or other wise away from its base.

- xii. Keep fully informed on the current Regulations that relate to the operations of
company aircraft. Conduct all operations in strict conformity therewith. - xiii. Be thoroughly familiar with the operational characteristics and limitations of all aircraft over which he exercises operational control. - xiv. Be completely familiar with en-route navigational aids and terminal facilities and be prepared to assist any flight, which may require assistance because of failure of suct, facilities OJ

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- xv. Notify the appropriate governmental agencies of irregularities which require their attention.
- xvi. Notify the appropriate company officialsin the event of aircraft accidents.

1 "'---1 __-, L_'__I ' -- ... . eauCatlonal ana tecnrncal requirement to meet the changes.

xvii. Keep abreast

of the latest developments

in aviation

industry, and, fulfill all

9.3 Aircraft In Flight The duty Operations Officer shall assist the pilot-in-command during the course of the flight by: - i. Closely following its progress and the latest weather reportsand forecasts for the route and for destination and alternate airports.

- ii. Be ready to inform him on the state of airports, ATC, communication and navigation
facilities. - iii. Monitoring fuel endurance in the light of any changes in flight plan and the latest weather information.

- iv Transmitting

operational information either self-initiated or on request.

- v. Initiating advice on re-routing of the flight where considered necessary, together with all relevant revised flight data plan. - vi. Obtain all the flighfs particulars and the flight conditions in the area the flight is traversing to enable him to provide a flight with revised clearance if so required. - vii. Advise the latest flight information to all concerned once diversion or fuming back is

necessary.
- viii. Maintain flight watch to control the flight movement accordin.9to flight information. - ix. Revise the company clearance when he considers it appropriate in the interest of the safety of flight after consulting with and having concurrence of the pilot-in-command. Provide estimated arrival information to all concerned for the inbound flight based on the departure message and the flight progress. 9.4 Post Flight The duty Operations Officer shall: - i. Watch the aircraft movement through the company radio and provide arrival information to alJ concerned. Submit a dispatcher report if an emergency has a~en during his duty time. Receive a debriefing from the pilot in command on the flight conditions, apply this information in planning for the following flight.
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- ii. Maintain an accurate flight controllogl Trip file.

Apart from the many considerations stipulated under dispatch procedures for NON-ETOPS
operations, the following are emphasized to ensure conformity with ETOPS 9.5 Determination of Suitable Airport
One of the distinguishing features of ETOPS is the availability of "suitable en-route alternate airport's to which an aircraft can divert after a single or combination of failures requiring s.uch a diversion. It is therefore, important that such alternate airport have the capabilities services and facilities to support an ETOPS aircraft. The decision whether an "adequate alternate is Suitable" has to be taken prior to departure and is based on the forecast weather conditions during the assumed estimated time of arrival.

9.6 Aircraft Maintenance Status On similar application as for non-ETOPS, ETOPS operation emphasizes a greater need to alert the operating crew of: .-./'i Aircraft Maintenance Status and ii. Giving special attention on the need to apply operational limitations and payload penalty associated to MEL defects. 9.7 Documentation Operating cockpit crew should be provided with: i. Navigation charts, indicating the area of ETOPS operation ii. ETOPS Dispatch Form weather forecast will be filled up by the dispatchers. Weather Forecast for each airport which are valid for the duration; one hour before the established earliest time of arrival and one hour after the established latest time of arrival. iii. Fuel Flight Plan or CFP, showing: Minimum take off fuel considering ETOPS scenarios as approved by the relevant authority Equitime-Point Critical Fuel Scenarios 9.8 Flight Tracking J Achievable by way of position reporting from aircraft through one of the available mean~ ACARS. SATCOM, or STOCKHOLM RADIO.
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9.9 Weather Monitoring

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Monitoring of station weather, available from reliable weather sources.