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Biological Basis of Life

Individuals are characterized by genes. Genes are organized into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are located in nuclei of cells.

Individuals are characterized by genes . Genes are organized into structures called chromosomes . Chromosomes are

Individual

Cell

Nucleus

Chromosomes

DNA/Gene

Nucleotide

Base

Mitochondria engine of the cell-reproduces energy. They have their own DNA (mitochondrial DNA)

Cells are the basic units of life in all living organisms.

Somatic cells cellular components of body tissue (muscle, bone, skin, nerve, heart, brain)

Gametes- sex cells The function of a sex cell is to unite with a gamete from another individual to form a zygote that can be developed into a new individual.

Nucleus- a discrete unit surrounded by a thin nuclear membrane.

There are two nucleic acids within the nucleus:

deoxyribonucleic acid DNA ribonucleic acid RNA These contain genetic information that controls the cell function.

The nucleolus contains proteins as well as ribosomal RNA. It manufactures ribosomes.

Nucleus - a discrete unit surrounded by a thin nuclear membrane. There are two nucleic acids
Nucleus - a discrete unit surrounded by a thin nuclear membrane. There are two nucleic acids

Chromosome: A discrete structure composed of DNA and associated proteins. Every species is characterized by a specific number of chromosomes. In humans there are 46. Chimpanzees and gorillas have 48.

DNA is the chemical material we

inherit from our parents. It's

found in every cell in our body

(except for red blood cells).

It is made up of two long, thin fibers that are twisted together. The uncoiled DNA from a single

cell is about 5 feet long.

The

tightly coiled pieces of DNA are called chromosomes.

We inherit a set of 23 chromosomes from each parent (for a total of 46).

Each chromosome contains special stretches of DNA called genes. Genes "tell" the cell how to make the thousands of proteins in your body.

A specific sequence of nucleotide base pairs constitutes a gene. The entire sequence of DNA bases is responsible for the synthesis of a protein.

A gene may have a few hundred to a few thousand bases. The genetic code is universal.

DNA of all living organisms is composed of the same molecules. The difference between

humans and a tree is not the DNA material but how they are arranged.

Amino acids: small molecules that are the components of proteins.

Proteins: molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules. They make us what we are.

Hemoglobin carries oxygen to cells. Collagen are structural components. Enzymes regulate chemical reactions. Lactase- breaks down milk sugar

Amino acids : small molecules that are the components of proteins. Proteins : molecules that serve
Amino acids : small molecules that are the components of proteins. Proteins : molecules that serve

Hormones insulin helps liver cells to absorb energy- producing sugar from the blood)

DNA serves as a recipe for making a protein. The sequence of DNA bases determines the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.

There are 20 amino acids. These amino acids are combined in different amounts and sequences and produce different proteins.

Protein Synthesis

The letters represent the bases:

Adenine (A) Thymine (T), Guanine (G) Cystosine (C).

A always pairs with T C always pairs with G.

Protein Synthesis The letters represent the bases: Adenine (A) Thymine (T), Guanine (G) Cystosine (C). A

One important function of DNA is that it directs protein synthesis. It occurs outside the nucleus in ribozomes.

The mRNA, containing the information for a particular

protein, is transported from the nucleus to the

cytoplasm, where protein synthesis takes place.

RNA carries the genetic message from DNA to outside of the nucleus. A segment of the mRNA strand peels away from the DNA, travels to a ribozome.

One important function of DNA is that it directs protein synthesis . It occurs outside the

Transfer RNA (tRNA) helps with the assembly of the protein. They transfer DNA structure to amino acids that make the proteins.

One important function of DNA is that it directs protein synthesis . It occurs outside the
DNA replication For growth, development, and tissue repair, cell division is a crucial process. For cells

DNA replication

For growth, development, and tissue repair, cell division is a crucial process. For cells to replicate, first DNA should replicate

itself. So, each cell has all the genetic

information.

The bond between bases is broken at numerous locations.

Double helix becomes two separate strands

Nucleotides are attracted to their complementary nucleotides forming a new strand (RNA nucleotides)

An exact copy of DNA is formed

Mutation

Point mutation: A chemical change in a single base of a DNA sequence is called point mutation. This happens constantly and randomly in all living individuals.

Mutation Point mutation : A chemical change in a single base of a DNA sequence is

It can be substitution, addition, or loss of a single base . Point mutations can never be expressed phenotypically. DNA self -repairs itself.

If the sequence in DNA is altered, the manufacture of some proteins may not occur and the cell/organism may not function properly. It is the most common source of genetic variations in populations.

Mutations have evolutionary significance only when they are

passed to the offspring.

division.

Mutations can also happen during cell

Are all mutations bad? NO

Beneficial or neutral mutations also occur. These are more likely selected by nature. However, they are not always passed to offspring.

What is the main source of phenotypic variation in each generation?

Cell division

MITOSIS

When a human cell divides, its 46 chromosomes must be copied, or replicated, and each of the two new cells must receive only one copy of each chromosome. Mitosis is the process that sorts the genetic material into two new nuclei and ensures that both contain exactly the same genetic information. Mitosis happens during growth, healing, or to replace old cells.

MITOSIS When a human cell divides, its 46 chromosomes must be copied, or replicated , and

The chromosomes line up in random order along the center of the cell

They split apart and strands are separated. They pull away

from each other and move to opposite ends of the cell

The cells are sealed-there are two identical cells

It is the replication of DNA that ensures the genetic material

remains constant from generation of cells to the next.

http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/mitosis.html

MEIOSIS

The process by which the chromosome number is halved and chromosomes are

meiosis.

Each human cell contains a full set of 46 chromosomes. If a sperm and egg cell each containing 46 human chromosomes were to fuse, the resulting offspring would have 98 chromosomes in each cell and the number would keep on doubling with each successive generation.

Meiosis

Meiosis After chromosomes replicate themselves, they pair up with their partners. Crossing over may take place

After chromosomes replicate themselves, they pair up with their partners.

Crossing over may take place

Chromosomes separate and move toward opposite poles.

Meiosis After chromosomes replicate themselves, they pair up with their partners. Crossing over may take place

Two cells

Each chromosome is further separated

Four daughter cells

Crossing over: exchange of sections between chromosomes.

Crossing over : exchange of sections between chromosomes.

Evolutionary significance of Miosis

  • 1. Reduces the chromosome count of gamates to half

  • 2. Provides the basis for extensive phenotypic variation in every generation by producing genetically unique cells.

  • 3. Crossing over contributes to more variation.

Problems

If chromosomes fail to separate, cells may have more chromosomes than they need (1 out of 1000, Down syndrome) or they may not have enough. Then through mitosis, every cell in the body will have abnormal number of chromosomes.

When this happens in sex chromosomes, it may cause

mental problems, sterility, or death. We can live without a Y chromosome but not without an X.