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Operational Liaison Meeting Fly-By-Wire aircraft

2004

Take off rotation


Some additional issues

Customer Services

Introduction

Why do we talk again about Take Off Rotation?


It has been addressed in 2002 OLMs and in 2003 Performance & Operations Conference in Rome. Some recent incidents call for some additional explanations.

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Takeoff rotation

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Reminder of various recommendations

The Rotation flying techniques are outlined in FCOM SOPs


and supplementary techniques

They address the lateral and the pitch control of the


aircraft.
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Takeoff rotation

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Reminder of various recommendations


Regarding the lateral control of the aircraft: ? Do not apply large roll inputs in case of crosswind
4 Since

they favor the natural into the wind turn tendency of the aircraft spoilers extended increase the pitch required at lift off, thus reduce the tail strike margin (lift reduction) a large lateral stick input may cause a lateral control problem at lift off.

4 Since
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4 Since

Takeoff rotation

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Reminder of various recommendations


Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft: ? The T/O normal law is adapted to each aircraft model
so as to ensure a similar pitch rotation technique on all FBW models.
Direct law
Pitch rate
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A320

Gain
Tail distance protection

+ A319/321
A330/340

Pitch RA

Gain integrator

Pitch rate target max 2.5/sec

A340-500 A340-600

Pitch rate
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations


Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft:
? At VR initiate rotation with a positive side stick input for A330/A340, to achieve a continuous rotation of about 3o/sec, towards a pitch attitude of:
4 AOE: 15o (12.5 o on A340-200/300) 4 OEI: 12.5o
NOTE: this pitch target is the average pitch which will be commanded by the FD pitch bar, once A/C is airborne and SRS available

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Takeoff rotation

Page 6

Reminder of various recommendations


Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft:
4Avoid 4Avoid

aggressive and sharp stick inputs

shy initial stick inputs and further aft stick inputs just prior lift off chasing FD bar during initial rotation

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4Avoid

Takeoff rotation

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T/O Rotation some additional issues


In order to minimize tail strike risks, following
recommendations apply:
4Avoid

premature rotation 4Avoid excessive rotation rate, over rotation 4Apply proper THS setting 4Avoid improper use of FD pitch bar during rotation

and also
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4Properly

choose T/O configuration 4Check Landing Gear shock absorbers

Takeoff rotation

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Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration


CONF 1+F / CONF2 / CONF3 / are available for T/O
As a general rule:
4A

low T/O CONF (e.g. 1 + F) is preferable to optimize the 2 nd segment climb gradient, more particularly in hot weather high T/O CONF (e.g. 3) is preferable

4A

To improve tail clearance at lift off To lower T/O speeds on rough runways
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Takeoff rotation

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Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration


The criteria used to determine the best T/O CONF are:
4The

configuration allowing the Highest Flex Temp (Engine saving) configuration allowing for Lower Take off Speeds

4The 4The
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Preferred Configuration for comfortable Aircraft handling (e.g. tail strike)

Takeoff rotation

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Properly determine the Take off Configuration


Some airplanes are more prone to tail strikes due to their
geometry (e.g. A321, A340-500/600, )

For a given stick input at rotation, the tail clearance is


reduced at lower configuration (e.g. 1+F), because the rotation rate is higher

A compromise is to be done in between Flex Temp, lower


T/O speed and preferred configuration for aircraft handling
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Select the highest possible flap configuration, up to


CONF3, provided it does not induce a Flex Temp greater than 5o.

Takeoff rotation

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Landing gear shock absorbers


There are 2 types of gears regarding the kinematics of the
shock absorbers (oleos) and wheels:
4The 4The

conventional gears with conventional oleos

shock absorbers associated to Rocking Bogie via a Pitch Trimmer

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Takeoff rotation

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Landing gear shock absorbers


The A330/A340 are fitted with Rocking Bogies
4The

Rocking Bogie allows a greater pitch attitude at lift off than a conventional gear with the same stroke shock absorber stroke is physically limited to about 750 mm. A conventional gear would need 1000 mm additional stroke on A340, for the same attitudes at rotation, than with Rocking Bogies rotation of the bogie around rear wheels added to the oleo extension allows for such max pitch attitude

4The

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4The

Takeoff rotation

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Comparison Conventional Gear with Rocking Bogie


A340 ROTATION LAW

Attitude(o)

Lift Off

2)

3)

4)

Time (sec) Rotation VR


13 A340 ROCKING BOGIE CHARACTERISTICS 12 Conventional Landing Gear 11 10 Materializes Additional Stroke Required 9 8 7 6 Landing Gear Fully Extended 5 Start of Rocking Bogie Mechanism 4 (400 mm shock absorber closure) 3 2 Start of Bogie rotation 1 Lift Off 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (sec)
Takeoff rotation
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Tail Clearance ()

A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle


1) Aircraft at VR+ - Beginning of rotation Oleo has started to extend

At VR+

2o

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Pitch Trimmer

Takeoff rotation

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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle


2) Aircraft between VR and VLOF, with pitch increasing and A/C accelerating. Typically when pitch about 5/6, shock absorber is 400 mm and pitch trimmer bottomed. Front wheels and MLG leg are mechanically interlocked.
At VR+ Between VR and VLOF

2o

6o

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400 mm

Pitch Trimmer

Takeoff rotation

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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle


3) The shock absorber cannot extend, the rocking bogie cannot rotate as long as A/C lift has not reached a certain value. Shock absorber remains at 400 mm. Since pitch increases, tail clearance decreases and reaches minimum prior lift off.
At VR+ Between VR and VLOF

2o

6o

9o

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400 mm

Pitch Trimmer

Takeoff rotation

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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle


4) The lift has increased; the oleo can further extend and the bogie can rotate; the tail clearance slightly decreases, while the A/C pitch increases.

At VR+

Between VR and VLOF

Close to VLOF

2o

6o

9o

12o

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Pitch Trimmer

Takeoff rotation

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Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie


The Rocking Bogie allows to fly greater pitch attitude at lift
off

The Rocking Bogie kinematics are such that the minimum


tail clearance is actually reached before lift off, at initial bogie rotation

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? This is an additional reason to positively initiate


rotation, and avoid further aft stick inputs during rotation (Pitch 8o )

Takeoff rotation

Page 23

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A340 / A330 Rotation Law Technique

Takeoff rotation

Attitude (o)

GOOD

Time (sec) POOR

LIFT OFF

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Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie


On any type of Landing Gear, servicing shall ensure that
oleos are properly pressurized. The effects of low pressure in oleos are somehow increased with the Rocking Bogie system, indeed:
4A

low pressure oleo delays the time where pitch trimmer is bottomed 4A low pressure oleo delays the time where the bogie starts to rotate
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Typically, a 10 bars low pressure in oleo, leading to a 60 mm oleo reduction, decreases the tail clearance by approximately 1 ft (or 1o)

Takeoff rotation

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A340 Tail Clearance During Take Off


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 1 2 3

A340 Rotation Law


Lift Off

Attitude (o)

10

Time (sec)

18 16 14
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A340 Rocking Bogie Characteristics


Maximum Pitch Attitude / Ground (o)
Start of Bogie rotation

Landing Gears Fully Extended

12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Takeoff rotation

Start of Rocking Bogie mechanism (400 mm shock absorber closure)

Nominal pressure Nominal 10 bars

Tail Clearance (o) (ft) Lift Off 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (sec)


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Conclusions
This presentation actually enhances 3 issues:
4All

present recommendations in SOPs and FCOM supplementary techniques are unchanged configuration must be judiciously determined. Amongst others, higher CONF is preferable provided that FLX TEMP is not penalized by more than 5o C absorbers must be adequately pressurized. Crews shall check consistency in between both MLG shock absorbers length, and report any suspected anomaly.

4But

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4Shock

Takeoff rotation

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This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of AIRBUS S.A.S. No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of AIRBUS S.A.S. This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, AIRBUS S.A.S. will be pleased to explain the basis thereof.

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AN EADS JOINT COMPANY WITH BAE SYSTEMS

Takeoff rotation

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