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Annotated Bibliography

Gruber, Donald D. Measuring Student Learning in Art Education. Art Education 61.5 (2008): 40-45. Education Research Complete.Web. 11 Mar, 2013. Grubers article focuses on student learning and how art educators assessments significantly impact their students creativity. He discusses historical overviews on art education, the importance of measuring learning, and even written tests. Using his experiences as an art educator, the author reflects and gives thorough explanations between assessing and evaluating work as well as the importance of interacting with students in the art program. Gruber wanted to demonstrate that assessing students work consistently without it being so labor intensive will benefit the growing artist by gaining more creative processes. Selfassessments are valued and portfolios are needed in order to show evidence of work and demonstrate accomplishments. I see this as being needed to be addressed because without observations on the students performance, their participation will deteriorate and their behavioral activities wont go noticed. After all, whats the point of learning if youre going unnoticed? I like how he explains different approaches to determining progress rather than determining letter grades or grade marks. The focus on less intensive work and more about the artists expression, concept, and process is what I needed to look for my inquiry. Guskey, Thomas R. Communicating Student Learning. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1996. Print. Guskeys book discusses the issues on major curriculum developments that affect education and the public domain who demand that schools be more accountable. He discusses the standards and provides useful information on the history of multiple institutions. He touches on all subjects from school including frames of references on how to compare students growth to improving student engagement. Curriculum

development is mainly discussed throughout the chapters but Guskey offers advice to teachers on how to approach teaching, grading, and school subjects. Guskey includes detailed examples of evaluations and progress reports as well as comparisons of the standards and levels of achievement. Guskey shares vital information to teachers on ways on how to encourage student learning, but for the most part he argues for real, and sincere approaches that will effectively provide students the learning they really need rather than what the standard expects. This text also focuses on a solid portion about art students and their need for challenges in understanding different perspectives of art and history for developing an artistic foundation. I think Guskeys suggestions on providing feedback and narratives for students and their work are useful in providing some foundational answers for my inquiry. As I question why should teachers even grade students work, I see how Guskeys points on finding out students dispositions and state of mind can lead them into taking their learning more seriously. Rothstein, Richard, Rebecca Jacobsen, and Tamara Wilder. Grading Education: Getting Accountability Right. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2008. Print. In this book, researcher Richard Rothstein covers the issues of schools accountability to effectively develop student success thats expected from public education. He writes about how test-based grading cant determine how students are performing satisfactorily or adequately. He describes appropriate accountability system that would be faithful to developing basic knowledge, skills, physical and emotional health, appreciation of arts and critical thinking. Rothstein argues that a system that focuses on creating incentives to stress the importance on only basic knowledge and skills but none to the youths goals would be unfaithful towards the actual stand of American education. Goals that couldve been met by schools or individuals alone were tossed to the side because of the sole focus on the standard achievement. There is a need for professional evaluation and systems that will build up what students already know.

Narrowed minded schools and accountability dont accomplish anything. I agree with the writer that students, especially artists, need to focus more than just trying to obtain basic knowledge or standards. There is certainly a range of goals that one wants accomplish through their time in an educational institution rather than just performing satisfactorily nationwide. Welter, Cole H. "Grade-Level Assessment In The Arts: Of Stoppages And Stratagems." Arts Education Policy Review 94.(1993): 2-8. Art Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Mar. 2013. Welter assesses the arguments for and against the standardization of visual arts education and helps to frame the issues of grade-level education in art in his article. He introduces alternatives to identifying measurable goals in art education for both students and teachers, and provides suggestions on what areas of evaluation teachers should focus all their efforts on. Unlike most other authors, Welter presents specific information to the premise and shines light on how standardization can bring stability to a course that may potentially have no specific aims and only bring scattered outcomes. Welter addresses art curriculum as something that needs to be taken seriously and requires more work. What I find most interesting about his article is he actually gives facts that support the real reason why art programs should be standardized in keeping up with the general education. He supports the idea of developing agreed-upon lessons with matching, measurable goals because he believes it sounds like a responsible course of action. He argues that higher level students should be evaluated on their growth, intellectual capacity, and understanding of application and be able to evaluate the effectiveness of an arts program rather than children who are still gaining and comprehending skills. Welter sets a fine line between accountability and assessment in arts education because he sees them as separate concerns, regardless of one's stance on a standardized arts curriculum. I feel that Welter issues the concern for the standardized as a premise to a strong foundation at building compulsory art skills to remind his readers that standardizing arts would overcome the bias of arts education not being a major contributor to U.S. society. This is very useful in my discussion

and answers some of my questioning of whether its necessary to allow a standard and how does it effectively achieve student learning successfully. Haller, Chiara Simone, Delphine Sophie Courvoisier, and David H. Cropley. "Perhaps There Is Accounting For Taste: Evaluating The Creativity Of Products."Creativity Research Journal 23.2 (2011): 99-109. Education Research Complete. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. Haller evaluates ratings and correlations between the ratings of experts (professionals art teachers) and novices (art students) on the design of a hands-free mobile phone holder. She discusses the reliability of scores and different ways of recognizing creativity in products from all categories of art. Methods, procedures, and results are examined thoroughly to support the research on the effectiveness of assessing creativity. Examinations and data is heavily used to ground reasons for expertise critique and the nature of societys novice critique. The search for whether there are differences between opinions of experts and novices concerning creativity is an important one because if there is a system that recognizes both concepts then this could potentially be useful for both sides to communicate with each other. I find Hallers article useful in that she actually provides studies on how experts and amateurs assess things (whether through grades or scales) and the relationship between the two. I feel that she provides answers for why art teachers should grade art students expressions and their states of creativity. Specific criteria enabled teachers can identify and help the areas of improvement that most novices cant see which is vital for the growth of many starting-out artists.