SOIL DYNAMICS
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MACHINE
FOUNDATIONS
(INDIA)
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No matter in full or part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means (exceptfor review or criticism) without the written permission of the author and publishers.
Though much care has been taken by the author and the publishers to make the book error (factual or printing) free. But neither the author nor the publisher takes any legal responsibility for any mistake that might have crept in at any stage.
Published by .Suneel Galgotia for Galgotia Publications (P) Ltd. 5, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhill0 002.
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PREFACE
During the last 25 years, considerable work in the area of soil dynamics and machine foundationshas been reported.Courseson soil dynamicsandmachinefoundationsalreadyexistat graduatelevelin many institutions, and its inclusion at undergraduate level is progressing fast. The author is engaged in teaching the course on soil dynamicsand machine foundationsat gr'duate level from last fLfteen years. The text of this book has been developed mainlyout of my notes preparedfor teaching the students.The consideration in developingthe text is its lucide presentationfor clear understandingof the subject.The material has been arrangedlogicallyso that the reader can follow the developmentalsequenceof the subject with relative ease. A number of solved examples have been included in each chapter. All the formulae,charts and examples are given in SI units. Some of the material included in this text book has been drawn from the works of other autors. Inspiteof sincereefforts,somecontributionsmay nothavebeen acknowledged.The authorapologisesfor suchomissions. The author wishes to express his appreciationto Km. Lata Juneja, Sri RaJeevGrover and Sri S. S. Gupta for typing and drawing work. Thanks arealso due to the many collegues,friends and studentswho assistedin
wittingof thisbook.
The author would be failing in his duty it he does not aclaiowledge the support he received from his family members who. encouraged him through the various stages. of study and writing. The book is dedicated to author's Sonin law, (Late) Shri Akhil Gupta as a token of his love, affectionand regards to him. (Dr. Swami Saran)
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PREFACE
CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 1.2 1.3 1.4 Earthquake Loading Equivalent Dynamic Load to an Actual Earthquake Load Seismic Force for PseudostaticAnalysis Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
2.
THEORY OF VIBRATIONS 2.1 General 2.2 Defmitions 2.3 Harmonic Motion 2.4 Vibrations of a Single Degree Freedom System 2.5 Vibration Isolation 2.6 2.7 2.8 Theory of Vibration Measuring Instruments Vibration of Multiple Degree Freedom Systems Undamped Dynamic VibrationAbsorbers Illustrative Examples Practice Problems
3.
WAVE PROP AGATION IN AN ELASTIC, HOMOGENEOUS. . AND ISOTROPIC MEDIUM 3.1 General 3.2 Stress, Strain and Elastic Constants 3.3 Longitudinal Elastic Waves in a Rod oflnfmite Length 3.4 Torsional Vibration ora Rod of Infmite Length 3.5 End Conditions 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 Longitudinal Vibrations of Rods of Finite Length Torsional Vibrations of Rods of Finite Length Wave Propagation in an lnfmite, HomogeneousIsotropic, Elastic Medium Wave Propagation in Elastic, Half Space Geophysical Prospecting Typical Values of CompressionWave and Shear Wave Velocities Illustrative Examples References.. '. . ; Practice Problems
i,.,
viii
4.
DYNAMIC SOIL PRO~ER~5. 4.1 General 4.2 4.3 4.4 LaboratoryTechinques Field Tests
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FactorsAffecting Shear Modulus, ElasticModulus and Elastic Constants IllustrativeExamples References PracticeProblems
.118186 118 118 147 163 174 182 184 187 187 201 221 236
237
DYNANnCEARTHPRESSURE
General
Pseudostatic Methods Displacement Analysis Illustrative Examples References
5.3
PracticeProblems
6.
DYNAMIC BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 General Pseudostatic Analysis Bearing Capacity of Footings Dynamics Analysis Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
238 238 238 . 249 268 277 278 279 2.79 281 283 288 296 300 301 306 309 314 319 323
7.
DynamicTriaxial Test 7.6 Cyclic Simple Shear Test 7.7 Comparisonof Cyclic Stress Causing Liquefactionunder Triaxial and Simple Shear Conditions 7.8 StandardCurves and Correlations for Liquefaction 7.9 Evaluationof Zone of Liquefactionin Field 7.10 VibrationTable Studies 7.11 Field Blast Studies 7.12
7.13
Contents
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ix
7.14 AntiliquefactionMeasures 7.15 Studies on Use of Gravel Drains IllustrativeExamples References Practice Problems
8.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES 8.1 General 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7
Types of Machines and Foundations General Requirements of Machine Foundation Perimissible Amplitude Allowable Soil Pressure Permissible Stresses of Concrete of Steel Permissible Stresses of Timber References
9.
FOUNDATIONS OF RECIPROCATING MACHINES 9.1 General 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Modes of Vibrationof a Rigid FoundationBlock Methods of Analysis Linear Elastic Weightless Spring Method Elastic Halfspace Method Effect of Footing Shape on Vibratory Response Dynamic Response of Embedded Block Foundation Soil Mass Participating in Vibrations Design Procedure for a Block Foundation Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
352
353 354 370 392 394 400 402 408 419 . 420
10.
10.2 DynamicAnalysis
10.3 Illustrative Examples References Practice Problems
11.
FOUNDATIONS OF ROTARY MACHINES 11.1 General 11.2 Special Considerations 11.3 Design Criteria
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INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL Geotechnical engineers frequently come across two types of problem in relation to the analysis and design of foundations namely (i) foundations subjected to static loads and (ii) foundations subjected to dynamic loads. The characteristic feature of a static load is that for a given structure the load carried by the foundation at any given time is constant in magnitude and direction ~.g. dead weight of the structure. Live loads such as weight of train on a bridge and assembly of peopl{in a building are also classified as static load, The characteristic feature of a dynamic load is that it varies with time. Dynamic loads on foundations and engineering structures may act due to earthquakes, bomb blasts, operation of machines, pile driving, quarrying, fast moving'traffic, wind or sea waves action. The nature of each dynamic load is different from another. Figure 1.1 shows the variation of dynamic load with time in some typical cases, Purely dynamic loads do not occur in nature. Loads ar~ always combinations of static and dynamic loads. Static loads are caused by the dead weight of the structure, while dynamic loads may be caused through the sources mentioned above. .
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Vibrations of earth's surface caused by waves coming from a source of disturbance inside the earth are described as Earthquakes and are one of the ri1ostdestructive forces that nature unleashes on earth. When, at any depth below tile gro~d surfa~e,the strain ene~gy'ac~~ulated due to deformations in earth mass exceeds the resilience of the storing material, it gets release through rupture. The energy thus released is propogated in the form of waves which impart energy to the media through which they pass and vibrate the structures standing on the earth's..surface. The point inside the earth mass where slipping or fracture begins is termed as focus and the point just above the focus on the earth's surface is termed as epicentre. The position of the focus is determined,with the help of seismograph records (Fig: 1.2]'u:ti't'ising the average velocities of different waves and time difference in reaching the waves at the ground surface. Figure 1.3 explains the various terms in simple manner.
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1.2.1 Intensity. The severity of shaking of an earthquake as felt or ob!jervedthrough damage is'described as intensity ata certain place on an arbitrary scale. For this purpose modified Mercalli scale is more common in use. It is divided into 12 degrees of intensity as presented in Table!.L Table 1.1 : Modified MereaIli Intensity Scale (Abridged} Classof
Earthquakes
Description Not felt except by a very few under specially favourable circumstances.
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Felt only by a few persons at rest, specially on upper floors of buildings; and delicately suspended objects may swing.
Felt quite noticeably indoors, specially on upper floors of buildings but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake; standing motor cars may rock slightly, and vibration may be felt like the passing of a truck. During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by a few; at night some awakened,dishes, windows, doors disturbed, walls make cracking sound, sensation like heavytruck striking the building; and standing motor car rocked noticeably.
Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened; some dishes, windows, etc. broken; a few instances of cracked plasters; unstable objects overturned; disturbance of trees, poles and other tall objects
IV
Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors; some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys; damage slight. Everybodyruns outdoors, damagenegligible in buildings of good design and construction; slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures; some chimneys broken; noticed by persons driving motor cars. Damage slight j!, spe~ially designed structures; considerable in' ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse; very heavy it) poorly built structures; panel walls thrown out of framed structure; heavy furniture overturned; sand and mud ejected in small amounts; changes in well water; and disturbs persons driving motor cars. . Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well designed framed structures thrown out of plumb; very heavy in substantial buildings with parti~1collapse; buildings shifted off foundations; ground cracked conspicuously; and underground pipes broken.
Some well built wooden structure~ destroyed; most masonry and framed structures with foundations destroyed; ground badly cracked; rails bent; landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes; shifted sand and mud; and water splashed over banks. Few, if any, masonry structures remain standing; bridge destroyed; broad fissures in ground, underground pipe lines completely out of service; earth slumps and landslips in soft ground; and
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1.2.2 Magnitude. Magnitude of an earthquake ,.._" is a measure of the size of an earthquake, based on the .". . ~"."""""", ,.,..,.._~,,, ".. ',", amplitude of elastic waves it generates. Richter (1958) suggested the following relation. M = loglOA loglO Aa . ...(1.1) where M = Magnitude of earthquake A = Trace amplitude in mm (Fig. 1.2) Aa = Distance correction (F:ig.1.4) ,. A relationship between strain energy released py an earthquake and its magnitude is given by Richter (1958) as follows
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E = Energy released in earthquake in Ergs A comparison of the magnitude M of an earthquake with maximum i tensity of the Modified Mercalli Scale is given in Table 1.2.
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of the Richter Scale Magnitude with the Modified Mercalli Scale Maximum Intensity, Modified Mercalli Scale
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The fault length, affected area and duration of earthquake also depend on the magnitude of earthquake (Housner, 1965; Housner, 1970). Table ,1.3 gives approximate idea about these.
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1.3 EQUIVALENT DYNAMIC LOAD TO AN ACTUAL EARTHQUAKE LOAD Figure 1.1 (a) shows the variation of dynamic load wi+htime observed during El Centro earthquake. The loading is not periodic and the.peaks in anY two cycles are different. For the analysis and design of foundations such a random variation is converted into equivalent number of cycles of uniformly varying load [Fig. 1.1 (b)]. It means that the structurefoundationsoil system subjected to Ns cycles of uniformly varying load will suffer same deformations and stresses as by the actual earthquakes. Most of the analyses and laboratory teSting are 'carried out using this concept.' . According to Seed and Idriss (1911), the average equivalent uniform acceleration is about 65 percent of the maximum acceleration. The number of significant cycles, Ns depends on the magnitude of earthquake. They recommended the values ofNs as 10, 20 and 30 for earthquakes ofmagnitudes 1, 1.5 and 8 respectively. Lee and Chan (1912) suggested the following procedure for ..converting the irregular stresstime history to the equivalent number of cycles of cyclic shear stresses of maximum magnitude equal to
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(i) Let Fig. 1.5 shows ~}Yl'icalea~CJ.uakereco.rd.Divide the s;t;essrange (0 to 'tmaX> or acceleration range (0 to amax)into convenient number ofleveIs and note the mean stress or mean acceleration within' each level as mentioned in column no. 2 of Table 1.4. Then the number of cycles with peaks 'Yhichfall within each of these levels is counted and recorded. Note that because the actual time history is not symmetric about the zero stress axis, the number of peaks on both sides are counted and two peaks are equivalent to one cycle. For example, an earthquake record shown in Fig. 1.5 has number of cycles in various ranges of acceleration levels as listed in Col. 3 of Table 1.4.
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1.6. Conversion factor is defined as'the ratio of equivalentnumber of cycles for 0.65 'tmax to equivalent number of cycles for K . 'tmax'Referring to this curve (Fig. 1.6) determine the conversion factor to each average stress level (Col. 4 of Table 1.4).
(iii) Determine the equivalen~number of unifofm cycles,at a maximum stress level of 0.65 'tma.x by multiplying the values listed in Cols. 3 and 4. 'These are listed in Col. 5. , , . . . t ,
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For getting the equivalent number of cycles for 0.75 'tmax'read the yalue of conversion factor (Fig. 1.6) corresponding to an ordinate value of 0.75. It comes out as 1.5. The value of equivalent number of cycles obtained for 0.65 'tmaxas illustrated in Table 1.4 is divided by this conversion factor to obtain equivalent number of cycles corresponding to 0.75 'tmax i.e. 9.0/1.5= 6.0 cycles. Seed and Idriss (1971) and Lee and Chan (1972) developed the above concepts specifically for liquefacti~mstudies. More details of these procedures have been.discussed in Chapter 7.
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1.4 SEISMIC FORCE FOR PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS For the purpose of determining seismic force, the country is classified into five zones as shown in Fig. 1.7. Two methods namely (i) seismic coefficient method and (ii) response spectrum method are used for computing the seismic force. For pseudostatic design of foundations of buildings, bridges and similar structures, seismic coefficient method is used. For the analysis of earth dams and dynamic designs, response spectrum method is used (IS 1893 : 1975).
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In response spectrum method, the response acceleration coefficient is 'first obtained for the natural period and damping of the structure and the design value of horizontal seismic coefficient is computed using the following expression: Tab{e 1.5 : Values of Basic Seismic Coefficien~ Zone No. V IV III
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Containment structure of seismic power reactor for preliminary design Dam~ (all types) Containers of inflammable or poisonous gases or liquids Important service and community structures, such as hospitals, water towers and tanks, schools, important bridges, emergency buildings like telephone exchange and fire brigades, large assembly structures like
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Pile foundation
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Foundations
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HousnCf, G. W. (1965), "Intensity of earthquake ground shaking near the causative fault", Proceedings 3rd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, New Zealand, Vo\. 1. Housner. G. W. (1970), "Design spectrum", in EarthquukeEngineering Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 97106. (R. W. Wiegel, Ed.), PrenticeHalI, Englewood
IS I:s031975. "Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures", ISI, New Delhi. Lee, K.. l.. and Chan, K. (1972), "Number of equivalent significant cycles in strong motion earthquakes", Proceedings, International Conference on Microzonation, Seattle, Washington, vo\. H, pp. 609627. Richter, CF. (1958), "Elementary seismology", W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, California.
Seed. H. B. Idriss, I. M., Makdisi, F. and Banerjee, N. (1975), "Representation of irregular stress
 time
histories b)
equivalent uniform stress series in liquefaction analysis", Report No. EERC 7529, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. Seed, H. B., and Idriss, 1. M. (1971), "Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction J. Soil Mech. Found. Engg., ASCE, Vo\. 97, No. SM9, pp. 12491273. potential"
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1.1 Explain the terms 'Intensity' and 'Magnitude' irt relation to earthquake. How are fault length an, duration of earthquake depend on magnitude? 1.2 Describe a method of getting equivalent number of cycles of uniformly varying load for an actur earthquake record, 1.3 Determine the equivalent number ef cycles for 0.75 Tmaxfor El Centro earthquake. DC
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THEORY OF VIBRATIONS
2.1 GENERAL In order to understand the behaviour of a structure subjected to dynamic load lucidly, one must study the mechanics of vibrations 'caused by the dynamic load. The pattern of variation of a dynamic load with respect to time may be either periodic or transient. The periodical motions can be resolved into sinusoidally varying components e.g. vibrations in the case of reciprocating machine foundations. Transient vibrations may have very complicated nonperiodic time history e.g. vibrations due to earthquakes and quarry blasts. A structure subjected to a dynamic load (periodic or transient) may vibrate in one of the following four ways of deformation or a combination thereof: (i) Extensional (Fig. 2.1 a) (ii) Shearing (Fig. 2.1 b) (iii) bending (Fig. 2.1 c) (iv) torsional (Fig. 2.1 d)
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The forms of vibration mainly depend on the mass, stiffness distribution and end conditions of the system. To study the response of a vibratory system, in many cases it is satisfactory to reduce it to an idealized system of lumped parameters. In this regard, the simplest model consists of mass, spring and dashpot This chapter is framed to provide the basic concepts and dynamic analysis of such systems. Actual field problems which can be idealized to massspringdashpot systems, have also been included.
2.2 DEFINITIONS 2.2.1 Vibrations: If the motion of the body is oscillatory in character, it is called vibration.
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Theory of Vibrations
15
2.2.3 Periodic Motion: If motion repeats itself at regular intervals of time, it is called periodic motion. 2.2.4 Free Vibration: If a system vibrates without an external force, then it is said to undergo free vibrations. Such vibrations can be caused by setting the system in motion initially and allowing it to move ~~~~~. . 2.2.5 Natural Frequency: This is the property of the system and corresponds to the number of free oscillations made by the system in unit time. 2.2.6 Forced Vibrations: Vibrations that are developed by externally applied exciting forces are called forced vibrations. These vibrations occur at the frequency of the externally applied exciting force. 2.2.7 Forcing Frequency: This refers to the periodicity of the external forces which acts on the system during forced vibrations. This is also termed as operating frequency. 2.2.8 Frequency Ratio: The ratio of the forcing frequency and natural frequency of the system is referred as frequency ratio. 2.2.9 Amplitude of Motion: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from the mean position is
amplitudeof motion.
2.2.10 Time Period: Time taken to complete one cycle of vibration is known as time period. 2.2.11 Resonance: A system having n degrees of freedom has n natural frequencies. If the frequel}cyof excitation coincides with anyone of the natural frequencies of the system, the condition of resonance occurs. The amplitudes of motion are very excessive at resonance. 2.2.12 Damping: All vibration systems offer resistance to motion due to their own inherent properties. This resistance is called damping force and it depends on the condition of vibration, material and type of the system..If the force of damping is constant, it is t&med Coulomb damping. If the damping force is proportional to the velocity, it is termed viscous damping. If the damping in a system is free from its material property and is contributed by the geometry of the system, it is called geometrical or radiation damping. 2.3 HARMONIC MOTION Harmonic motion is the simplest form of vibratory motion. It may be described mathematically by the following equation: ...(2.1) Z = A sin (rot  0)
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The Eq. (2.1) is plotted as function of time in Fig. 2.3. The various terms of this equation are as follows: Z = Displacement of the rotating mass at any time t A = Displacement amplitude from the mean position, sometimes referred as single amplitude. The distance 2 A represents the peaktopeak displacementamplitude,sometimesreferred to as double amplitude, and is the quantity most often measured from vibration records. ro = Circular frequency in radians per unit time. Because the motion repeats itself after 21tradians, the' frequency of oscillation in terms of cycles per unit time will be ro/21t.It is denoted by f 8 = Phase angle. It is required to specify the time relationship between two quantities having the same frequency when their peak values ha'ving like sign do not occur simultaneously. In Eq. (2.1) the phase angle is a reference to the time origin. More commonly, the phase angle is used as a reference to another quantity having the same frequency. For example, at some reference point in a harmonically vibrating system, the motion may be expressed by ...(2.2) ZI = AI sin rot Motion at any other point in the system might be expressed as
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For positive values of 8 the motion at point i reaches its peak within one half cycle after the peak motion occurs at point 1. The angle 8 is then called phase lag. For negative values of 8 the peak motion at i occurs within one half cycle ahead of motion at 1, and 8 is called as phase lead. The time period, T is given by 1 21t T==f ro The velocity and acceleration of motion are obtained from the derivatives of Eq. (2.1.). dZ . Velocity = = Z = roA cos (rot  8) dt = roA sin (rot  8 + ~) 2 d Z .. 2 = r = Z = ro A sin (rot 8) dt
...(2.4)
...(2.5)
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...(2.6)
= ro2 A (sin rot  e + 1t) Equations (2.5) and (2.6) show that both velocity and acceleration are also harmonic and can be represented by vectors roA and ol A; which rotate at the same speed as A, i.e. ro rad/unit time. These, however, lead the displacement and acceleration vectors by 1tI2 and 1trespectively. In Fig. 2.4 vector representation of harmonic displacement, velocity and acceleration is presented considering the displacementas the referencequantity(8 = 0).
, .J
(.,..~ 4",tt
Theory of Vibrations
N
..
17
z,z,z
+' C ~
E
v 0
~
TimtZ,t
a. UI
0
oN
... >+'
>
v 0 ~
Ti mtZ,t
0
.... c:,I c:,I
c 0
Timcz,t
v 0
.et
Fig. 2.4: Vector representation of harmonic displacement. velocity and acceleration
When two harmonic motions having little different frequencies are superimposed. a non harmonic motion as shown in Fig. 2.5 occurs. It appears to be harmonic except for a gradual increase and decrease in amplitude. The displacement of such a vibration is given by: Z = AI sin (0011  91) + A2 sin (0021 92)
...(2.7)
N
..
+' C c:,I .,/
D,
2Am\n
.,/
2A max
./
E
,~
TimtZ (t)
v 0
a.
III
,.'J'
''" ,.,
~T , b

"""'
3! j,;I',: ','"

~
"
:'
;;"
C,"
'i'j{':;,':::;;;~,.
18
The dashed curve (Fig. 2.5), representing the envelop of the vibration amplitudes oscillates at a frequency, called the beat frequency, which corresponds to the difference in the two source frequencies:
I 1<01 <021 fb = Tb = 21t ...(2.8) The frequency of the combined oscillations is the average of the frequencies of the two components and is given by f
i = (2~)(
+ A2
0) 1;1t0) 2
...(2.9)
The maximum and minimum amplitudes of motion are the sum and difference of the amplitudes of the two sources respectively.
Zmax
= AI
...(2.10a) ,...(2.10b)
If the drive systems of two machines designed to operate at the same speed are not synchronized, they may result vibrations having the beat frequency. 2.4 VIBRATIONS OF A SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEM
1
The simplest model to repre~ent a single degree of freedom system consisting of a rigid mass m supported by a spring and dashpot is shown in Fig. 2. 6a. The motion of the mass m is specified by one coordinate Z. Damping in this system is represented by the dashpot, and the resulting damping force is proportional to the velocity. The system is sabject to an external time dependent force F (t).
Z  Dj splac(Zment
ZZc
V(Zlocity
Ac c(z l(Zration
KZ+ Cl
+1
.. mz
m m
,
L Z
 
'
f F(t)
(I) Springmlssdashpot
. ..:..,
..,...'
...
.,......
, ,." ~ ,~.,_."..~'~"'"
.,
>":, ,;;[; /, '1\", ", ;,., "',c,...'" "": ,,' ,.'r:,/'; ~:.: "'1~F"",';
Theory of Vibrations .
, ,
19
Figure 2.6 (b) shows the free body diagram offue mass m at allYinstant dunng the course~fvibra' tions. The forces acting on the mass m are: (i) Exciting force, F (t): It is the externally applied force that causes the motion of the system. (ii) Restoring force, F,.: It is the force exerted by the spring on the mass emutends to restore the mass
,
spring constant and indicates the stiffness. This force always acts towards the equilibrium position of the system. (iii) Damping force, Fi The damping force is considered directly proportional to the velocity and given by C . Z where C is called the coefficient of viscous damping; this force always opposes the motion. In some problems in which the damping is not viscous, the concept of viscous damping is still used by defining an equivalent viscous damping which is obtained so that the total the energy dissipated per cycle is same as for the actual damping during a steady state of motion. (iv) Inertia force, F.: l It is due to the acceleration of the mass and is given by m Z. According to DeAlemberfs principle, a body which is not in static equilibrium by virtue of some acceleration which it possess, can be brought to static equilibrium by' introduculg on it an inertia force. This force acts through the centre of gravity of the body in the direction opposite to that of accelera,
tion.
"
'
.::(2.11)
For undamped free vibrations, the damping force and the exciting
.."
'
force are equal to zero. Therefore the'" equation of motion of the system becomes m Z + KZ = 0: or
.. K Z+mZ=O (
...(2.12a)
...(2.12b)
)
Z = A I cos
con
t + Az sin con t
,
...(2.B)
where AI and Az are both constant~ and conis undamped natural frequency. Substituting Eq. (2.13) in Eq. (2.12), we get?
(j)~ (AI cos (j) i + Az sin (j)nt
"
=0
=:1:
or
,,' ,,' , " ,
'co
~ .
m
...(2.14)
The values of constants A I and A2 are obtained by supstituting proper boundary conditions. We may
Z = V0
Z
:. """':.!'",I;'j,d",. ,',:'}.., :';"h' ,,',", , " :!':"'" '"
'
C .
'
:;
,
... ( 2.15 )
j
Now,
00,;
...(2.16)
20
=2..
V.
~n
.
...(2.17)
Hence
2 = 20 cos oont + .
20 = Az cos 9 V 2.. = AZ sin 9 co
n
con
Vo
sin oont
...(2.18) ...(2.19)
...(2.20)
Substitution of Eqs. (2.19) and (2.20) into Eq. (2.18) yields 2 = Az cos (oon t  9) where ...(2.21 ) ...(2.22)
= tanI
2
~
( con20)
2
Az = ,/20 +
.
( con )
graphically
Vo
...(2.23) as shown in
The displacement of mass given by Eq. (2.21) can be represented Fig. 2.7. It may be noted that
c+)
~
+Az
:N
.. oN .. N
One cycle
Acceleration
""
1',"
/.0,
0'
% y, .
'
/.
'
e\ 
"~/ . /
," 2~\
1'/
/
0
,/ TI.r A
/
2
"IT.~,
'\'.
2lT +9
/
0
Time,t
'
'"
V "
/
0
0 isplacement
"
velocity
()
Fig, 2.7 : Plot of displacement. velocity and acceleration for the free vibration of a massspring system I>
21
At time t equal to
Displacement Z is Az cos 8 Az 0
AZ
..
0 8
(J)n 1t +8
0) n 1I+8 0)
L
3 1t+8 2
(J)n
21t
+8
AZ
O)n
It is evident from Fig. 2.7 that nature of foundation displacement is sinusoidal. The magnitude of maximum displacement is Az. The time required for the motion to repeat itself is the period of vibration, T and is therefore given by. .
T
21t O)n
1"
...(2.24)
is given by
21t v;;
21t
st
=...!..
(K
.
...(2.25) ...(2.26)
Now
Where g
Therefore
Vfut
rg
...(2.27)
Eq. (2.27) shows that the natural frequency is a function of static deflection. The relation of In and Os!given by Eq. (2.27) gives a curve as shown in Fig. 2.8. The nature of variation of the velocity and acceleration of the mass is also shown in Fig. 2.7.
I, .
...~
,.,. ~.~
.n I
22
:~
40
30
,....
.....
N :I: 20
10
'..
2
.
4
6stat
00
6
(mm)
10
With Viscous Damping. For damped free vibration system (i.e., the excitation
force Fo sin (J)t on the system is zero), the differential equation of motion can be written as mZ + Cl + KZ = 0 ...(2.28) where C is the damping constant or force per unit velocity. The solution of Eq. (2.28) may be written as '),. t . .
=A e
...(2.29)
where A and A are arbitrary constants. By substituting the value of Z given by Eq. (2.29) in Eq. (2.28), we get m A A2it + C A A It + K A it = 0 C K 2
or A +
()
ni A + m = 0
...(2.30)
C
.
F)
C
'
...(2.31 )
...(2.32) 2 The physical significance of this solution depends upon the relative magnitudes 'of (C/2m) and (K/m), which determines whether the exponents are real or complex quantities.
'
Alt A2t Z  A le + A 2e
Case I :
>K 2m) m (~
2
The roots AI and A2are real and negative. The motion of the system is not oscillatory but is an exponential subsiden~~(Fig. 2. 9). Because.of the relatively large damping, so much energy is dissipated
Theory of Vi!'rations
23
,
by the damping force that there is sufficient kinetic energy left t~ carry the mass and pass the equilibrium position. Physically this means a relatively large damping and the system is said to be over damped,
2 C > 4 km
...
"
Tim(l,t
Case 11 :
(~ ) = K
2
2m
,
The roots Al and Az are equal and negative. Since the equality must be fulfilled, the solution is given by
Z = (AI.+ Az t) le = (AI + Az t) eCt/Zm ...(2,33) In this case also, there is no vibratory motion. It is similar to oyer damped case except that it is possible for the sign to change once as shown in Fig. 2010.This,case is of little importance in itself; it
assumes greater significance as a measure of the damping capacity of the system.
"
'
z
c2=l"km
Time,t
.,
damped system
When
= K. C = C 2m ) m' (~
...(2.34)
Then Cc "=,2 ~Km". ...(2.35) The system in this conditioon is known as ~ritically damped system anaC ~ is known as critical damping constant.' The ratio of the actual damping constant to the critical damping constant. is. defined as damping ratio: .. C
~=
,..(2.36)
...(2.37)
Cc
'Now
r , . [.',
.. ".'
24
Foundations
AI, 2 =(_;:!:~;21)
COn
...(2.38)
Case III :
(~ )
2m
AI,2
2 < K
...(2.39)
...(2.40) ...(2.41 )
or
the
z
t)+Cz cos( (J)1I~t)]
COS(J)ndt]
...(2.42)
...(2.43 )
The motion of the system is oscillatory (Fig. 2.11) and the amplitude of vibration goes on decreasing in an exponential fashion.
C < 41<m
system
As a convenient measure of damping, we may compute the ratio of amplitudes of the successive cycles of vibration
Z
L Z2
e0> "f,1
= e0>n f,(t+Zn/o>"cI)
...(2.44 a)
or or
or
ZI 
...(2.44 b) ...(2.44 c)
...(2.44 d)
ZI loge 22.
21t;
~ },
",inF1':
j'/,"
" 't~..
' .~t
.o,~;
',.
Tlreory of Vtb",tiolU
,:)
peak
amplitudes
{i,e,
log,
Z\
r::2
1 ...(2.44 e)
or
tbus, damping of a system can be obtained from a free vibration record by knowing the successive amplitudes which are one cycle apart. If the damping is very small, it may be convenient to measure the differences in peak amplitudes for a number of cycles, say n. In such a case, if Z" is the peak amplitudes of the n,h cycle, then Zo Zl Z2 ZnI 0  =  = =...== e where~ = 2x ~
Z\ Z2 ZJ Zn
Therefore, Hence or
Zo, Zn
~=n
}: ~
Z 0 oge Zn
..
Z0..
...(2.441)
...(2.44 g)
=2xn
oge.z n
Therefore, a system is over damped if ~ > 1; critically damped if ~ = 1 and under damped if ~ < 1. 2.4.3 Forced Vibrations Of Single Degree Freedom Syst~m. In many cases of vibrations caused by rotating parts of machines, th~ systems are subjected to periodic exciting forces. Let us consider the case of a single degree freedom sys~.:mwhich is acted upon by a steady state sinusoidal exciting force having magnitude F and frequency 0>(i.e. F(t) = Fosin rot). For this case the equation of motion (Eq. 2.11) can be written as :
.. . 111 Z + C Z + K Z = Fo Sin ro t ...(2.45) Eq;(2.45) is a linear, nonhomogeneous, second order differential equation. The solution of this equation consists of two parts namely (i) complementary function, and (ii) particular integral. The complementary function is obtained by considering no forcing function. Therefore the equation of motion in this case will be :
..
m Z, + C Z, + K Z, = 0
...(2.46)
The solution of Eq. (2.46) has already been obtained in the previous st?ctioIland is given by, ZI = eO>/"(C\sinrondt+C2cosrondt) ...(2.47) Here ZI represents the displacement of mass m at any instant t when vibrating without any forcing function. . The particular integral is obtained by rewriting Eq. (2.45) as m 2:2+ C 22 + K Z2 = Fo sin rot where Z2 = displacement of mass m a~~nYinstant t when vibrating with forcing function.
...(2.48)
.;Y,
8111;1' "
26
"H,'
"
"
of Eq. (2A8).,\~
" . ~ ,
gi'{en by'.
',", ,,'
'"
" ,
t,;
"
22 = AI sin 00t + A2cos 00' t where AI and A2 are two, arbitrary constants. Substituting Eq. (2.49) in ~q. (2.48) ',' 
. .:'
, "
,
m ( At 002 sin 00t  A2002 cos (0 t) + C (AI 00cos 00t  A2 ID;in 00t) + K (AI sin 00t + A2 cos 00t)
,",,' ""'='Fosin'ro,t':. :
,
,
'
' , ,'.,
,..'(2.50:
,;
, ,
'
(,.
'
','
",
,"~
(
. ...(2,51 a) ,..(2.? 1 b)
( m A2 002+ KA2 + CA! 00).I::osffi t,~ O. 'J" From Eg. (2.51 a), .,
m =
:
F.
Q.
0,
',n
",(2,52
a)
=0
...{2.52 b)
(Kmoo2) Fo
2
0..
'.)2.53
a)
(K  mm2) + C2m2
"
A2 =
'<c,
"""
 CmFo
(K~~2)2+c"2m2,"."
' ," ','
...(2,53 b)
t
.
'
"',, >,
':22
(K  m m ) + Cm"
let, '
':2"
2 {(K'mm2)sinmicwcosmt} 
'...(2.54)
tan e =
'C 0)
'
Kl~cd2
.,.(2.55)
22 =
Eg. (2.56) may be written as
22 =
Where
t
Fo
~(K~';'m2t+'c2
. sin(mt  e)
,,' ,
...(2.56)
..
,
cii1'
" ,
,
:"
:,., "
, ,'!
" ..~
. '.ccFo!K
'sin{~t "'er
"I
. " ...(2.57)
,,'
~(I:!12)+(2Tl~)~..
.
,
,',
"~;
. '"
11
"',,;, ".,:.' ,
..,
~ = Dam p ing
ratio = 
':Ci"","'G'}""::"',',_:;,~'',
, '
.'
'
""""'~!i1I"1!",?'
~""
"".",..1d.""
"~~",...""."..",""."""",."""""""",,,i""'~'
~J'(,,~\'k
Theory of Vibrations
. .
27
,'..,
The complete solution is obtained by adding the compJimentary function and the particular integral. Since the 'coriipliIne~tarYfti~l(!tioh:lsan'expJnenii~nf'decayin~ function,:iit'will die out'soon and the motion will be des~ribed by only the p~uticula:rmtegral(Fig. 2:i 1)'.: The syStemwill vibrate harmonically ,with the same frequency as the forcing and the pe~ ap11'1!tu4~.,is,g~ven by
Az =
. .
F. /K 0
'.
"
oi
...(2,58)
",
...,
;;"
N
"I +' C ~
..,
,~
'~',''
'
E
~ u 0
a.
UI
,.,..
....
....
Transi~nt
211"
~
N N .. +' C ~
(;)
~
Time.t
~ u 0 0
E
a.
UI ,
.
'h ;. . . /' .
"
:'1 i ." ..
"
"
~,: ,~~#"st'~c;!:t>~tatcz
4;i;" ':~~.~.",;..'
''~,'
:~~.::
N
+' C ~
'I \
"
.
Time,t
q
c:.I u 0
a.
III
., '.
" .
"
. "! ".'
'.', ,',
Co mpl~t~
solu tion
i,
~ rr"'
"'T'1iiiiii['
~
"
.".
,(
'.
;:
, ""
~>;;;<~i:.~..,'
28
SoU Dyrul",ks
& Maehi"e
Foundlltions
The quantity FelK is equal to the static deflection of the mass under force Fo' Dynamic magnification factor, f.1 is derIDedas the ratio of the dynamic amplitude Az to the static deflection. and is given by
~ = ~(1112)2 1+(211~)2

...(2.59) 
The variation of f.1 versus 11is shown in Fig. 2.13 for different values of damping ratio ~.It would be seen that near 11= 1, the value of f.1 is maximum. This is called resonance and the forcing frequency J at which it occurs is called the resonant frequency. 5
~=o
t.
...
0 u
I
3
"0.1
....
... c
0
11
0)
u .....
.c
c Cl
0 0
Frc&quc&ncy
1.5
ratio. "\.
"0
Theory of Vibrations
29
Differentiating Eq. (2.59) with respect to 11and equating to zero, it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 11 = ~12~2
...(2.60 a)
= ffin ~12~2
= Damped resonant frequency
...(2.60 b)
where
ffind
180
150
<D c:.J
C'I C 0
120
c:.J
\11
90'
r =0.707
~ = 05
0 .J: a..
600
30
0 0 '1.0
FrczquQncy ratio#
2.0
rz.
3.0
Fig. Jagversus ratio for ..,' different amounts of damping , 2.14: Phase . ' . , frequency : " ~ .
;':J '
<'.,
,";~,'~',{f.(;"..
30
Foundations
'By substituting Eq. (2.60) in Eq. (2.59), the maximum value of magnification factor is obtained. It is given by , I ...(2.61 )
J.lmax =
2E,~IE/ I  2E,
...(2.62)
Assuming a damping of 5% in a structure, its amplitude at resonance will be 10 times the static deflection. This indicates that systems will be subjected to very large amplitudes at resonance which should be avoided.
. '. 
The phase angle e given by Eq. (2.55) indicates the phase difference between the motion and the exciting force: It can}e.writt~.n~s .
e = TanI 1 2 ( T\ )
'" .
211E,
...(2.63 )
(b) Massspringdas~ot
system
Fig. 2.15 : Single degree freedom system with rotating mass type excitation
. .
...(2.64)
where m is the mass 'of foundation including 2 me' Equations (2.64) imd (2.48) are similar, except that 2 Ill" ero2 appears in Eq. (2.64) in place of Fo' The solution of Eq. (2.64) may therefore be written as,
'.';
:~,(i:',
'.'),'
'<'F
'" ".
,."
',', ,
".
.(\~.tJi;"":
Theory of Vibrations
where Az
(2mee/
m)'T}2
2
(1T}2)
Since or
F=2m 0
.eO)
+(2~T}) 2
2 0)2
(J)
K = 2 me . e K
= 2 me . e
)
(mro~)
= (2 me :}T}2
...(2.67)
3.0
0.10
2.0
..
';Iile
1.0
00
1..0
'
,2.0, Frequency
4.0
1)
5.0
180.
'(D ... aI C7I c: 0 90 aI 0
U\ .s::.
0.05
I
0.50 0.25'
a..
0 0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
32
Soil Dynamics
(2mee m)
= ~ (11"\2)2+(21"\1;)2
...(2.68)
The value of A= /(2me elm) is plotted against frequency ratio 1"\ in Fig. 2.16 a. The curves are similar in shape to those in Fig. 2.13 except that these starts from origin. The variation of phase angle e with 11 is shown in Fig. 2.16 b. Differentiating Eq. (2.68) with respect to 11and equating to zero. it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 1 ...(2.69 a) 1"\=
F2e
or
ro =
0011
.
...(2.69 b)
Az
l' 21;~11;2
( 2meelm ) max ~
...(2.70)
2\
...(2.71 )
2.5 VIBRATION
ISOLATION
In case a machine is rigidly fastened to the foundation, the force will be transmitted directly to the foundation and may cause objectionable vibrations. It is desirable to isolate the machine from the foun'dation through a suitably designed mounting system in such a way that the transmitted force is reduced. For example, the inertial force developed in a reciprocating engine or unbalanced forces produced in any other rotating machinery should be isolated from the foundation so that the adjoining structure is not set into heavy vibrations. Another example may be the isolation of delicate instruments from their supports which may be subjected to certain vibrations. In either case the effectiveness of isolation may be measured in terms of the force or motion transmitted to the foundation. The first type is known as force isolation and the second type as motion isolation.
2.5.1 Force Isolation. Figure 2.17 s~ows a machine of mass m supported on the foundation by means of an isolator having an equivalent stiffness K and damping coefficient C. The machine is excited with unbalanced vertical force of magnitude 2 me eci sin 00t . The equation .ofmotion of the ~achine can be written as:
... 2 m Z + C Z + KZ = 2 me eoo sin 00t The steady state motion of the mass of machine can be worked out as
2m
eoo
...(2.72)
/K
Z =
...(2.73)
w~ere
8 = TanI
...(2.74)
[ 1.1"\ ]
':;0:"<\',:,;'
''
,'t
"t"
"',"','
'1
Theory of Jlibrlltions
;;::
33
'~,
'
~~~
Ma chine
K
2'
K 2
Iso lata r
Foundation
Ground surfac~
systcm
The only force which can be applied to the foundation is the spring force KZ and the damping force . C Z; hence the total force tqmsmitted to the foundation during steady state forced vibration is
Ft
= KZ + CZ
2m em
e
2
..,(2.75)
F =
. sm(mt e)+
,
t~
(11l) 2 +(211~)2
(1112)
Jl+(211~)2
2 2
. sin(m t  P)
...(2.77)
. (1112)
is given by
,
'
+(211~)
p is the phase difference between the exciting force and the force transmitted to the foundation and
i
coo
K,
J
]
...(2.78)
~
','
" ".
34
Soil Dynamics
Since the force 2 m e e ol is the force which would be transmitted if springs were infinitely rigid, a measure of the effectiveness of the i~olation mounting system is given by
. .
' Ft
~1+(211~)2
IlT =2 2 meem = ~ (1112)2 + (211~)2 ...(2.79) IlT is called the transmissibility of the system. A plot of IlTversus 11for different values of ~is shown
in Fig. 2.18. It will be noted from the figure that for any frequency ratio greater than
transmitted to the foundation will be less than the exciting force. However in this case, the presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system as the curves for damped case are above the undamped ones for 11>12. A certain amount of damping, however, is essential to maintain stability under transient conditions and to prevent excessive amplitudes when the vibrations pass through resonance during the starting or stopping of the machine. Therefore, for the vibration isolation system to be effective 11should be greater than
12.
4.5 4.0
.
~ =0
=0.125
~ =0
~ =0.125
f
1 3.0 =<.
....
.
oD U\
U\ .E
20
III C 0 ... I
~ =0.5
~ =1.0 ~ =2.0
1.0
~
0
: 0.125'
I

~ =0
2.0
I
1.0
3.0
1'\.
Frczquczncyr(:itio
Fig. 2.18: Transmissibility
,f
"c"'"
','"
,,': ,r:,,<"f:'
';:'4/
l',,'
tt~~7T{~:, ';:s:",.:';
:~";
Theory of Vibrations
, . .
: ';' , ' ' '
35
2.5.2. Motion Isolation. In many situations, it would be necessary to isolate structure or mechanical systems from vibrations transmitted from the neighboring machines. Again we require a suitable mounting system so that least vibrations are transmitted to the system due to the vibrating base. We consider a system mounted through a spring and dashpot and attached to the surface which vibrates harmonically with frequency (I)and amplitude Y0 as shown in Fig. 2.19.
Machina
"
Foundation
., ,
Iso lator
v = Yo Sin
GJt
Let Z be the absolute displacement of mass; the equation of motion of the system can be written as: m or
Z + C (2  Y) + K (Z : Y) = 0
m
...(2.80)
(I)
Z + K 2 .+
K Z = C Y .+ K Y = C (I) Y0 cos
1 .+ K Y0 sin (I) 1
or h ere
...(2.81)
...(2.8?)
T I CO) ex =, an K
l:he solution of Eq. (2.81) will give the maximum amplitude as:
Z
,.
max
~1.+(21l~)2
...(2.83)
" "
. ,,' ",
18E:.
36
~1 + (2T\~)2
...(2.84)
~T  y;
 ~(1T\2)2+(2T\~)2
Equation (2.84) is the same expression as Eq. (2.79) obtained earlier. Transmissibilityof such system can also be studied from the response curves shown in fig. 2.18. It is again noted that for the vibration
isolation to be effective, it must be designed in such a way that T\>
.fi.
2.5.3. Materials Used In Vibration Isolation. Materials used for vibration isolation are rubber, felt. cork and metallic springs. The effectiveness of each depends on the operating conditions.
1.5.3.1. Rubber. Rubber is loaded in compression or in shear, the latter mode gives higher flexibility. With loading greater than about 0.6 N per sq mm, it undergoes much faster deterioration. Its damping and stiffness properties vary widely with applied load, temperature, shape factor, excitation frequency and the amplitude of vibration. The maximum temperature upto which rubber can be used satisfactorily is about 65c. It must not be used in presence of oil which attacks rubber. It is found very s' ".,ble for high frequency vibrations. 2.5.3.2.Felt. Felt is used in compressfun only and is capable of taking extremely high loads. It has very high damping and so is suitable in the range of low frequency ratio. It is mainly used in conjunction with metallic springs to reduce noise transmission. 2.5.3.3. Cork. Cork is very useful for accoustic isolation and is also used in small pads placed underneath a large concrete block. For satisfactory working it must be loaded from 10 to 25 N/sq mm. It is not affected by oil products or moderate temperature changes. However, its properties change with the frequency of excitation. 1.5.3.4. Metallic springs. Metallic springs are not affected by the operating conditions or the environments. They are quite consistent in their behaviour and can be accurately designed for any desired conditions. They have high sound transmissibility which can be reduced by loading felt in conjunction with it. It has negligible damping and so is suitable for working in the range of high frequency ratio.
2.6 THEORY OF VIBRATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS The purpose of a vibration measuring instrument is to give an output signal which represents, as closely as possible, the vibration phenomenon. This phenomenon may be displaceme~t, velocity or acceleration of the vibrating system and accordingly the instrument which reproduces signals proportional to these are called vibrometers. velometers or accelerometers. There are essentially two basic systems of vibration measurement. One method is known as the directly connected system in which motions can be measured from a reference surface which is fixed. More often such a reference surface is not available. The second system, known as "Seismic system" does not require a fixed reference surface and therefore is commonly used for vibration measurement. Figure 2.20 shows a Vibration measuring instrument which is used to measure any of the vibration phenomena. It consists of a frame in which the mass ~ is supported by means of a spring K and dashpot C. The frame is mounted on a vibrating body and vibrates al~ng with it. The system reduces to a spring mass dashpot system having base on support excitation as discussed in Art. 2.5.2 illustrating motion isolation.
.
Thtory of VibratiOns 37
.(~
z
m
c
y
=
Yo Sin '>t
Let the surface S of the structure be vibrating harmonically with an unknown amplitude Y 0 and an unknown frequency (0. The output of the instrument will depend upon the relative motion between the mass and the structure, since it is this relative motion which is detected and amplified. let 2 be the absolute displacement of the mass, then the output of the instrument will be proportional to X = 2  Y. The equation of motion of the system can be written as
Z + C (Z  Y) + K (2  Y) = 0
... ..
2
...(2.8S)
..:.(2.86)
...(2.S7) where
~ = damping
1
,ratio
2 TJ~
( 1 TJ2 )
,
= 1)2.J! Y0 sin
,
(0 t  8)
(2.,SS)
;1 ">;(1..;>'
ill
38.
Soil Dynamics
2.6.1. Displacement
1121.1 =
if
I and 8 = O.The variation o{Tl~ with~'aiid'~is shown in Fig.2.21. The variation of8 with 1'\
is already given in Fig. 2.14. It is seen"'tnatwneifff is" large, 1'\21.1 is approximately equal to 1 and 8 is approximately equal to 180. Therefore to design a displacement pickup, 1'\should be large which means that the natural frequency of the instrument itself'shou~d be low compared to the frequency to be measured. Or in other words, the instrument should have a soft spring and heavy mass. The instrument is sensitive, flimsy and can be used in a weak vibration environment. The instrument can not be used for measurement of strong vibrations. ,I
t
\
\0
. 
3.0
I I
"
2 0
,
1 0
0 0
1.0
2.0
FrequClncy
3.0
ratio, '1.
4.0
5.0
1.1
...(2.89)
The output of the instrument will be proportional to the acceleration of the structure if J.1 is constant. Figure 2.13 shows the variation of J.1 with 1'\and;. It is seen that J.1 is approximately equal to unity for small values of 1'\.Therefore to design an acceleration pickt!p, 11should be small which means that th~'
" ",.~'n'7""~:"'"""'"
.'1::'
'lr~r\f
.........
<~
Theory of Vibrations
39
natural frequency of the instrument itself should be high compared to the frequency to be measured. In other words, the instrument should have a stiff spring and small mass. The instrument is less sensitive and suitable for the measurement of strong motion. The instrument size is small.
2.6.3 Velocity Pickup. Equation (2.88) can be rewritten as 1 X =  TIJ!Y0 (J)sin (J) 1  0)
COn
O)n
1 . .. .1 ~ Yo(J) sm (0)10) .: atTl = 1, f.1= ...(2.91) con 2 ':1 .. . . 2~ Since O)nand ~are constant, the instrument will measure the velocity at 11= 1.
X
=
It may be noted that the same instrument can be used to measure displacement, acceleration and velocity in different frequency ranges. ., Xa Y if TI 1 Displacement pickup (Vibrometer~) ..
X a Y if 11 lAcceleration pickup (Accelerometers)
.
Displacement and velocity pickups have the disadvantage of having rather a large size if motions having small frequency of vibration are to be measured. Calibration of these pickups is not simple. Further. corrections have to be made in the observations as the response is not flat in the starting regions. From the point of view of small size, flat frequency response, sturdiness and ease of calibration, acceleration pickups are to be favoured. They are relatively less sensitive and this disadvantage can easily be overcome by high gain electronic instrumentation..
. .
2.6.4. Design of Acceleration Pickup. The relative displacem~nt between, the mass an~ the support would be a measure of the support acceleration ifTl is less than 0.75 an4 ~ is of the order of 0.6 to 0.7. Of the various methods of measurement of relative displacement, .electrical gauging,:in 'whIch {he mechanical quantity is converted into an equivalent electrical quantity is best suited for a~.<;elerationpickups. Electrical gauging offers the possibility of high magnification of ~e signals which are usually weak because the spring is stiff and the displacements are small. The mechanica,l quantity alters either the resistance, or capacitance or the inductance of the circuit which consequently alters the current in the circuit.
'
2.7 VIBRATION OF MULTIPLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS In the preceding sections, vibrations of systems having single degree of freedom have been discussed. In many engineering problems, one may come across the systems which may have more than one degree of freedom. Two degrees freedom cases arise when the foundation of the system is yielding thus adding another degree of freedom or a spring'mass system is attached to the main system to reduce its vibrations. In systems when there are a number of masses con~ected with each other, even if each mass is constrained to have one degree of freedom, the system as a whole h~s as many degrees of freedom as there are masses. Such an idealization is done for carrying out buildings. dyn,!mic analysis of multistoreyed
''i.
40
(b) Idealisation
Figure 2.22 a shows the frame work of a four storeyed. building. It is usual to lump the masses at the floor levels and the lumped mass has a value corresponding to weight of the floor, part of the supporting system (columns) above and below the floor and effective live load. The restoring forces are provided by the supporting systems. Figure 2.22b shows such an idealization and it gives a four degrees of freedom system. In free vibration a system having four degrees of freedom has four natural frequencies and the vibration of the any point in the system, in general, is a combination of four harmonics of these four natural frequencies respectively. Under certain conditions, any point in the system may execute harmonic vibrations at any of the four natural frequencies, and these are known as the principal modes of vibration. Figure 2.22<.to 2.221'show the four modes of vibration. If all the masses vibrate in phase (Fig. 2.22c), the mode is termed the first or lowest or fundamental mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be the lowest in magnitude compared to other modes. If all adjacent masses vibrate out of phase with each other (Fig. 2.22), the mode is termed the highest mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be highest in magnitude compared to other modes. 2.7.1. Two Degrees of Freedom Systems. 2.7.1.1. Undampedfree vibration: Figure 2.23 shows a massspring system with two degrees of freedom. Let Z\ be the displaceuent of mass ml and Z2 the displacement of mass m2' The equations of motion of the system can be written:
In t Z\ + Kt ZI + K2 (Z\ 1nl Z2 + K3 Zl + K2 (Z2
Z2)
=0
...(2.92) ...(2.93 )
...(2.94 ) ...(2.9S)
 Z,) = 0 The solution of Eqs. (2.92) and (2.93) will be of the following form: ZI=A\sinro,,(
Z2
.
= A2 sin ro" t
Substitution of Eqs. (2.94) and (2.95), into Eqs. (2.92) and (2.93), yields: (KI + K2  ml C1)~) Al  K2A2
=0
...(2.96) ...(2.97)
K2 Al +
(~
+ KJ
 m2 C1);)A2 = 0
~!'\Wm
~heory of Vibrations
Jz~Z2
oon
Kt + K2 mt ron
K2
 K2
or
K2 + K3  ~ ro n
21
=0
. f2 9;!)
00: _ Kt + K2 + K2 + K3 O)~+ K) K2 + K2 K3 + K3 K)  = 0
m)
ml~
...(2.99)
Equation (2.99) is quadratic in ro2, n and the roots of this equation are:
1/2
KI +K2
m)
K2 +K3 2 + 4 K~
[(
m)
"'2
) {(
mj
] ...(2.100)
From Eq. (2.100), two valuesofnatura!~!!e9~~ncies oon)and oon2 can be obtained. con)is corresponding to the fIrst mode and COn2 is of the second mode. .,
11 iiii
..,
42
...(2.101)
Z 2 = A(I) ...(2.102) 2 sin (0n I t + A(2) 2 sin (0n2 t The superscripts in A represent the mode. The relative values of amplitudes AI and A2 for the two modes can be obtained using Eqs. (2.96) and (2.97). Thus and
(0 2 Al K2  K2 +KJ "'2 ffinJ (i)2K A2 KI+K2mlffinl 2 (2)' 2 AI K2  K2 + KJ  "'2 ffin2 (2) 2 K A2 KJ + K2  m) ffin2 2
...(2.103j
...(2.10{
2.7.1.2. Undamped forced vibrations. Consider the system shown in Fig. 2.24 with excitation force Ft
sin (0 t acting on mass ml. In this case, equations of motion will be:
ml Zt + Kt Zt + K2 (Zl  Z2) = Fo sin (0 t
1n2 Z2 + KJ Z2 + K2 (Z2  Z\)
(2.105) ...(2.106
= 0
F0 sin G.)tl
21
22
.
Fig. 2.24 : Forced vibration of a two degrees freedom system
.. ',",y
leory of Vibrations
43
= Al
sin 00t
...(2.107) ...(2.108)
2z = Az sin 00t Substituting Eqs. (2.107) and (2.108) in Eqs. (2.105) and (2.106), we get Z (KI + Kz  ml 00) AI  Kz Az = Fo z  Kz AI + (Kz + K3  mz 00) Az = 0 Solving for AI and Az from the above two equations, we get z
AI
...(2.109) ...(2.110)
=
4
...(2.111 a)
mlrnz

ml rnz co 
KI+Kz
ml
co +
z KIKz+KzK3+K3KI
]
...(2.11Ib)
and
Az =
mlrnz
K3Fo 4
co
KI+Kz
ml
Kz+K3
rnz
co +
Z'
KIKz+KzK3+K3KI
m\rnz
The above t\VOequations give steady state amplitude of vibration of the ~wo masses respectively, as
a function of 00. The denominator of the two equations is same. It may be noted that:
(i) The expression inside the bracket of the denominator of Eqs. (2.1110) and (2.111b) IS of the
same type as the expression of natural frequency given by Eq. (2,99). Therefore at 00 = oolll and
Cl)
= Cl)nZ values
Cl) =
...(2.112)
Thus it makes the mass ml motionless at this frequency. No such stationary condition exists for mass ml' The fact that the mass which is being excited can have zero amplitude of vibration under certain conditions by coupling it to another spring mass system forms the principle of dynamic vibration absorbers which will be discussed in Art. 2.8.
'
2.7.2. System With n Degrees of Freedom. 2.7.2.1. Undamped free vibrations: Consider a system shown in Fig. 2.25 having ndegree of freedom. If Z \' 2z, Z3 ... 2n are the displacements of the respective masses at any instant, then equations of motion are:
rn, 2( + K( Z\ + Kz (ZI  Zz)
=0
...(2.113) ...(2.114)
...(2.115)
 Kn (2n 
I ' 2n)
=0
...(2.116)
",'"
"' . ,c""
'; ';
. "',
".,'~'.,..~,,... n
181:.J
44 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
Z1
Z2
Z3
Kn 1
Zn1
Zn
Fig. 2.25: Undamped free vibrations of a multidegree freedom system
"'.'~..2,,~,.."t;,~.>,
:"""',;,n
rA';".!n~";'F."'"
"'.,.,
Theory of Vibrations
The solution of Eqs. (2.113) to (2.116) will be of the follow:"'~ IO':n: ZI = Al sin cont Z2 = A2 sin cont Z) = AJ sin cont ....... .. ..... ......... .....
Zn
= An
sin cont
...(2.120)
Substitution of Eqs. (2.117) to (2.120) into Eqs. (2.113) to (2.116), yields: [(KI+K2)mIID~] AIK2~ K2A1 + [(K2+K))~ID~] A2KJAJ =0 =0
...(2.121) ...(2.122) ...(2.123)
 KJ Az + [(KJ + K4)  mJ ID ~] A)  K4 A4 = 0
 I + (Kn mnID~) An = 0
...(2.124)
For nontrivial solutions of oonin Eqs. (2.121) to (2.124), Kz [(Kz+KJ)~ID;] K)
0
'"
[ (KI
0 0 0
Kn
0 0 0
2
=0
(2.125) .
'"
(KnmnIDn)
Equations (2.125) is of nthdegree in CI); and therefore gives n values of con corresponding to n natural frequencies. The mode shapes can be obtained from Eq. (2.121) to (2.124) by using, at one time, one of the various values of conas obt1incd from Eq. (2.125). When the numht.'T vi degreeS of freedom exceeds three, the problem of forming the frequency equation and s01";~jgit for determ41ation of frequencies and mode sh<1pes becomes tedius. Numerical techJ'iG.~es are invariably resorted to in such cases. .
,
Holzer's numerical technique is a convenient method of solving the problem for the system idealized as sho~ in Fig. 2.26. By sUI11II1iPgJfotces at free end, .
',
. .
'O".::.,:=C':"~",_, ;: "
~::===.::.~ ~:==E'~,'::.._~
If
..
.J K1
m1
m1 Z1
I
ml
m2 Zz
K2
m3 Z3
.
m. 1K. 1
11 m. K. J
m i+1 I
~_1
.
Kj1(ZjZi1)
Fig. 2.26 : An idealised multidegree freedom system Inertia force at a level below mass mi  I .. = ".;1 m. Z.
L...J=I } }
Spring force at that level corresponding to the difference of adjoining masses = K. 1 I ( Z. 1  z.1 1)
Lj=lmjZi
t) = Ki 
Ai
= AiI 
have the shape as shown in Fig. 2.27. Finally An + I should worked out to zero' ~ue to fIXityat the base. The intersection of the curve with (0~ axis would give $ape.can be obtained .. various val~~s.pfQ);.~ode .. . . by substituting the correct value of (O~in Eq. (2.129).
iI
Theory of Vibrations
47
1.0
'
~
..
J c: ~
~ 1:
(..)2 n.
1.0
2 wn1
Fig.~7:
2 ""nz
2.7.2.2. Forced vibration. Let an undamped n degree of freedom system be subjected to forced vibration, and Fj (t) represents the for~e on mass mr The equation of motion for the mass mj will be
n
m. Z. +
I I
=1
K.. Z. ,n
IJ )
= F. ( t)
,
...(2.130)
where i = 1,2,3,
The amplitude of vibration of a mass is the algebraic sum of the amplitudes of vibration in various modes. The individual modal response would be some fraction of the total response with the sum of fractions being equal to unity. If the factors by which the modes of vibration are multiplied are represented by the coordinates d, then for mass mj'
Z.'"  A.(1) d 1 + A.(2) d2 (r) (n) d + ... + A. 1 dr +... + A. ,n
...(2.131 )
Z. '
= I
r=l
A~r)
'
...(2.132)
r=1
r=1 j=l
(r)
...(2.133)
~ Kij A j 1=1
r=1
(r)
(r)
oonr mj Aj
...(2.134)
.. n 2 (r) dr + I oonrmjAj dr
r=l
Fj(t)
Fj(t)
..(2.135)
or
...(2.136)
l'
.'T .~
""}'
")J'!!I~'
~,
48
Since the left hand side is a summation involving different modes of vibration, the right hand side should also be expressed as a summation of equivalent force contribution in corresponding modes. Let F; (t) be expanded as: Fj (t)
= r=1mj A~r) fr
n
(t)
...(2.137 a)
"J
Ili fr(t) =
i~1
(t) .A~r)
Z
(2.137 b)
Lm[(A~r)] ;=1
Substituting Eq. (2.137 a) in Eq. (2.136), we get
.. z dr + O}nrd,. =fr (t) Equation (2.138) is a single degree freedom equation and its solution can be written as 1
dr
I
(2.138)
=
..(2.139)
0}nr 0
It is observed that the coordinate d, uncouples the n degree of freedom system into n systems of single degree of freedom. The d's are termed as normal coordinates and this approach is known as normal mode theory. Therefore the total solution is expressed as a sum of contribution of individual modes. 2.8 UNDAMPED DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBER A system on which a steady oscillatory force is acting may vibrate excessively, especially when close to resonance. Such excessive vibrations can be eliminated by coupling a properly designed spring mass sytem to the main system. This forms the principle of undamped dynamic vibration absorber where the excitation is finally transmitted to the auxiliary system, bringing the main system to rest. Let the combination of K and M be the schematic representation of the main system under consideration with the force F0 sin CJ}t acting on it. A spring  mass (auxiliary) absorber system is attached to the main system as shown in Fig. 2.28. The equations of motion of the complete system can be written as: MZ1 + KZI + Ko (ZIZZ)
= Fa sin rot
=0
moZZ+Ka(ZIZZ)
~
Al (M0}2
= Az sin rot = Fa
Substitution of Eqs. (2.142) and (2.143) in Eqs. (2.140) and (2.141) yields Ka)KaAZ
=0
Theory of Vibrations
.49
Z2
ma Absor ber
syst <z m
Ka Z1 M Main syst<zm
Subtituting:
F
ZSl 2 na
ro
m
Ilm
<.02 n)
K{/ A 2 
K
A2
=Z
SI
...(2.146)
...(2.147)
and
1:~:
)
1 2
;
Solving Eqs. (2.146) and (2.147) for At and A2' we get Cil
'
<,
~t. = Si
n'
" ",
2 ro
ro ' no
~
2 ro'
2 ron
' K ~
...(2.148)
,J
".
, "
.,".. 
ld"2. rona
)(
1+ K"
K'
, "..",.,
"~t'u'",.'."',,
50
K ~~
~
...(2.149)
lithe natural frequency oonaof the absorber is chosen equal to 00 i.e. frequency of the excitatipn force,
it is evident from Eq. (2.148) that Al = 0 indicating that the main mass does not vibrate at all. Further Eq. (2.149) gives
Az  K
Zst  Ka or Az Ka =  K Zst ...(2.150) Thus the absorber system vibrate in such a way that its spring force at all instmts is equal and opposite to F0 sin 00 t. Hence, there is no net force acting on main mass M and the same therefore does not vibrate. The addition of a vibration absorber to a main system is not much meaningful unless the main system is operating at resonance or at least near it. Under these conditions, 00= oon'But for the absorber to be effective, 00should be equal to 00 na .
Therefore, for the effectiveness of the absorber at the operating frequency corresponding to the natural frequency of the main system alone, we have or ...(2.151 a) oona = ,oon Ko
=K
M
t"'m
ma
or
...(2.151 b)
K m !L=!!..=Ii K M
...(2.151 e)
When the condition enumerated in Eqs. (2.151) is fulfilled, the absorber is known as a tuned absorber. . For a tuned absorber, Eqs. (2.148) and (2.149) become:
1 002
(
~,:
1 y~
...(2.152)
OOna 00')
~: = (
1 y
OO"a
00') (
The denominators of Eqs. (2.152) and (2.153) are identical. At a value of 00when these denominators are zero the two masses have infinite amplitudes of vibration. Let when00= oonl' the denominators becomes zero. For this condition the expression for the denominators can be written as
.. .~
...,
~ ..
~.
Theory of Vibrations
51
OOnt
( OOna)
4<2+llm)
OOnt
<Ona
2 +1 =0
...{2.154)
The Eq. (2.154) is quadratic in <0;1' and therefore there are two values of oonl for which the denominators ofEqs. (2.152) and (2.153) become zero. These two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the 3ystem. Solution of Eq. (2.154) gives:
(:J
1.6
_1.4
(1+~2m )~J~m+~4~
...(2.155)
1.2
33
1
c c
1.0
0.8
0.6 0
0.2 Mass 0.4 ratio 0.6 }.Im
0.8
The relationships of Eq. (2.155) is plotted in Fig. 2.29. From this plot, it is evident that greater the mass ratio, greater is the spread between the two resonant frequencies. The frequency response curve for the mainsystemis shownin Fig.2.30 fora valueof ~'" = 0.2. The dotted curves shown actually mean that the amplitude is negative or its phase difference with respect to the exciting force is 1800. It can be
noticed from this figure that by attaching a vibration absorber {oona= (On)to the main system vibrating
at resonance reduces its vibration to zero. Now if the exciting frequency is absolutely constant, the system will work efficiently. Any change in the exciting frequency will shift the operating point from the optimum point and the main system response will no longer be zero. It may be noted that by adding the vibration absorber, we have introduced two resonant points instead of one in the original system. Now
:::w;' Hr.
!IIZ~
52
Soil Dynamics
if the variation of the exciting frequency is such that the operating point shifts near one of the new resonant points, then amplitudes will be excessive. Thus depending upon the variation of the exciting frequencies the spread between the two resonant frequencies has to be decided to remain reasonably away from the resonant points. After deciding the spread between the resonant frequencies, a proper value of !J.m can be chosen from the curve of Fig. 2.29. Undamped dynamic vibration absorbers are not suitable for varying forcing frequency excitation. To make the vibration absorber effective over an extended range of frequencies of the disturbing force, it is advantageous to introduce a damping device in the absorber system. Such an absorber system is called a damped dynamic vibration absorber.
...
<I~
4, }Jm=0.20
z
1.0 0 0 0.5 1.0
G.)n l
~m
J~)lr
2
(J)
...(2.156)
nl
( (J) //(/ )
Theory of Vibrations
53
The motion of a particle is representedby the equationz = 20 sin rot. Show the relative positions and
magnitudes of the displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors at time t = 0, and ro = 2.0 rad/s and 0.5 rad/s. Solution: Z = 20 sin rot
Z = 20
The magnitudes of displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors are 10, 10 ro and 10 ro2 respectively. The phase difference is such that the velocity vector leads the displacement vector by 1t/2 and the acceleration vector leads the velocity vector by another 1t/2. Figures 2.31 a and 2.31 b show the three
20 (V el.)
40 (Accln.) 10(oispl.)
(a) G..) = 2.0 rod/sec
s(Vel.)
. ~/z 2.S(Acc!n.)
". 10(OlspL)
Time period
Time perIod
= 0.5 rad/s
= 20 sin 8.0 t
of the combuled motion, and the time period of the
,.,'!.,!,,~,~~ '111""
54
Solution: Z max = 21 + 20 = 41 mm
Z mm . = 21  20 = 1 mm
T = 2.. 
Example
2.3
A mass of 20 kg when suspended from a spring, causes a static deflection of 20 mm. Find the natural frequency of the system.
1[K
Natural frequency,In
= 21t
V;
= 3.6 Hz.
21t 20 1 ~1O4
Example 2.4 For the system shown in Fig. 2.32, determine the natural frequency of the system if Kt = 1000 N/m Kz = 500 N/m KJ = 2000 N/m K4 = Ks = 750 N/m Mass of the body = 5 kg
Solution: Let Ket and Ke2represent respectively the effective stiffnesses of the top three springs and the lower two springs, then
K1
KZ
K3
1
Kel
++Kt
1 KJ
K4,
KS
Kz
~ .....
~_'".,~._.........__....
. .....
...
55
Kel = 285.7 N/m Ke2 = K4 + Ks = 750 + 750 = 1500 N/m
Theory of Vibratimrs
Now Kel and Ke2are two springs in parallel, therefore effective stiffness,
Ke
= Kel
f. n ~
Example 2.5 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 5 kg, a spring stiffness of 5 N/mm and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0.1 Ns/m. Determine (i) damping ratio and (ii) logarithmic decrement. Solution:
(i)
Cc
= 2 ~km =
Ns/m
J: C 0.1 ~=C=0.319=0.313 c
,,
(in
Lograthimic decrement
27t~
= ~ 1
~2
= 7.92 Z2 Therefore the free amplitude in the next cycle decreases by 7.92 times. Example 2.6 A mass attached to a spring of stiffness of 5 N/mm has a viscous damping device. When the mass was displaced and released, the period of vibration was found to be 2.0 s, and the ratio 01 the consecutive amplitudes was 10/3. Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 3 sin 4 t acts on the system. The unit of the force is Newton. . Solution:
i.e.
(i)
. 27t~ ZI 10
.
1 ~2
or, (ii)
(lJ n (lJ
= T = '2 = 3.14
= 4.0 rad/s
ID n
i.:'
radls
T1 ='~'=
.
4.0 3.14
= 1.273
F 3.0
.'
..
'.'
.,',
Fo
'.
.
Az =; ~ (111) 2
t+(2~11)
'. 0.6
. 2;.
Asl
= Static Deflection
" . . , '
=
I
~Q.755llll11
211~
1'
2 x 1.273 x 0.195
11.273
) = 141.4
S1On:
Where 11 and 12 frequencies at which the amplitUdeis 1/.J2 times the peak amplitude. Solution:
In a forced vibration test, the system is excited with constant force of excitation and varying frequencies. A response curve as shown in Fig. 2.33 is obtained. 0.09
Amox
0.084
0.08
C:I
"'0
E E " 0.07
::J 
c. E 0.06
et
0.05
I I I
I I
I I
I
I
I
0.04 10
.
f1 I 14
fn 18
Ifl 22
. n, ,
24
Hz
.
"
Th~o,.,of v~,!s
At resonance, 11 = 1 ana A~I Zst
57
amplitude of motion is 1/..[i times the peak amplitude, then fr~m Eq. 2.59, we get I 1
.J2' 2~ = 4(1 :"112)2 +4~2 ~2 or 1142112 (1 2~2) + (1 8~J) = 0 or 11~,2= ~[2(12~2):t~4(12~2)2_4(18~2)] ;, (1  2~2):f:2~~1 + ~2 Now Also
11~11i 1 2 112 111
12+ I.
In
In
since
)(
In
= 2 I 2  J; .
Therefore
( In )
12 + f . = 2
~=!
Iz  11 2 ( In )
A machine of mass 100 kg is supported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm. The machine produces an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N at a speed 50 c/s. Assuming a damping factor of 0.20, determine (i) the amplitude of motion due to unbalance, (ii) the transmissibility, and (iii) the transmitted force. 'Solution:
( i)
, 184
x 103
100
(J)II
, 00=
= ~KI m = ..'/
, V
21t
"
==87.7 rad/s
x 50
= 314 rad/s
= 3.58
',
,'n
,
"
~st
,
Now
~ ~  ,;784 , ;. : :'?it .
, '
'.
.Az == 4(~.~2l'+(2T\~)
0.2)2
= 0.042
mm
~'\,
..
.  .~ "'; ~~~,~"F.
58
~1+(211~)2
(ii) Transmissibility JlT
=

~(1n2)2
+(211~)2
~1+(2X3.58XO.2)2
Example 2.9 The rotor of a motor having mass 2 kg was running at a constant speed of 30 c/s with an eccentricity of 160 mm. The motor was mounted on an isolatorwith damping factor of 0.25. Determine the stiffness of the isolator spring such that 15% of the unbalanced force is transmitted to the foundation. Also ~etermine
the magnitude of the transmitted force. Solution: (i) Maximum force generated by the motOi = 2 me eo:? = 7. x 2.0 x 0.16 x (21t x 30/ = 22.72 kN
'.
= 22716 N
:ii)
. ~1 +4112~2
Jl =
T
Force transmitted
I.e.
or
~ (1
112)2+ (211~)2 .
= 0.15
or 114 
12.84112  43.44 = 0
(0
It gives Therefore
K = m (47.7)2 =:= 2.0 x (47.7)2 = 4639 N/m (iii) Force transmitted to the foundation
= 0.15
Example 2.10 A seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6Hz is used tomeasure the vibration of a machine running at 12.9rpm. The in~trumentgives the reading for th~r~lative displacement of the seismic mass as 0.05 mm. Determine the amplitudes of displacement: velo'city and acceleration of the vibrating machine. Neglect damping.
~;,:,~ .;,~
'/reory 01 v.ibrations
59
';olution : (i)
CJJ
rad/s
(J)
'1
~ ==
for ~= 0
= 1.125
X=,,~yo
= 0.40
mm
or
o. 0
X ='4
,
(YOOO2)
' ,
OOn
or
0.05
1.125 (Y 002)
(37.7)2 0
I.e,
(Y() 002)
= 63.17
mm/S2
Example 2.11 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by a mathematical mod~1 shown in Fig. 2.34 a.
,/
. ,
co:"
'1,,';
,
~:::."'O'~,""""",
,~>=j"~
, i
60
+1
+ 1
Solution: (i) The system shown in Fig. 2.34a is a two degree freedom system. The solution of such a system
'
(ii) The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained using Eq. (2.100) by putting KI = K, Kz = 2 K and KJ = K, and m I = m2 = m. By doing this, we get
\l2
[(
3K + 3K _ 4 ~ (2 K)2 m m) { ,m2 }
=K )
m
(02
112
= .!.r6K + 4K 2 l m, m ]
= 5.K
, m,
Hence,
"
.,'
'
. ~."
,,"
;,
'
,:;. .. '''
eory of Vtbtalions_/
6i
A (1) K . 2K
1= A(l) 2
A~2)
A (2) 2 = K + 2 K  m x 5K / m
.
=
B:xample2.12 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by the mathematical moqel shown in Fie. 2.35 a.
0.761
1.0
(a) Three degree freedom system
(b) First mode (c) Second mode (d) Third mode
Solution: (i) Equations of motion for the three masses can be written as
m 21 + K 21 + 2 K (21  22)
=0
 22) = 0
= At
sin ron t
~ =~
." ";". ',
sin ron t
ron t
= A3 sin
.
.:"
...(2.1"58 c)
.1'
'~""~"~='
:::."'::::""'c.::
_._
.~

'W;;i'i~!~:t'jj
'11
,"
62
...(2.159a), ...(2.159 b)
+(3Kmoo~)A2KA3'=O
 K A2 + (K 
111
co;) A3
=0
...(2.159 c)
2K
"'K moo/l 2 ' K
2K 0
K 2 1=0 Kmcon
...(2.160)
" . IIIWPllttll1~ A = !l
~
.,
Eg .
(2.160) become as
3A 2 0
or
2 3A 1
0 IA
1
I =0
...(2.161 a)
f.3 
2 7 A + lOA  2 = 0
...(2.161 b)
Therefore,
00/1 (
 A2 + (1  A) A3 For r mode:
Eg. (2.162 a) gives
"
=0
A = 0.238
= 0 or A2 = 0.724
AI
 2
.' or
=0
,,
'
A3
A2
= 0.761
,'.1 "iI; ' " ", (..'
:,"
'h,
.\
Theory of Vibrations
63
Assuming Al :.
Similarly,
For II mode;
A.
= 1.637
Al : A2 : A) =  0.933:  0.635 : 1, and For III mode: A.= 5.129 Al : A2 : A) = 3.891 :  4.14 : 1 The mode shapes are plotted in Figs. 2.35 b, 2.35 c and 2.35 d, Example 2.13 A small reciprocating machine weighs 50 kg and runs at a constant sp~~d of 6000 rpm. After it was installed, it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to th~}latural frequency of the system. What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 20 percent from the forcing frequency. Solution: ( i)
ill
=W
21t N
""
60
~
ma
M
= 628 K = m x 628 2
= 50 x 6282 = 201 x 105 N/m
(ii) Aner adding the vibration absorber to the system, the natural frequency becomes (1 :i:0.2) 628 i.e. 753.6 rad/s or 502.4 rad/s For tuned absorber:
= K = JIM
Ka
J(:,:J If
JInl 
l;;:) )
illnl
0)//(/
= 0.8
.
64
2 2
Jlmand when
(Onl
(Ona
1  {(0.8) 2 0.8
= 0.2025
= 1.2
=
{(1.2)2 1}2
Jl
1.2
= 0.134
= 40.7
x 105 N/m
= 0.2025
x 201 x 105
ma = 0.2025 x 50 = 10.12 kg
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
2.1 A single degree (massspringdashpot) system is subjected to a frequency dependent oscillatory force (m eo (02sin (0 f). Proceeding from fundamentals, derive the expression of the amplitude of the system. 2.2 'Presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system'. Is this statement true?
If yes, explain with neat sketches.
.
2.3 Give two methods of determining 'damping factor' of,a single degree freedom system. 2.4 Starting from fundamentals~explain the principles involved in the design of (i) Displacement pickup, (if) Velocitypickup,and (iif) Accelerationpickup. Illustrateyour answerwithneatsketches. 2.5 Describe the principles involved in a 'tuned dynamic vibration absorber'. Illustrate your answer with neat sketches. Discuss clearly its limitations. 2.6 A mass of 25 kg when suspended from a spring, causes a static deflection of 25 mm. Find the natural frequency of the system. Ans. (20 rad/s) 2.7 A spring mas system (K\, m) has a natural frequency of f\. ~fa second spring of stiffness K2 is attached in series with the first spring, the natural frequency becomes f\/2. Determine K2 in terms ofK\. Ans. (K/3) 2.8 A mass of 5 kg is attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed. The nawral period of this system is 0.40s. Determine the natural period when a mass of 2.5 kg is attached to the mid point of this spring with the upper and lower ends fixed. Ans. (0.14 sec) 2.9 Determine the differential equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. 2.36. The moment of inertia of weight W about the point 0 is Jo' Show that th~ system becomes unstable when: K.a b > W .. .'1
..Theory of Vlbrations 65
Wt")
T
b
0 a
A l
1
1
.~
2.10 A body vibrating in a viscous medium has a period of 0.30 s and an inertial amplitude of30 mm. Determine the logarithmic decrement if the amplitude after 10 cycles is 0.3 mm. Ans. (0.46) 2.11 A vibration system consists of mass of 6 kg, a spring stiffness of 0.7 N/m and a dashpotwith a
.
dampingcoefficientof 2 Ns/m.Determine
(a) Damping ratio (b) Logarithmic decrement
., .
Ans. (0.488, 3.55)
2.12 Write a differential equation of motion for the .system shown in Fig. 2.37 and determine the
. natural frequencyof dampedoscillationsand the criticaldampingcoefficient.
b a
.,
K
2.13 A mass is attached to a spring of stiffness 6 N/mm has a viscous damping device. When the mass was displaced and released, the period (jf vibration was found to be 1.8 s and the ratio of consecutive amplitude was 4.2 to 1. Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 2 sin3t N acts on the system. Ans. (0.708mm, 56.4) 2.14 A sp~ingmass system is excited by a force Fa sin (J)t. At resonance the amplitudewas measured
.
.
td be.100 mill..At 80%resonantfrequencythe amplitudewas measured80 mm.Determinethe d~mpingfactorof the system. Ans (0.1874)
2~r5:AssUnlfngsm~ll ~plitudes, set up differential equation of motion for double pendulum using the coordinates shown in Fig. 2.38. Show that the natural frequencies of the system as given by the equation. .
co' I
2 \11,.
= ~, g.(2
vi
:1:/2)'
. . .I
'1'1'
;.:':!Z~,"'~.'T"""7~..
,.
.I
':.."h. r
, ".,t;\.~;...t
e.
 ! ..J
, )J .J ~
'\""I\~
~"V :; ~,.
:.>'1;'" ; 1./uJ j
...
:i:
66
m
Fig.2.38: Doublependulumsystem 2.16 A motor weighs 220 kg and has rotating unbalance of 3000 Nmm. The motor ~s running at constant sped of 2000 rpm. For vibration isolation, springs with damping factor of 0.25 is used. Specify the springs for mounting such that only 20 percent of the unbalanced force is transmitted
Ans. (Ka = 931.22 kN/m, 26.3 kN) 2.17 A small reciprocating machine weighs 60 kg and runs at a constant speed of 5000 rpm. After it was installed, it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to the natural frequency of the system, What dynamic vibration absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 25 percent from the forcing frequency? 6 Ans. (15.3 kg, 4.2 x 10 N/m) 2.18 A mass of 1 kg is to be supported on a spring having a stiffness of 980 N/m. The damping coefficient is 6.26 Ns/m. Detelmine the natural frequency of the system. Find also the logarithmic decrement and the amplitude after three cycles 'if the initial displacement is 0.3mm. Ans. (31.14 rad/s, 0.628, 0.0456 mm) 2.19 A machine having a mass of 100 kg and supported on springs of total stiffness 7.84 x has an unbalanced rotating element which results in a disturbing force of 392 N at a 3000 rpm. Assuming a damping factor of 0.20 determine (a) the amplitude of motion due to the unbalance, (b) the transmissibility, and (c) the transmitted force. Ans. (0.043 mm, 0.148, 2.20 The static deflection of the vibrometer mass is 20 mm. The instrument .when attached chine vibrating with a frequency of 125 cpm records a relative amplitude of 0.03 mm. for the machine, (a) the amplitude of vibration, 105 N/m speed of
(b) the maximum velocity of vibration, and , (c) the maximum acceleration of vibration. Ans. (0.0576 mm, 0.754 mmlsec, 9.86 mmlsec2), DD . "
,::~,"'.,':"'.":"'V
",..
,,;,,)'
~"<i:;','<'
",}~",,"'~.,

..':~,{""J""'""",,,

,.,'", .."
..
3.1 GENERAL A sudden load applied to ~ body does not disturb the entire body at the instant of loading. The parts closest to the source 'of disturbances are affected first, and the deformatio~s produced by the disturbance subsequently spread through out the body in the form of stress waves. 'The propagation speed of seismic waves through the earth depends on the elastic properties and density of materials. The phenomenon of wave propagation in an elastic medium is of great importance in the study of foundations subjected to dynamic loads. In this chapter wave propagation in (i) an elastic bar, (ii) an elastic infinite medium and (iii) an elastic half space have been discussed. 3.2 STRESS, STRAIN AND ELASTIC CONSTANTS
3.2.1 Stress. The external forces acting on a body constitute what is called the "load", No material is perfectly rigid, therefore the application of a load on a body causes deforn1ation. In all cases internal forces are called into play in the material to resist the load and are referred to as "stresses". The intensity of the stress is estimated as the force acting on unit area of crosssection, and is expressed in such units as N/mm2, KN/m2. etc. At right angles to the direction of the stress, the body dilates or contracts, depending on whether the stress is compressional or tensile. The stresses preserve the shape of the body but change the volume. Shear stress is said to exist on a section of body if on opposite faces of the section equal and opposite forces exist.
3.2.2. Strain. Strain is a measure of the deformation produced by the application of the external forces. In Fig, 3.1a, the deformation is an elongation of a bar by the amount t11, and if 1 is the initiai length of the bar, then
,
Tensile strain = ,= ~1
...(3.1a)
Similarly in Fig. 3.tb the deformation is a shortening of the bar by the amount t11, therefore . . t11 3 1b Compresslve steam = c = T ...(. )

68
R:.'
FlHUldations
..i 6l ... f
l l
III ; 1 ;
TL
F
(b) Compressive strain
Fig.3.1 : Axialstrain 3.2.2.1. A transverse strain: A transverse strain tw is defined as the ratio of the expansionor contraction 6 w perpendicular to the direction of the stress to the original width w of the body (Fig. 3.2). Thus 6w
Ew
= ;
...(3.2)
l llWI
F
. 7 I
I
I I
w
I I I I
I I
3.2.3. Elastic Constants. An elastic material is one which obeys Hook's ~aw ofpruportionally between stress and strain. For an isotropic elastic material subjected to normal stress Oxin the xdirection, the strains in x, y, z directions are
t t x
Y
=!. E
Z
C1
=e =~
69
If the element cif material i~:Subjected to normal stress O'x'O'y"O'z'then by superposition we obtain
1
Ex , " Ey Ez
E
I".
[O'x
Il (O'y + O'z)]
,
...(3.4 a)
...(3.4 b)
1 ;
=E
= E
...(3.4 c)
In the above expressions, E is the modulus of elasticity and 11is Poisson's ratio. It may be noted that here E is dynamic modulus of elasticity and ,not the static modulus. 'Equations (3.4 a), 3.4 b), an:d (3.4 c) can be rearranged so, that the stresses are expressed in terms of the strains as follows: (Timoshenko and Goodier, 1951; Kolsly, 1963).
,'., '
IlE O'x =
. ~..
E ...(3.5 a)
E
(E.t + E 11 Ey y + E) + 1 + r
E
ay
=
.'
...(3.5 b)
az
= (1 + Jl)(I21.1)
x y z
...(3.5 c)
a x =A. E+2GE
a y =A. e+2Ge a z =A. E+2Ge
in which
E
.. ..,,'. .
= Ex+ Ey+ Ez
...(3.9)
Similarly in an isotropic elastic material, there exists linear relation between shear stress and shear strain. Thus
Yxy= 'txy G
...(3.10 a) ...(3.10 b)
,',
'tyz . I'yz =. G
Cr
Y:x=6 G is the shear modulus or rigidity modulus and is the same as given by Eq. (3.9).
...(3.10
c)
Equations (3.6) and (3.10) comprise six equations that define the stressstrain relationship.
8B:,1
70
ax~
~ OX + oOX
ox
b.x
~ 6x ~
A = Area of crosseciion
Q
x a b
~~x
~
u (Displacement)
Consider the free vibration of a rod with crossectional area A, Young's modulus E and unit weight r
(Fig. 3.3). Now let the stressalong section aa is crx and the stress on section bb is (crx+ ocr;.6.x).
Assuming that the stress is uniform over the entire crossectional area and the crossection remain plane during the vibration. the summation of force in xdirection is given by: IF
x
=cr
A+
cr +
x
ocr
ox
:L6,x
ocr' A=L.6,x.A
ox
...(3.11)
If the displacement of the element in xdirection is u, the equation of motion for element can be Nritten by applying Newton's second law of motion as given below: ocrx .6,x.A
ox
6,x.A. 'Y
.clu
g ) at2
...(3,12)
or
fu
ocrx  'Y
a2u
 g'dt2
ox
...(3.13)
',',Y;'P{,,',,*"r'1,h~"";;:':'..~,"" '""".*:
,,'*'"
""':;""':'
,/
.,'
<r'::"
,
.;o.,ft~:t\>:~,:'
71
Therefore,
'Y a2u
g at2
= E clu
ax2
, ,
...(3.15)
, ,;
a2u  .at2
,E clu
= p ax2
...(3.16)
a2u clu or = v2 ...(3,17) at2 c ax2 E where v; = ...(3,18) Vc is defined as the 10ngitudinalwavepropagationvelocityin the rod. Equation (3,17) has the exact form of the wave equation, and it indicates that during 10ngitudiIia~ vibrations, displacement patterns are propagated in the axial direction at the velocity vc~' : :; ;' '
. .r,. ...(3.19)
where I1 and 12 are arbitrary functions. In this equation, the first term ?iepresents the wave travelling in the positive x direction, and the second term represents the wave travelling in the negative x direction. If the wave propagation in a rod is considered at SOIpt:: interrpediate point in the bar, it can be noted that at the instant a wave is generated, there is compressive stress of the fac~ in the positive direction of x and tensile stress in the negative direction of x. Hence, when the compressive wave travels in one direction, the tensile waves travel in the opposite direction. To understand the difference between the wave propagation velocity Vcand the velocityof particles in the stressed zone it, consider the stressed zone at the end of the bar as shown in Fig. 3.4 a. When a uniformly distributed compressive stress pulse of intensity crxand duration: t".(Fig, 3.4 b) is applied to the end of the bar, initially only a small zone of the rod will experience the compression. This compression will be transmitted to the successive zones of the bar as time increases. The transmission of the
, '
compressive stress from one zone to another occurs at the velocity of the wav~ propagated in the medium, i.e. vc' During a time interval .1.t, the compressive stre~s will trave,l along the bar a distance (.1.x = vc'~ f). At any time after In' a segment of the bar of length, xn = vctn, constitutes the compressed zone. The amount of the elastic shortening?f
or Hence
...(3.20)
..'
..,
,
<
, ,
...(3.21)
The displacement u divided by In represents the velocity of.the ~nd of the bar or particle velocity.
u =v ...(3.22) E c It is evident from Eq. (3.22), .that the particle waVevelo~ity it .dependson of stress but . .' .. , , ,theintensity .
the wave propagation velocity V is only a function of ',' mate~ial wave c (Eq. 3.18), '" . '. ,~,,' properties. Further both '
cr x
propagation velocity and particle velocity are in the same direction when a compressive stress'is applied but the wave propagation velocity is opposite to the particle ve19cj~. when,a tensile,stress is applied.
. ,,', !', ," ( " . t.. ; " .'
72
~x
.J I+OX.... (
Xn
= Vc tli
,"
.
u
(a) Stressed zone at the end of the rod
er
er X
, "
tn
(b) Uniformly distributed compressive stress
3.4.<TORSIONAL
In!if:.3.S G, a rod subjected to a torque T which produces angular rotation e is shown. The expression fo~'t.: :toraue 1.  car. be written as
.
where
"
T = G I Be P Bx
...(3.23)
G = shear modulus or"thc'material of rod ,' .I '= Polar moment o:f inertia of the crossection Of rod ,p ." , ! .~ ,
ae'. _..,.'.;;A'""~,,,. jf,.'..ft'll!"
 .,.''
It
la
73
;.
_3i.;'1h
an41sotrQpic Medium
'
'''
.\
,I
~X
r,,
;';.'
T + aT oX t::.x
,,"
, ..
r
,
'...
fix
": ':
I'; '
.: (b) Motion of the element of rod of length Ax Fig. 3.5 : Torsional vibration of a rod
The torque due to rotational inertia of an element of rod of length 6.x can be written as P :ot2 By applying Newton's,second law of.mo~onto.arielement oflength 6.x shown in Fig. 3.5b,
.. ,,
T = pI~x~
,
#e
.,,(3.24)
, aT
or
T + ( T+ Ox 6.,x
) = p!p *xy at
',' .. o.
#e"
".
;"
~
,1'01 l\'1'.I
" ,
,.,,(3.25)
"
74
'.',
,,":
'."':
"'.
"
""".
'
"","
"'"
.,
oT
...(3.26)
Therefore,
or
or
a2a ,= pI cia
P ax2 P 8t2
ia  0 cia
a?  P
a2e 
ox2
"
'~':'
...
,J3.27)
,J3.28)
2 a2e
Vs
'~
at", 
. zax

"" is the shear wave velocity of the material of the rod. 3.5 END CONDITIONS Free End Conditions, Consider an elastic rod in which a compression wave is travelling in the positive ,rdirection and an identical tension wave is travelling in the negative xdirection (Fig. 3.6 a). Wh;n the t\\/O\vaves pass by each other in the crossover zone, the portion of the rod in which the two waves are superposed has zero stress wit:.1:l twice the particle veioc.~tyof either wave (Fig. 3.6 b). After the two waves have passed the crossover zone the stress and velocity return to zero at the crossover point and both the :ompressive and tensile waves return to their initial shape and magnitUde (Fig. 3.6 c). It will thus be seen that on the centre line crosssection, the stress is zero at all time. This stre~s condition is the same as that \\hi:h exists at the free end of the rod. By removing onehalf of the rod, the centre line crosssection can be considered a free end (fig. 3.6 d). Hence 'it can be seen that a compre,ssion wave is reflected from a free l'l1d as a tension wave of the same m,agnitude and shape. Similarly, it can be observed that a tension wave IS re Ikcled from a free end as a compression wave of the same magnitude and shape.
Vc.
Id:
oo
ien r=o sion
v
"0
Xt 0
~~
00
~ ,,' ~,. .
0'=0
U = 2uO .
~Xt1
qnrn '00
,
Vc
(b) Waves at the crosso~'er zone Fig. : 3.6 : Elastic waves in a rod with free end conditions (...Contd.)
..,'...,
'"
,..' ,
l4~'
\~~)'"
,'" "'.~
:,.
, y.~:,~.
'c:
:,'"
f'ave.Propagation
75
.h
~
"0'
.
er
er
~
= =
a'
.. Xt2
Vc
Vc
Free enq
.~~
.. Xt3
4
Vc
(d) Waves considering one half of the rod Fig. : 3.6 :'Elastic waves in a rod with free end condWons
Fixed End Conditions. N'Y,~onsider an,e.lasticrod in which a compression wave is travelling in positive xdirection and an identical compression wave is travelling in the negative xdirection (Fig. 3.7 a), Whe'nthe two waves pass by each other in the crossover zone, the centreline crosssection has stress equal to twice the stress in each wave and zero particle velocity (Fig. 3.7 b). After the waves pass each other, they return to their original shape and magnitude. The centre line crosssection r:~mainsstationary dur, ing the entire process and hence, behaves like a fixed end of the rod. Considering left half of the rod (Fig. 3.7 d), it can be observed that a compression wave is reflected from a fixed a fixed end of a rod as a compression wave of the same magnitude and shape, and that at'the fixed end the stress.is doubled.
'v
~
~o.
,
4
. er=0
~u=o I
~ ~
Vc
.Xto
Xt1
er = 200
,
j' U = 0
(...Contd.)
(b) Waves at crossover zone Fig. 3.7: Elastic waves in a rod with fixed end conditions
 ,   
 
III'JIE,J.
76
Vc
~,
I ''.
0::0 u ::
Vc
G
"0
~..
..~
6
".~
'
''
Xtz
"/
Vc
Vc
~
" "
'
Fixed end
xt 3
~
"
3.6 LONGITUDINAL
VIBRA TIONSOF
"
Consider a rod of length L vibrating' in, one of its normal mode~ The solution of t~e wave equation
(Eq. 3.17) can be written as
;
'
where
u = U (AI cos (J)nt + Az ~ii1con1) U = Displacement amplitude along the length of rod
...(3.29)
...(3.30)
The solution
of Eq. (3.30) is
,
A)
cos
~
+ A4 Sin
'"~
...(3.31)
.'\, and A4 are arbitrary constants which are detenrtined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the
ends of the rod.Three possible end conditions are: 1. Both ends free (freefree) 2. One end fixed and on~,end fr~e,(fixed:fre~~
3. Both en~s fixed (fixedfixed)',
.. "
.
'"..
The stress and ,strainat both ends of ~ rod of finite lertgthin ~reefreecondition (Fig. 3.8 a) will be
,;
'
,.:'
'"
::
\ .
. ~','
,.
,','
, ':'
,,'~j ,
.0
,,
I.'
;;
"
., ,:<
.,
,_:::_,
:;;
":_'~,;
"
",,'!..
"
~l~k'
77
u 01
..
El
x
lx
I~dX
(a) Rod of finite length with freefree end conditions
First harmonic
U1= A~ cos ~x (n
1)
2)
,'~
AJ
3)
I
(d) Third harmonic Fig. 3.8 : Normal modes of vibration of a rod of ~nite lengt~. ~Ith freefree ,end conditions
get
ron cc'(
dU dx
The condition
= \!
 A 3sm+A4cos' V
, ;'.
. 'ro"x
<o"X
Vc
"
78
", 
Putting
J
dU dx . ro L A sIn !!
= 0 at x = L we get
'
=0
...(3.33)
 n1tvc or ron  r.. n = 1, 2, 3 ... ...(3.34) Equation (3.34) is the frequency equation'for the rod in freefree case. By substituting Eq. (3.34) in Eq, (3,31). we get n1tx Un = AJ cos L ...(3.35) l::c,:;,.' L::q, (3.35), the distribution of displacement along the rod can be found for any harmonic. The rirsl three harmonics are shown in Figs. 3.8b, c and d. FixedFree Condition.
[11 Fixedfree case (Fig. 3.9 a), the end conditions of the ro<1 are: (i) At x = 0, Displacement i.e. U = 0, and (ii) At x = 1, Strain i.e. d U/dx = 0
t
x
~I~
A4 TU)
(b) First harmonic
TTx
= A4 sin =2L(n
=1
(n=2)
(c) Second harmonic Fig. 3.9: Normal modes of vibrations of a rod offinite length with fixedfree end conditions (...Contd.)
"<'
> ,"'"
79
'SlTX (n=3)
(d) Third harmonic Fig. 3.9 : Normal modes ofvibrations in Eq. 3.32, , ora rod of finite length with fixedfree end conditions " .
Putting the first end condition in Eq. 3.31, yields AJ = O. By substituting the second end condition
A cos 2L 4 vc
" W L
= 0 1t
"
...(3.36)
or
or
v
wnL c
= (2 n  1) 2
'
.
...(3.37)
1tVc
,. '.
wn
= (2 n 
I) 2 L '
4 sm
2L
...(3.38)
The first three harmonics described by Eq. (3.38) are shown in Fig. 3.9 b, c and d. Fixed  Fixed Condition. In this case (Fig. 3.10 a) the end condition are: (i) At x = O. U = 0 , and (ii) At x = L , U = 0
'
:L
..,
I
(a) Rod ornnlte length with fixedfixed end conditions
..x
U
,
A
.
(
TTx
4..SIn .
1)
(b) First harmonic Fig. 3. to: Normal modes ofvlbration oh rod of finite length with fixedfixed end conditions (...Contd.)
~, ".~~~
80
f
f~u~cJptions
. 21Tx U2=A4SlnC(n
(c) Second harmonic
=2)
_ . ,3TIx 3  A4sIn L ( n
(d) Third harmonic Fig. 3.10: Normal modes of vibration ora rod of finite length with fixedfixed end conditions
 Vc = 0
n1tx oo=n1 n L' , , , ...
oonL
...(3.39) 23
...(3.40) ...(3.41)
Th d
e
. n1tx
4 sm
L
FINITE LENGTH
The first three harmonics described by Eq. (3.41) are shown in Fig. 3.10 b, c and d.
3.7 TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS .oF JlODSOF
As the wave Eq. (3.28) is identic<\~ t~ wave Eq. (3.17) , the proble'm' of torsional vibr~tions of rods of finite length can be solved in the saITi~manner as foJ. tJ:le case <?flo~gi,tudinal vibrati.ons discussed in the previous section, Th,e solution .of Eq. (3.28) can be written as :
. e = eA(A I cos
where eA
(j) n
I "
...(3.42)
~ 2 + ~2...=0 e
. dx' v's
'
...(3.43)
WavePropagation'in'an"Elilstic/
81
. COnX smVs
...(3.44)
...(3.45) ...(3.46)
eAn  A3cosn7tx L
FixedFree condition. con = (2nI)7tvs 2L
(2nl)7tx 2L
...(3.47)
" ,
eAn =A4sin
...(3.48)
...(3.49)
...(3.50)
eAn = A4 ~1tX L
In:this section,;theprop~gation of stress waves,in:anj,nfinite"homogeneoou$~ ~~Qpic. elaiUc ,~di.um, ~ presented.'Eig 3.ll 'showsthe,stresse5Jicting:on a;S0il,eletneni.witb.sides~aucingdx, dy.'il~d<ftZ. The solid vectors are acting on the visible faces ofthe element and the dotted vectors areacting,on:t.h~hidQ.~n faces. For obtaining the differential equations of motion; the.sum of the forces acting parallel to each axis is considered~In the x.,direction the ~quilibrium equation is
[",
(",
]<dxody)
...(J..5.0
+ 'ty:c
( 'tyx+
a;'dY.
)] (dx.dz)+p(dx.dy.dz)at2:::10
,cf." p. ':0l2
or,
=
aox' ox
+
..~{3.52 a)
"
".......
8~~
z
':'
,"',
~" .,'
"
";":
,~ .
."
dy
'
( 1':+ ZI
~'tn az
dZ}
,
,
, crz+
~ ""
itr..
,dz ),
..
.."
't'yz+
~ryz ~,!lY),
t" yl
I ,. I('tu + ~ ax'
I I I t
r
IY dl)
er.
(' I
I
cry
("",
t
1:yz
t
~IZ
dy)
~f)~YX . dy)
Equations similar to Eq. (3.51) can be written for the y and z directions. These will give
p;iv
2
ot2
(h yx ocry = ++ox ay
.'
o't yz
oz 07
'
...(3.52 b)
ot2  ox
ay
... .
(3 52 c)
In the above expressions, p is the'imiss density of the soil, u, y'and ware :displacementsin the x, y, and z directions respe'ctively.To express the right hand sides of Eqs. (3.52) , the relationship for an elastic medium given by,Eqs.,(3.6) to' Eqs. (3.10) are used. The equations for strains and rotations of elastic and isotropic :materials in terms of displacements are' as follows,:' '
Axial strains,
"
:;'
, .
ou
Ex
;,
= ox . av Ey ='ay aw
E;:
= ay
ov ou
.
Shear strains,
...(3.54 a) ...(3.54 b)
+Yyz ay oz ou ow yzx = OZ + ox
~,
,
...(3.54 c)
..,
~< 2.,:,'
"',,',"'l,:,".
:,.",~,~:
":",),,'0'
:'
..
J..... 8'3
Rotations.
2w y ~oz ox ov ou 2w =z ox oy
: ,,' """"""""":'"""':""'/:~";",""i'
';,
"
...(3.55 a) .:.(3.55 b)
,..(3,55 c)
3.8.1.CornpressiQD Waves. Subst.itut~on off:qs.p,. 6 a), (3.10 a), ,an~;(~,lO b) into Eq. (3. 52 a) gives 'd d ~'"' ( ",E+ 2G E..)+~ (O '1,' ) + (G '1 ) , p,= "'
'
','
"""j;U"d"
',
'"
'
'
"",ot2
,"
..,
"
..
"d.,J."'
",
,X,dy,xY"dZ
'
0,'
",.
"
,xy ,
Now on substitutionof Eqs. (3.54 a) and (3.54,b) in Eq. (3.56), ~e get, , ' ,', '~~i'
,
~'~(A<'~';~E,)+GM~: '
,', "", "'
co"
~~;FG:z(~> ~;r
, /,'
'2
or
As
02u  A. d E+G a u+
p 0(2
,: ax . .
,,'..
'2'
+ d
w'
au+au+au
di ]
...(3.57) ...(3.58)
azu
where
p ot2 = (A. + G) ox +? ~ u
...(3.59)
2 az az az V u = ++'ox2 ay2 fJz2, Similarly Eqs. '(3.51 b) and (3.52 c) can be expressed as azv ... aE
...(3.60)
p
0(2
= ( A.
+ G)
ay
aE
~
'
+ G V2
.'.~(3.61)
" "
and Py
,
02W
&~,
= (A. +
G)
+ GV w
'
...(3.62)
Equations
,
(3.59)
, (3.61) and (3, 62) are the equations of motion of an infinite homogeneous, iso
tropic, and elastic medium. On differentiating these equations with respect to x, y and z, respectively, and
adding
;'
fil
"
au
:";";
Ov
Ow
',=
a2E
02
file
au
Ov
Ow
'.:.',:~
" or.,. ;,
P 0(2 ( Ox + ay + Oz')
"'::"}J,
",;,q~,
(A + G)'fix2 (
""(k +, G)
ay + fJz: ) ",.
','.'
.".'"
""', E) ,+ ,(GV
""J
',.
,P"",)..".I,;t"",'jl',ttf.~<l;.U;4;"d~,'H.
'1"'>""1';'_',,1,,1'1.,;,,,.,
E),
"!'"
'. ",C
,,'
"I,
~ ':'J",) n,...O~;'J1
.~f..'
,'."
';.
'.,
;,
84
F~IIRd4tU1ns
Hem:e
or where
p ilE = (A.+ 2G) V2E &2 <YE  (A.+2G) (V2) = V;V2f, at2 . p
...(3.63 a)
..~(3.63 b)
A.+2G P ...(3~64) vp is the ve1ocityofcompre~on waves which are: a1soreferredJls primary wave or:Pwave. It is important to note the.difference in the wave velocities for an intmite.elasticmedium with those
Vp
obtainedfor an elasticrod. In the rod Vc= ~E/p: but in the infinite medium vp~ ~(A.+2G)/p. This
means that V p > Vcthat is 'compression wave travels faster in infmite medium. It is due to the fact that in infinite medium, there are no lateral displacements, while.in the rod lateral displacements are possible.
. '" ,
3.8.2 ShearWaves;
DiffererniatingEq.'(3:61) 2
a av
aw
()
a E
2av
+ G V az
2
...(3.65) . ...(3.66)
P;z ( ; = (A.+ G) ;;+GV ut ay ) ayuZ Subtracting Eq. (3.65) from Eq. (3.66), we get
ae
aw
ay
p~
...(3.67)
pf at
or
rJw
= GV"wx
...(3.68)
2,
G
P
"11
2W
2 2y =vVw s y
...(3.69)
...(3.70)
~G I p. Shear wave is also referred as distortion wave or swavoe.}tmay be noted that shear wave propagates at the same velocity in both therod!andthe..infiniteniedium/Fig. 3.12 shows plots of shear wave velocity and void ratio at several confuii,ng pressures for sands (Hardin and Richart, 1963).
W~ve :ProplIgiitionin 
,1.'85
(
'N ,E '"
J
;.

"tJ,
lA ::I
0
::I
19:5
,,
,
390 30
0.5
360
330
/~<
E
~
~


sand quartz
\11
.... u
>
270 240
.
>
~
,>
~
~. .'0 210'
'
s:. V1
180
,150.'
I '
120
L..:
0.3
1.0
1. 1
1.2
'1.3
.,.
, ., ..~
Et.
.'
:86
.i
SoU :!)yntUlli~
.'
.
In an elaspc~lly homogeneous gr~und, stressed shddenly' at a point 'S' near its surface (Fig. 3.13), three elastic w~ves travel outwards at different speedS.Two are body waves; that is, they are propagated as spherical,fronts affected only a minor extent by the free sUrfaceof the ground, and the'third is a surface wave which'is confined to the region. near ~ fiee surface. ;
~
G
vp t
I'
~,vst
"
Vrt
5
Fig.3.13: Pulsefrontsofthe P,Sand R waves The two b.ody waves as already d,escribed in the previous section differ in that !he ground motion within t~e pulse is in the direction of propagation (i.e. radial) is the faster 'f' (primary) wave, but normal to it (i.e.I tangential,to the pulse front) is the slower 'S' (secondary) wave (Fig. 3.13). The stresses in the ," P wave~ which is ~fl!lgitudinal wave like a sound wave in a~~,are thus due to uniaxial compression, while during VIe passage' of an S wave the medium is su~jected to shear stres~. The surface wave travels more slowly.than either body wave, and is generally complex.,This wave was' first studied by Rayleigh
"
',,' ",',
u=~+
"
a",
...(3.71) ...(3.72)
where
~ and 'If are two pot~nti~l,functions. As ay = 0, th~'dh~ti~n.e"~f the wave can be written as
atH'~'j;
"
,""
Wav'i"Propagaitoidli
an ElaStic;'Ho,,;(/geneous ,
87
'0
.. 'au,.:.,aw ,1:;'+,
'
:c.:..
dX dZ
( dx2
,
+
d24>
dXdZ J
,
( ai,
oxOz
...(3.73)
'or
I:;
' "
,
'.
'
:: 'U.A.'
,,0
'.
Plane wave
,,'
front
I rL../
,)
x
I / // ./
,
I I I
',.
.//
/'
/
/' .//' Z .// /' / /..
"
,.
"
"",'7'",W~;'=azox
""""""&
?..:'~,.;.j
aw
=~
d'V + d'V
~=,v'V
oz'
"
;..(3.74)
.",..",d?",dz"..,
Substituting u and w from Eqs. ~3.71) and (3.72) i~ e~s:,(~' 59) and (3.62), we get
p
,
,~2~
+ p~
...(3.75
,
.. ~~,..~,.,...~~~=~..~ ,.,.,..,
""~""'j'.,"~..,. '="..,
""
...
88
and
&$
Oz ( 8t2 )
 p
~ ax
&'V ( 8t2 J
= (A + 2 G) ~ (V2$) v.
UA.
! (V2'V)
...(3.76)
Equations(3.75) and (3. 76) are satisfiedif &$ = A+2G V2$ = lV2$
8t2 P P and &\jI
...(3.77)
a t2
= 'V
p
...(3.78)
Now, consider a sinusoidal wave travelling in positive x direction. Let the solutions of q>and 'V be expressed as ~

'V
...(3.79) ...(3.80)
F (z) and G (z) are the functions which describe the variation in amplitude of the wave with depth, and 12is the wave number given by n Where L is the wave length. Substituting Eq. (3.79) in Eq. (3.77), and Eq. (3.80) in Eq. (3.78), we get  0./ F (z) = v~ [Fit (l) ' n2 F (z)]
 Cl) G (z)
2
=T
...(3.81)
...(3.82) ...(3.83)
= vs
...(3.84) ...(3.8S)
=0
2 2 (J)
where
q =n  2 vp . 2
2 2 (J)
...(3.86)
Vs The solution of Eqs. (3.84) and (3.85) can be expressed in the form 5Z sz G (z ) = B I e + B2 e where A I' A2' B I and B2 are Constants.
F (z)
5=n2
...(3.87)
AI eqz + A2 eqz
...(3.88 ) ...(3.89)
A solution that allows the amplitude of the wave to become infinity is not possible; therefore A2 = B2 = O.HenceEqs.(3. 79) and (3. 80) can be writtenas
...(3.90)
," .
le.
...(3.9] )
Now at the surface of the half space i.e. at z = 0, z, 1::xahd~1:~.are equal to zero.
IIi
IIIi "
iI;{~d'~
89
Therefore, and
, ,
crz = A E + 2 G Ez== 1 E + 2G
,
;=
(3.92) ...(3.93)
't
zx
=G'"
IZX
=G
,
(
'
aw +
00
Ox az
)=0
Combining Eqs. (3.71) and (3.72) and the solutions of cl> and 'I' from Eqs. (3.90) and (3.91). Eqs. (3.92) and (3.93) can be written as' ' AI BI ' (A + 2G)q
, '2
2iGns 2
2
 An
...(3.94)
and
AI
 (Tt + S )
BI 2i n q Equating the right hand sides of Eqs (3. 94) and (3.95)
16G
2422
...(3.95)
n s q =(s
+n)
22
[(l,+2G)q
"I
lI.n]
22
...(3.96)
Substituting q and s from Eqs. (3.86) and (3. 87) in Eq. (3. 96), and dividing both sides by G2 n8, we get ,.
2 2
16 1
vpn
~\
)(
1
vsn
~\ )
= (
2 (A+2G).
G
vpn
~\
)(
2
vsn J
~\
...(3.97)
...(3.98) ...(3.99)
n =
ID
vr
2
...(3.100) ,
2  vr 2~ Vs
...(3.10t)
where
...(3.102 a)
GIp = (A,+2G)/p
t '
or
. ,: ";}
(3.102 b)
" ':'i' ",+ ..: i
. :; ,',;.0
,
t'
".
"
',.
,.
",
. '/,:
::~:;,,;
J. ,.
.c..=;''
,  .,,'
'; ,.
=
~ ===
It
.. c"
"
.. ""
'.,.
.',
,},
90
,
..'
Using the relations (3.8) and (3.9) , Eq. (3.10.2) can be written as 2 12)l =22)l Sustituting Eqs. (3. 10.0.), (3. 101) and (3. 10.3) in Eq. (3.97), 16 (la2~2)(1~2) ~ (2~2)2 (2~2)2 ...(3.10.3)
or ~6 ,8 ~4  (16 a2  24) ~2  16 (1  (X2):::;0. Equation (3. 10.5) is cubic in ~2. For a given value of ')l' Poisson's
determined. Using Eqs. (3.10.0.)and (3.10.1), we may then obtain the values ofv,Jvp and v,Jvs' It may be noted that the value of ~2 is independent to the frequency of the wave. Therefore the Rayleigh wave velocity is also independent to the frequency and dependent only on the elastic properties of the medium. S
4
>I
'0
c 0
....
0
:J
>
0
tII
vr/vs
0 0
0.1
Polssons
0.2
J
0.3
ratlo)v
0.4
0.5
Figure 3.15 shows the variation of v,Jvs an~ v/vs withPoisson ratio Jl. The three types of wave appear in order on idp..alized seismogram (Fig. 3.16), which is a graph of
ground motion against time at a particular geopho~e
~ at a distance
is, of course, the time of the shot, and it is clear that ~he thr~e ve!ocities vp' Vs and vr could be found from this record. In practice, this determinatiords made'byco'ITl.,j.ningihe}nformationJromseveral geophones at various distances from the source on timedistance graph as shown in Fig. 3.17. " ' ,0
a..,
91
rave Propagation in an Elastic, Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium
Ground motion
'" X/Vs
~
x/vp
x / vr
~
Time
.'
Fig. 3.16 : I~alised seismogram ofthe ground motion at a distance x from the source
, ,
Stope u
1 /vr
(\) \J\
..
Slope
1/vs
stope
1/vp
X,) m
3.9.1. Displacement of Rayleigh Waves. Substituting the relations developed for 4>and 'V {Eqs. (3.90) and (3. 91)} in Eqs. (3.71) and (3.72), we get .' .  s= i(rot  not) .  q= + B ...(3.106) A ) 11 = ( In le (se e . . :. s: i{oot not)  q= B ...(3.107) ) (A
.
w=
Iqe
"ne,.
.'
"0
. ,"
,i
92
wntten
Now, substituting the value of BI in terms of Al from eq. (3.95) the above expressions can be
as
U 
...(3.108)
2n sz i(OOtnx) qz ...(3.109) W  A I q e2. + 2 e e s +n ( ) From Eqs. (3.108) and (3. 109), the variation of u and w with depth can be expressed as
.
U( Z} e
<qln)(l/z)
2(qln)(Sln 2 2 +( s In +1
.
)
e
(sIn) (nz)
...(3.110) ...(3.111 a)
s In +1 Uc;:Tlg Eqs. (3.99), (3.100) and (3. 101), eqs. (3.86) and (3. 87) can be written as : 2 . 2 2
W (Z) e q
n
(qln) (nz) .+
2 2 2
(sin) (nz)
2"
=1
and
2" "
2 =1
22=l2"=la n vp 2
ro
Vr
22 =1n Vs
3:..
Vp 2
...(3.111 b)
2 =1~ Vs
...(3.112)
Amplitude Amplitude
6
H. rizontal cc mponent
0 :
O.41~(Z)J
N..
0 .I:.
vertical component
g' 0.6
V: 0.25
))
= ~ ..
0
.. >
 0.33
[W(Z>]
~C
1.0
1.2
1.4
Fig. 3.18 : Amplitude ratio versus dimensionless depth for Rayieigh wave
93 v/vs can be obtained from Fig. 3.15 a given value of Po isson's ratio. As n studied with respect to a nondimenfor Poisson's ratio of 0.25, 0.33, 0.40
~or a given value of Poisson's ratio, the values of v/vr and (Richart, 1962). Hence values of qln and sin are determinable for = (21t/wave length), the variation of U (z) and W (z) can then be sional term (z/wavelength). ,Such variation is shown in Fig. 3.18 and 0.50.
The amplitude of body waves, which spread out along a hemispherical wave front, are proportional to lIx,x being the distance from the s()urce. The amplitude of the rayleigh waves, which spread out in a cylindrical wave front, are proportional to l/.r;. waves is slower then that of the body waves.
'
3.10
GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING
3.10.1. General. Geophysical exploration is relatively new area of technology. It involves measurement of some physical field such as electrical, magnetic etc. on the earth's surface and interpreting the data so obtained in terms of properties of subsurface layers of soil. The geophysical techniques most widely employed for exploration work are the Seismic, gravity, magnetic and electrical methods. Less common methods involve the measurement of radioactivity and temperature at or near . '. the earth's surface and in an.
In this section, the seismic method of geophysical exploration had been discussed. This method utilises the propagation of elastic waves through the earth and is based on three fundamental principles namely (a) the waves are propagated with different velocities in different geological strata, (b) the contrast between the velocities is large, and (c) the strata velocities increase with depth. It consists of generating an elastic pulse or a more extended elastic vibration at shallow depth, and the resulting motion of the ground at nearby points on the surface is detected by seismic instruments known as geophones. Measurements of the traveltime of the pulse to geophones at variQus distances give the velocity of prop agation of the pulse in the ground. The ground is generally not homogeneous in its elastic properties and this velocity therefore vary both with depth and laterally.
,
The real stratum, which in fact often consists of stratified material, is usually best approximated by a layered medium, each layer having a constant velocity or one changing in a simple and regular way. with depth. The interfaces between layers may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal and to each other. In this section few simple cases have been discussed.
Let us considerthe case of one horizontalinterfaceat a depth h 1between media in which the compression wave (Pwave) velocities are vplare vp2'vp2being greater. Figure 3.19 shows the.possible paths of the body waves generated from the source S. " '
The first path as indicated by ray 1 is the same as the path of surface wave (Le. Rayleigh wave). A compression or shear wave (ray2) striking an interface will generate two reflected (P and S) and two refracted (P and S) waves (Fig. 3.19). According to the laws of reflection , and refraction: , ,~in ip = sin rp = sin.rs,:= sin Rp = sin Rs
vpl vpl vsl Yp2 . vs2
...(3.113)
The equality of the angles of incidence and reflection (e.g. ip = rp) holds only if incident a'rtd
c;.on'" ~
lE.
94
.. "
"'Soil
Dynamics
& 'Machine~
Foundations'
',:
source
"
<1)
" "
I
'
'
,~
pwave
"
'
J .
b a.
v P1
'
h1 p
"
Q:,
I
ir
..
',>'
vp2
~Ov "
Fig.3.19: Possiblepathsofbodywaves In seismic refraction only compressional waves (P~waves) are considered and the interpretation is based mainly on the first arrival times derived from the se'ismograms, This is due to the fact that Pwave travels much faster than any other wave, Therefore , for this case, Eq, (3.i 13)' ',can be written as ,
sinip sin Rp The above equation =vpl vp2 Since vp2> vpJ' angle of refraction Rp is
..,,(3.114)
= 90
and
sin Rp = 1. Then
,
,'
. ,
pi
 . .
.5m 'pc
,
sm 'p'  ~ vp2 ,
...(3.115)
, Angle ipc is called critical angle of incidence. For ip >ipc' the energy is totally reflected in ~he upper layer. If vp2 is less than vpl so that the ray path is refracted away from the normal this critical refraction
cannot occur. . ~, ',. ~" " , :'
"
d'
. ,,", , .
jt}cj~~
" . "
: ;
,,
", ',,'
"
.f
~;,'.f?'
9S
'
It can be shown that the trajectory based on critical angles give the shortest time. Let a geophone is
placed at a distance x from the source (Pig. 3.2'0). ' "
.~ (Sourccz)
"S .
x
.. ~ .. .,' ,
(Gczophone) G
1
Vp1
hl
..
'
Intczrtaccz
A
Fig. 3.20 : Typical trajectory
B
of a compression wave
h. SA = BG = .!
.
...(3.116)
cos ip j3.117)
AB = x2 hI tan ip Total time, taken by the wave ~eaching from S to G will be: . x  2n 2h l tan i
.
. '
T=
...(3.118)
Ypl cos ip
vp2
...(3.119)
or
sIn,
...(3.120)
Therefore the travel tiITlefrom ~ toG via the second layer is minimum when slant ray paths through vpl layer make angle ipc with the normal to the surface. Hence a geophone on the surface at any distance greater than the critical range 2 h I tan ipc from S will lie on one of these rays and will record the arrival
of the wave at the a,ppropri~tetime (Fig. ,321} Th~ ,refracted wav.esshown by d~~ed lines are known as head waves. ' . .
"
1."
.
,,; ..
" '
~,;..'",'
""",._"Hi;j;
" ' , ',' .~,:
.,,'
,
"
..
"
"
_.'
96
..
5
2h1tan
1pc
..
G1 /
/
.
I /
1
G2
G3 / / / / /
.9 /
/ / / / / /
/
I
'
h1
vp1
I.
I
/
/
/
/ /
I
/ /
I
/ / /
'pc I'pc /
/1
hI
11
vp2
 
Head
waves
3.10.2. Depth Formulae. 3.10.2.1. Two layer soil medium. If the first arrivals ofthe elastic waves are recorded by detectors planted in the ground, the times from the impact instant to the detectors can be plotted on a time distance graph as shown in the (Fig. 3.22). The slope of the lines yield the reciprocal of velocities, namely lIvp' Therefore, the lower the velocity, the steeper the slope of timedistance line. .. The intersection, break point between the two velocity lines is obviously the point where the times are equal. The distance between the impact point S and the break point is called the critical distance. The break point corresponds to the emergence of the wave front contact at the ground surface. Intercept time is the total arrival time of the refracted waves minus the time'x / vp2, x being the distance between the impact point and the receiving station. It is the intersection between the prolongation of the timedistance segment corresponding to the second medium and the time axis through the impact point. For calculating the depth at an impact point two different approaches are available either using the intercept time or critical distance (Milton, 1960; Parasnis, 1962).
~ Sou
S
x
r S(Z
1
ipc
ipc
h,
(a) Ray paths
vp1
VP2
97
....
01
E
+"
"'"
> ...
+" cIi
 
...T2 ' 0 I
...
LL.
,.
Xc
(b) Timedistance plot Fig, 3,22: Fundamental principle of refraction shooting
Dj'stance)
Intercept
...(3.121) 2h x  2 hI tan i c
P vp2
...(3.122)
 vpZ
2hl
...(3..123) 2hl sin ipc sin ipc +~ . vp2 vpl cos 'pc
.
=
V
2hl
p l cos ipc
or or
 x Tz + V z p x T
Z
 +
vp2
,j
p2
pI
..
cos
"
=.1 pc 12 ,
vZ
pI
. vp2
. 98
.
This is the equation of a straight .line with slope l/v p2 and an intercept on the time axis through
impact point is given by putting X = O.
T2i
'
=
,
or
hi
T2i vpi
=
I
2cos'i~c
or
= Tzi v pI vp2
~ Vp2 2 V pI 2
Xc
Vp l
...(3.128)
(~~ I
Vp2)
"'pI
or
.
vp2 J
or
hi
Xc (lsinipc)
...(3.129)
=
X
2 cosipc
Vp2 V pI ...(3.130)
or
hI
=;
J vp2
+vpl
3.10.2.2. Three layer soil medium. Consider a threelayered soil medium with compression wave velocithat v I < v , < v 3 (Fig. 3.23a). If S is a ties of layers 1, 2 and 3 as vp I , vp~ and vp 3 with the condition "p pp source of disturbance, the direct wave travelling through layer 1 will arrive first at A, which is located
')
a small distance away from S. The travel time for this can be given by Eq. (3.121) as T I"" x/vpl' At a greater distance x, the first arrival will corresponds to the wave taking the path SDEB. The travel time for this can be obtained from Eq. (3.123b) as
I2
T2
2
'
= +
,vp2
2 hlVvp2 V pI
vpl vp2
At a still larger distance, the rust arrival corresponds to the path SFGHIC. According to Snell's law sini
sin ic2
= vpl vp2
'
...(J.131 )
sin
Therefore,
ic2
= ;p3
v pI .vp2  vpI
= vp2 vp3 vp3
vp2
...( 1.132)
sin;
'~"':'~",F"'"
'~')""~
',",;"
,,'
'
Wave Propagation
99
The equation of the time of arrival, TJ for the wave from S to C,through thirdlayerjs TJ = 2 hI .+ 2 I? . + x 2
vpl cos I
vp COSle2
vpJ
Substituting the values of cos i and cos le2 from Eqs. (3.132) & (3.133) in eq, (3. 134). We get
,
TJ
= x
v
,
+,
2hl~v;Jv;1 ,
v
pJ
pJ
2~~v;JV;2
.pJ
. '
pI
,..( 1,35)
p2
B
...
h1
., ,
"
si n1 (v P1 / v P3 )
'",'~"'_:
, . ~ ,...'
,
.E
.'.
"
, . ',..
. "..'
'
IC2=stn,
'
1
,.,.; ',':,:,.":",,
'# "
LaY<lr vp2
.,.~,
" . ,
hl
,f'
,..
.' .',
,.. ,:'
"','
~.',
. .,,
Or< ,:' : ,.. ,"
,~.'~..,
(a) Ray
.
...
tII
C"
,~ T3i ...
0 >
.,
 ,. ,
,
'
t. TZi 0 '
...
\J\ ....
: ,'1.
I I
I I I I
u.
(b)
"!;"Timedis'tan~e
",'P;' "',~,
,.' ,I
"
,'.
I I I .1 I I I I ,I::
'I
I I
".t., gi;!:o,
,xC2
'Oistance,'x,.;.,j,.'..\;,
,.t'.:,)~1" .FJ~v~~\ ':',:.,: ,; c;"
,I,,JJ..J. "..' . (er ",.1. ~.J\J,', J,c.di;' ,,~' . '",.
""','""""",y.,: I"",~"P.<:~ ~"",L :.4;,;"..,.,..,., ;.,.,.",',' ',..""";..,, ,,"')J';"""';"'""~"" ,,"" ",."., , .;:,<;( 1:,..",,'d~.J ";""<::~"'~'>;J!Lf""}Wd,Ll;),I;>",.q"i'1> ~.,..if"""":.;'i:' ,..,l1.".~.1 !U <;,.'" ,rf::;.:.tj.",.ff' , ," ,Flg..3~~3..:"'~efraction shooting an three layered sod medium, .' :,.\:.';~t<:,".. . ,,'," '
,if' 1~i~.:t:ttf
"
.._~ "" , , ,.." " ", "..
100
The records of geophones placed at various distances from the source may be plotted on time versus distancegraph as shown in Fig. 3.23 b. The line OA corresponds to Eq. (3.121), OB to Eq. (3.123 b), and BC to Eq. (3.135): The thickness of the fIrst layer can be obtained either by Eq. (3.127) usingintercept timeT2i or by Eq. (3.130) using critical distance xci' The thickness of the second layer h2 can be obtained by the two approaches as given below: Intercept time: (Fig. 3.23)
TJ i
2 hI cosi
vpl
2 ~ cosic2
vp2
...(3.136 a)
or
h2 = .!. 2 T3' I
2 hl~V~3  V~I V
p J Vp l
.
vpJ vp2
(
Critical distance: (Fig. 3.23) At distance xc2' T2 = T3 . Therefore
~2
...(1.37)
V vpJ 
vp2
vpJ  vp2
...(1.38)
or
h =
2
xc2
...(1.139)
2'
vp3 +v p2
:':"'~"'.:
Layer
...... .. toI
E
....
La yer
2 I vp2
0 >
~
~ 0
.... IJI
~
Scigment Slope=1/vpn
Slope = 1/ vp1
Jx
3.10.2.3. Multi/ayer soil system. If there are n number oflayers, the fIrst arrival time at various distances from the sources of disturbance will pl~t as shown in Fig. 3.24. There ~iII be n segments on the t versus x plo,t. Using either intercept time or critical distance ~pp~oac~,the thickness of various layers can be
",!",,;,1"1
Wave,Propttgatioll
in all Elastic,HolIIfIgelleous
101
vpn
Vp(nl)
Vpn vp(nl)
"j=n2h_ ~j=1
ivPi Vpn 2
hn 
2 v~n  v =~
p(nl) 2
~ Vpn 2  Vp(nl) 2
...(3.140)
The eq. (3.140) is based on intercept time approa,ch. 3.10.2.4. Sloping layer system. Fig. 3.25 a shows two soil layers. The interface of soil layers 1 and 2 is
inclinedat an angle 0.with respect to horizontal.The rays such as ABCDmakingthe criticalangle ipc
(sin ipc = Vp/Vp2)wIth the
first arrivals.
normal to the refractor, take the shortest time from A to D and are therefore
Zd

ID =
DK
.
COSlpc
x sin a
COSlpc
CD = (Zd + x .sin a)
cos Ipc

...(3.144)
...(3.145) ...(3.146)
CG = (Zd + x sin a) tan ipc (3.147) If we assume that point A to be the energy source and D the detector station, the time from A to D for the ray ABCD, i.e. the downdip time T2d is AB BC CD T 2d = ++...(3.148)
vpl vp2 vpl
=
or
Zd
...(3.149)
T 2d =
...(3.150)
The Eq. (3.150) represents a straight line with slope sin (ipc + a)/vp\, and whenx = 0, intercept is T2 d;'
where
Tu; = .
2 zd cos ipc
vpl
...(3.151)
The apparent velocitY vpll s~ (ipc +a) is equal to vp2sin i pc I sin (ipc+ a) and is smaller than the true velocity vp2 since ~in ipcI sin (i pc+ a ) < 1.0
 '0'
,
~; "".:u
.~..
;. 1H.:;;..r..,JII.
102
IA
It
i
hu
'..,
.' "",:,,,
':,
e
0 > 0
..
:;;
...
T2ui
T2di
"
I I
. 11incrtosing tor Td
.
I I
Distance.
Itcu
x increasing
tor Tu
!~ "
;,
,""',
;,
,:'
...'
.. ,
soiis
\vit~~~~n~~dJ.a!erin1:;
/tJ1Iehopagatioll
in an Elastic, Homogeneous
103
For updip recording the equation oftime can be obtained by replacing Zd by Zu' and a by  a ,then
'e get,
T
2u
...(3.152 a)
vpl
vpl
.t3.152 b)
...(3.153 a)
...(3.153 b)
Tu; v pI
2 cos ipe
...(3.154 a)
...(3.154 b)
The vertical depths hd and hu can be obtained by dividing Zd and Zu by cos a. For critical distances: (Fig. 3.25 b) xed = 2 Zd cos ipe + xed sin (ipe + a) vpl vpl vpl xcd {Isin (ipc +a)} Zd or
c
...(3.155)
2'
...(3.156)
COSlpe
, h ,. =
Xcd{lsin(ipc+a}
2 cosipccosa
Xcu
...(3.157)

similary
h =
,iU
{1 sin(ipc a}
...(3.158)
. 2cosipc COS a. .
\
It'is evident from Eq. (3.150), that apparent down dip velocity in the second layer is given by ,,",' . Y" J ',,'" p
...(3.159)
',}'\" '
'.
','
p,
"~;I?.J'}'I'~ I
!;;~9~.titIi)2~JV;;{!f~.),~
!", ~'>"Hi!
co..;',
nb:;
,':'
.
104
So,il l)ynamics. & . M~dJine ,Foundatio/l Similarly the apparent up dip velocity will be vpl v2u
= sin Upc a)
...(3.16f
The true velocity vp2 in the refractor can be derived as follows: v sin Upc + a) = 1 = sin ipc cos a + cos ipc sin a Vu v 1
sin (ipc or
 a) = ~= v2u
or or
,:
sin ipc
= VPI
vp2
...(3.16 ]
...(3.16
p' 
= 2 cos a.
2u 2d
v2u + Vu
3.10.2.5. Refraction in a medium having continuous change of speed with depth. The problem may solved by dividing the strata in infinitesimally thin members i.e. layers and each of higher speed than t above (Fig. 3.26).
VK2
~Z Kl
VK1
~ZK
~ Z K+1
VK+1
v Vmax
K+2
Fig. 3.26: Refraction s~rvey in soil having continuous change of velocitywith depth
105
The solution may be obtained for a given velocitydepth functions such as v = v0 + k'z
'
...(3.166)
where
= speed at depth z
...(3.167)
= SIn
. 1
vrnax ) ( ~k
2
,, ,
vk
...(3.168)
..
~Tk
= Vk1/1 ( vrnax)
/).Zk tanik
...(3.169)
...(3.170 a)
~
or
'
~xk =~Zk
Ft
1vk
1
vrnax
2 vk
j3.170
b)
2 vrnax
Total time for a wave to travel through Nsuch layers: N ~ t=L, k 2 k=\
~
,
...(3.171)'
Vk 1
Vrnax
~Zkl
t;I 1 l
~
vrna.x
vrnaX 2
'
...(3.1n)
( vrnax)
...(3.173)
sinik =
sin 90
""l.
v rnax .. ;, . it,
., .;
115!.; k :;"",
) t
"
106
Foundations
t and
= !.~1 ~V
Z
...(3.174)
x=
then t and
r v~lii
0
Zmax
pv dZ
...(3.175)
0 (vo+k'z)~Ip2(vo+k'z)2 Zmax
pv dZ
...(3.176)
p(vo+k'z}dz 0 ~1p2(vo+k'z)2 Integration of the above two expressions are as under: 2 2 \12 2  1 ' 2 1/2 )  {I p ( Vo+ k z) } x   [(I  p Vo ] k'p
and Equation of
x =
...(3.177)
...(3.178)
v~)
(vo+k'z)
...(3.179)
~ 1 iv~
Vo 2
1 ...(3.180)
( x
k'p
) + ( z+/1 ) = k,2 i
This is a equation of a circle of radius 1/ k'p and centre at  Vo/ k' and ~1 iv~ / k' p from x and z axis respectively. Figure 3.27 a shows a family of such circles for a number of rays having different angles of immergence into the earth.
)( e>+
C,
C2
C3
Cl.
Line of Vo
centers
"'%' ~
'\~ \~
z
(a) Ray paths Fig. 3.27 : Ray paths and time distance curve for linear Increase of speed with depth (...CoDtd.) 
'~~' ~~
107
. (a)
Ray
paths
rto!
r
T=
2 K'
Sin
. h1
Kx' 2vo
Distance.. x
(b) Timedistance plot Fig. 3.27 : Ray paths and time distance curve for linear increase of speed with depth
...(3.181)
or
r vo zmax = k'p F
vo vo = k'sini 0 F '
,
...(3.182 a)
sinio
Vo
p=,{
or
=. '\lo
'
max
,1C'
(co
sec 107"
t)
...(J.182
b)
Putting the value of Z as zmaxin Eqs. (3.178) imd (3.179) and eliminating p using Eq. (3.181), we get
t ~ 3. In v. , (1 +
~ p'
v~
Vo
)
2
VV~
l.+
= In 2
k
2v
X
vl114Jt
'
v1l~) \In
,
~(
"
)
.
...(3.183
Cl)
=.:..:..nwl 1
where
);'
'! .1' "~L
Vmax
' \; "...
vo' 2 ) . ( vmax,
~
=~
v/\
k.
cot 10
...(3.183b)
...(3.184)
," .
#
h
108
Foundatitlas.
The timedistance relation for a such a circular ray between entry into and emergence from the earth can be obtainedby eliminating p and z from Eqs. (3.178) and (3.179). This can be expressed as  1 SinhI k' x T  kt. 2v0
...(3.185)
The timedistance curve applying for a linear increase of speed with depth is shown in Fig. 3.27b. The mverse slope of the timedistance curve at any point is equal to the velocity at the depth of maximum penetration for the ray reaching the surface at that point. 3.11 TYPICAL VALUES OF COMPRESSION WAVE AND SHEAR WAVE VELOCITIES
Some typical values of compression wave and shear wave velocities (vp and vs)are given in Table 3.1 Table 3.1 : Compression and Shear Wave Velocities i.iaterial 1. 2. 3. 4 5. Moist clay and Wet Soils Sand Sand stone Lime stone Granite vp, m/s 6001750 300800 15004500 35006500 4600 7000
Vs' m/s
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES t
"~'Xamp'" 3.1 Wave pro{Ju".,'Jtiontests were conducted near Mathura Refinery, Mathura, for determining the insitu ve locities of wave propagation and dynamic elastic moduli. Seismic waves were generated by the impact ( a h:':PlHlcrfalling through a height of 2.0 m. Two geophones were placed in the ground respectively. I.Om and 5.0 m from the source. The analysis of data gave the velocity of compression wave, V p as 3C mIs. The soil at the site was cohesionless and the position of water table was at 1.0 m depth below tJ ground surface. Determine E, G, VS and vr' Solution: 1. Assume suitable values of Poisson ratio, ).1. and submerged density of soil, P b say ).1. = 0.25 and Pb = 1000 Kg/m3 2. From Eq. (3.64)
V
P Putting the values of A and G from Eqs. (3.8) and (3.9) in the above equation, we get p(I+).1.)(12).1.) 2 E = (1).1.). vp '2 2  1000(1+0.25)(12 x 0.25) x (300) (10.25) .  76453000 N/m
=A+2G
= 76453 kN/m 2
~. LiIIiIft
11
109
76453
= 30581 kN/m2
) =0
J.1= 0.25
or Therefore,
~ =2 2+
'
J3'
2
J3
,,
s 2" =1~ n
For ~2 = 2 and (2 + 21 J3), value of sIn will work out imaginary. Therefore
~2 = (22/J3)
2
Cl
= 2  1.155 = 0.845
~ = 0.845
1 x 3" = 0.282
2L =~a2~2 =0.531
Vs
Example 3.2 The data of a refractor test is given below: Distance of Geophones from Source (m) 0 4 8 12 20 25
'.
Determine the depth of the refractor using time"intercept approach and critical distance approach.
,
dO"dd~
0'_"""",
'<~iL:
110
Solution: 1. The data given in the example has been plotted on timedistance Fig. 3.28. From this figure,. graph as shown i
10
1/,
6
""./, ""."'" ,
.......
E
1
//
41. r ."
I
""."'" ""./
//
'2i 2
I I I I
I
I I I
I
0 0 4 8
,xc 12
I I
16
20
24
Distance
(m)
Fig. 3.28: Timedistance plot for the data given In example 3.2
.
Also,
8
vp2
'
0.002
= 4000
mls
';....
111
=.{ J vp2 v
Vp2VpI
pI
t 5.0
Is ..
m
30m Vp1
=
~
m I sec.
500
t
,.
10.0 m vp2
~=~
2000 mlsec
J
vp3
Fig. 3.29 : Data for example 3.3
=
3000 mlsec
Solution:
v v 2hl ~ p2 2 2 pi 2x5
.'
500
= 0.015
+ 0.01936
(fU) Arrival time T) of refracted wave from second layer (Eq. 3.135)
=+x ~) 30
2 x 5~30002 5002 2 x 10~3000220002 3000 x 500 + 3000 x 2000 = 0.01 + 0.01972 + 0.00745
= 3000 +
= 0.03715 s
M_inimum ~avel ~e " ; ;" i: '.' ~, O:O~'f4, .s:' . ; . ," \
: ..
,'.' 
112
"
Example 3.4 Between two points A and B (Fig. 3.30) two seismic refraction tests were performed and the data obtained is given below: . Source at A Distance of Geophones from A (m) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Travel time (milli sec) 0 3.1. 6.3 9.4 12.6
. 15.0 15.9 16.5
Travel time (milli sec) 0 3.1 6.1 9.3 11.1 12.9 14.8 16.5
Determine the slope of the refractor, depth of refractor at points A and B, and the two velocities using critical distance approach and time intercept approach.
~B
r
hu
Vp1
Vp2
Solution: 1. Plot the data on timedistance graph as shown in Fig. 3.31. In this figure
.
15
10
= Inverse slope of BE =
Adopt
vpl
6.1 x 103
= 1640 m/s
.""
~s
,35 ',. .~.
v2u
~~.
113
J '~ I
Vu
= Inverse
slope of EF
35 (16.53.8) x 103
= 2756 m/s
D 16
~
14
'"
I
"
".'I
"...
..........
12 lT2ui
,.....
..........
..........
..
..........
I I
I I
, ,
E E .tCiIJ
.I
u CII '"
10
,I
i.
"
"""
"
,,
"
"
"
T2di 3.8 sec
Distance
(m)
Fig. 3.31 : Timedistance plot for the data given in example 3.4
'~.  ~~..
~,.
114
v I
1600
= 0.2423
.
6603
or
ipc  a = 14 Sin (i
pc
From Eqs. (3.153b) and (3.154b) hd TZdivpl 2 cosi pc cosa 3.8 x 103 x 1620 = 3.4 m
= 2cos24.7coslO.75
h = TZujVpl u 2 cosi pc cos a
4. Critical distance Approach From Eqs. (3. 157) and (3. 158) xcd {1sin(ipc +a)} hd = 2 cos ipccos a 14.75(10.5805)
=
h = u
= 3.4 m
= 3820
" ..
m/se~
.' ~I ...,.. ;;" ::
,"".~,
115
Example 3.5 Following is the data obtained from a seismic refraction test
Geophone No. GO Gl G2 G3' G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 GI0 Distance from Shot Point (m)
...
Travel Time (rriilli sec) 0 200 399 592 780 .963 1138 1306 1465 1618 1763
O'
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Assuming that the velocity is varying linearly with depth, determine the values of depth of deepest point of the wave paths from ground surface corresponding to the waves reachtng to geophones G7 and G9. Also determine the coefficient 'K' in both cases. Solution: (i) Initial velocity,
Velocity of the wave reaching to geophone G7 i.e. 200 v = = 611 m/s 7 (1465 1138) x IO~ (ii) Similarly
.  . I 500  54 90
700
= 671m/ s
. . I 500 0 '0 ~ Sill . 671=48.16 2V o cot io 2 x 500 cot 48.16 .k' = ~ = 900
= 0.995
.
..
..;..'
116
Soil sy,..",ics
zo
u
Q,/
\1'1
'E , 10
~
E
~
10
15 Distance
20 (m)
25
Hardin, B.O. and Richart,F. E.,Jr. (1963), "Elastic wave velocities in granular soils," J. Soil, Mech. Found. Engg. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Engg. , vo\. 89, SMI, pp. 33.65. Kolsky, H. (1963). "Stress waves in solids." Dover, New York.
Lamb, H. (190.:l), "On the propOlgation of tremors over the surface of an elastic solid," Philos. Trans. Royal Soc.
London, Ser. A. 203, pp. 142. Milton, O.B. (1960). "Introduction to geophysical prospecting", McGrawHill, New York. Parasnis, D.S. (1962). "Principles of appliedgeophysics",Methuen.
Rayleigh,L. ( 1885), "On wavespropagatedalong the plane surfaceof an elastic solid." Proc. London Math. Soc..
vol. 17, pp. 41 \. Richart F.E., Jr. (1962), "Foundation vibrations". Trans. Am. Soc. Civ Engg., vo!. 127 , Part I. pp. 8638lJ8.
Timoshenko, S. and Goodier, J.N. (1951), "Theory of elasticity", McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., Tokyo.
117
"
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
. .}.2; ~scijb~ t,he)V.ave prppag~tion in an infinite, homogeneous, isotropic and elastic medium. .' 7.",3.3""Assuming Poisson'S"rntioif(J.tjastt35'and"denslt)r ofs'oifils1800'kgliri3 ,dete~i~~ vr if compression wave velocity is 450 mls.
?.1 Explain the generation of (a) compression wave, (b) shear wave and (c) Rayleigh wave. Describe their relative magnitudes. . " . . " ,
0 ,
,0'
E:G::~ ~ ~~d
3.4 What are the informations obtained by a seismic survey? Give its economic aspects. 3.5 Give precisely the three principles which makes the basis of Seismic wave propagation theory, 3.6 A shot is fired at the ground surface on a particular"location and 'observations fromgeophories gave the fol~owing, data.
Distance of Gephone from shot point (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 40
.. ~
Travel Time "'(MiIli sec) 42.50 85.00 127.50 170.00 187.50 197.50 215.00
~~;
Plot the timedistance graph and determine (i) Velocities of two layers (ii) Values of E and G of. the two layers assuming
,
~ = 0.25
'
(iv) Depth of layer from.time intercept and criticcit" distance ,,' .' .
(v) Verification of travel time for 30'm geophone. 3.7 Prove that in a dipping layer interface trajectory based on tritical angle~ giv~ sho'rt~st' time. " 3.8 In a dipping interface travel timedistance plot is' obtained as shO\vn in FIg. 3::n. Deteimine the
following:
(a) Apparent velocities (b) Slope of interface (c) Depth of layer at points A and B using critical distance concept (d) Depth of layer at points A and B using time intercept concept (e) True velocity V2
.;
'
00
"'

._. , ~.
.'
~~.,......... :?
.:
4.1 GENERAL
The problems involving the dynamic loading of soils can be divided into two categories: (i) Having large strain amplitude responseStrong motion earthquakes, blasts and nuclear explosions can develop large strain amplitudes of the order of 0.01% to 0.1%, and (ii) Having small strain amplitude respon~eFoundationsof the machines have usually low strain amplitude ofthe order of 0.0001%to 0.001%. The soilproperties which are needed in analysis and design of a structuresubjected to dynamic loading are:
(a) Dynamic moduli, such as Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus K (b) Poisson's ratio J.1 (c) Dynamic elastic constants, such as coefficient of elastic uniform compression CII' coefficient of elastic uniform shear Ct, coefficient of elastic nonuniform Compression C$ and coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear C'p' (d) Damping ratio~. (e) Liquefaction parameters, such as cyclic stress ratio, cyclic deformation and pore pressure response. if) Strengthdeformation characteristics in terms of strain rate effects. Since the dynamic properties of soils are strain dependent various laboratory and field techniques have been developed to measure these properties over a wide range of strain amplitudes. 4.2 LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (I) Resonant column test, (ii) Ultrasonic pulse test, . (iii) Cyclic simple shear test, (iv) Cyclic torsional simple shear test, and (v) Cyclic triaxial compression test. "/"
.
The laboratory methods used for determining the dynamic properties of soils are:
'm
,, ..,
119
t.2.1. Resonant Column Test. The resonant columntest isused to obtain the elastic modulusE, shearmodu..; IusG and damping characteristics of soils at Iow strain amplitudes.This test is based on the theory of wave propagation in prismatic rods (Richart, Hall and Woods, 1970).Either a cyclically varying axial load or torsionalload is applied to one end of the prismatic or cylindrical ~pecimenof soil. This in turn willpropagate either a compression wave or a shear wave in the specimen. In this technique the excitation frequency generating the wave is adjusted until the specimen experiencesresonance. The value of the resonant frequency is used in getting the value ofE and G depending on the type of the excitation (axial or torsional). The resonant column technique was used for testing of soils by many investigators (Ishimoto and Iida, 1937;lida, 1938, 1940;Wilson and Dietrich, 1960;Hardin and Richart, 1963;Hall and Richart, 1963;Hardin and Music, 1965;Drnevich, 1967;Anderson, 1974;Lord et ai, 1976;Woods, 1978).Severalversions of torsional resonant column device using different end conditions to'conc;traintthe tt'st specimen are available. Some common end conditions used in developing the equipment are discussed below: (I) Fixedfree: Hall and Richart (1963) described the apparatus with fixedfree end c~ndition. In this arrangement one end of the specimen is fixed against rotation and the other end is free to rotate under the applied torsion (Fig. 4.1a). A node occurs at the fixed end and the distnbution of angular rotatione along the
specimenis a 1/4sinewave.
'
x
80,t) /
., ,
e ~l,
t) Y"
:'" X
e(l,t)
J
/ /A
I.
/ / ' /.
~
/,
/ ~
iJ wavtZ
//Y4SintZ
~~/ (0)
8 J/Jo =00
of resonant Hardin, column (After t 970 and Drnevich,
e
(b)
with fixedfree t 967)
J/Jo=O.S
end conditions
As shown in Fig. 4.1 b, by adding a mass at the free end, the variation of e along the specimenbecomes nearly linear. J and Jo are respectively'the polar moment of inertias of the specimen and the added mass respectively.Dmevich(19~7)usedthe ~oncePtof addedmasstoobtaina uniformstraindistribution' throughout the length of the specimen. . (il) Springbase model: Figure 4.2 shows the configu~ationof an apparatus which canbe described as the spring.:.basemodel. ,Depending on the stiffness of the spring compared to specimen's stiffness, it can represent either fIXedfree airangem~nt,~rfreefreeconfiguration.In the case when the springis stiff in comparison ~ospecimen, the configuI'~ti,~~ may ~~~onsideredas fix~dfree. In such a case, a nodewill occur at mid height of the specimen, and the distribution of angular rota~on would then be a 1/2cosine wave. , " ,"".', " . ,
,
. .
"";t""' ':;""'J1J.)'.IJ'..~",. "".,', ".'. ,..,..,0.;", ',';.;'Ii..:o.",:,:L.."f,i;.'i{}I.,,'il., t<.'.I ,~" :.'1'\II
";::";"":"~'~;""
,:,\
~ 'r,
'::.
~'I.''. ;

,,
",
~=.
::'::::,=:T
if ~
'~ 120
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
to platen
passiv<z
<znd platczn
Soil sp<zcimen
Activll
Ilnd
platen
/
f.~~
W<zightl<z"sc;torsional
~ WQ:ightlQ:ss
spring
torsional da shpot
"
portion { rigidly
of
vibration to
Q:xcitation platlln
dllvicll
connQ:ctlld
L :';9hil...longitudinal
Fig. 4.2 : Schematic of resonant column
(iil) Fixedpartially restrained: Figure 4.3 showsthe configurationof an apparatusin which the top cap is partially restrained by springs acting against an inertial mass. The apparatus used by Hardin and Music (1965) is of this type. Dmevich (1967, 1972) developed a hollow cylinder apparatus as shown in Fig. 4.4 to study the effect of shear strain amplitude on shear modulus and damping. It may be noted that in the usual torsional resonant column test, the shear strain is not constant but varies from zero at the centre of the sample to a maximum at the outer surface. In hollow specimen, the variation in shearing strain acrossthe thickness of the cylinder wall becomes relatively very small. The configuration of this apparatus is similar to Fig. 4.1b and therefore the shearing strain is almost uniform along the length of specimen. Using Drnevich's apparatus, Anderson(1974) tes.tedclaysupto 1% shearingstrainand Woods(1978)testeddense sandsupto shearing strainof 0.5%.
" "
4.2.1.1. Calibration and determination olG and~. Hardin (1970) suggested the following procedure of calibration of the apparatus described in Fig. 4.1b: (I) For this model the vibration excitation device itself, without a specimen attachedis a single degree of freedom system.Firstly remove the specimen cap and the additional rigidmass, connect the sine wave generator to the vibration excitation device and vary the excitation frequency to determine the resonant frequencyf"I of the device. . (il) Attach the additionalrigid mass of polar momentof inertia Jo' and determinetheresonantfrequency !"A of the new system.
';C~
121
Driving
\,
Sp(lcimqn.
dis'turbqd
non rigid
mass
"
~
Fixqd
Ko
'"
'.
restrained
The rotational spring constant (torque per unit rotation), Ko,of the spring about the axis of specimen can be obtained using Eq. 4.1.
2
= ;1t
1
J Ai
1"2 n
...(4.1)
InA
( 1nl )
(iii) With the added mass removed and with the specimen cap, specimen and all apparatus, determine the resonant frequency/"0' The value of mass polar moment of inertia of the rigid mass, Jocan be computed using Eq. 4.2.
"Ko . Jo '
= 41tln20
;,/,.0 ".
... "'_'__.0"'_"
122
Taring
spring
.:,
Top 'cap
lid
" 'I
,""
~,.: !:~j
, ..
.:,. "',,
'" .~ '
,': I,' ~,:
M
!:'.: .. ;
em branes
,
, '
,,. ~'. :
",
,.. ~ .
, ..
,'. .
;:' ".
Sand
",;' :
,'
'J
porepressure
transdueczr
To bae k pressure
..../
BoHom
cap
Now at resonance cut off the power and record the decay curve for the vibration, From the decay curve compute the logarithmic decrement for the apparatus, A' as follows:
AI
...(4,3)
= Amplitude
Under steady state vibrations, the apparatus damping constant, DAis given by
 A WT DA  "Ko 10 1t
..,(4.4
.~
Dynamic Soil Properties 123
(iv) To measure the torque current constant, Kt' excite the apparatus successively at frequencies
(J2 / 2)
/"0'
the steady state vibration at each of these frequencies measure the current flowing through the coils, C in amperes, and the displacement amplitude of vibration, e in radians. For each frequency compute the torquecurrent constant Kt' as follows:
eKo
~
where Mfis given in Table 4.1
...(4.5)
= CMf
Frequency
Mf
2
. r.,
()f.. (.fi)
1110
I ,. I 3
2/110
The value of Kt shall be taken as the average of three measured values. The three measured values should not differ by more than 10%. After calibration, the specimen shall be placed in the apparatus with minimum disturbance. A known value of ambient pressure is applied as done in triaxial compression test. With the power as Iow as is practical, the resonant frequency of the system'/"R' is obtained by varying the frequency of excitation. At resonant frequency, the amplitude of vibration, eR, in radians and the current flowing through the coils of the vibration excitation device, CR are measured. Now the power is cut off and the record of decay curve for the free vibration of the system with specimen is obtained. Using this decay curve, the value of the logarithmic'
'
The procedure of obtaining G and ~has been explained in the following steps: (i) Calculate the mass density of the specimen, p, from Eq. (4.6), 4W
f)
P=
where
rtd2f g
...(4.6)
g = Accelerationdue to gravity, (it) Calculate the inertia of the spe~imen_ab<iut its_~xis, J, as follows:

J= 1t pd 1 32
,. ;,
.,.
"
...(4.7)
,'.
~.
124
(iii) Calculate the system factor, T ~s follows: 10 Ko T = I 41t21fni where 10 = Mass polar moment of inertia of the apparatus, derIDedby Eq. (4.2). Ko = Rotational spring constant, derIDed by Eq. (4.1) 1 = Inertia of the specimen, defined by Eq. (4.7)
fnR
...(4.8)
(iv) Using Fig. 4.5, determine the dimensionless frequency F for the value ofT computed in step (iii). 100
SO 40 30 20
\
\ f\ i\ ""
~
'I0
t>I
10
::I
>
5 4 3
2
" '"
'
"
I
""""" ..........
'"
I I
0.3
0.4
0.5 value of
0.6 F
0.7
G = 4.2p
(I,; ./)'
FnR
...(4.9
"
41t J ftiR ( ~~
1 KICR' 2 2 2 21tDA
...(4.H i '
, 0.. .
.0
., , . .:~

'liS
125
.8)
(vi) Compute O/T . Using Fig. 4.6, determine the va.lue ofR corresponding to the value of T computed in step (iii). Then damping ratio is given by
~ = 0.5
Os TR
...(4.11)
(vii) For the free vibration method, using Fig. 4.7, determine the value of mode shape factor Cmfor the value of T computed in step (iii) 100 ii).
50 11
20
~
010 ~
10
~,
I: '11
!I !I
::I CJ >
.(4.9)
4.10)
0.7 1.0

1.1
1.2 Value
1.3 of R
1.4
1.5

126
I'
100
so
I' I1I
1'1
20
lil
.....
10
'+0 ~ ::J
I I;
0 >
I: 11
2
jj
I, I
!
I:
'
I Ii I'
0.6 1.00
1.01 value
1.02 of CM
1.03
Fig. 4.7 : System factor T versus mode shape factor Cm (viii) Compute the system energy ratio, S as follows: <>
f I
S =
32Kol 1tC",Gd
...(4.12)
~ is then
given by
I
1 I
I I I
~= ~[Os(l+S)OA 21t
S]
...(4.13)
4.2.2. Ultra Sonic Pulse Test. The theory of ultrasound is similar to that of audible sound. Sound is the result of mechanical disturbance ora material; that is. a vibration. Ultrasonic pulses of either compression or shear waves can be generated and received by suitable' piezoelectric crystals. Using elastic theory, a relationship between the speed of propogatiQn and wave amplitude of these waves and certain properties of the media through which they are travelling can be determined as follows: 2(1+11)(1211)
2 G pvs
I
I
r 1
E=pvc
(1jl)
...(4.14) ...(4.15)
l
.~

~~
127
I!
VC
J..L=
Vs
)
Vs =
...(4.16)
1(::]'
~
=
where
Ao 2.302 I ogl0n An
Velocity of shear wave
...(4.17)
Vc
Lawrence (1963) described the basic apparatus required to measure the propagation velocities (i.e. Vc and vs) through sand. Stephenson (1978) described an equipment for conducting the ultrasonic tests. His equipment includes a pulse generator, an oscilloscope, and two ultrasonic probes (transmitter and receiver). The pulse generator deliversa variablevoltage direct CUITent pulse to the transmitting probe simultaneously with a 7 volt trigger pulse to th~ time base of the oscilloscope. The gen_e.ratorwas designed such that the pulse interval and pulse width can be varied. Stephenson caITied out the tests on silty clay samples. One of the main advantage of ultrasonic test is that it can be perfoITned on very soft sea floor sediments while still retained in the core liner. The drawback of this approach is that it is very difficult to identify the exact wave aITival times. Secondly the strain amplitudes which can be achieved by this technique, are only in the very low region. G.L. ", ".
Typical

IZlem~nt
""""
Rocl<
earthquake vibrations
er
CJo
+
er
1:
.
xx. +"t
C
t
A Soil element at rest and in mean position B Maximum d<zformation io the. le ft C Maxi m u m dlZtormation to tht right
128
4.2.3. Cyclic Simple Shear Test. During an earthquake or other source of ground vibrations, a soil element below a foundation or in an embankment is subjected to an initial sustained stress together with a superimposed series of repeated and reversals of shear stresses (Fig. 4.8). The magnitude of induced shear stresses depend on the magnitude of acceleration of the dynamic force. In a direct shear box test, uniform state of shear strain occurs only on either side of failure plane. The simple shear device was designed to overcome this limitation of direct shear box by enabling a uniform state of shear strain throughout the specimen. This simulates the field conditions in a much better way. Kjellrnan (1951), Hvorslev and Kaufman (1952), Roscoe (1953), and Bjerrum and Landra (1966) have described simple shear apparatus. The Roscoe simple shear device has a box for a square shaped sample with side length of 60 mm and a thickness of 20 mm. The box is provided with two side walls and two hinged walls (Fig. 4.9). Peacock and Seed (1968) have modified Roscoe's simple shear apparatus for dynamic testing. The dynamic shear forces were applied by a double acting piston with controlled compressed air pressure using solenoid valves. Figure (4.10) illustrates how the end walls rotate simultaneously at the ends of the shearing chamber to deform the soil uniformly. Prakash, Nandkumaran and Joshi (1973) have also developed similar type of simple shear apparatus which has the facility of applying sustained normal stress, sustained shear stress and oscillatory shear stress.
membrane disks
~
t:
'(a)
Fig. 4.9 : Schematic
Hinge
(b)
arrangement
apparatus
Prakash, Nandkumaran and Bansal (1974) have conducted tests on three artificial soils (SM, CL and CH) using oscillatory shear apparatus developed by Prakash et al (1973). A more systematic study has been done by Dass (1977) on clay of high compressibility (CH, LL = 65.5%, PL = 28.0%, qu= 78 kN/m2) using the same dynamic simple shear apparatus. The salient features of her work are reported here to understand the behavior of soil under dynamic load. The static strength of soil was 36 kN/m2. She performed the tests
129
shear stress, 'Cdy n ( kN/m2) = 13,19,22,25 Number of cycles of oscillatory shear stress = 1to 1100 The oscillatory shear stress was applied at the rate of one cycle per second. The f::lilurecriteria was chosen corresponding to 12mm displacement.
Sh ea ring chamber
Pian
Soil , , sample
D~==4J
==(]
~
(0==0
)
End plate rotation Elevation
L ....
Soi I deformation
Fig. 4.10 : Schematic diagram illustrating rotation o(hinged end plates and soil deformation in oscillatory simple shear (After Peacock and Seed. 1968)
""""
130
A typical plot oftest data in terms of number of cycles versus shear displacement is shown in Fig, 4.11 for "Cd y n equal to 13 kN/m2. Similar plots were obtained for other values of 'Cd y n . From these plots, number of cycles and oscillatory shear stress corresponding to 12 mm displacement have been obtained and plotted as shown in Fig. 4.12. In Fig. 4.13, plots between dynamic shear stress and sustained stress are shown for different number of cycles. It can be seen from Figs. 4.12 and 4.13 that for a fixed sustained shear stress, the amount of dynamic shear stress decreases as number of cycles increases for causing 12 mm displacement. As sustained shear stress increases, less number of cycles and dynamic shear stress is needed to cause failure.
Number 1 01 10
of
L.
E E
c ~ v
OIl
'6
1/1
c a..
"
... c s:. 8
OIl
1/1
10
12
displacement
versus
number
of cycles "
";1";",
131
in percent
c E .... 80
0 c
....
0 ... C tJ
~ 60 ...
a. c
III III tJ
t;
....
!oO ....
E 'u III 0
.... 0
20
0 1 10 No. of Fig. 4.12 : Oscillatory cycle shear at failure number of cycles 100 1000
stress versus
4.2.4. Cyclic Torsional Simple Shear Test. In cyclic simple shear apparatus, it is not possible to measure the confining pressure and the test is performed under Ko consolidation conditions. Torsional simple shear devices have been developed to overcome these difficulties. Ishihara and Li (1972) modified the triaxial apparatus to provide torsional strain capabilities. This has the disadvantage that the shear strain in the sample varies with maximum at the outer circumference and zero at the centre. This problem has been minimised by using hollow cylinder torsional shear apparatus (Hardin, 1971; Dmevich, 1972; Yoshimi and Ohaka, 1973; Ishibashi and Sherif, 1974, Ishihara and Yasuda, 1975; Cho et aI, 1976; Iwasaki, Tatsuoka and Takagi, 1978). The apparatus used by Drnevich (1972) has already been described earlier and shown in Fig. 4.4. This has the advantage that both resonant column and cyclic torsional shear tests can be performed in the same device and on the same sample. , '
,{
.
,._.,
132
.s::.
.
I
. Undistu r bed
00
RemouIded
Number of at cycle at failure
100
0 E ....
0 C
....
.... 40
11\ .... 0 t\I .s::. 11\ u 'E
"20
""
.;;;:
"
80 100 str 12 ng t h
0 C >Q
0
20
40
60 in percent
Su stained
sh ear s tress
no rmal
Some of the above mentioned investigators have used long hollow cylinder to obtain uniform conditions atthe test section (Hardin, 1971;Drnevich, 1972,Ishihara and Yasuda, 1975;Iwasaki et aI, 1977).It is difficultto prepare samplesfor longhollowcylinder devices.Keeping this fact in view,Yoshini and OhOka (1973); Ishibashi and Sherif( 1974),and Cho et al (1976) used a short cylinderin whichthe taper wasproportionalto the insideand outside radii (Fig. 4.14). The internaland externalradii rl and rz are selected such that the difference in average shear stressescomputed considering two extremeconditions is minimum. The two extremeconditions are: (i) Shear stress varies linearlywith radius as for an elastic material (Eq. 4. 18) (ii) Shear stress is constant as for pure plastic deformation (Eq. 4. 19)
"~1~?~~~~~\;;~~:i~;~~:. . '~~'.:,'~::ii~;.~;i:~~S~;,;"'~i~i
.
133
Dynamic
Soil Properties
3 3
...(4.18)
3T
I
3 3
 
...(4.19)
x
~/~~"~
Boundaries indicated by heavy lines
Fig. 4. t 4 : Crosssection for short specimen
4.2.5. Cyclic Triaxial Compression Test. In general the stressdeformation and strength characteristics of a soil depend on the following factors: 1. Type of soil 2. Relativedensityin caseof cohesionlesssoils;consistencylimits, watercontentand stateof disturbance in cohesive soils 3. Initial static stress level i.e. sustained stress
4. Magnitude of dynamic stress 5. Number of pulses of dynamic load 6. Frequency of loading 7. Shape of wave form ofloading 8. One directional or two directional loading In one directional loading only compression of the sample is done while in two directional loading both ; , All the factors listed above can be studied lucidly on a triaxial set up. compression and extension is done.
134
Prof. Arthur Casagrande of Harvard university was refered a problem of studying the effect of vibrations created by bomb explosion on the stability of the Panama canal projects. For this Casagrande and Shannon (1948, 1949) developed the follo~ing three types of apparatus for studying the strength of soils under transient loading (Table 4.2).
Table 4.2 : Type of Apparatus Type of apparatus
(i) Pendulum loading (ii) Falling beam (iii) Hydraulic loading Time ofloading (seconds) 0.05 to 0.01 0.5 to 300 0.05 to any desired larger value
Remarks
Suitable for performing fast transient tests
Time ofloading was defined as the time between the beginning oftest and the point at which the maximum compressive stress is reached (Fig. 4. 15). The pendulum loading apparatus (Fig. 4. 16) utilizes the energy of a pendulum which, when released from a selected height, strikes a spring connected to the piston rod of a hydraulic lower cylinder. This lower cylinder is connected hydraulically to an upper cylinder, which is mounted on a loading frame.
"0 0 0 J
Timeof loading
I"
Time
in transient
tests
The falling beam apparatus consists essentially of a beam with a weight and rider, a dashpot to contrthe velocity of the fall of the beam, and a yoke for transmitting the load from the beam to the specimen (Fi 4. 17). A small beam mounted above the yoke counterbalances the weight of the beam. The hydraulic loading apparatus (Fig. 4.18) consists of a constant volume vanetype hydraulic pur connected to a hydrauliC cylinder through valves by which either the pressure in the cylinder or the volUl of the liquid delivered to the cylinder can be controlled. The peak load that can be produced by this .apT ratus is much greater than can be obtained by either the pendulum type or falling beam apparatus.
.'
d~,",_,_,,'
d',~'
"  ~~\~~i~:~;,
'If,~~t{t'~::~J~'~i~1if~f,t;;~~~;r{\;f'~*~~,
133
t'
'tave
=
4T
2
r2 r)
2
3 4 4
...(4.18)
]
...( 4.19)
3T
'tavp
21t
( ri  r\3 )
x
~/~~"~
Boundaries indic a t ed by heavy
for short
Iin es
specimen
4.2.5. Cyclic Triaxial Compression Test. In general the stressdeformation and strength characteristics of a soil depend on the following factors: 1. Type of soil 2. Relativedensityin caseof cohesionlesssoils;consistencylimits, watercontentand stateofdisturbance in cohesive soils 3. Initial static stress level i.e. sustained stress 4. Magnitude of dynamic stress 5. Number of pulses of dynamic load 6. Frequency of loading 7. Shape of wave form ofloading 8. One directional or two directional loading In one directional loading only compressionof the sample is done while in two directional loading both compression and extension is done. All the factors listed above can be studied lucidly on a triaxial set up.
134
Prof. Arthur Casagrande of Harvard university was refered a problem of studying the effect of vibrations created by bomb explosion on the stability of the Panama canal projects. For this Casagrande and Shannon (1948, 1949) developed the follo",:,ing three types of apparatus for studying the strength of soils under transient loading (Table 4.2). Table 4.2 : Type of Apparatus
Type of apparatus
(i) Pendulum loading (ii) Falling beam (iii) Hydraulic loading Time of loading (seconds) 0.05 to 0.01 0.5 to 300 0.05 to any desired larger value
Remarks
Suitable for performing fast transient tests
Time ofloading was defined asthe time between the beginning of test and the point at which the maximum compressive stress is reached (Fig. 4. 15). The pendulum loading apparatus (Fig. 4. 16)utilizes the energy of a pendulum which, when released from a selected height, strikes a spring connected to the piston rod of a hydraulic lower cylinder.This lower cylinder is connectedhydraulicallyto an upper cylinder, which is mounted on a loading frame.
"0
I
0 0
Time of loading
J..
Time
Fig. 4.15 : Time of loading in transient tests The falling beam apparatus consists essentially of a beam with a weight and rider, a dashpot to contrthe velocity of the fall of the beam, and a yoke for transmitting the load from the beam to the specimen (Fi 4. 17). A small beam mounted above the yoke counterbalances the weight of the beam. The hydraulic loading apparatus (Fig. 4. 18) consists of a constant volume vanetype hydraulic pur connected to a hydrauliC cylinder through valves by which either the pressure in the cylinder or the volur of the liquid delivered to the cylinder can be controlled. The peak load that can be produced by this apf ratus is much greater than can be obtained by either the pendulum type or falling beam apparatus.
'$ffj.."f;;:!dfj:,'~~W~(,%"~~.Q$:,~",<,'.r:(\i.i"'. ~
;F?';.,tl~i">"
135
~
LowtZr cylindtZr
Fig. 4.16 : Pendulum loading apparatus (Casagrande and Shannon. 1948)
.
Load gagcz D<zformation gogcz TtZst sptZcimtZn RidtZr
Spring Doshpot
Fig. 4.17 : Falling beam apparatus (Casagrande & Shannon, 1948)
136
prssure rgulator (pressure of discharge may b. quickly varied by manual control. btwun 10 and 1000 lb. pr sq. inch) vantype hydraulic pump 100 lb. per sq. inch 2.5 GPM 5 HP motor 220V,AC 1200 RPM
Three position nlec tor valve (with Pto A. B is Conncted to T and vice verso; with Pto T. and 8 ore blocked)
F Iow control valve (valves will maintain A constant flow betwEen Sand 1250 CU. in. per min. rega rdless of pussure)
Hyraulic cylindu 3 inch bore, 3 inch stroke (used to apply load to piston of triaxial compression apparatus)
loading
apparatus
(Casagrande
& Shannon,
1948)
For measuring load, a load gage of rectangular or cylindrical shape is used, with four strain gages mounted on the inside face. For measuring deflection, a thin flexible steel spring cantilever is used with strain gages mounted on the cantilever, the base of which is clamped to the loading piston. Casagrande and Shannon (1948) performed both static and transient compression tests on six different materials. Out of these, two typical materials named as Cambridge clay and Manchester sand having properties as given in Table 4.3 are selected for illustration. The transient compression tests were performed with different time of loading both in confined and unconfined states.
0.88 0.61
In Fig. 4. 19, a simultaneous plot of stress and strain versus time from an unconfined compression test with a time of loading of 0.02 s on cambridge clay is shown. Similar plots were prepared for other times of 10adll1gand on Manchester sand. Using this data, stressstrain plots were obtained as shown in Figs. 4. 20a and 4.20b. In these figures, stressstrain curves for corresponding static tests are also shown. Typical plots of maximum compressive stress versus time of loading (or unconfined and confined transient tests on Cambridge clay are shown in Fig. 4. 21 a and b respectively. A typical plot in terms of principal stress ratio a failure and time ofloading for Manchester sand is shown in Fig. 4.22. .
~&.
137
3 ISh<zar tailurlZ_N
at 0.02 s
6
0
E
u
Cl .:ill:
~
..... V)
...
0 0.24
Fig. 4.19 : Time vs stress and strain in an unconfined (Casagrande & Shannon,
transient 1948)
test on Cambridge
clay
From the typical test data presented above, it may be concluded that the strength of clay decreases with the increases in time of loading and for time ofloadingequal to 0.02 s, the strength of clay is approximately 1. 75 to 2.0 times greater than the static strength. The strength of sand is almost independent to the time of loading. Transient strength of sand increased only about 10 percent. 0
a..
I
0 0
3
I
I I
... ..... S
(j')
d
Transi<znt test, time of load ing 0.02 s
6 7
8 0
0.4
0.8 stress,
2.0
2.4
138
;;c 3 .0 ...
+'
(/)
..
I
Transiqnt test tim~ to failurq 0.03 s
5 6 7 0
0.50
1.75
u
,
2.6 2.4
2.2 2.0
1.8 1.6
C7' oX
... 1/1
tII
> 
1/1 1/1
tII
... a. E 0
u
).4
1.2
0
E ::J E .x 0
1.0 1000
100 10 1 T i m q of 10a din g. s
(a) Unconfined compression test
:E 0.8
0.1
0.01
Fig. 4.21 : Maximum compresslve stress versus time 01 loading for Cambridge clay (...Contd.)
139
I
I I I 1111 I I I
6.0 [TlTIIII
N
:1\11111
illll
5.8
tr
oX
E
et
5.6
5.4
..
5.2
5.0
11' 11' ~
I b
4..8
/V
/ /
//
/
0
"
... ...
~ 4.6
E 4,4
0 >
~
4.2
V
0
/
I I I IIIII I I I I II
./ I 1 hili
100 Time
I IIIII1I
I
/1
10 of
0.1
0.01
loading
compressin
stress versus
time of loading
.~
vCO
~
bM
6
00
0....
,..
0
(1
v 0
0.0
E
X
E .0
::J
+0
....
5
I 4 11111 1000
I I
~~
...
lA III ~
111\1 I I
,Ill'
I I
11111 'I'
1111\,,,
100
principal
10 Time of loading, S
stress ratio versus time of loading
0.1
0.01
sand
for Manchestor
Modulus of deformation is defined as the slope of a line drawn from the origin through the point on the stressdeformation ~urve and correspon~ing to stress of onehalf the strength. It is found that in case of clays, modulus of deformation in fast transient tests was about two times that obtained in static tests. In case of sands, modulu.sof deformation was found independent ~othe time of loading.
""'}f><;C
140
As evident from above discussions, in transient loading test, an initially unstressed sample of soil is loaded to failure in a short period of time. Under earthquake loading conditions, an initially stressed soil element is subjected to a series of stress pulses, none of which would necessarily cause failure by itself, but the cumulative effect of which is to induce failure or significant deformations. Seed and Fead (1959) developed the oscillatory triaxial apparatus as shown in Fig. 4. 23 to study the effect of number of stress reversals and other factors on the deformation in soils.
Counter ba Ion c e for loading yoke Deformation gauge Dynomometer Triaxial compression ceH
r EI;ct;icalconnections
:
I
I I Air .
to timing
unit air
Air pre c;sure .
,
Compressed
' .
Ipre ssu re fr ~gauge :re9ula,tor Countczr to record number of load applications pressure cylindar Bellofrom seat Loading piston yoke
I J
r.J1
Air pressure
Fig. 4.23 : Apparatus for oscillatory triaxial
reservoir
'"'"'.""'
'....
141
Seed (1960) performed tests on Vicksburg silty clay(wn = 22%, S =93%) for studying the effect ofvarious factors on its dynamic strength characteristics. A typical stress strain relationship is shown in Fig. 4.24. It pertains tQ the sustained static stress of2 kg/cm2. The magnitude of dynamic stress was 35% of the sustained static stress. It gives the magnitude of dynamic stress as :t 0.70 kg/cm2. The static stressstrain curve indicating the static strength as 3.0 kg/cm2 is also ~hown in the figure. Therefore the initial factor of safety for this typical case will be 3.0/2.0 = 1.5. Transient strength of the soil corresponding to 0.02 s t~meof loading was found as 4.0 kg/cm2. In this figure, B represents the point which is obtained after 100 cycles of loading. It may be noted that at point 'B', the strains are increased but factor of safety still remains more than unity (3.0/2.7). It means that failure will not occur but the strains may become excessive. Hence in design, one should examine whether these strains are within permissible limits.
Deviator 0
4
st res s) kg/cm 2
3
"i
Strain induced
12
c: .0 ....
...... \JI
16
20
SO 100
70
 1    I I
I
Stress strain curve for sample after earthquake loading
B \
stress curve for sample in normal str<zngth test Confining pressure,'l kg/crl
0 .X
<X:
\ \ \
24 28 32 36
The deviator stress versus strain curves similar to as shown in Fig. 4.24 were drawn for different values of sustained static stress and dynamic oscillatory stress. Fig. 4. 25 shows the effects of single transient stress applications of the various intensities for initial factors of safety ranging between 1.0 to 2.0. The shaded portion of the figure shows the deformation of the specimens induced at stress levels corresponding to the different factors of safety in normal strength test. The upper curves show the increase in deformation caused by single transient pulses corresponding to 20, 40 and 60 percent of the initial sustained stress. Figs
142
Foundations
4.26 and 4.27 show similar data for a series of 30 and 100pulses. It is interesting to note that for this soil a single transient pulse equal to 20 percent of initial sustained stress causes no appreciable deformation even though the factor of safety may be as low as 1.1.However it may be seen that a series of 100such pulses for the same initial factor of safety will cause an increase in axial strain of 10percent. The significance of increase numbers of stress pulses in producing increased deformation of soil is readily apparent from these figures.
30 28 26 2l.. 22
,...... ;;. 20 ....... .::
0
Sing!(z transient
pulse
Simulahd earthquake: 30 pulses at 2 cycles p /lr se c . In c r/lase In stre ss during simu lated earthquake = 60 /0
=
40 /0 20 /0
20 c .0 18 16
14
18
~ 16 III
0
14 12 10
x <t
... +
0 .)(
III
12 10 8
et
6 4 2
01.0
6 4 2
0
1.0
2.0
Fig. 4.25 : Soil deformations induced by various combinations of sustained and transient stresses (Seed. 1960)
Fig. 4.26 : Soil deformation induced by various combination of susbined and vibratory stresses for 30 pulses (Seed. 1960)
It may be seen from Fig. 4.24 that in a normal strength test the maximum resistance of the soil is reached at an axial strain of about 25 percent. If this strain is adopted as a criterion of failure, then a variety'of combinations of initially sustained stress and earthquake stress intensities which will cause failure of the soil may be obtained from Figs. 4.25,4.26 and 4.27. Figure 4.28 shows the combination of initial stress and earthquake stress intensity causing 25% axial strain (i.e. failure). For single transient stress pulse the combinations of sustained and transient stresses would have to approach about 140 percent of the normal strength to induce failure. For earthquake inducing 100 majQJ.pulses failure would occur when the combined stresses totalled only 100 percent of the normal strength. , ,
;;~f&~;i.:~t~,"%?r~~~t,+;i0't~~'~~~~:!,,~~~},~~{~;.c'j}
,,:~;':i' '~:'i,
143
30 28 26 24 22 20 c: .0 18,
16
Simulated earthquak e: 100 pulses at 2cycles per sec .Inerescz in stress during simulatczd . earthquake =60ol
160
,
stress
1/
:: 40O}
:: 20/01
0 
.... ....
c 11\ 11\
80
11\
14
12
x
<{
.... ...er. 60
10
8 6 4
~ :x
.c: ....
....
::1,
g 0
40 20
2 0 1.0

Fig. 4.27 : Soil deformation induced by various combination of sustained and vibratory stresses for 100 pulses (Seed. 1960)
Fig. 4.28 : Combination of sustained and vibratory stress intensities causing failure in compacted silty clay (Seed. 1960)
Seed (1960) reported that the conditions producing failure shown in Fig. 4. 28 for compacted silty clay do not in any way represent the characteristics of conditions producing failure in other types of soils. For example in sensitive undisturbed clays, repeated deformations will lead to increase in pore pressure and a resulting reduction in strength. Consequently a series of transient pulses is likely to induce failure at lower stress levels than for the silty clay. On the same oscillatory triaxial test set up Seed and Chan (1966) carried out more elaborate study on different types of soils. Here, few typical results are presented. Figure 4. 29a compares combinations of sustained and pulsating stresses that induce failure in soft and compacted clays in one transient pulse. The strength exhibited by undisturbed Silty clay was greater than that displayed by compacted soils. As the number of pulses increases to 30 (Fig. 4.29b), failure occurs in sensitive soils at considerably lower stress level than that in compacted soils.
144
160
160
c ... 140
CJ\ C c:I
L:. 140
..... 0'1 C t.I
11 
"I
120
...
0 E "
~ 120
0
100
~
0
100
Compacted sandy clay
0 0
+0
80
.... 0
0
t
III
'"
C'I C
0
..
60
80
t.I ... +
'" '"
'"
"
60
....
::J a.
'" 40
C'1 C
.....
'"
20
StrClss pulse torm 
a.
silty
clay
pulse to rm
Symmetrical stress pulses of two directionalloadings resulted in a reduction in strength of all the soils tested. Typical results with San Francisco Bay mud are shown in Fig. 4.30. Below the dotted line drawn at 45 from origin the stress conditions in oneor twod:rectionalloadings are same since the pulsating stress is either smaller than or equal to sustained stress. Figure 4.31 shows the results of pulsating load tests with onedirectional loading on duplicate specimens of San Francisco Bay mud using the two forms of stress pulse. The longer dwell period under maximum stress for the flat peaked pulse causes larger deformations and induces failure in a smaller number of stress applications than in comparable tests using the triangular pulse form. A typical total stress versus total strain curve under pulsating loads is shown in fig. 4.32. For comparison, the stress strain relationship obtained from normal strength test is also shown. It may be noted that in situations involving 10 stress pulses, total stress versus total strain is somewhat higher than the stress strain relationship of a normal test; if there are 100 stress pulses, this is slightly below the normal plot. Further it was noted that with an initial factor of safety between 1.5 and 2, and 30 pulses of dynamic stress, the relationship between total stress and total strain will coincide almost exactly with the normal stress versus strain relationship.
Dynamic
Soil Properties
145
180
San Francisco WatflT cont~nt
Bay mud ~ 91 /0
stress pulses
120
E
0 c
....
....
0
100
...
III III ....
80
60
, ,
III Cl> C
....
0
III
40
:;
Cl.
20 00 20 Sustained
Fig. 4.30 : Combination of sustained and pulsating stresses causing failure in one and two directional loadings (Seed and Chan, 1966)
200
0 E
'160
g ...
C 0
San froncisco boy mud Wo te co nten t ~ 91 0/0 Unconsolidoted undroined te sts 'Contin ing pressu re = 1 kgl cm2 No sustained strczss
~';;80
... 1ft
C'I
...
40 0 1
0 1ft :J l.
~,
,.........
Et:...
146
140 Total stress (initial+pulsating) for initial factor of safety between 1.5 and 2.0 vs. total strain after 10 pulsczs 0'0.' ."
..' 100 ." 0
~"';'~
120
.J:
.... C\ C .... III
".
':":::.:";:,\;:
~::'"J:.o'\'
(::~::..Y.,r.:'.:~:;.:.::
1"
,.'t."
',..:::;;:.'
'""
',::',::
E
... 0 C '+0
80
I
;;
601
Total stress {initial + pulsating)for initial factor of safety betweczn l.S and 2,0 vs,total strain after 100 pulses
40
I:
San Francisco Bay mud Wo te r co ntent z 91 % Un conso Iidatczd und ra ined te st ' . 2 Con f Inln9 pressure" 1 kg/cm
Stress pulse form J1.r
20
00
4
between
8 strain,c/.
10
12
under pulsating
14
16
18
load conditions
4.2.6. Final Comments on Laboratory Testing, The laboratory techniques discussed above and more common in use are listed in Table 4.4. The specific soil properties measured by each test are also indicated, The range of strain amplitude over which each technique is applicable is shown in Fig, 4. 33. Table 4.4 : Laboratory Techniques for Measuring Dynamic Soil Properties (Woods, 1978)
Techniques
Young's modulus x
x
Material damping x
Attenuation
Resonant Ultrasonic
With adaption
)(
x x x
x x x
Cyclic triaxial Cyclic simple shear Cyclic torsional Shear Dynamic 1 D compression
x x x
I"
,'
~",......
BIll DZI!
!!IB\Im
..
amplitude 102
I
.. :am
(/.) 10'
I
111:
147
strain
column
(solid samples)  column shear (hollow (hollow samples) samples) Cyclic triaxial
Cy cl ic simple Shaking
r

sh ea r table
cha racteristics strong ground shaking from earthquake Closein nuclear explosion
(Woods, 1978)
apparatus
Each laboratory test has some merit when compared with the other. The resonant column device is better suited for determining shear modulus at Iow strains and the hollow cylinder device at higher strain levels. The cyclic simple shear device is suitable for determining shear modulus and damping characteristics of soils. The cyclic triaxial test is more suited to obtain the Young's modulus of the material.

III..
Q%!III!'It;j'~"
148
4.3.1. SeismicCrossborehole Survey. Thismethod is based on the measurementof velocityof wave propagation from one borehole to another. Figure 4.34 shows the essentials of seismic crossholesurvey as outlined by Stoke and Woods (1972). A source of seismic energy is generated at th~ bottom of one borehole.'" and the time of travel of the shear wave from this borehole to another at known distance is measured. Shear wave velocity is then computed by dividing the distance between the boreholes by the travel ~e.
Reciver
boreholes
~
Source
borehole
o~
0
(a) Plan
~o
view Oscilloscope Input
0
Ver tical impulse
~
Trigger

Generation of body wave s 3D velocity transducer wedged in place (b) Crosssectional Casing grout view and
Fig. 4.34 : Multiple hole seismic crosshole survey (Stoke and Woods, 1972)
As discussed above, seismic crossborehole survey can be done using two boreholes one having the source for causing wave generation and another having geophone for recording travel time. However, for extensive investigations andbetter accuracy, three or more boreholes arranged in a straight line should be used.
..
Dynamic Soil Properties
!Ri!.II
..
149
In this case the wave velocities can be calculated from the time intervals between succeeding pairs of holes, eliminating most of the concern over triggering the timing instruments and the effects of bore hole casing and backfilling (Stokoe and Hour, 1978). Also this arrangement of bore holes in a straight line overcomes problems of site anisotropy by examining one qirection only at a time. For better results, the following points should be kept in view. (i) The diameter of the boreholes should be small to cause least disturbance in the soil. Casing in the boreholes will provide good coupling with the soil and transmission of waves. Void spaces around the casing should be filled with weak cement slurry grout or dry sand. (ii) Boreholes should be vertical for the travel distance to be measured properly. In general any borehole 10 m or more in depth should be surveyed using an inclinometer or other logging device for determining verticality (Woods, 1978). (iii) Boreholes should be spaced as close as possible within the time resolution characteristics of the recording equipment. Large spacings can lead to difficulties with refracted waves arriving before the direct transmission through the intervening soil. Spacings as close as 23 m can be used satisfactorily (Woods, 1978). (iv) The seismic source must be capable of generating predominantly one kind of wave. Further it must also be capable of repeating desired characteristics at a predetermined energy level. Miller, Troncosco and Brown (1975) have described a source which is capable of .developing high amplitude shear waves. It consists of a falling weight which impacts on an hydraulically expanded borehole anchor. (v) The receivers must be oriented in the shearing mode and should be securely coupled to the sides of the borehole.
Wfl ight
Rod
Shot
detector Recorder
l
/ /
/ / / /
SPT
/ S wave
sampler
Fig. 4.35 : Seismic uphole survey with SPT (Goto et al., 1973)
III
_1...'"
"..,.
p;;;aB/
150
Foundations
4.3.2. Seismic UpHole Survey. Seismicuphole survey is done by using only one borehole. In this method. the receiver is placed at the surface, and shear waves are generated at different depths within the borehole. Figure 4.35 shows the schematic presentation of the arrangement used in seismic uphole survey (Gote et al., 1977). This method gives the average value of wave velocity for the soil between the excitation and the receivers if one receiver is used, or between the receivers. The major disadvantage in seismic uphole survey is that it is more difficult to generate waves of the desired type. .
4.3.4. Seismic Downhole Survey. In this method, seismic waves are generated at the surface of the ground near the top of the borehole, and travel times of the body waves between the source and the receivers which have been clamped to the borehole wall at predetermined depths are obtained. The arrangement used in seismic downhole survey is shown schematic ally in Fig. 4.36. This also requires only one borehole. The main advantage of this method is that low velocity layers can be detected even if trapped betweer layers of greater velocity provided the geophone spacings are close enough.
R<zcord<2r
W<zight
Expand<zr pump
Rubb<zr <zxpand<2r
,Back plate
wooden plo te
3componqnt gQophonq
(.t
,
151
4.3.4. Seismic Refraction Survey. The seismic refraction survey is frequently used for site investigations. It enables the detennination of elastic wave velocity in each layer, the thickness of each layer, and the dip angle of each layer as long as the wave velocities increase in each suceedingly deep layer. The details of this method has already been described in Art. 3.10 of chapter 3. 4.3.5. Vertical Block Resonance Test. The vertical block resonance test is used for determining the values of coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C), Young's modulus (E) and damping ratio (~) of the soil. According to IS 5249: 1984, a test block of size 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high is casted in M 15 concrete in a pit of pIan dimensions 4.5 m x 2.75 m and depth equal to the proposed depth of foundation. Foundation bolts should be embedded into the concrete block at the time of casting for fixing the oscillator assembly. The oscillator assembly is mounted on the block so that it generates purely vertical sinusoidal vibrations. The line of action of vibrating force should pass through the centre of gravity of the block. Two acceleration or displacement pickups are mounted on the top of the block as shown in Fig. 4.37 such that they sense the vertical motion of the block. A schematic diagram of the set up is shown in Fig. 4.37. Motor osci \lator assembly
"
Concr(te (M 150)
view
i
4.5Qm
1 m min
0.75 m
~
,
1.Sm
1&:::11
,1
C:Jj ~
2.75 m
1m min
(b)'
plan
view",
..   
.
"'."..
152
The mechanical oscillator works on the principle of eccentric masses mounted on two shafts rotating in opposite directions (Fig. 2.15). The force generated by the oscillator is given by
Fd = 2 mee CJ.)
...(4.23)
The oscillator is fIrstset at a particular eccentricity (e). As evident from Eq. (4.23)higher the eccentricity more will be the force level. It is then operated at constant frequency, and the acceleration of the oscillatory motion of the block is monitored. The oscillator frequency is increased in steps, and the signals of monitoring pickups are recorded. At any eccentricity and frequency the dynamic forceshould not exceed 20 percent of the total mass of the block and oscillator assembly. The amplitude of vibration (A) at a given frequency lis given by
...(4.24)
41tf
where
az
f = frequency, Hz. Amplitude versus frequency curves are plotted for each eccentricity to determine the natural frequency of the foundationsoil system (Fig. 4.38). The natural frequency,f. n~~, at different eccentricity (i.e. force level)
is different because different forces cause different strain levels of the block which may be accounted for when appropriate design parameters are being chosen. The coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) of the soil is then determined using Eq. (4.25) C =~
u
4 1t2 1.n2m
A
...(4.25)
where
fnz
m = Mass of the block oscillator and motor, Kg sec2/m 2 A = Base contact area of the block, m From the value ofC U obtained from Eq . (4.25) for the test block of contact area A the value ofC u I for the actual foundation having contact area A I may be obtained from Eq. (4.26)
CuI
rE
...(4.26)
= Cu V A;
The Eq. (4.26) is valid for base areas of foundations up to 10 m2. For areas larger than 10 m2, the value 01 Cu obtained for 10 m2 is used. The coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) is related to the elastic Young's modulus (E) by Eq (4.27) which is in the form of Boussinesq relationship for the elastic settlement of a surface footing E
Cu
Cs
= (1 ~ 2) . JBL
...(4.27
where
153
200
150
Vertical vibration
.0/8
0
III
~O'
0
0 e
A
35
c: 0
~
tt It
: 70
8 : 1050
'8 : 1400
I:r
..
QI
il
rso
8 4
15
Frequency, cps
"
. 45
50
Fig~ 4~38 : Amplitude versus frequency plots from vertical resonance test
154
Barkan (1962) recommended the values of Cs for various LIB ratios as listed in Table 4.5 Table 4.5: Values orcs (After Barkan, 1962)
lJB 1.0 1.5 2.0 Cs 1.06 1.07
1.09
3.0
5.0 10.0
The value of damping ratio
1.13 122
1.41
If
= Maximumamplitude
= Resonant frequency
This is also illustrated in example 2.6. 4.3.6. Horizontal Block Resonance Test. Horizontal block resonance test is also performed on the block set up as shown in Fig. 4.37. In this test, the mechanical oscillator is mounted on the block so that horizontal sinusoidal vibrations are generated in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the block. Three acce~eration or displacement pickups are mounted along the vertical centreline of the transverse face of the block to sense horizontal vibrations (Fig. 4.37a). The oscillator is excited in steps starting from rest condition. The signal of each acceleration pick up is amplified and recorded. Rest of the procedure is same as desqribed for vertical block resonance test. Similar testscan be performed by exciting the block in the direction oftransverse axIs.
ax
2
4n f
...(4.29)
= Frequency in Hz
Amplitude versus frequency curves are plotted for each force level to obtain the natural frequency,flLl of the block soil system as done in vertical resonance test. A typical frrquency versus amplitude plot i~; shown in Fig. 4.39. It may be noted that the case of horizontal vibrations.is a problem of two degrees o( ' '' " " f . . . .. , " , , I, ,
,
2:,;:r',{';:;~~{;I;!ffl~'$(>" .
lIB
i2;.;:~
',.
155
)m. The mode of vibration is obtained by plotting amplitude versu: :y of the system from the analysis of data from the pickups mountt block. Typical plots are shown in Fig. 4.40. If the plot correspOl ~ncycorresponds to first mode or lower natural frequency. On the ( g. 4o40b, then natural frequency corresponds to second moc
[,00
., ,
III C 0
'u
E 200
Q,I ~
... Q. E cd:
::J
1~
~8t
1.
100
010
1
15 20 25
Frequency
30
I CpS
35
40
[,5
Fig. 4.39 : Amplitude versus frequency plots rr~m honzon~al resonance test
157
The coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Ct) of soil is given by the following equation:
...(4.30)
2
Ct= (Ao+Io):t
where Mm r = M 1110
~ (Ao+Io)
4rAolo
hx = Horizontal resonant frequency of block soil system Ao = A/M A = Contact area of block with soil M = Mass of block, oscillator and soil
10 = 3.46 I/Mmo Mm = Mass moment of inertia of block, oscillator, motor, etc. about the horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of block and perpendicular to the direction of vibration Mmo = Mass moment of inertia of the block, oscillator; motor etc. about L1ehorizontal axis passing through centre of contact area of block and soil and perpendicular to the direction of vibration. I = Moment of inertia of the foundation contact area about the horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of area and perpendicular to the direction of vibration. In Eq. (4.30), negative sign is taken when the system vibrates in first mode and positive sign when the ystem vibrates in second mode. For the size of the block recommended in IS 52491977 and for first natural frequency, the Eg. (4.30) 'educes to
2 Ct
= 92.3 fnxl
...(4.31)
In Eq. (4.31), Ct is in kN/m3. The coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Ctl) for actual area of foundation (At) is given by
C" ~C,~AAl IS 5249 : 1977reconunends the followingrelations between Cu' and Ct, Ccp and CII': Cu = 1.5to 2.0 Ct
Ccp =
...(4.32)
3.46Ct
CIjI= 0.75 Cu
4.3.7. Cyclic Plate Load Test. The cyclic plate load test i,sperformed in a test pit dug upto the proposed base level of foundation. The equipme.nt is same as used in static plate load test. Circular or square bearing plates of mild steel not less than 25 mm,thickness and varying in size from 300 to 750 mm with chequered or grooved bottom are used. The test pit should be at least five times the width of the plate. The equipment is assembled according to details given in IS 19881982. A typical set up is shown in Fig. 4.41.
1" I
158 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations'
Sand
reaction
1.0m
10 m
+
0.60m4
Foundation
level
fSectional
1.Sm
elevation
100mm L J,Sm
,
3nos R.S.J. 300mm x lS0mm ot LoOO mm clc top row of joists not shown in pion
Plan
Fig. 4.4t : Set up for cyclic plate load test
To commence the test, a seating pressure of about 7 kPa is first applied to the plate. It is then removed and dial gauges are set to read zero. Load is then applied in equal cumulative incrementsof not more than 100 kPa or of not more than one fifth of the estimated allowable bearing pressure. In cyclic plate load test, each incremental load is maintained constant till the settlement of the plate is complete. The load is then released to ~ero and the plate is allowed to rebound. The reading of fmal settlement is taken. The load is then in
fTr~
,.,.".:.,..,.,.""II\~
!IIiI
III
159
;ed to next higher magnitude ofloading and maintained constant till the settlement is complete. which .l is recorded. The load is then reduced to zero and the settlement reading taken. The next increment of is then applied. The cycles of unloading andreloading are continued till the required final load is reached. The data obtained from a cyclic plate load test is shown in Fig. 4.42. From this data, the load intensity us elastic rebound is plotted as shown in Fig. 4.43, and the slope of the line is coefficient of elastic
JITn compressiOn.
(kN/m)
...(4.36)
where
s.~
Load intflns ity, p pz .p 3 p,
>~
a. ...
l~iSe4 r'
"
0 J
_t_SflS
fFig. 4.42 : Load intensity versus settlement in a cyclic plate load test Fig. 4.43 : Load intensity versus elastic rebound from cyclic plate load test
3.8. Standard Penetration test (SPT). The standard penetration test (SPT) is the most extensively used situ test in India and many other countries. This test is carried in a bore hole using a split spoon sampler. s per IS: 21311981, steps involved in carring out this test are as follows: (i) The borehole is advanced to the depth at which the SPT has to be performed. The bottom of the borehole is cleaned.
"""
..
91:
III
159
;ed to next higher magnitude ofloading and maintained constant rill the settlement is complete, which 1is recorded. The load is then reduced to zero and the settlement reading taken. The next increment of isthen applied. The cycles of unloading andreloading are continued till the required final load is reached. The data obtained from a cyclic plate load test is shown in Fig. 4.42. From this data, the load intensity us elastic rebound is plotted as shown in Fig. 4.43, and the slope of the line is coefficient of elastic Jrm compreSSiOn.
(kN/m)
...(436)
where
s.~
Load int<zns ity, p
p,
l_rz2 
pz
'p 3
4J
>
a. ...
1j__S<Z3 1
_tSe4 r'
..J
0 0
_t_S<zs
fFig. 4.42 : Load intensity versus settlement in a cyclic plate load test Fig. 4.43 : Load intensity versus elastic rebound from cyclic plate load test
3.8. Standard Penetration test (SPT). The standard penetration test (SPT) is the most extensively used situ test in India and many other countries. This test is carried in a bore hole using a split spoon sampler. s per IS: 21311981, steps involved in earring out this test are as follows: (I) The borehole is advanced to the depth at which the SPT has to be performed. The bottom of the borehole is cleaned.
~
160
mE
(ii) The splitspoon, attached to standard drill rods of required length is lowered into the borehole and rested at the bottom. (iii) The split spoon sampler is seated 150 mm by blows of a drop hammerof 65 kg fallingvertically and freely from a height of750 mm. Thereafter, the split spoon samplershallbe further driven 300 mm in two steps each of 150 m. The number of blows required to effect each 150 mm of penetration shall be recorded. The first 150 mm of drive may be considered to be seating drive. The total blows required for the second and third 150 mm of penetration is termed the penetration resistance N. If the split spoon sampler is driven less than 450 mm (total), then Nvalue shall be for the last 300 mm penetration. In case, the total penetration is less than 300 mm for 50 blows, it is entered as refusal in the borelog. (iv) The split spoon sampler is then withdrawn and is detached from the drill rods. The split barrel is disconnected from the cutting shoe and the coupling. The soil sample collected inside the barrel is collected carefully and preserved for transporting the same to the laboratory for further tests. (v) Standard penetration tests shall be conducted at every change in stratum or intervals of not more than 1.5 m whichever is less. Tests may be done at lesser intervals (usually Q.75 m) if specified or considered necessary. The penetration test in gravelly soils requires careful interpretation since pushing a piece of gravel can sreatly change the blowcount. 4.3.8.1. Corrections to obsetYed SPTvalues (N) ill cohesionless soils. Following two types of corrections are normally applied to the observed SPT values (N) in coh~sionless soils: Corrections due to dilatancy: In very fine, or silty, saturatedsand, Terzaghi and Peck (19~7) recommendthat the observed Nvalllesbe corrected to N' if N was greater than 15 as 1 ...(4.37) N' = 15 + 2 (N15) Bazaraa (1967) recommendedthe correction as N' = 0.6 N (forN > 15) ...(4.38) This correction is introduced with the view that in saturated dense sand (N > 15); the fast rate of application of shear through the blows of drop hammer, is likely to induce negative pore pressures and thus temporary increase in shear strength will occur. This will lead to a Nvalue higher than the actual one. Since sufficient experimental evidence is not available to confirm this correction, many engineers are not applying this correction. However this correction has also been recommended in IS: 213 11981.
Correction due to overburden pressure: On the basis of field tests, corrections to the Nvalue for overburden effects were proposed by many investigators (Gibbs and Holtz 1957; Teng 1965; Bazaraa 1967; Peck, Hanson and Thornburn 1974). The methods noffi1ally normaly used are: Bazaraa (1967) For 0"0< 75k Pa 4N 1N = 1+0.040"
D11IIII

~.
161
miiYL~.M!,,:
~
0.4 0
0 CL .:.:.
...(4.42)
correction
0.8
foetor
CN
"
1.2
1.6
2.0
... t>1
'
100
:J III
200
C t>1 ,;:)
.0 t>1
:J .D 'e:,I >
>
'
300
t>1 '4'tW
400
500
Fig. 4.44 : Over burden correction
There is a controversy whether the correction due to dilatancy should be applied first and then the correction due to over burden pressure or viceversa. However in IS 21311981, it is recommended that the correction due to overburden should be applied first.
A typical set of o~~eryed Nvalue~ are shown in Fig. 4.45. C_orre~t~d ~values as per IS Code recommendations are also shown in the figure.
.H
~',,;;"..{"':"i:."<'" ':.,'.L"
,"~j,htc\.U~~.:.v
162
Standard' penetration 8 12 16
resistane. 20
N 24
28
32
",
It = 20 KN1m2
2
,,
"\
.."
"""'\
\ \ \ \ \
\ \t "
"
5
E
.s:: Q.
Cl
""
"
"""')
I 7 I I I I
10
11
Fig. 4.45 : Typical SPT data
'
~_.
III .~
163
The SPT is es.sentiallyundrained test for the duration of each blow and the energy generated by the PT hammer isprincipally shearing energy.Therefore the test maybe useful to predict the dynamicbehaviour fsoils. Seed el et. (1983) presented.correlations between SPT and observed liquefaction. Ohasaki (1970) escribes a useful Japanese rule of thumb that says liquefaction is not a problem if the blow count from a
Imai (1977) reported the following correlation between N (observed) and shear wave velocity, Vs mls): Vs = 91 ~.337 ...(4.43) Bowles (1982) has given a number of equations to obtain stressstrain modulus Es on the basis ofSPT md conepenetration test (CPT). These equations are given in Table 4.6. Table 4.6 : Equations for StressStrain Modulus Es by SPT and CPT (After Bowles, 1982) SPT Sand CPT .,~ = 2 t04Qc 2 Es = 2(1 + Or )Qc
Clayey sand Silly sand Gravelly sand Soft clay Using the undrained shear
strength: CIt
Es = 3 to 6Qc Es = 1 to 2Qc Es = 6 to 8 Qc
Es = 100 to 500 Cu Es = 500 to 1500 Cu Es = 800 to 1200 CII Es = 1500 to 2000 CII
I < OCR < 2 OCR> 2 Notes: 1.Unit ofEs is KPa in correlations with N. 2 Es will have the same unit as of Qc 3. Es will have the same unit as of Cu
4.4 FACTORS AFFECTING SHEARMODULUS,ELASTICMODULUSANDELASTIC CONSTANTS Hardin and Black (1968) have given the following factors which influence the shear modulus, elastic modu.lus and elastic constants: (l) Type of soil including grain characteristics, grain shape, grain size, grading and mineralogy; (ii) Void ratio; (iii) Initial average effective confining pressure;
'}
164
(iv) Degree of saturation; (v) Frequency of vibration and number of cycles ofload; . .
(VI) Ambient stress history and vibration history; (vii) Magnitude of dynamic stress; and (viii) Time effectS; The shear modulus G, elastic modulus E, and dynamic elastic constants (ClI' C<I>' Ct and C\jI)are related with each other directly as evident from Eqs. 3.9,4.27,4.34 and 4.35. Therefore the factors listed from (i) to (viii) will effect G, E, ClI' C<i>' Ct' C\jI in similar way. Keeping this in view, the effect of the factors have been discussed only on dynamic shear modulus G and damping ratio, Soil behavior over a wide range of strain amplitudes is nonlinear and on unloading follows a different stressstrain path forming a hysteresis loop as shown in Fig. 4. 46. The area inside this loop represents the energy absorbed by the soil during its deformation and is a measure of the internal damping within the soil. At very low strain amplitudes 0.0001 %) the soil acts essentially as a linear elastic material with little or no loss 9f energy. The s~ear modulus under these c.onditions is maximuI? but as the strain amplitudes is increased, the shear modulus decreases and the damping within the soil increases.
0 CL
.:tr.
/
10 /
/ 1
I I I I I I
, I I I
10
Y x 104
mm/mm
Dry
cl~(jn
G 57
I
sand
<z =
ac
= 25 kPa f)') M po
Hoadll'Y, 19115) w' ~' "'11!' '., .i " J
20
1111)and points
>i>t
'.tt!,;
165
Ishihara (1971) presented Fig, 4.47, which shows strain levels associated with different phenomenon in ~ field and in corresponding field and laboratory tests. Prakash and Puri (1980) presented the data ofG )m different insitu tests as shown in F~. 4.48. It is evident from this fi~e that G decreases significantly :tenstrain amplitude is higher than 10. . For lower strain amplitude10.5), G may be considered constant.
Magnitude of
Phenomena Mechanical character itics Constants
train
wav
6 '9
5
10
4
10
I
3
10
2
10
I
1
S[ld1
Shear modulus,
poisson's
ratioJdamping
I
I
,..,.,
.,.
'
c::::J
g
E
c
III
RcpIloted
load ing test Iwavtl propa\)ation
te st
R sonant
I
I I I
r
>
...
0 W
+'
o:J .a'"
0 """W
column loading
test test
levels associated
I I
tests (After Ishihara, 1971)
0 0 ...JCII
Repeated
with different
insitu laboratory
The machine foundations are usually designed for very low strain amplitudes so that the behaviour of soil is elastic under vibrations, It is to avoid the building up of any residual strains in the soil due to the operation of the machine, Large strain amplitudes may be developed by commercial blasting, earthquakes, nuclear blasts, pile driving operations, compaction devices or excessive vibrations of the machinery, The subsequent discussions have been made under two heads (i) Shear modulus for low strain amplitudes, and (ii) Shear modulus for large strain amplitudes. 4.4.1. Shear Modulus for low Strain Amplitudes in Cohesionless Soil. In the case of cohesionless soils, shear modulus G is dependent on effective confining pressurecro and void ratio e. The effect of other factors on G is negligible (Hardin and Richart, 1963). They have reported the results of several resonant column tests in dry Ottawa sands as shown in Fig. 4.49. Straight lines have been fitted through the test points corresponding to different confining pressures.,Similar results are also shown inFig. 3.12 (of chapter 3) as solid lines. In order to 'extend the lines for wider range of void ratios, 'dotted liiiesnave been drawn in Fig. 3.12 to represent the results from tests using clean angular grained materials. The peak to peak shear strain ~.~r : i~,d.~~en ~en, t Of the ampli~de for the~e tests was 10.3rad, It can be seen from these figr. es t v,~ and gradatIon and gram slze'dlstnbutlOn. The effect of confinIng press fi m<rramron"\:i/antfG lSXSI
. .
~~
"
cant .
',
'
.ff",'. I?"!"""'j'.!' . ..' . . . . ,.11. I, ", .J . ", ',..".."t, ',,' Ic."""""V,.." 1_"i:.'>J """ """" .)."$O""",,,~ '' ~ .co': .
..
/i,~
.t1
' .~:~,.,., ,','.:; f \ I :"C>" ':i.j>;""Aj ,:.;~;"", '""",..; ,,7."J '..' .;/ \:00.>" '.,.7 " ",,;;I
~~~"UIIII
~~
&
167
,Sy'm.
.
0
A I 390 360
u
0.71
11
>
11\
::.
" ,
'H' ,
330
300
(J'
0 .. 3
..
11\
.. A OOk",/ 'h 2
>.u
0 
..
270
240 14
> > 0
...
et
0
.I:. If)
210
e,
So kN/tr] 0
180
150
"
.
0.65 Void ,0.75
of shcarwa\'c
. "
ve!ocity
J,','
confining 1963)
'..
pressures.
grain
SiLl'
and gradation
:,.i"':' .~,"';';")'
and Richart,
C,"',' "',',,;",:';,
""
C'""','
.',
,',
".
~.
168
Following empirical expressions have bp.endeveloped for Vsand G for roundgrained sands and angulargrained crushed Quartz (Hardin and Black, 1968).
'
= (11.365.35 e) (ao}O.3
...(4.45) ...(4.46)
(a )'
0
= (18.436.2e)(ao)0.25
l+e
 e) Ca ).5
0
...(4.47) ...(4.48)
G = 3230(2.97
where
Vs
a 0 = Mean effective confining pressure in N/m2 for Eqs.(4.45) and (4.47) ; and in kN/m2for
Eqs. (4.46) and (4.48) e = Void ratio . Hardin and Richart (1963) have shown that the effect of degree of saturation on Vs is insignificant (Fig. 4.50).
420 360
300 270
. Dry
. Drained
0 Saturated
SO
120 ZO
70 Pressure,
100
150
ZOO
500
cr, kN/mZ 0
Fig. 4.50 : Variation of shear wave velocity with confining pressure for a specimen of Ottawa sand in the dry, saturated and drained conditions (Hardin and Richart, 1963) Seed and Idriss (1970) have suggested G the following
lOOOK (ao)05
equation ...(4.49)
where G is in kN/m2units, K is an empirical factor which varies according to relative density of sand. and cr0 is the mean effective confini~g stress in kN/m2 units. Table 4.7 gives some values ofK obtained from field measured values of shear modulus.
169
Table4.7: FieldMeasured.ValuesofK (Seed and Idriss, 1970) Soil Loose moist sand Dense dry sand Dense saturated sand Dense saturated silty sand Dense saturated sand Extremely dense silty sand Dense dry sand (slightly cemented) Moist clayey sand
~.4.2. Cohesive Soils. Few investigators (Lawrence, 1965; Hardin and Black, 1968; Humphries and Wahls. 1968) have performed tests on cohesive soils using resonant column devices to get the shear modulus. On he basis of analysis of experimental data, Hardin and Black (1968) have ootained the variation of G with e
md cr 0 as shown in Fig. 4.51 for normally loaded clays. They have also reported the shear modulus tor some lndisturbed clay specimens collected from the field. The following relation has been suggested:
G=C Nhere Cl is constant; Equation
(2.971 l+e
0.5 er (cr ). 0
.,
...(4.50)
and G and <10 are both in kN/m2 units. suggested by Hardin and Drnevich 2
.
(1972b)
k
= 3230(2.97e) G (l+e)
Table4.8:
OCR)
1 )0.5
0
...(4.5 
where K is function of plasticity index (Table 4.8), and OCR is over consolidation ratio. ValuesofK
. .
k 0.00 0.18
.
170
552,000
.
0
Tap wahr
kaolinite kaolinite
A Salt
flocculated clay
Di spczrsed
420,000
o~:
v Flocculated
clay
,.. 0 Cl..
oX
'' V\ "'0 0
::J ::J
E
.... 0
280,000
(i\ ~ .
(6QO)
"~:.
.\
.J:.
If)
0 0.5
0.7
1.3
1.5
Fig. 4,5 t : Experimental values of G for some normally consolidated clays (Hardin and Black, t 968)
G=
625 (OCRl
O.3+0.7e
( Pa)
ao
I ; j \
171
For clays, Seed and Idriss (1970) suggested an equation of the form:
Glcll = K
...(4.)3)
~reCllis the undrained shearing strength of soil. K is a constant whose value lies between 1000 and 3000. Ohasaki and Iwasaki (1973) developed a relationship by correlating the shear modulus obtained in a sshole survey (SCS) with SPT 'N' values. G = 12000No.8 ...(4.54) . ere G is in kN/m2 units, and N is the Nvalue recorded in standard penetration test. This equation applies both sands and clays. t.3. Shear Modulus for Large Strain Amplitudes. Figure 4.52 shows a plot between shear stress (t) and ~arstrain (y) . The stressstrain curve is approximated by a hyperbolic function defined in terms of initial :ar modulus Glllax and a reference shear strain Yrwhich is defined by Eq. (4.55)
1max
'"Cma
Yr
...(4.55)
Gmax
'. .
X
,J I 16
.If..
/I
11

.//
//
san d
(.\0'/
.

I I
y/
//
+ }>
'
'; /1
'/
/
1/
V
I
t
r;
~ /
I
I
:
T=
1
6maxI'max
'r
Fig. 4.52 : Hypcrbolic strcssstrain relationship (Hardinand
y
Drncvich. 1972 b)
The reference strain is equal to the strain at which a line drawn through the origin with a slope equal to
imaxintersects the horizontal line at t
= tmax:tmax
1the following manner. Figure 4.53a shows a soil element at a given depth being subjected to vertical and orizontal effective stresses of ery and Ko cryrespectively.Koisthecoefficientofearthpressureat rest.The lohr circle corresponding to stresses cryand Ko cryis shown as circle 1 in Fig. 4.53c. From the geometry of the circles 1 and 2, we get ...(4.56)
'm" = [{~(l+Ko)cr.Sin++ccos+rH(lKo)cr..n
172
erV
""(
cv
max 'tmax
KoO=v
Ko erv .~.'t,
I..
( a)
(b)
.'
,
U\ III <:)I
+' III
'
Koov (c)
Fig. 4.53 : Determination of
ay
E f f <z c t i VIZ
nor mal
 er
'tnl2x
Gmaxis the value of G applicable for very low strain amplitude, and therefore can be obtained using the appropriate equation from Eqs. (4.46), (4.48) to (4.54). Thus the value of reference shear strain Yrcan be evaluated. The hyperbolic stressstrain curve 'which defines the initial loading curve and also the end point of the
~;
...(4.51)
Gmax G='t
,.
...(4.58)
ft,
r
l+l
Yr
173
Using Eq. (4.59), one c~n obtainthe value of G at any strain amplitude, y. For every small strain ampliudes, Y/Yr = 0; and the Eq. (4.59) reduces toG=Gmax' "4.4. Estimation of Dampling Ratio. Hardin and Drnevich (1972) presented a relation betWeendamping
'atio~andthemaximumvalueof dampingratio~maxasbelow:
~ = ~max
Combining Eqs. (4.59) and (4.60), we get,
max ) ( 1 GG
...(4.60)
l
.!: .,
=~max ;;;1+I
Yr
...(4.61)
Yr
Typical values of ~max are given in Table 4.9. Table 4.9: Typical values of~max (Hardin & Drnevich), 1972) Soil type
Clean dry sands Clean saturated sands
Value of~max
,,
1 Frequency
of loading, Hz
":'~;~2;;:\ '.':2:~~:';
~~eIit
174
I~USTRATIVEEXAMPLES Example4.1
,
A soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration, Fixed free condition) for determination of shear modulus. Given a specimen length of90 mm, diameter 35 mm, mass of 160 g, and a frequency at a normal mode of vibration (n = 1)of800 cps, determine the shear modulus of the specimen. Solution:
I. From Eq. (3.47) Cl) =1 (2n 1)1tvs
n
, .+t;,
" .:>
n=1
VS
=
p=
7t
kg/m3
.0.090
3.
G = pv; = 1848.7.2882
x 1O8N/m2
Example 4.2 A vertical vibration test was conducted on a 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block in an open pit ha\'ing depth 2.0 which is equal to the anticipated depth of actual foundation. The test was repeated at different settings (8) of eccentic masses. The data obtained from the tests are given below:
(Deg)
= 35 and
saturated
m3.The water table lies at a depth of3.0 m below the ground surface. Probable size of the actual foundation 4.0 x 3.0 x 3.5 m high. Determinethe values ofC", E and G to be'adopted for the design of actualfoundation. Limiting vertical amplitude of the machine is 150microns.
,~b: .,'."
174
EXAMPLEsj
Example 4.1 A soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration, Fixed free condition) for determination of shear modulus. Given a specimen length of90 mm, diameter 35 mm, mass of 160 g, and a frequency at a normal mode of vibration (n = 1) of800 cps, determine the shear modulus of the specimen. Solution:
I. From Eq. (3.47) (J) =1 (2n 1)1tvs n 2 /
"
dt;
'. n .::>
=1
2/ffin  2.(0.O90).(21t.800) 1t =288m1s
vs = 1t
2. Mass density of Soil in the specimen
p =
3.
G = pv; = 1848.7.2882
= 1.533x 108N/m2
Example 4.2 A vertical vibration test was conducted on a 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block in an open pit having depth 2.0 which is equal to the anticipated depth of actual foundation. The test was repeated at different settings (e) of eccentic masses. The data obtained from the tests are given below:
SoNo
e
(Deg) 36
/nz
1. 2. 3. 4.
72 108 144
The soil is sandy in nature having angle of internal friction ~= 35 and saturated density Ysa/= 20 kN/ m). The water table lies at a depth of3.0 m below the ground surface. Probable size of the actual foundation 4.0 x 3.0 x 3.5 m high. Determinethe valuesofCII' E and G to be'adopted for the design of actualfoundation.
Limiting vertical amplitude of the machine is 150 microns.
'"
,~~
"m:t.~
175
tion:
1. Area of block Mass of block Mass of oscilator and motor Mass of block, oscillator and motor
2
= 1.5 x
0.75
= 1.125 m
2.
C
U
=41t
4
fnzm
A
2
C =
U
1t fnz'
1990
The calculated values of Cu for different observed resonant frequencies are listed in column No. 5 of ',e4.10. l.13E 1 Cu = (IJl2)'.fA
Assuming Jl
=0.35
F = .JiJ2s(10.352) 1.13
G= E
,
Cu=0.8236 Cu kN/m2
2 (1 + Jl)
For different values of Cu (col. No. 5), calculated values ofE and G are listed in Cols. 6 and 7 of Table 4.10
'
The mean effective confining pressure aO! at depth of' one half the width below the centre of block is en by
crO!
= cry (1 + 2 3Ko)
where
cry = cr~l+ crv2 ,cry! =, Effective overburden pressure at the depth under consideration
",
Assuming that the top 2.0 m soil has a moist unit weight of 18 kN/m3, and the nex~ 1.0 m soil i.e. upto ter table is satUratedthen ."c '
.,. i . '' 0 70 . . '
~,
. I " ;~j, ,: : '::", ,,; ',f' ;: ) : ') " ':.
~~
=~3 ~~m2\,)
~ ,..'
"
.'
4q a  
2mn~m2+n2+1
m2 +n2 + l+m2n2
[Assuming unit weight of concrete Substituting the above values of rn, nand q in the expression of av2' we get
= 24 kN/m3]
crY2= 13.44kN/m cry = 43 + 13.44 = 56.44 kN/m2 Ko = 1  sin <jI = 1  sin 35 = 0.426
0'01
= 56.44 ,
1+2 x 0.426
3
) =34.84kN/m
For the actual foundation aYI = 18x2.0+20x 1.0+(2010)xO.5=61kN/m2 4.0/2 m = 3.012 = 1.334 3.Q/2 n=3.0/2=1.0
q = 24x3.5=84kN/m
= 63.76 kN/m2
av
= 61+63.76= 124.76kNIm
cr02 = 124.76 (1 + 2'x] 0.426) =77.01 kN/m2 Area of actual foundation = 4.0 x 3.0= 12.0m2 (> 10m2)
.
Cu2
= E2 = G2 =
El Gl
05
0'02
~
( A2)
05'
= 77.0
05
1.125
05'
'
Cui
( 0'01)
( 34.84) ( 10 )
= 0.4986
The values ofCu' E and G of the actual foundation at different strain levels (= amplitude at resonancel width of test block) are given in cols. 8,9 and 10 of Table 4.10 respectively. The corresponding values of sn:ainlevels are listed in col. 11.
iitfIIJ
"" ~' .. ~
'~
.
177
150 x 106
4
3.0
= 0.5 x 10
0.500.427
= 4.10(4.103.40) (
0.533  0.427,
10
= 4.100.7 x 0.6886=3.62
x 104kN/m3
Hence the response of the proposed foundation block should be checked using
Cu
= 3.62 =
x 104 k1~/m3
E = 2.98 x 104kN/m2
G 1.10 x 104 kN/m2
Table 4.10 : Analysis of Data for Cu' E and G For test block Amplitude
S.No.
e
(Deg.)
In;;
at resonance (microns)
( I.) I. 2. 3. 4. continued
(3) 41 40 34 31
(4) 13 24 32 40
For Actual foundation Cu x 104 kN/m2 (8) 5.96 5.67 4.10 3.40 E x 104 kN/m2 (9) 4.90 4.67 3.37 2.80 G x 104 kN/m2 (10) 1.81 1.73 1.25 1.04 Strain level x 104 (11) 0.173 0.320 0.427 0.533
177
150 x 106
4
3.0
= 0.5 x 10
0.500.427
0.533  0.427.
= 4.10 ( 4.103.40 )
10
= 4.100.7
x 0.6886=3.62 x 104kN/m3
Hence the response of the proposed foundation block should be checked using Cu = 3.62 x 104kN/m3 E
= 2.98 x 104kN/m2
G = 1.10 x 104 kN/m2 Table 4.10: Analysis of Data for Cu' E and G For test block Amplitude S.No.
e
(Deg.)
In;;
at resonance (microns)
( \.)
(3) 41 40 34 31
(4) 13 24 32 40
\. 2. 3. 4.
continued
5.62 
For Actual foundation Cu x 104 kN/m2 (8) 5.96 5.67 4.10 3.40 E x 104 kN/m2 (9) 4.90 4.67 3.37 2.80 G x 104 kN/m2 (10) 1.81 1.73 1.25 1.04 Strain level x 104 (11) 0.173 0.320 0.427 0.533
!'
"~'K(",oiJ(ii~~7"I,.!;,i;',(..t,j;
If;..~~'
. ,
179
c
t
=
(0.5546+0.9926)
2 48.856 ht'(
8~2xO.6194f.
x IQ3 I~(0.5546+0.9926)2
3 3
Ct
Ct = 19.3 1;'2 kN/m3(Second mode) (b) Ct=92.3 In~1 The Calculated values of Ct for different observed resonant frequencies are listed in col. 5 of Table4.11. As in example 4.2.
'r.
C'
1f.
= 0.4986
Ct!
The values ofCt for the actual foundation are given in col. 6. The corresponding strain levels a re listed in coL7.
Table 4.11 : Analysis of Data for C't
S.No.
"e (Deg.)
fn.d
Amplitude
"
'Ct
(Hz).
(3)
(microns),
x 104kN/m2
(5)
(I) 1 2 3 4
..
(2)
(4)
36
25 23 21 19
'
10 16 21 28
100 x 10
.
72 108 144
3.0
"
'
Therefore, the value of Ct for actual foundation = [ 2.03(2.030.3730.333 3 L66) x 0.3730.280 ] x 104= 1.87 x 104kN/m
Example 4.4 The soil profile at a site is shown in Fig. 4.54 . Two cross borehole tests were conducted at the site to determine the values of shear wave velocities in the small areas around points A and B. The average values of shear wave velocities were obs'ervedas 11Omlsand130 m/srespecnvely. Determine the values of dynamic shear modulus G for points A, B, C and D. '
180
0.0
2.0m
if = 18 kN 1m3
Ae
c.
 4.0 m
1.Qm
L
Fine grained
soil
f1.0m
2.0m
~
86
=
~L
1.0 m
21 kN/m3
1 .0
 10.0 m
Fig.4.54: Soil
Solution: 1. Fine grained soil stratum (0.0 to  4.0 m) Observed shear wave velocity at point_A vS = 1l0rn/s .
profiles (example 4.4)
G = P v;
18 G= 9.81 X(110)2=2.2xl04kN/m2 G1'A = 18x 2 = 36kN/m2 ave = 18x 3 = 54 kN/m2
(G)
05
54 05
= ( g:~ )
""
,j:Jr
181
to.OO m)
(vS>B =
"
. ,.
130mls
(130)2 =.3.6 x 104kN/m2
(G~
= 9~~lx
crvD
,
0,5
(G>O
=2.96 x 104kN/m2
'xample 4.5 .t a particular site, the top 10.0m soil is medium grained sand having dry unit weight as 17 kN/m3.The water lble is 6.0 m below the ground surface. The value of specific gravity of soil grains is 2.67. The direct shear :st gave the value of <I> as 36. Determine the value of shear modulus of the soil at depth of 7.0 m below round surface.
,
,olution: 1.
1+0.57
'
= 17 x 6.0+(20.610)
.
x 1.0
= 112.6kN/m
Ko
2
'
= Isin<l>=Isin36=0.412
'
.(68.46).5
,:'
,t.
;182
Foundations
Anderson, D. G. (1974), "Dynamic modulus of cohesive soils", Ph. D Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Barkan, D. D. (1962), "Dynamics of bases and foundations." McGrawHilI, New York. Bjerrum, L, and Landra, A.'(1966), ''Direct simple shear tests on a Norwegian quick clay", Geotechnique 120. 26(1), pp. "
Casagrande, A. and shannan, W.L. (1948a), "Stress deformation and strength characteristics of soils under dynamic loads", Proc. Second Int Conf. Soil Mech. Foundation Engg., Vol. 5, pp. 2934. Casagrande, A. and Shanan, W.L (1948b), "Research on stress deformation and strength characteristics of soils and soft. rocks under transient loading," Harvard Soil Mechanics Series No. 31. Cho, Y.,Rizzo, P. C, and Humphries, W. K. (1976), "Saturated sand and cyclic dynamic tests", Am. soc. Civ. Eng., . Ann. Cony. Expo., Philadelphia, rA, Meet. Prepr. 2752, pp. 285312. Dass, B.( 1977), "Behavior of Clayunder oscillatory loading", M.E. Thesis, U. O. R, Roorkee. Drnevich, V. P. (1967), "Effect of strain history on the dynamic properties of sand", Ph.D. Dissertation, university of Michigan, Ann. Arbor. Drnevich, V. P. (1972), "Undrained cyclic shear of saturated sand", J. Soil. mech. Found. Div., Am., Soc. Civ. Eng., 98 (SM8), pp. 807825. Goto, N., Kagami, H., Shiono, K. & Ohta, Y. (1977), "An easycapable and high precise shear wave measurement by means of the standard penetration test". Proceedings sixth world conference on earthquake engineering, pp. 171176. Hall, 1. R., Jr., and Richart, F. E., Jr. (1963), "Dissipation of elastic wave energy in granular soils", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Engg., 89 (SM6), pp. 2756. Hardin, B.C (1971), "Program of simple shear testing of soils", Univ. Ky., Soil Mech., Ser. No. 8, pp. 114. Hardin, B. O. & Black, W.L., (1968), "Vibration modulus of normally consolidated clay", Journal of the soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 94 (SM2). Hardin, B. O. & Richart, F. E. Jr., (1963), "Elastic wave velocities in granular soils", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations division, ASCE 89 (SM 1), pp. 3365. Hardin, B. O. & Music, 1. (1965), "Apparatus for vibration of soil specimens during the triaxial test." Instruments and apparatus for soil and rock mechanics, ASTM, STP 392, pp. 5574. Hoadley, P. J. (1985), "Measurement of dynamic soil properties", Chapter of a book on Analysis and Design offoundations for vibration, pp. 349420. Hvorslev, M. 1., and Kaufman, R. 1(1952), "Torsion shear apparatus and testing procedure", USAE Waterways expo Stn., Bull 38, pp. 176. Iida, K. (1938), "The velocity of elastic waves in sand," Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst., Tokyo Imp. Univ., 16, pp. 131144.
lida, K. (1940), "On the elastic properties of soil particularly in relation to its water content", Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst., Tokyo imp. Univ., pp. 18,675690. Imai, T. (1977), "Velocity of Pand Swaves in subsurface layers of ground in Japan", Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Sol Mech... Found., Tokyo, Vol. 2, pp. 257260. . . .
IS : 5249 (1978), "Deterrrtination of dynamic propertIes' of soil".
,f"
183
: 1888 (1982), "Method of load test". : 213I (1981), "Method for standard penetration test for soils" hibashi, I., and Sherif, M.A. (1974), "Soil liquefactionby torsional simple shear device", J. Geotech. Eng. Div., Am, soc. civ. Eng., 100(GT8), pp. 871888.
,
hihara, K. (1971), "Factors affecting dynamic properties of soil", Proc. Asian Reg. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Eng.. 4th, Bangkok, Vo!. 2. hihara, K., and Li, S. (1972), "Liquefaction of saturated sand in triaxial torsion shear test": Soils Found (Jpn.) 12 (2), pp. 1939. hihara, K., and Yasuda, S. (1975), "Sand liquefaction in hollow cylinder torsion under irregular excitation", Soils Found. (Jpn.), 15(1), pp. 4559. himoto, M., and lida, K. (1937), "Determination of elastic constants of soils by means of vibration methods", Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst., Tokyo Imp. Univ., 15, p. 67. vasaki, T., Tatsuoka, F., and Takagi, Y. (1977), "Shear moduli of sands under cyclic torsional shear loading," Tech. Memo. No. 1264, Public Works Res. Inst., Ministry of Construction, ChibaShi, Japan. jellman, W. (1951), Testing of shear strength in Sweden, "Geotechnique, 2, pp. 225232. , awrence, F. V., Jr., (1963), "Propagation velocity of ultrasonic waves through sa.n.~",MIT Research Report, R638. ord, A. F., Jr., Curran, 1.W., and Koemer, R.M. (1976), "New transducer system for determining dynamic mechanical properties and attenuation in soil", 1. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60 (2), pp. 517520. filler, R. P., Troncosco J. H. & Brown, F. R. (1975), "In situ impulse test for dynamic shear modulus of soils", Proceedings of the conference on in situ measurement of soil properties, Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASCE. Specialty conference, Raleigh, North Carolina, Vo!. 1, pp. 319335. . ~acock, W. H., and Seed, H. B. (1968), "Sand liquefaction under cyclic loading simple shear conditions", 1. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 94 (SM3), pp. 689708. rakash, S., and Puri, V. K. (1981), "Dynamic properties of soils from in situ tests", 1. Geotech. Eng. Div.. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 107 (GT7), pp. 943963. . rakash, S., Nandkumaran, P., and Joshi, V. H. (1973), "Design and performance of an oscillatory shear box", 1. Indian Geotech. Soc., 3 (2), pp. 101112. rakash, S., Nandkumaran, P., and Joshi, V. H. (1974). "Behaviour of soils under oscillatory shear stress", Proc. yth Symposium on Earthquake Eng., Roorkee, V01. 1, pp. 10112. ichart, F. E., Jr., Hall, 1. R., and Woods, R. D. (1970), "Vibrations of soils and foundations." PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. oscoe, K. H. (1953), "An apparatus for the application of simple shear to soil samples," Proc. Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Eng., 3rd, Zurich, vot. I, pp. 186191. eed, H. B., Idriss, I. M., and Arango, L. (1983), "Evaluation of liquefaction potential using field performance data", J. Geotech. Eng. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 109 (GT3), pp. 458482. eed, (1960), "Soil strength during earthquakes", Proc. Second World conf. Earthquake Engg., vo!. I, pp. 183194. eed, H. B. and Chan, C. K. (1966), "Clay strength under earthquake loading conditions", 1. Soil Mech. Found. Div.. ASCE, vo\. 92, SM 2, pp. 5378. ~ed, H. B. and Fead, J. W. N. (1959): "Apparatus forrepeated load tests on soils," SpecialTechanical 20~, ASTM, Philadelphia, 5ilver, M. L., Chan, C. K. et a!. (1976), "C~c1ic triaxiatstrengtllofstandard
,
Publication No.
/'
184
Stephenson, R. W., (1978), "Ultrasonic testing for determining dynamic soH modulii", Denver: Dynamic. Geotechnical testing, ASTM, STP 654., pp. 179195. Stokoe, K. H., 1I, and Hoar, R. J. (1978), "Variables affecting in situ seismic measurements", Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. Spec. Conf. Earthquake Eng. Soil Dyn., Pasadena, CA, vot. 2. Stokoe, K. H., and Woods, R. D. (1972), "In situ shear wave velocity by crosshole method", J. Soil Mech. Found. Diy., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 98 (SM5), pp. 443460.. Taylor, D. W. (1948): "Fundamentals of soil mechanics:' John Willey sons, Inc., New York. Terzaghi. K. and Peck, R. B. (1967), "Soil mechanics in engineering practice", John Willey and Sons, New York. /<
Wilson, S.D., and Dietrich, R. J. (1960), "Effect of consolidation pressure on elastic and strength properties of clay", Proc. am. Soc. Civ. Eng. Res. Conf. Shear Strength Cohesive Soils, Boulder, CO, pp. 419435. Woods, R.D. (1978), "Measurement of dynamic soil properties: StatecftheArt", Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. Spec. Conf. Earthquake Eng. Soil Dyn., Pasadena, CA, Vot. I, pp. 91180. Yoshimi, Y., and OhOka, H. (1973), "A ring torsion apparatus for simple shear tests", Proc. Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Eng., Moscow, Vol. I, Pt. 2, pp. 501506.
r:>
"
".,
185
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
4.1 Describe the salient features. of a resonant. column apparatus. 'How is calibration done and the I value of shear modulus determined?
,
4.2 A clayey soil specimen was tested in a resonant column device (torsional vibration, freefree end condition) for determination of shear modulus. Given a specimen length of 100 mm, diameter 36 mm, mass of 180 g, and a frequency at normal mode of vibration of 900 cps, determine the shear modulus. 4.3 Explain the difference between simple shear and direct shear tests. What is the principle involved in oscillatory shear box test? Give the salient features of a study made on clay under dynamic loads using oscillatory shear box. 4.4 List the factors affecting shear strength of cohesive soils under static and dynamic loads. Explain with neat sketches the effect of dynamic stress level, initial factor of safety and number of pulses.
4.5 Draw typical transient strength (single impulse) characteristics of sandand claytestedfor the following time of loading: ' ,0.' . . (i) 0.02 s (ii) 0008sand
(iii) Static 4.6 Describe briefly the following: (a) Seismic crossborehole survey (b) Seismic uphole survey (c) Seismic downhole survey 4.7 A vertical vibration test' was conducted on a MI5 concrete block 1.5 x 0.75 x 0.70m high using different eccentricities (8) of the rotating mass of the oscillator. The data obtained are given as follows: SoNo. .
1. 2, 30 4,
c
8 (Deg)
",. ,
/nz (Hz)
41 40 34 31
36 72 108 144
Determine the value of co~fficient of elastic uniform compression, Cu for confining pressure of 100 kN/m2 and base contact area ~f 10 nl.. Also give the values of strain levels at different eccen
tricities.
'.
,
"
.'
4.8 A horizontal vibration test was conducted on a M 15 concrete block 1.5 x 0.75 x 0.7 m high. The data obtaint:;d is shown in Fig. 4.5.5, Determine the value of coefficient of elastic uniform shear, C r
"'"'~"" ' C'.,
.and
the"cbrres
"ortding$
, 'n leyL~.:"
'
.
",. " '
';K~~il;C
"
,.
,.,
ye'"
'':<"""il""s;";,;;~';<'N.';:3I'.I"'.:'.J,i".':;,,;
'!'{,'"",;,:';';.:t"""':;""f,,.
';,,,'c:i,'c,"',,"""",'
C"',>,',,
'"
,.,>"z,>;,h,,';~~
186
0.32
e = 1050
0.28
0.24
,..." .........
~ "'C
E 0.20 E
=0.16
a. E
2 0 .12
0.08
0.04
0 10 15 20 Frequency
25
30
35
(cps)
vibration test
4.9 A cyclic plate load test was performed on a plate of 600 mm x 600 mm size. The elastic settlement corresponding to a loading intensity of80 kN/m2 was 2 mm. Using this data, determine the coefficient of elastic uniform compression, Cu for a foundation block of base area 15m2. 4.10 Discuss the factors affecting shear modulus and damping. Illustrate the procedure of obtaining the shear modulus and damping at given strain amplitude from Gmax and ~ma)('
,:
DD
< H
';1;\
,"' ..
"
78 :xample 4.3
(a) Determine the expressions of coefficient of elastic uniform shear, C'!:in temis of resonant frequency for the block of size 1.5 m x 0.75 x,0.70 m high, tested wider horizontal vibrations. (b) Determine the value ofCt for the foundation mentioned in example 4.2, if the block tested in hori
..
"
e (Deg.)
36
.
!,,\(Hz)
35 34 30 T7
1. 2, . 3. 4.
72 108 144
Pelmissible value of horizontal amplitude is 100 microns. Solution: (a) Value ofCt is given by Eq. 4.3
8n r f roe
Ct
= (Ao+lo):t ~ (Ao+Io)
2 4rAoIo
Moment of inertia of the base contact area of block about axis of rotation I
= 0.75 x
12
1.53 =0.2109m4
Height of combined centre of gravity of block, oscillator and motor from base. 1890 x 0.35 + 100 x 0.85 L = 19.9 =0.375m The e.g. of oscillator and motor is assumed at a height of 0.15 m from the top of the block. Mass moment of mertia Mm about an axis passing through the combined centre of gravity and perpendicular to the plane of vibrations is given by
.
1.52 + 0.702
Mm = 1890(
12
.
"
 ,
Mill
==455.29
MI1/0, A
735.13'
= 0 6194
, . 3 2
= ==0 m 1990
I.
11/0
1.125
.5546x 10 m !kg
0.2109
3
,,
'i';', ':',/;::;;i,'L


..,,"'l
.
':"~
5.1 GENERAL In the seismic zones, the retaining walls are subjected to dynamic earth pressure, the magnitl is more than the static earth pressure due to ground motion. Since a dynamic load is repetiti there is a need to determine the displacement of the wall due to earthquakes and their dama,: This becomes more essential if the frequency of the dynamic load is likely to be close te frequency of the wallbackfillfoundationbase soil system. This essentially,consists in writi equation of motion of the system under free and forced vibrations. This requires the inform distribution of backfill soil mass and base soil mass participating in vibrations. It is ofter assess these. Therefore, more often, pseudostatic analysis is caf!ied out for getting dynami sure. In this method, the dynamic force is replaced by an equivalent static forcl In this chapter, firstly various methods of computing the magnitude and point of at: dynamic earth pressure based on pseudostatic analysis have been discussed. It is follow methods of predicting the displacement of the retaining wan: 5.2 PSEUDOSTATIC METHODS 5.2.1. MononobeOkabe Theory. MononobeOkabe (1929) modified classical Coulomb' evaluating dynamic earth pressure by incorporating the effect of inertia force. Ct
Wl
::jj 'o1h
Wl
'
~.9'
Wt(t :totv1
ol.h ton~=1:toLv
B (0)
+ (f)
Fig. 5.1 : (a) Forces acting on raU!'re wedge In active state (b) Force Polygon (c) Dynamic earth pressure versus wedge angle 9 plot
188
Foundations 1\
.:
Figure 5.1 shows a wall of height H and inclined vertically at an angle a retaining cohesionless soil with unit weight yand angle of shearing resistance cjI. BCI is the trial failure plane which is inclined to vertical by an angle 8. The backfill is inclined and making an angle i with horizontal. During an earthquake the inertia force may act on the assumed failure wedge ABCI both horizontally' and vertically. If ah and av are the horizontal and vertical accelerations caused by the earthquake on the wedge ABCp the corresponding inertial forces are WI . Gig horizontally and WI . ajg vertically, WI being the weight of the wedge ABCl' During the wor~t condition, WI . ah/g acts towards the fill and W, . aig may act vertically either in the' downward or upward direction. Therefore the direction that gives the maximum increase in earth pressure is adopted in practice. If
a" and ai, are respectively the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients, then
ah
.
<~
ah = g
...(5.i)' ...(5.2)
a= ai,
v g For the failure condition the soil wedge ABC, is in equilibrium under the following forces: (i) W" weight of the wedge a~ting at centre of gravity of ABCI.
.:
(ii) Earth pressure P, inclined at an angle 0 to normal to the wall in the anticlockwise direction. (iii) Soil reaction R, inclined at an angle cl to the normal 011the face BC" (iv) Horizontal inertia force (W, a/,) acting at the centre of gravity of the wedge ABC,.
(v) Vertical inertia force :f: W I av acting at the centre of gravIty of the wedge ABC ,. Weight W I and the inertia forces W I all and :f: WI av can be combined to give a resultant WI' where
W,
2 1/2
]
= W, [ (l:t:av) +a"
...(5.3)
.;;
'~
,
'"
= tan
ah l:t:av
"
;""""1 ::~5.~r
, '"
The directions of all the three forces WI' P I and R, are known but the magnitude of only one force W, is known. The magnitude of the other forces can be obtained by considering the force polygon as shown in Fig. 5,1 b. P, is the value of dynamic earth pressure corresponding to the trial wedge ABCl'~ More trials are made and the values ofP2,PJ etc, are obtained. Variation ofP and 8 is shown in Fig, 5.1c.. The maximum value of P is the dynamic active earth pressure (P A)dyn' :, Mononobe and Okabe (1929) gave the following relation for the comp~tation of dynamic active earth
pressure [(P A)dyn] :
. .. '
1
(PA)dyn,="2 yH
,
(KA)dyn
,; "1:;,.. "tf i;"U "
...(5.5)
.,.
...~, ;!'> ,F'" '.'
: ~..,
;:./.,
"
';;!C"i":~;~li,;..,:~//:.. " I,~,5> ' ".,.",:r..~,,$ .,' , " , , , ", """ . ,~{.~",..~:~..<;~'..".c',":,,< , .:'!'" ", '",. ,," ,"""""" """"'", , , ...'
. '..
"'
'
"
"
,
J,."
..
;, "
.
'.
'"~
'.J IIIiI:S
189
(K)
A dYII
1 ."
1/2
...(5.6)
The expression of (KA)dyngives two values ~dependingon the sign of ay. For design purposes the higher of the two values shall be taken. Mononobe and Okabe also gave the expression for the computation of dynamic passive earth pressure (PP)dynwhich is
1
(PP)dyn
= 2 rH
(KP)dyn
2
...(5.?)
1
112
...(5.8)
srn ( ~ + cS)sm ( ~ + l  \V )
For design t'urposes, the lesser value of (Kp)dYIIwill be taken out of its two values corresponding to :!:ay. 5.2.2. Effect of Uniform Surcharge. The additional active and passive dynamic earth pressures [(P Aq)dyn and (PPq)dyn]against the wall due to uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area on the inclined earth fill surface shall be :
q H cos a
(P Aq)dyn = cos (a  i) (KA)dyn
...(5.9)
...(5.lO)
5.2.3. Effect of Saturation on Lateral Dynamic Earth Pressure. For saturated earth fill, th~ saturated unit weight of soil shall be adopted.. For submerged earth fill, the dynamic active and passive earth pressures during earthquakes shall be found with the following modifications (IS: 189319.84). (i) The value of 8 shall be taken as 1/2 the value of the 8 for dry backfill. (ii) The value of 'V shall be taken as
.
'V
.
'
s I  'Y
ah
= tan 
r 'Y s  1) 1:t ay
...(S.II)
(Ui) Submerged unit weight shalJ be adopted. Hydrodynamic"pressure on account of water contained in earth fill shall not be considered separately as the effect of acceleration on water has been taken indirectly. .
~,~~
190
5.2.4. Partially Submerged backfill. The ratio of lateral dynamic increment in active pressures to the vertical pressures at various depths along the height of wall may be taken as shown in Fig. 5.2 The pressure distribution of dynamic increment in active pressures may be obtained by multiplying the vertical effective pressures by the coefficients in Fig. 5.2 at corresp.ondingdepths'
r 3 [(KA)dyn
KA
]\
/ / / / / /
/
/
1
/
V
H Z
1/ /
hw
I I
/ / / /
I
'
3 [(KA)dyn
KA]
hw
/
/ C
lateral dynamic Increment Fig. 5.2: Distribution of the ratio' ve!1ical effective ~ressure with height o(wall
, ,
The value of lateral dynamic increment in active ca~e'can be obtaineq by.integrating it in the portiop above water level and below water level separately. By doing this we get (Refer Fig. 5.2) ': (P)
AIDyn
.z dz + 'h~ 3[(KA)DynKA]hw.hwz'.
!, ,
"
0)(:
'H'
..',
h'W
[1 (H 
hW>
+ 1h . z1 dz'
.
" , '., ",:,'
'",: ,
.,
,
..
~. :.' .~
f:f'::>:/:"'~';
191
= [(KA)d yn KAT 2
where
(Hh
H W.y
)2
h2
(PAI)Dyn = Lateral dynamic incrementin active case hw = Height of water level above base of wall KA = Coefficientof static active earthpressure in dry/moist/saturatedcondition (KA)dyn= Coefficientof dynamicactive earth pressure in dry/moist/saturated Condition.
KA (KA )dyn
= Coefficient of static active earth pressure in submerged condition = Coefficient of dynamic active earth pressure in submerged condition
Y = Density of soil above water level Yb = Submerged density of soil Values of active earth pressure coefficients shall be obtained using Eq. (5.6) as described below. KA (KA)dynKA 
. 
~ = 0 and 8 as
~ in Eq. (5.6)
(KA)dyn 
The additional dynamic increment due to the uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area on the inclined earth fill shall be:
(PAqI)dyn
=J
(H"':hw)
3 K
[(
A)dyn
K].
'q
Hz H
dz
qdz'
2
H  hw , , hw {(KA)dynKA}' 2H +{(KA)dynKA}'2H
...(5.B) ]
A similar procedure as described above may be utilized for determining the dynamic decrement in paSSIvepressures. 5.2.5. Modified Culmann Construction. Kapila (1962) modified the Culmann's graphical for obtaining dynamic active and passive earth pressures.
. ,.
.i.
I:
, '
'~,'
192
it ~i
"1
I~
Cl
Cz
C3
Modified Culmann's line
1 !~
1!
1
~
,~.
Fig.
5.3
: Modified Culmann's
construction
for dyna~ic
Different steps in modified construction'for determining dynamic active earth pressure are as follows (Fig. 5.3) (i) Draw the wall section along with backfill surface on a suitable scale, (ii) Draw BS at an angle 1>  W) with the horizontal. (iii) Draw BL at an angle of (90  <X  8  W)below BS,
(iv) Intercept BDI equal to the resultant of the weight WI of first trial we,dgeABCl and inertial
forces (:I:W I <Xv and W I <Xh)' The magnitude of this resultant is WI'
f 2 2 WlV(l+CXv) +CXh
wI =
(v) Through Dl draw DI El parallel to BL intersecting BCl at El' (vi) Measure Dl El to the same force scale as BDl' The Dl El is the dynamic earth pressure for trial ~~. . .
(vii) Repeat steps (iv) to (vi) with BC2, BC3 etc. as trial wedges, (viii) Draw a smooth curve through BEl E2 E3' This is the modified Culmann's line. (ix) Draw a line parallel to BS and tangential to this curve. The maximum coordinate 'm the direction , of.BL isq1?tained from the !Joint of tan~ency ~~4 i~.:th:Hyn~c,activeearth pr~ssure, {PA)dyn' For determining the passive earth pressure draw BS at 1> ~'V) below horizontal. Next Draw BL at (90  <X  8  W)below BS, The other steps for constructionremain unaltered(Fig, 5.4) 0 'd' !
193
cu Imann s line
plane of rupture
(;
s
Minimum pas~ive pressure vector
Fig. 5.4: Modified Culmann's construction for.dynamic passive earth pressure
Effect of ~niformly distributed load and line load on the back fill surface may be handled in the similar way as for the static case.
5.2.6. Dynamic Active Earth Pressure for c  Cl Soils. The solutions so far discussed consider the soil
to be cohesionless. A general solution for the determination of total (static plus"dynamic) earth pressures f~r a c  cl> soil has been developed by Prakash and Saran, 1966 and Saran and Prakash, 1968. q/Unit
:.
.area ho
Hl
B
Fig. 5.5 : Forces acting on failure. wedge in active state for seismic condition ~nc+ soil C?
194
Figure 5.5 shows a section of wall whose face AB is in contact with soil. The soil retained is horizontal and carries a uniform surcharge. The inclination of the wall AB with vertical is <X and inclination of the trial failure surface is 9 I' AEC 1D 1is the cracked zone in clayey soils, EC I being at depth h0 below
AD I .ho is given by expression
where
HI
h0 = n (H I  h 0 ) = nH
...(5.14)
= Total
H = Height of retaining wall in which backfill is free from cracks In this analysis only horizontal inertia force is considered. All the forces acting on the assumed. failure wedge AEBCIDI are listed in Table 5.1 along with their horizontal and vertical components.
Table 5.1: Computation of Forces Acting on Wedge AEB Ct Dt (Fig. 5.5)
Designation Vertical Component Horizontal Component
1. Weight of wedge
'Y H
ABCI1
2. Cohesion, C = c H sec 81 3. Adhesion, Ca = c' H sec 4. Surcharge 5. Soil Reaction RI 6. Inertia force 7. Earth pressure PI
cH
c'H
q H [tan IX+ tan 81) + n H tan IX] RI sin (81 + q,) P I sin (IX+ 0)
A summation of all the vertical components gives 12 2 122 2" 'Y H (tan <X + tan 9I) + 'Y n H (tan <X + tan 9 I) + 2" 'Yn H tan <X  cH  c' H + qH (tan <X + tan 91 + n tan a) = PI sin (a + 8) + RI sin (91 + $) A summation of all the horizontal components gives cH tan 91 + c'H tan a + (W + Q) ah = PI cos (a + 8)'+ RI cos (91 + $) ...(5.15) ...(5.16)
Multiply Eq. 5.15 by cos (91 + $), Eq. 5.16 by sin (91 + $), substitute for Wand Q from Table 5.1, assuming c = c', and adding, we get PI sin (~ + 8) = 'YH2[(n + 1/2) (tan <X + tan 91) + n2 tan a] [cos (91 + $) ,. ah sin (91 + $)] + qH [(n + 1) tan <X + tan 9d [cos (91 + $) + <Xh sin (91 + $)]  cH [cos ~ sec <X+ cos $ sec 9d ...(5.1?) where ~ = 91 + $ + <X Introducing the following dimensionless parameters: (Nac)dyn (Naq)dyn
4
< ,1
~ sec 91
.
sin(J3+o)
...(5.18) ...(5.19)
'~
.'.,
., i'; ; ,
195
'"
(N)
ay dyn
= [(n + 1/ 2)(tan a+tan el) +ntan a][cos (e1+~) +ah sin (e1+<1]sin(~+O)
...(5.20)
...(5.21)
'here $Nac)dyn' (Naq)dyn and (Nay)dyn are earth pressure coefficients which depend on a, n, <1>, () and e1. or given parameters of wall and soil, the values of (Nac)dyn' (Naq)dyn and (Ntrf)dyn are computed for
ifferent wedge angles e2, e3 etc. The variation of these coefficient with respect to wedge angle e are
hown in Fig. 5.6, and the maximum values of (Naq)dyn and (Nay)dynand minimum value of (Nac)dyn are btained.
0
...
0
~ eT
0 Z
"1;\ u
0 Z
(Naqm
)5~t
......
(Narm~t
(Nacm)
o;tat
ecm
ac
aqm
( b)
aq
arm (c)
er
(0)
Fig. 5.6: (a) (Nac)dyn versus
e plot;
For such condition, the earth pressure corresponds to dynamic active earth pressure. Eq. 5.21 can b~ .vritten as
2. '
(P A)dyn = yH
...(5.22)
(Nac)stat
sin(~+8),
(5.25)
Minimum value of (NaC>stat' and maximum value of (Naq)statand (Nay)statcan be obtained in similar manner as illustrated above for getting the ~tatic earth :pressure coefficients. It is found convenient to obtain the dyna~~c ea~th pressure coeffi,cten~~JrQmP1efollowing constaq.ts : ', ',d,' , ', '..'., " ,il'\0""1 c'" (N aqiit'ldyn' ' . ,. ,', ," ,::...1', , '
'
AI
= (N{I~",)stat
',:'
{ , .~;,
..
i ('f . '~CJi
"
196
"~.$. '~~~
~ ! ,,'~ I
i! ~,
Machi"e .F oundations!1
~t
1
.
.,
(Naym)dyn,
"
,"2
(N arm. ) stat
,
,
...(5.27)
'
'.
" ..
Nacm both for the static and dynamic case is same and bas' been plotted in Fig. 5.7 for different inclination of the wall varying + 20 to  20 with the vertical. As evident from the Eq. 5.23, Nacmfactor
is also independent
,
I .~i
.'.
~' '
.
"
. ',! .
,~11
'~II
of
n.,
"
"
~.S ~.O
~i
" "
..
+' 0 +III
"
3.5
,'f
u 0 Z
E 3.0
,
~
'
"
0 u
t)I ....
2.5
::J
....
~ t)I
a.
2.0
1.5
"
.c +'
.... 0
1.0
0.5 0
10
t~
lS
20
r/J (deg)
25
30
35
40
45
Fig. 5.7: (Nacm)statversus ellfor all n (Prakash and Saran, 1966 and Saran and Prakash, 1968)
,}
Figures 5.8, 5.9 and 5.10 show plots of (Naqm)stat versus.<1> for n of 0,0.2 and 0.4 respectively. These"
plots consider the inclinationof the wall from + 20 to  2.0.Plots of (NaY11l)stat for the same range of n,
<1> and Clhave been drawn in Figs. 5~11,,~.12 an~ 5.~3.
, It is found that the values of Al and A2 alter. slightly with incr~a~e in n. It is therefore recommended
.
~
...
that the effec~ of n on Al and "2may,I'.otbe considered. Secondly, It ISobserved that Al and A2are almost. 1 same (Prakash and Saran, 1966; andSanln and Prakash, 1968). Hence o~ly one value ofA(= Ali=~) is J recomm~nd,ed (Fig. 5:14). Since.~ is the .ratio o~:e~rth.pre~s~re~oeffic~ent~' in.(i) dynamic and (ii) static . J~
case, and both the ~oefficients decrease with <1>. the ~s?ape ofthe curves ~or.different f!h values indicate .~; the rate of decrease of one in relation to the other.:: ",!'. "', " '":.,,., . '" '~~:::"'\::',;' ,:.' 'c " "
,',  'J~
...
"
197
....
,...
0 .... III
E 1.0 er 0 z
ti 0 U
=0
:J
I
11\ 11\
~ 0.4 c. .c ....
I0
0.1
'r.
0 0
5 10 15 20 15 30
35
40
45
(/J{dq'g)
Fig, 5.8: (N.qm)stat versus ellfor n = 0 (Pr&kash and Saran. 1966 and Saran and Prakash, 1968)
. ~ ,... 1.0
0
'
E er 0 z 0.8
n =0.21
..... .....
~ u
~
0.6
"
:J
::: ~
I
0.4
0.2
"
0
L
c.
0 W
~ L
5, "
10
15
r' '
20 "
.' '25
30,
.
, ..35
. '
40
, _,45
.' 'C/J {d q g) Fig. 5.9 : (N8qm).t8t versus' :fJ ',' for n = 0.2 (pta,iuisb':and Saran,
',: ..'",.v'"',,,;.
"..ii";;'~';;~'~,~,#:!~,t:'i"i'~i:;"!o{,h,.J'Y,:;r~;'J'":>i':~'"
198
f ~I ,,
1.4
n =0.4
E er
0 Z 0.8
.... ....
1>1
~
Col
0.6
~ 0.4 a.
.s::.
0 0
5 10 15 20
</J (deg)
2S
30
3S'
40
4S
1.0
~ 0 ~ 11'
)0
E
0 Z
..... ..... ~ 0
0.8
n=O
0.6
:
v
~ L
0.4
:J
11' III ~
L
a.
.r::. .....
0.2
L0 UJ
0 0
10200
s
,.
10
1S
20 ~
2S
(d~Q).
30
3S
40
4S
J ,t
for It = 0.0 (Prakash and Saran, t 966 and Saran and Prakash, 1968)
i ,
199
1 .0
+
~ 0.8
>0 0
E
n ::
:; ....
~ 0 u
:z
0.2
0.6
t:.I
~ 11\
11\ ~ ....
041'
a.
0 0
5 10 1S 20 2S
~L~
'
30
35
40
4S
~ (deg)
Fig. 5.12 : (Naym)statversus 4jIfor n = 0.2 (Prakash and Saran, 1966 and Suan and Praliash. 1968)
1.2
0 1.0 +'
,.....
III
E ~ 0 0.8
n:: 04
.... ....
~ 0.6 u
~
....
:J
11\ 11\
~ ....
0.4
a.
.r.
t: 0.2
0 UJ
0 0
" ", .; .', ,"" ;. .. "'" ,
,\,
5'
,'..
.,
10
C: :1;);1;. J"~; ':\J
15
20
': tI. (dczg) .., ,,'fJ
25
'30
,.} ;",;', .. .
3S
40
4S
. 'r'.""';> , ':;.',"':"'~
Fig:5.13'~ {N'~)...;vers~;'.
for n'" 0.4 (Prak~sb and Saran, 1966 and Saran and Prakash, 1968)
200
2.0
1.9
1 .8
1.6
A
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2 r
0.10
1 .1
.
0.05 { 10 20
rjJ
1.0
I
0
30
(deg)
(prakash
40
so
~. ~J
5.2.7. Point of Application. According to Indian standard (IS : ~8931984) specifications, the pressures are located as follows: From the total pressures computed from Eqs. 5.? and 5.9 or from graphical construction, subtract the
static pressure obtained by putting ab
= ay = O. The
and dynamic decrement in passive case. The Static component of the total pressure shall be applied at an
/,.,
i" i'
'mic Earth Pressure 201
I'
ltion Hl3 above the base of wall. The point of application of the dynamic increment and dynamic ;::mentshall be assumed to be at an elevation R/2 and 2R/3 respectively above the base of the wall. The static component of total active and passive earth pressure due to uniformly distributed surge on the backfill surface obtained by putting ah = av = 0 in Eqs. 5.9 and 5.10 shall be applied at above the base of the wall. The point of application of both the dynamic increment and dynamic ement in this case shall be assumed to be at an elevation 2R/3 above the base of the wall. The static and dynamic active earth pressures due to cohesion only (q = y = 0) are same. The point pplication of this pressure shall be assumed to be at an elevation of R/2 above the base of the wall.
DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS
,rj 'H
re are very few methods available to compute displacements of rigid retaining walls during earth<es. They are; (i) RichardElms Model based on Newmark's Approach (ii) Solution in pure Translation (iii) Solution in pure rotation . (iv) Nadimwhitman modd (v) SaranReddyviladkar Model,.., 1. RichardElms Model. Newmark (1965) proposed a basic procedu~e fer evaluating the potential Jrmation that would be experienced by an embankment dam shaken by an earthquake by considering sliding blockonaplane mode as shown in Fig. (5.15 a). In this important development, it was isaged that slope failure would be initiated and movements would begin to occur if the inertial forces the potential sliding mass were reversed. Thus by computing an acceleration at which the inertial :es become sufficiently high to caus~ yielding to begin, and integrating the effective acceleration on sliding mass in eXcess of this yield acceleration as a function of time (Fig. 5.15 c), velocities and mately the displacements of the sliding mass could be evaluated.
"
This analysis is based essentially upon the rigid plastic behaviour of materials Fig. (5.15 b). Though method was developed for a sliding analysis of an earth dam, it has been used by Richard and Elms 79) to compute the displacements of retaining walls. They have proposed a method for design of vity retaining walls based on limiting displacement considering the wall inertia effect. The proceedeveloped by them is described below.
;
.
FaHu r~ sf re ss
III III ~
k(t)w
... ...(/'I
/
strain
. . '(a), ~>, " ,.:/(b)
Fig. S.1S: (a) Forces on sliding block (b) Rigid plastic stress strahi behaviour ora materia" ,""'; t ,. 'c :, " ., ,"" . '<l,
iT:'i,7.'
<)~: ;jji
~
202
~t
)t:~ .
.
>coX
:~.:h
t'\' "
q.
u u >... u 0 ti >
rJk; , ~if
Ti mq
,;.
Time
+' C ti
E
ti U 0
a.
VI 0 (c) Fig. 5.15: (c) Integration of effective acceleration time history to determine velocities and displacements
Timq
Ww< 1 :t d...v) \ I
' h Ww
\d
,
,) '4, f< ~:'
Earth Pressure
203
ravity retaining wall is shown in Fig. 5.16, along with the forces acting on it during an eartht1this figure various terms used are :
Ww
lJ.h'av
= Horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients PA)dyn= Dynamic active earth pressure, Eq. 5.5
a = Inclination of wall face with vertical
N = Vertical component Qf the reaction at the base of the wall T = Horizontal component of the reaction at the base of the wall ,mming the forces in the vertical and horizontal directions, we get ...,5.28) ...(5.29) ...(5.30) <". ...(5.31 )
Ww
= 2" yH
=
(KA)dyn' CIE
\jI)
...(5.32)
...(5.33)
...(5.34)
+ 8) . tan
=
'.
cos (a + 8)
 sin (a
~b
...(5.35) ...(5.36)
rherefore, >ubstituting
W ~= W ...
(KA)dyn .
KA
(l:tay)(tan
~b tan \jI)
.e. md
FT = Ratio of earth pressure coefficients in dynamic and static cases (KA )dyn
FT
=
=:=
KA
...(5.37)
FI n Eq. (5.36),
...(5.38) ...(5.39)
W ~=F W
y,
204 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations~
,
~. i
;
1
F w is factor of safety applied to the weight of the wall to take into account the effect of soil pressure ~ and wall inertia. Figure 5.17 shows a plot of Fp F: and F w for v~ous values of ah. From this figure for t.' , F( = 1.0 and Fw =1.5, the value ah works out to be 0.18. However, if the wall inertial factor is considered, ;~$i the critical horizontal acceleration corresponding to F w = 1.5 is equal to 0.105. Thert:fore, if a wall is :' I
designed such that W w = 1.5 W, the wall will start to move laterally at a ~alue of ah
= 0.105.
Hence for
no lateral movement, the weight of the wall has to be increased by a considerable amount over the static condition, which may prove to be uneconomical. Keeping this in view, the actual design is carried for some lateral displacement of wall. 14 fw 12 '" 10
i . j
I
I I
I
,. ...
8
u.;
3'
..
u:..
u:
/
L"/
y
T
./
FT = 1.5
.
':. ==~.
 =
..::;:::
~
.
oD
0.105 I I
I .10.18
0.1
0.2
0.6
"
., ,
;1 i ~ . ,, ~ ~.~
205
Richards and Elms (1969) have given a design procedure based on a limited allowable wall movet, rather than on the assumption that the wall will not move at alL Such procedure is as follows: (i) Decide upon' an acceptable maxilllum displacement, d. .
.
(ii) Determine the design value of ahd from Eq. (5.40) [Franklind and chang, 19771
ahd
 ah ( d )
5ah *
...(5.40)
where ah = Acceleration coefficient from earthquake record d = Maximum displacement in mm (Hi) Using ahd' determine the required wall weight, Ww by substituting it in Eq. (5.31). The value / (iv) Apply a suitable safe~y factor, say 1.5, to Ww' There are three limitations to RichardElms analysis (Prakash, 1981): ~hese are: 1~ The soil is assumed to be a rigid plastic material. The walls do undergo reasonable displacements before the limiting equilibrium conditions (active) develop and experience very large displacements before the passive conditions develop. 2. The physical properties of the system and its geometry (particularly its natural period) are not considered. 3. Walls may undergo displacements by either sliding or tilting or both. This method does not apparently consider this difference in their physical behaviour, although it is logical to conclude that displacements computed by this method are in sliding only. .2. Solution in Pure Translation. A method for computation of displacement in translation only, of d retaining wall under dynamic loads had been developed by Nandakumaran (1973).
ahd of avd may be taken as 2'
Earth
pressure
(p)
Active C
+ BF
nt
(a)
Di sptaceme
".
Fig.S.tS:
206
tJ
(Rep + Pp!r~
x.
I
, I . :
Base friction
{B.FJ RBP,';
RSA
oX
Displace m ent
(c)
x ,2
X,Ot
B "2 tan
.~B
(d)
Fig. 5.18: (b) BaseFriction (B.F.) versus displacement (c) Resultant of'P' and B.F. versus displacement (d) Simplified bilinear forcesdisplacement diagr.am (e) Computation of base resistance (e)
11..
The forcedisplacement relationships considered in this analysis are shown in Fig. 5.18. Fig. 5.18a shows the variation of earth pressure with displacement. In Fig 5.18b, variation of base resistance with
displacementis given. The net force away from the fill is the differenceof active earth pressurePA and
the base resistance, RBA(Fig. 5.18c). The net force towards the wall is the sum of the passive earth pressure, Pp and the base resistance, RBP(Fig. 5.18c). The resulting bi1ine~rforcedisplacement relationship is shown in Fig. 5.18d and is characterized by the following parameters:
t I .t I
207
(i) Slope of force displacement relationship on the active and passive sides as Kl and K2 respectively, where K2 = n . Kt.
(ii) Yield displacement, Zy For the resistance of the base, it is assumed that a column of soil of height (B/2) tan $ provides all the resistance in a passive case (Fig. 5. 18e), B being the width of the wall at its base. The mathematical model is shown in Fig. 5.19. The parameters that are needed to define the system r displacement analysis are: 1) the mass of system, rn, 2) period of the wallsoils system, 3) yield splacement, 4) damping in the system, and 5) parameters of ground motion.
m
.,
c y = Y sin GJt
z
=
.
x
xy
Fig. 5.19: Mathematical model considered for the analysis (Nandkumaran, 1973)
The vibrating mass of the system consists of the mass of the wall and that of the soil vibrating witL e wall. Nandakumaran (1973) conducted vibratory tests on .translating walls and found that for the lIposes of matching the computed frequency of the wall with the measured natural frequency, the soil ass participating in the vibrations is 0.8 times the mass of soil on the Ranking failure wedge. Yield displacement for a given wall can be determined by considering the forcedisplacement relaonships. The ground motion is considered to be a sinusoidal motion of definite magnitude and period. The equation of motion can be written in the following form (Fig. 5.19) : ...(5.41 a) rnx + C (x  y) + K (x  y) = 0 rnl + Ci + Kz =  my ...(5.41 b) Z + 2 11~i 4112z =  y ...(5.41 c)
. .
where z = (x  y), 112= Kfm where K has been defined as the stiffnesson the tension side and
.
C
ratio = 2~Km
~ = Damping
For ease in computations, all the three equations obtained by linear acceleration method (Biggs, ~63) to be satisfied at each instant of time or at the end of each time interval selected, c~n be divided by y, the relative displacement on the tension side at which the resistance becomes constant (yield displacelent) to obtain the following relations:
2
..:(5.42) ...(5.43)
~~ ~. ~(Pn+1 +2\Vn)
.: "
JI.~ . j
:~.;t
,
j
; !
\J. j\
I
!
208
where
\Jin+\ =YIl21l~ Z
\Jin+\1l2.K.Zy('I'n+
I)
'1'=.
'1'='1'=
Zy Z Zy Z
...(5.47) Zy With these relationships, the analysis is performed for the range of variables listed in Table 5.2 Table 5. 2 : Range of Variables Considered in DisplacementAnalysis in Translation
Variable Ground acceleration amplitude (a) gals Period of ground motion (T)s Damping (~) % Natural period (TII)see. Yield displacement (Zy) mm
Range of values
100, 200 and 300 0.5, .3, 0.2, and 0.1 5, 10, 15 1.0,0.5,0.3 and 0.2 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.9, aJ1d10.0
To study the response characteristics of the system, two cases were considered; one in which plastic deformation does not take place and the other in which it does. Figure 5.20 shows the response of the elastic system. It is evident from this figure that steady state conditions are attained in about 6 cycles and also that displacements on the tension side are larger than those on compression side. The response of the system wherein slips take place has been plotted in Fig. 5.21. This shows that even when plastic deformations occur, a sort of steady state is achieved in the sense that slip per cycle becomes a constant after about 6 cycles. 12
8 E E
+' C ~ ~ u
4
0 Tim<z ~
(5)
.E 4a.
III 0
8
A =300 ga[5
T = 0.3 5 Tn = 0.3 s
12
L.;
0.3 s
;
f
Fig. 5.20 : Response of an elastic system with different stiffnesses of tension and compression sides (Nandkumaran,1973)
I 4:
209
0
c 0 '" c
12
A = 300 gals
.T = 0 3 5 Tn = 0.3 5
'E
"0 I C
Zy= 10 mm n = 2.0
Damping
4
=10%
+C E u
0 c
0 a.
0 Tima (5)
i 0.3s
..J
\11 .Q
4
..
80 Zy 70
n
; =10'0
=2.0
= Smm
Zy =10 mm
~ =10,. n =2.0
60 E E ~
u > u
A 1 T 0.39.0.55 SO
A 0.39 IT . 0.5 r
.. c:
0
~ 4.0
toI
~
alii
30
20
10
I
0'29,0.3)0.4.
0'.6
0.1 , Q.3 
0.8
Natural ptlriod.S
0.2
0.4.
0.6
Fig. 5.22: Natural period versus slip per cycle (Nandkumaran, 1973)
!10
Fig. 5.22 shows typical set of results in the form of slips per cycle versus the natural period of the NaIl in seconds for the yield displacement Z= y 5.0 mm. and 10:0 .mm, ~= 10% and n = 2 for different ~round motions. The ground motion is considered to be an equivalent motion of uniform peak accelera:ion of well derIDedcycles. . Any problem can be solved with the following stepes : 1. Determine the natural period of the wall using the following equation: T=21t~ where K = stiffness on the tension side and In = mass of soil and the wall. ...(5.48)
2. Determine the yield displacement. 3. Determine the slip per cycle from Fig. 5.22 or similar other plots corresponding to the yield displacement, the natural period of the wall and the ground motion considered. 4. Compute the total slip during the ground motion. This method of analysis is better than the one proposed by Richards and Elms (1979) in that (i) definite procedure for determining the natural period of the soilwall system in translation has been formulated, and (ii) physical behaviour of the retaining wall is considered in developing the forcedisplacement relationships. The method, however, suffers from thefact that the tilting of the wall has not been considered. 5.3.3. Solution in Pure Rotation. A method of analysis for computing the, rotational displacement of rigid retaining walls under dynamic loads has been presented by Prakash etal (1981) and it is based on the following assumptions: (i) Rocking vibrations are independent of sliding vibrations and the rocking stiffness is not affected by sliding of the wall. (ii) The earthquake motion may be considered as an equivalent sinusoidal motion having constant peak acceleration. (Hi) Wall may be assumed to rotate about the heel. (iv) Soil stiffness for rotational displacement of wall away from the backfill may be computed corre~ sponding to average displacement for development of fully active conditions. (v) Soil stiffness for rotational displacement of the wall towards the backfill may be computed corresponding to average displacement for development of fully passive conditions. (vi) The stiffness values computed in (iv) and (v) remain unchanged during phases of wall rotation towards and away from backfill respectively. (vii) Soil participating in vibrations may be neglected. The mathematical model base upon these simplifying assumptions is shown in Fig. 5.23a. Figure. 5.23 b shows the scheme for calculation of side resistance corresponding to active and passive conditions. If fully active conditions are assumed to develop at a displacement of 0.25% of height of wall, then soil stiffness Kt in active state is giv~n by
,
.~
1
K
I
...(5.49)
t 'f Ii 1, ,1 1
.'1"""'
211
, I
I
r,
'
t=a b t t . ~
ti'.x
L.. :::J IJ' Ut +' C C:>I
kp
L..
.
I J
(kA or kP) H
a.:;:
.t:
+'
1
~
C:>I
0 ... u
//R<ztaining wall
Backfill
kA
Lf"[ . b
Fig. 5.23:
rotation
1
(a)
(a) Mathematical
~
model for rotation of rigid walls,
Q.2SH
F,
Z.5H
lOO."t
100
(b)
Di splacement
et al., 1981)
Similar if fully passive conditions are assumed to develop at 2.5 % of wall height, soil stiffness Kz 1passive state may be computed as : Z z Kp rH  Ko rH 2 2 Pp  Po K ...(5.50) 2.SH , z  average displacement ( 100 ) where:: PA Pp
Po
= Earth pressure at rest ,KA = Coefficient of active earth pressure Kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure Ko = Coefficient of earth pressure at rest
The rotation resistances of the base, in active and passive states (MRAand MRP)may be given by
M~A=.C,.I'CPA  . MRP ,',
CP~
...(5.51 b) n which C, is coefficient of elastic.nonuniform compression, I is moI1!e~t'ofin~rtia ~fthe base about an lxis through. the heel of.the!walland.perpendicularto the plane ofvibra.tiQns;,an~~A and CPB itre angles
)frotation'away and towards!he~backfill. '1';," U' ,):~ "!'; 'i'n!>d':~1; ..' ';' 0:
c,. I .
...(5.51
a)
212
.,.
The equations of motion for rotation of wall away and towards the backfill are respectively:
.
K H2
13
"
Mmo ~A +
C.I
)
Z
4>A= M (t)
...(5.52 a)
i.
..
KzH
( C.
I
4>p = M (t)
...(5.52 b)
Since the stiffnesses Kl and Kz are different, the period of the wall for the two conditions i.e. towards the backfill and away from backfill would be different. This would result in different values of 4> A and 4>p for each half cycle of motion and net rotational displacement of (4> A  4>p) for one cycle of ground motion. The maximum displacement of wall for any number of cycles may be computed as :
4>T =
(4>A
4>p)
.H
...(5.53)
where n = Number of equivalent uniform cycles of ground motion H = Height of Wall Based on the above, a parametric study was made considering the range of variables listed in Table 5.3 It was observed that the contribution of rotational displacement may be significant. The contribution of rotational displacement using the above approach was compared with the sliding displacement for a 3 m high wall with backfill having angle of internal friction, 4>, equal to 36, period of ground notion of 0.3 s, Table: 5.3: Range of Variables considered in Displacement Analysis in Rotation Variable Height of wall (m) Angle of internal friction for backfill (degrees) Period of ground motion (5) Damping (~) C$ base kN/m3 Base width/Height of wall Range a/values 3.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 30, 33, 36 0.3 0, 5, 10, 15 4 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 (x 10 ) 1/3
horizontal seismic coefficient CJ.h equal to 0.25 and C$ equal to 3 x 104kN/m3. The total slip in 15 cycles due to sliding was 213 mm. Displacement of top of wall due to rotation found by this analysis was 147 mm. This illiustrates that the rotational displacement may not be negligible and an attempt should be made to account for it. The displacement analysis for rotational displacement is highly simplified. Nevertheless it shows explicitly that in some cases neglecting rotational displacement may seriously underestimate the total displacement. In actual practice it may be essential to account for combined effects of rocking and sliding that will affect the overall response of the system.
1j
5.3.4. Nadim whitman Analysis. The Richard Elms model assumes a constant value of wall acceleration (C1.h . g) when slippage is taking place. But once the backfil1 beings to slip, compatability of movement requires the backfill to have a vertical acceleration, thus causing change in wall acceleration. .
~~
?
~ ~ I
213
Zarrab~(1979) considered the equilibrium of the.wall and the backftll wedge separately and.satisfied le continuity requirements at failure surfaces as shown in Fig. 5.24a. An iterative procedure was devel?ed for computing the instantaneous values of the inclination of failure plane, the dynamic active earth :essure and the acceleration of the wall, given the input of horizontal and vertical ground accelerations. he horizontal acceleration of the wall and the inclination of failure plane in the backfill are not constant
I
Zarrabi's model.
7 6
I W.kn
:1
A= 0.2 R
~
WJ
w.k~
:r I
.2 1
N = 0.112
Uniform G
w.~ w
Ww
Rw tan ~b Rw
(a)
f 1f1
(c)
Slip
element
with,
Rigid
Cn = 1E 12 kN I m/m
Cs = 1E S kN/m Im
Cn = Normal stiffness C~ = Shear stiffness of slip elements
of slip
elements
(b)
Fig. 5.24: (a) Force resolution of wall and soil wedge in Zarrabi's model (b) Retaining wall and its finite clement idealization (c) Effect of ground motion amplification on permanent wall displacement (Zarrabi, ,1979) .
Generally, displace:nents computed with Zarrabi's model. are slightly lower than those computed lith the Richard Elms model. Dynamic tests on model retaining walls performed by Lai (1979) sh~w lat Zarrabi's model predicts the movement of the wall more accurately than Richard Elms model. Lai, Iso, obserVed, a single rupture plane in the backfill in contrast to Zarrabi prediction. Later pn;Zarrabi
110del has been modified to have a coiistanHncIlnationof failure plane 'in the b~ckfilt>
.
',..
'
'1:
<~
':i...;:'!'>'
":",
""
'i
 Elms,model
 plastic
material. Hence the input ground acceleration is constant throughout the backfill. But due to moreorless elastic behaviour of soil at stress level below failure, the input acceleration is not constant. Hence amplification' of motion cannot be taken into account in these models. Nadim and Whitrnan (1983) used a two dimensional plane  strain finite element model for computing permanent displacements taking into account the ground motion amplification. The slip element at the ,base of the wall has been assigned a very large v<llueof normal stiffness, thus restraining the wall from vertical and rotational movements relative to its base. Thus, the wall undergoes only translational movements. In their paper, the results of finite element mesh us,edby them is shown is Fig. 5.24 b. To understand the effect of ground motion amplification, typical results are shown in Fig. 5.24 c. In this figure, R is the ratio of permanent displacement from the FE model to the permanent displacement from
rigid
 plastic
(Richard
 Elms
or Zarrabi's) model.
I, is the fundamental
I is
the
frequency of 'ground motion. It can be seen that effect of amplification of motion on displacement is greater when I I is greater than 0.3 The FE model predicts zero permanent displacement ,at high frequency, because in the analysis only three cycles of base motion are considered during which steady state conditions can not be achieved. However, it can be said that large values off If, are not of great p'ractical interest because displacements are very small.
I,
Nadim and Whitman (1983) suggested the following simple procedure for taking into account the effects of ground motion amplification in the seismic design: (i) Evaluate the fundamental frequency I, of the backfill fQf the d~sign earthquake using onedimensional amplification theory by using the following equation and estimate the ground motion frequency, f
'
I, = VI/4 H where
H = Height at retaining wall in m VI
...(5.54)
(ii) If I Ifl is less than 0.25, neglect the amplification of ground motion. If I II, is in the vicinity of 0.5, increase the peak acceleration, A and the peak velocity, V of the desjgn earthquake by 2530%. Ifll I, is between 0.7 and 1, increase A and V by 50%. Obtain ah as A/g. (iii) Use the value of ah from the previous step in the Eq. (5.40) given by Richard
getting ahd for known value of the displacement. (iv) The value of ahd estimatedin step (iii) is used as the value of horizontalseismiccoefficientin
the Mononobe
 Okabe analysis to calculate the lateral thrust for which the wall is designed. The
.
5.3.5.Saran, Reddy and viladkar Model. Saran et al (1985) have chosen the mathematical model in such way that it results translation and rotation simultaneously and therefore it has two degrees of freedom. '11 'I,
" ' , ,f ,
In practice, cro ~~ ':' section pf rigid ret~iiningwall vari ~s'to cl great exte!l.~' Areas<?n~ 1?leappro~j.tQ ,.:~,;rk. tion is, theref6~e, made by lumping the. mass of. the rigi~ retaining wall at its centre :<?fgravity. '\:IJ.t~J
, , , , , ,
,
,b~ckfin soil is replaced by closely spaced independent elastic springs shown in Fig. 5.25. .;
". ",
.
nic, Earth PresslIre
215
t't
hl hl Retaining
K,
Displaced position
I
K.., K...
I I
I
:IT
h,
~ I
I I I
X J I I I
I
Inltla
. . I
position
wall
       
j

F=F
Kn"
sin
wt
.
ill
Dynamic"'" , .QC tlve "
Fig. 5.25: Mathematical model for displacement analysis under dynamic condition
To determine the spring constants soil modulus values have oeen used" The s?~l modplus depends on type of soil. It varies linearly with depth in sands and n?rmally consolidated clays, but remains lstantwith depth in case of over consolidatedclays. For linearform of variation k =:,11It;' h, where 11ft he constant of horizontal subgrade reaction and h is the depth below ground surface. Value of 11ft also )ends on the type of movement namely (i) wall moving away from backfill (active) an (ii)'wall moving lards backfill (passive.). P,rpbable range of 11ft. in cohesionles .soils is given in Table, 504 ' Table 5.4: Rangle of,values of Modulus of Subgrade Reactions 1h' .
TIlt
, ,
.
KNlm3
Soil 'Active
Loose 'sand Medium dense sand Dense sand
passive
;
'40060d' 8001200
1600~2400, , .
In case of soil modulus linearlyvarying with depth, the soilreaction is assumed'to 'act as a loading tensity. Treating this load to be acting on abeam of length, equal to the 'height 'of retaining w~ll,the
be siniply' suppo'ited:at tIi{spring points, Jr the retaining wall of height H~d'ivided into ~ t6nvenienf~~mber ot ~qual ~egrI{erits' of,height ~Ji, the 'actions hence'the.' spring constants vallies' at"~a:fiou~'ciivi'si~h p'oTnts\vould'oe a~'~n~~r..." " .' , actionsat different points are evaluated treatIng this'beam'to
,~ #'
16
k  1 1  6 l1h (1:1 hi
k2 k3
= l1h
(1:1h)2
ki
kn
"'6
...(5.55e)
where kl and kn are the spring constants at the top most an bottom most points, ki, the spring constant at my division point 'f. In case of soil modulus constant with depth, the soil reaction is assumed to act as uniformly distributed loading intensity. Treating this uniformly distributed load to be acting on a beam of length, equal to the height of retaining wall, the reactions at different points are evaluated treating th,isbeam to be simply supported at these points. The spring cons'tants would be as under,
.
de
S)
5. u
For the top most spring, For any intermediate spring, For the bottom most spring,
k =
1
1 k (1:1h) 2
k; = k (1:1h)
1 kn =. 2 k(l:1h)
The method is based on the following assumptions: 1. The earthquake motion may be considered as an equivalent sinusoidal motion with uniform peak acceleration and the total displacement is equal to residual displacement per cycle multiplied by number of cycles. 2. Soil stiffnesses (or spring constants) for displacement of wall towards the backfill and away from the backfill are different. 3. Soil participating in vibration, damping of soil and base friction are neglected. Assumpations 1 and 2 are usually made in such as analysis while assumption 3 needs justification. It is difficult to determine analytically the soil mass that would participate in vibrations along with wall when it undergoes translational and rotational motions simultaneously. Neglecting this mass, the method gives higher displacements and the solution is conservative. However, the mass of vibrating soil can be found out by carefully conducted experim ~nts. For the case of pure translation, Nandakumaran (1973) has conducted experiments to determine the vibrating soilmass and concluded that itcan be taken equal to 0.8 times the mass of Rankine's wedge. By adopting similar technique, the soil mass vibrating along with rigid retaining wall under combined rotational and translational motion~cim be found out. Then it is added to the mass of the wall to lump at centre of gravity'and the analysis can be carried out' without any changes. .'. '.
.,
iI
~; )"~J I
11& III
it
0'
Earth Pressure
217
oils, it is customary to consider valUes of damping such' as 15% 'or 20% of critiCal in view of ergy absorption compared to other engineering structural materials. In the present analysis however, bsorption in the form of plastic displacement of the wall has been considered. Therefore smaller ; values would be appropriate. Neglecting even this smaller damping, the displacement of the this method will be more than the actual displacement.
~ displacementof ;
retainingwall is greatly influencedby base friction. In case of walls in alluvial and' at the waterfront, translation'al'motion, is predominant.In some other cases, the walls may
edominant rotational motion. But in general for any type of foundation soil, retaining wall pos'ansl..tional and rotational motions simultaneously. For'rigid retaining walls, the stability is mainly ts gravity, hence base friction, the analysis will lead to an overestimation of the displacement. wever, refinment of the model by including vibrating soil,mass, damping of soil and base friction ~d so that the analysis can predict displacement close to the actual displacements, study the response characteristics of the 'system, two casoesare considered, one in which plastic ations do not occur (elasti~ system) and the other in which plastic deformations do occur (plastic ). , Analysis of an elastic system active condition. The equations of motion of the retaining wall )' Alemberts principle can be written in general terms as .follows;
;=\
:'(' + Lk;[x+
11 ;=\
{H h)(iI)Md
9]
= Fa sin
(J) t
...(5.57)
+ Lk;[x+{Hh)(iI)LlhJ
11
9) (Hh)(il)
LllzJ]=0
...(5.58)
here M = Mass of reitaining wall J = Polar mass moment of inertia of the wall about the axis of rotation (J) = Frequency of the excitation force H = Height of retaining wall h = Height of centre of gravity of wall from its base x = Translatory displ~cement e = Rotational displacement ,etting :
;=\ "f.k;
n ,=
'..
"1T
F
...JL
...(5.59)
4
=a
...(5.60)
;=\ n
,:;
I,kj {(Hh)(il)L\h}
M
;=\
"f.
=b
...(5.61)
kj {(H  h )  (i
 1)6.h },
'!
'2
t ' , ~\   '.  ,
,) '\
=c
...(5.62)
::r
I
218
x' + ax ~
,
be+
b'
" ,
,','
..:.(S.6?).
e + ca
where J
= ,
( "7 )
x';
",
, ,
, ...{S.64)
,
,
= Mr2, r being the radius gyration and 'b',can be called as coupling coeffici~ntbecause if b.=,o,
,. "
= X 'sinro t
, where X and
~ sin
.':.(5.6S)
" "',,
(0 1.
...(S~66)
= b~ + ao'
"',(5:67)
".
, ...(S'.6'8)
(ch
c)
(:,)x
"
X =
(a
 00
b2
2
00
...(S.69)
)
,.2 ( c ao
~=
,
,
'
.'
,.2,
'
...(S.70)
=
(a002)
ao
...(S.7!)
2 b2 ,sinro(
,. (c002)
e=
a0
2 1'2 (a002) ( c 00 )Tb sin rot
..,(S.72)
...(S.73 a)
.<0 I
= X + (H  h ) e
r (cro) +btHh) . a srn . ro( 2 2 2 2 0 { ( aro ) (cro ) r b }
2 2
or
""
x top =
(S,73b)
!
I
t, .
.ii
!icEarth Pressure
219
? Natural frequencies. Under free vibration condition, the equations of motion are:
.
'x'
+ ax
..
9 +
ca = ( ;
:dba b
..
. . ;~;~,
...(5.74) ...(5.75)
J x
a = B sin ron t
~
(00; + a) A
(<o;+c)B
From these we get,
and'
= b .B
(:,)A
b a OOn
2 2
A =B
...(5.81)
~
Equating, b
(::)
coo
2
aoo; 4 2
( ~ \r )
...(5.82)
OOn(a+c)OOn+QC; (
and solving we get,
) =0
00;\ = 2
...(5.83)
oon2 = 2(a+c)J
r (y ) +()
ca
...(5.84)
.5.3. Passive condition. The ratio of stiffnesses on the compression and tension sides is denoted by n. nce in the passive condition, the values of a, band c change and these can be given by : a = n (a)a b = n (~)a C = n (c)aThe solution for this condition is similar to active condition described above. ...(5.85) ...(5.86) ...(5.87)
~
220 Soil Dynamic'S & Mad<ine F...d_~
I
5.3.5.4. Analysis of a plastic systemactive conditio,n. Assume that Zy and 9yare the yield displaceme~~\: " occurring simultaneously in all springs: the equations of motion can be written as: x. + a Zy = b 9y + ao sin Cl) t .. b e + ce =  Z
y
...(5.88) ...(5.89)
( r2 )
x = (b ey  a Z)
b
T t2
...(5.90)
e = (?
Zy coy
) "2
+ C3 t + C4
...(5.91)
Let 'fe' be the time after which displacement of top of wall (yto~ becomes greater than yield displacement (Yd) and plastic system starts. Let xe' xc' ee' 8e be the values corresponding to time te and can be calculated by using the equations developed for elastic system. The following boundary conditions can be applied to evaluate the constants of integration: (i) t = re' X = xe (ii) t = re' X = xe (iii) t = re' 8 = 8e (iv) t = re' e = ec Therefore, we have Zy = xe ey = ee C = x  (be  a Z ) t + I e y y e
.
C2
Cl) 2 te
...(5.95)
leao cosoote ...(5.96) 00 ...(5.97)
. ao sm 00te
= xe  xete + (bey  a Z) T+
e
002
C =8
3
te ( rb2ZyCey )
C4 = 9 ere x top
b t;  8 t ZZyCey _ e ( ) 2
...(5.98)
= x  (H  h) e
...(5.99)
5.3.5.5. Passive condition. The ratio of stiffnesses on the compression and tension sides is denoted by n Hence in the passive condition, the values of a, band c, change and these can be given by: a = 11(a)a b = 11(b)a c = 11(c)a ...(5.100 a) ...(5.100 b) ...(5.100 c)
l' I.
221
'he solutiOltissimilar to the above procedure for active condition except the values of Zy and ay" In ression side (passive condition), the displacements for achieving yield condition are very large, ~in most of the cases plastic system for l"assive case is not considered.
mple 5.1
0 m high retainin~ wall with back face inclined 20 with vertical retains cohesionless backfill 33, 1/ = 1~_KN/m and 8 = 20), The backfill surface is sloping at an angle 10 to the horizontal. (a) Determine the total active earthpressure using Coulomb's theory and Culmann's graphical construction.
(b) If the retaining wall is located in a seismic region (ah = 0.1), determine total active earth pres
sure using Mononobe's equation and modified Culmann's graphical construction. ltion :
.
,. .
,..,,0
I
.
I> a+ a) cos (8

1/2 2
{ I + [ cos (a
 i) cos (8 + a) ]
x
1 I + sin (33 + 20) sin (33 10) [ cos (20 10) cos (20 + 20) ] { 1/2 2 }
= 168.42 kN/m
Refer Fig. ".26 for Culmann's graphic,alconstructionfor getting static activepressure. Ds Es gives
~ total active earth pressure.
' .
'
,1
sin ( 4>+ 0) sin ( 4> i  \jI )
1I2
2
}
Assuming a
ah 0.1 =  =  = 0.05 2 2 .
'V
= tan
I
 ah
l~av'
= tan
I
0.1
1:!:0.05
.
222
'w,
6.0m
1
X '
A.
1I2 2
[ cos (2010)
cos(20+20+5.44
1
1+ ~in(33+20)Sin(33106) [ cos (2010) cos (20+ 20+ 6)] {
.
cos6cos220cos(20+20+6)
1/2 2 }
= 198.05 kN/m
Therefore (+) ay case governs the value of dynamic active earth pressure. Hence, (PA)dyn = 214.26 kN/m .:. Refer Fig. 5.27 for modified Culmann's graphical constructi9n dynamic active earth pres, " for getting . '. .
sure
2'3"
D sEs gives the total dynamic activ~,earth pressure. (PA)dyn = 21 x 10 = 210 kN/m ,ample 5.2 retaining wall 8.0 m high is inclined 200 to the vertical and retains horizontal backfill with following aperties : y/= 18 kN/m3, ~ =300 and c = 6.0 kN/m2 There is a superimposed load of intensity 15 kN/m2 on the backfill. The wall is located in seismic gion having horizontal seismic coefficient of 0.1. Compute the dynamic active earth pressure and decmine the percentage increase in pressure over the static earth pressure. Solution:
.~ 2c 1
1 sin 30
where KA = l+sin30
1
= 3'
(i)
ho =
Y ~KA
2x 6.0 x..[j = 1.15 m 18
.
224
= 282.0 kN/m
(i ii)
For <I>= A.
= 1.18
Therefore,
(Naqm)dyn = 1.18 x 0.512 = 0.609 and (Naym)dyn = 1.18 x 0.33 = 0.393 (PA)dyn= 18 x 8.852 x 0.393  15 x 6.85 x 0.609  6 x 6.85 x 1.2 = 345.18 kN/m
(iv) Percentage increase over static pressure 282.00 x 100 = 22.4 % = 345.10282.01 Example 5.3 A 5.0 m high retaining wall with backface inclined 20 with vertical retains cohesionless backfill
I> =
30,Yr = 18 kN/m3and 0 = 20). The backfill surface is sloping at an angle 15to the horizontal.
(1)For static condition, (b) For zero displacement condition under earthquake loading (c) For a displacement of 50 mm under earthquake loading.
. cos2 (cp 
a)
{ 1+ [ cos(a
1 Sin(cp+O)Sin(cpO
l/2 2
KA
= cos2acos(o+a)'
cos(3020) = cos2 20 cos (20+ 20) .
0
cos (8 +a.) 1
,}
. '.
I/2 2
.'"
= 0.6225
',' .
] }
225
= "2y H KACl
= .!. 2 x 1800 x 52 x 0.6225 x 0.6840 = 9765 kg/m
\If ~
a)
1
sin ( ~ + 0) sin ( ~  i  \If)
{
1/2 2
a cos ( u + a + \If )
1+ [ cos (ai)
cos(o+a+\jI)
= 6.00with With + ay
1 x
(K) Adyn =
cos5.44cos220cos(20+20+5.44)
sin(30+20)Sin(30"""155.44)
{ 1+ [ cos(2015)cos(20+20+544)
1/2
}
= 0.8311
With  ay: cos2 (30620)(10.05) (KA)dyn = cos6cos2 20cos(20+20+6) x
.
.
1/2
= 0.7727
From Eq. (5.36) With + ay :
0.8311
tan30
= 1.524
~.
226.
With  av : W = 0.7727 x tan 30 !!. W 0.6225 (1 0.05)( tan 30 tan 6) = 1.596 Therefore Ww = 1.596 x 9765 = 15585 kg/m (c) For displacement condition, d = 50 mm From Eq. (5.40)
5ah
= 0.780
cos2 (301.78  20)(1 + 0.01581) (K) A dyn  cos 1.78 cos2 20 cos (20+ 20 + 1.78) x
{
1/2 2
}
= 0.684
With () a,'d
'"
I
0.03162
It gives = cos2(301.8420)(10.01581)
(KA)t(,'n cos1.84cos220cos"(20+20+1.84)
x
{
= 0.672
Therefore, for (+) ve a,'d Ww  0.684 Tan30 W  0.6225' (1+0.01581) (tan 30tan 1.78)
= 1.143
4
:am;c EarthPressure""
.'
227
"
Hence
ww =
1.162 x 9765
= 11347
kg/m
"'
.
Ww
W = 9765 x 1.5 = 14647 kg (Static condition) ~ = 15585 x 1.5 = 23377 kg (Earthquake condition  zero displacement)
"
It may be noted that the weight of wall gets re~uced significantly if the wall is designed for some splacement. xample 5.4 ompute the displacement of a vertical retaining wall baving section and.~ackfill properties as shown in ig. 5.28. The characteristics of the ground motion are: Period = 0.50 s Average ground acceleration Number of significant cycles Yield displacement
= 0.2 g
= 10
"r
= 5 mm; n= 2 and
~ =10%
",
tl.0m ~
" 1'Ranki'ne's
6.0 m
"
,,
",
wedge"
= 30
,I
I , "
, , , f
3.0.m ..~t "
~
0/2
"K.4s
. .
228
Solution: (i) Refer Fig. 5.26 1 Weight of wall = 2" (1.0 + 3.0) x 6.0 x 24 = 288 kN Weight of soil vibrating along with wall 30 1
.
= 0.8 x 2" x 6.0 Tan 45T ) Total weight = 288 + 149.6 = 437.6 KN
3
x 6.0 x 18
= 149.6 kN
.
= 44.61x 103 kg
1
288xO.6xI8xx62 K = 2 1 0.005
1
3
(Fig. 5.18d)
VK;.
44.61 x 10
V 3
T = 2 1t
n
12960 x 103
= 0.368 s
(ii) From Fig. 5.22 (a), for Zy = 5 mm, TII= 0.368 s; n = 2, T = 0.5s, A = 0.2 g Slip per cycle = 24 mm Total slip = 24 x 10 = 240 mm Example 5.5 Determine the displacement of a model wall shown in Fig. 5.29 retaining medium dense sand ($ = 36, Y= 18 kN/m2, and T)h= 520 kN/m\ The wall is subjected to following dynamic conditions: Yield displacement: = 6mm Ground acceleration: =.0.25 g Time period: = 0.3 s Solution: 1. The wall is divided into foul equal number of segments with 11ftequal to 0.75 m and the backfill soil is idealized by using springs as shown in Fig. 5.30. The mass of retaining wall is assumed to be lumped at its e.g. which is at a distance of 1.23 m above the base (Fig. 5.30). 2. Consider the backfill characteristics, the spring constants in active and passive cases determined using Eqs. 5.55 and are given below in Table 5.4. The ratio of stiffnesses in passive and active states is taken as 2.0.
..~..'
,"
~~if'.t?~f~
229
y
I
I
.
A,
:i.3m~
:
I I I I I I
re
,
I
, I
,
3.0m
'"
0
'(
36
Retaining
I I
I I I
18 kN 1m3
   ~ .?ll ;I  +   X
,
I I I I
,
f4
1.0 m
i
v
Fig. 5.29 : Section of retaining wall
H = 3.0 m
M
~
a 0 sin wt
io
......
c
I
1.0 m
 '0
0
.," .'":':
::~;::~'~Yf~'~t*~11~{!',~~:r~i;:';'c::?0t~~,1;\q~i01;J;{:;:':;~
.~ .".
"
230
Soil Dynamics
&' Machine
Founilations
Table 5.4 : Values of Spring Constants Spring Spring location w,r, to c,g"hj (m) KJ K2 K3 K4 Ks 1.77 1.02 0.27  0.48 1.23 f
, Spring constant
,Spring
constant
3. Equation of Motion The quantities required in the analysis are calculated as shown below (Fig. 5.29) , 2 x 0.3 + 1.0 3 1.6 2 DIstance of e.g. from CD = 0.3+ 1.0 x'3 = 1.3 = 1. 3 m
. , 3xO.3xO.15+0.5x3xO,7
0,7
0.3+3
)
2
= 0.13;;5.56
Ivv
,~
0.3 x 3
12'
. .+0.3x3.0(1.51.23)+
.
+xO.7x3x(1.231)
2
YJ
0.3 x3+0.3X3.0(0.3560.15)2+0.7
12
36
X3+.!.XO.7X3X
0.7 0.056 ( 3
l,
"'r:i;'j.:'::,'C":':,i',iL;;;";;[!';;;;:',',,;;,..,.j'..,,",
.'<'
I11III
..
231
The values of a, band c in the active and passive cases can be detennined as below: Active case Passive case I.k. a =  2.0 x 510.94 =  1021.88 a = L = 51094 M . I. k. h. b =2.0 x 117.51 =235.02 b = I I = 117.51 M c =  2.0 x 451.76 =  903.52 c = I.k. I h~ I = 1513.393 = 451.76 J 3.35 The natural frequencies of the wall by considering the tension side (i.e. active case) are given by :
'
ca
oonl,2 =2(a+C)I~ ( 2
00/11= 24.94 rad/s oon2 = 18.46 rand/s
) +;:
()
The natural time periods are therefore, Tnl = 0.25 s Tn2 = 0.34 s Earthquake motions are erratic and no two accelerograms are similar. The two main parameters of lY ground motion are the amplitude of acceleration and the number of zero crossings in unit time. A ~ry simple and convenient form of ground motion including the above two parameters, is a sinusoidal otion. Moreover, while proposing a method for analysing the liquefaction potential of sand deposits, eed and ldriss (1967) contended that any given accelerogram can be considered equivalent to some efinite number of cycles of loading of equal magnitude. Such idealization have the advantage that after tudying the effect of two parameters, the effect of a probable earthquake motion at any site, can be nalysed. Because of the above advantages, sinusoidal ground motions are utilised in the present study. Given ao
a = 2.45 Sin (20.94 t) Predictioll of Displacements ill Elastic System The displacements in passive case (t = 0 to tpl2) can be cal~ulated as shown below:
x = X Sin Wt
e = ~ Sin Wt
where X
=
(aro2)
ao
2 b ,2 (c  ro2 )
2.45
.(1021.88  20.94')j.
2 (235.02)'
=
1.7448 x 103 m
0.8556 (903.5220.942)
H'
""""'i';:,:;"",:~',J,.""~',~,,J.':';',,
'""~';;,~,::,,,)':',.,:,;,:";'<
':":""":,/","",\i,,
"""
.,C.;,",:.c
,',
'"
','
'.'
"""..'..n'"':{!\;;{k,',',;.",'A"
232
Sin (20.94
t)
The computed values of displacements from time 0 to 0.15 s are given in Table 5.5 Table 5.5 : Values of Displacement in Passive State (ElasticCondition)
Time t(s} 0 0.0375 0.0750 0.1125 0.15 Translational displacement x (mm) 0  1.23  \.74  1.23 0 0 Rotation IJisp. of wall at top due to rotation xe (mm) 0  0.52  0.74  0.52 Total disp. at top xro/mm) 0  1.75 2.48  1.75 .
e (rad)
displacement in active case (t = t; to tp) can be calculated as shown below x = X Sin rot
e=
where
~ Sin rot
ao
/
x=
(am2)\
b2
=
(510,9420,94')
~1.817
x \03 m
~=
=
Hence, we have
ao
ra
117.51
. :.:
\i
 233
The values of displacements in active state considering elastic condition are given in Table 5.6. Table 5.6: Value of Displacement in ActiveCondition (ElasticState)
Translational displacement x (mm) 0 1.28 1.82 1.29 0 Rotation
e (rad)
0 0.02197 0.01552 0.02197 0
The dynamic response of the retaining wall under elastic system is shown in Fig. 5.31 which indi:ates that the slip (permanent displacement) after one cycle of ground motion is zero. It can be concluded :hat in elastic system, after any number of cycles, the residual displacement would be zero. 70
~
60
50 E E
."
40
....
c:
ti
E to> u 0 a.
III
30
20
10
~=Ji.!!'..!!'      0
 
5
0.0375
0.0750
0.1125
1 0.1500 Time. s
1 0.1875
0.2250
1 0.2625
1 0.3000
234 
When the displacement ()fwall (Xtop)is greater than yield displacement (Yd)' the system would be plastic. Therefore the equations of plastic system should be used. In passive case, yield displacement (Yd)is so large that plastic conditions do not arise and elastic system is considered. In' active case, to identify the time 'le' afterwl}ich plastic conditions exist, a line has been drawn cof!"esponding to Yd = 6mm (Fig. 5.31). It gives,
te.=0.1631 sec '
= 4.9116
= 5.9388
x 104 m. '
x 103 rad.
 
ay
xe
"
ae = 5.9388x
1O3rad.
= 0.3663 m/s
ae = 0.4429 rad/sec Cl = 0.3663(117.51 x 5.9388x 103510.94 x 4.9116 x 104) 0.1631+ 2.45 cos (20.94x 0.1631) =  0.1489' . 20.94 C2 = 4.9116 x 104 0.3663 x 0.1631+(117.51 x 5.9388x 103 510.94 x 4.9116 x 104) x 0.16312+245 sin (20.94 x 2 0.1631) 0.1631 x 2.45 cos (20.94 x 0.1631) ?' 20.94 20.94 117.512 x 4.9116 x 104 451.76 x 5.9388 x 103 x 0.1631= 0.8676
=  0.0173 C3 = 0.4429C4
[ 0.8556
3
= 5.9388
x 10
+ (0.4247)
0.1631
2
 0.4429
x 0.1631
=  O.1009
,;,)
,t
235
,.From t =e;2963 s to t = 03 s;the displacements 'are computed using the expressions obtained by olving the equations of motion under elastic condition taking boundary conditions satisfying the previmsly computed values t = 0.2963 s. The complete solution can be expressed as :
Xe
I.
t.
ee
Superscripts of A and B indicate the mode of vibration. Therefore Constants AI' A2' BI and B2 ::orrespond to the mode when system is vibrating with wnl' and A3, A4' B3 and B4 for the second mode. xe sinrot+A2 cosrot+A3 sinrot+A4 cosrot A A A A e = 1.. sin ro t + 1.. cos ro t + J sin ro t + 1. cos ro t
e
= AI
+ 1.445 A4
0.09603 =
AI
=  0.00376
Therefore for range of tp from 0.2963 to 0.3 s the equations of displacements will be : xe =  0.00376 sin ro t  0.02171 cos ro t  0.00187 sin ro t + 0.01448 cos ro t
Values of displacements in ~lastic condition from time ,0.2963 s to 0.3 s are given in Table 5.8
Table 5.8 : Values of Displacements in Elastic State
Rotation
Disp. of wall at top due to rotation xe (mm) 74.10 74.191 . , 74.3109 74.39670 ,,'
e (rad)
41. 8624 x 103 41.916
x 103
103
41.98359 x 103
 7.10  7.23
42.0320 x
42.062 x 103
74.4498
Hence it is fo~rid that after 'one cycle, the disphi~ement ~sequal to 67.21 ,mm and it can be called as slip. The total displacement after n cycles is e'qual'to n times the slip. The 'final translational displacement and r~tation of the retaining wall are therefore known. The displacement curve in palstic state is also shown in Fig. 5.31.
.:.'..'
;'r:;,;"i:;":.~'d~~.';
.:;..,./:{;i;'
..,.,..,rtif~;~;8t.
"'
236
Foundations
Biggs, J. M. (1963), "Introduction to structural dynamics", McGraw Hill Book Co., New York. Coulomb, C. A. (1776), "Essai sur une application des regles des maximis et minimis a quelque problems de statique relalifs a I'architecture", Mem. acad. roy. press. disversavants, vol 7, Paris. Culmann, K. , (1866), "Die graphische statik", Zurich. IS 1893 : I. P. (1962), "Earthquake resistant design of retaining walls", Proc. Symposium in Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee. Lai, C. S. (1979), "Behaviour of retaining walls under seismic loading", M. E. Report, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Mononobe, N. (1929), "Earthquake proof construction of masonry dam", Proceedings. World Engineering Congress, vol. 9, p. 275. Nadim, F., and Whitman R. V. (1983), "Seismically induced movement of retaining walls", Jour. of Geot. Engg. DiYn.,ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 7, pp. 915931. Nandakumaran, P. (1973), "Behaviour of retaining walls under dynamic loads", Ph.D. Thesis, Universityof Roorkee, Roorkee. Newmark, N.M. (1965), "Effect of earthquakes on dams and embankments", Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 129160. Ohde, S. 91926), "General theory of earth pressures", Journal, Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 12, No. I. Prakash, S., and Saran, S. (1966), "Static and dynamic earth pressures behind retaining walls," Proc. 3rd Symposium 011Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, Vol. 1, pp. 277288. Prakash, S., Puri, V. K. and Khandoker J. U. (1981), "Rocking displacements of retainingwalls during earthquakes", Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotcchanical Earthquilke Engineering and Soil Dynamics, Vol. 3, St. Louis, U.S.A. Prakash S. (1981), "Analysis of rigid retaining walls during earthquakes", Int. Conf. on RecentAdvances in Geotech. Earthquake Engg. and Soil Dynamics, Vol. 3, St. Louis U.S.A. Reddy, R. K., Saran.,S., and Viladkar, M.N. (1985), "Prediction ofdisplacements of retaining walls under dynamic conditiOns", Bull. of Indian Soc. Earth. Tech., Paper No.239, vol. 22, No. 3. Richard, R. k, and Elms, D. G. (1979), "Seismic behaviour of gravity retaining walls", Journ. Geotech. Engg. Divn., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. GT4, pp. 449464. Saran, S., and Prakash, S. (1968), "Dimensionless parameters for static and dynamic earth pressures behind retaining walls", Jour. Indian National Society of Soil Mech. and Found. Engg., July pp. 295310. Seed, H. B., and Whitman, R. V. (1970), "Design of earth retaining structures tor dynamic loads", ASCE Speciality conference on Lateral Stresses in Ground and Design of Earth Retaining Structures, pp. 103147, Ithaca, New York.
Zarrabi, k. (1979), "Sliding of gravity retaining wall during earthquakes considering vertical acceleration and changing inclination of failure furface", M. S. Thesis, MIT, USA.
< ., "
:. ~ .j J 4
i~'w'~~f~il!~~
j'
.: . . .
,~
>."
237
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
5.1 Explain with neat sketches the following: (a) Mononobe Okabe's approach, and (b) Modified Culmann's graphical construction for getting dynamic active earth pressure. 5.2 How is the effect of partly submerged backfill considered in computing dynamic earth pressure? . 5.3 Explain the salient features of the following: (a) RichardElms model (b) NadimWhitman model (c) ReddySaranviladkar model for getting displacement of rigid retaining wall. 5.4 A vertical retaining wall is 8m high and retains noncohesive backfill with y = 18 kN/m3, 4> = 30 8 = 20 .The backfill is inclined to the horizontal by 15.The wall is located in a seismic area where the design seismic coefficients are
Equivalent number of cycles in an earthquake o~ magnitude 7.0 will not exceed 15. DD
6.1 GENERAL Foundations may be subjected to dynamic loads due to earthquakes, bomb blasts and operations of machines. The dynamic loads due to nuclear blasts are mainly vertical. Horizontal dynamic loads on foundations are mostly due to earthquakes. Basically there are two types of approaches namely (i) pseudostatic analysis and (ii) dynamic analysis for getting the solution. In this chapter, pseudostatic analysis is first presented and it is followed by dynamic analysis. Design of foundations of different types of machines have been given in detail in chapters 8 to 10. 6.2 PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS
is more commonly used for designing foundations subjected to earthquake forces. values of horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients, equivalent seismic forces evaluated. These forces in combination of static forces make the foundation inclined load. In Secs. 6.3 and 6.4, the procedure of detennining bearing capacity.
 inclined
loads
ha\'e been prL'scnted. It is preceded by brief description on fundamental concepts involved in bearing capacity analysis.
6.3 BEARING CAPACITY OF FOOTINGS
6.3.1. Modes of Shear Failure. The maximum load per unit area that can be imposed on a footing without causing rupture of soil is its bearing capacity (some times termed critical or ultimate bearing capacity). It is usually denoted by quoThis load may be obtained by carrying out a load test on the footing which will give a curve between average load per unit area and settlement of the footing. Based on pressuresettlement characteristics of a footing and pattern of shearing zones, three modes of shear failure have been identified as (i) general shear failure, (ii) punching shear failure and (iii) local shear failure (Caquot, 1934; Terzaghi, 1943; DeBeer and Vesic, 1958; Vesic, 1973). In general shear failure, well defined slip lines extend from the edge of the footing to the adjacent ground. Abrupt failure is indicated by the pressuresettlement curve (Fig. 6.1a). Usually in this type, failure is sudden and catastrophic and bulging of adjacent ground occurs. This type of failure occurs in soils having brittle type stressstrain behaviour (e.g. dense sand and stiff clays).
,..,:",,;,,"d:"~'tX,~,'.","",r,d.:"Y""::'"
"J:'.~'f.,,'"~~:"~:"
w,::":'~.'
",r;1',;;~"f"':"",
"",'"
"'"
"",.0,
':"':'<"",,"
,>,'[:";':""'0,
..,.""...;~.;t~A",.
,,';"~',:':},,~~,
239
In punching shear failure, there is vertical shear around the footing perimeter and compression of soil immediately under the footing, with soil on the sides of the footing remaining practically uninvolved, The pressuresettlement curve indicates a continuous increase in settlement with increasing load (Fig, 6,1 b). .
+
Load
<::.I
(a)
(b)
.:
I
+
<::.I
+<::.I
Load c
<::.I.
"
,"
'<::.I
++<::.I lI'I
I
.... +C
.,'
Load
(c)

",
<::.I
,,...."
Fig. 6.1 : Typical modes of failure (a) General shear, (b) Punching shear and (c) Local shear
The local shear failure is an intermediate failure mode and has some of the characteristics of both the general shear and punching shear failure modes. Well defined slip lines immediately below the footing extend only a short distance into the soil mass. The pressuresettlement curve does not indicate the bearing capacity clearly (Fig. 6.1 c). This type of failure occurs in soils having plastic stressstram characteristics (e.g. loose sand and soft clay).
In Fig. 6.2, types of' failure modes that can be expected for a footing in ~ particular type of sand is illustrated (Vesic, 1973). This figure indicates that the type of failure depends on the relative density
and depthwidth ratio (D/B) of the footing. There is a critical value of (D/B) ratio below which only punching shear failure occurs.
, 240
Soil Dynamics
& Machine
Foundations
elcc
.. a.
.J::.
..
'"0 > .0
!'t:
10
Fig. 6.2 : Region for three different modes of failure The criteria given in Table 6.1 may also be followed for identification of type of failure:
6.3.2. Generalized Bearing Capacity Equation. In the design of foundation usually net bearing capacity is computed' and used. It is defined as the maximum net intensity of loading at the base of the foundation that the soil can support before failing in shear. It is denoted by,"qnu'Therefore qnu=quYIDf where, q u = Ultimate bearing capacity ...(6.1)
The equation of net bearing capacity developed for strip footing considering general shear failure (Terzaghi, 1943; Meyerhof, 1951) is extended to consider variations from the basic assumptions by applying modification factors that account for the effect of each variation (Hansen, 1970). It may be written as :
q
nu
=cN.S.d'i.b
c c
eel
1"
241
where
qllu
c = Undrained cohension of soil B = Width of footing Df = Depth of foundation below ground surface Nc Nq, Ny = Bearing capacity factors Sc' Sq, Sy = Shape factors for square, rectangular dc' dq, dy = Depth factors ie' iq, iy = Inclination factors b c' bq' by = Ground inclination factors rw' r:v = Ground water table factors 6.3.2.1. Bearing capacity factors. Nc' Nq and Ny are nondimensional factors which depend on angle of shearing resistance of soil (Terzaghi, 1943; Terzaghi and Peck, 1967). Their values may be obtained and circular foundations
"
Capacity
Factors
Hq \.00 Hy 0.00 0.45 1.22 2.65 5.39 10.88 22.40 48.03 109.41 27 I. 76 762.89
Ne 5.14 6.49 8.35 10.98 14.83 20.72 30.14 46.12 75.31 138.88 266.89
.; .'
Deg 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
1.57 2.47 3.94 6.40 10.66 18.40 33.30 64.20 134.88 319.07
6.3.2.2. Shape factors. Approximate values of shape factors which are sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes are given in Table 6.3. Table 6.3 : Shape Factors S.No. (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) Shape of footing Continuous strip Rectangle Square Circle (B = diameter) Se 1.00 1+ 0.2 B/L 1.3 1.3 Sq 1.00 1+ 0.2 B/L 1.2 1.2 Sy 1.00 10.4 B/L 0.8 0.6
242
6.3.2.3. Depth factors. The bearing capacity factors given in Table 6.2 does not consider the shearing resistance of the failure plane passing through the soil zone above the level of the foundation base. If this upper 'soil zone possess significant shearing strength, the ultimate value of bearing capacity would be increased (Meyerhof, 1951). For this case, depth factors are applied, whereby D d = 1 + 0.4 L
C
B
2
...(6.3)
DJ
(6.4)
dy = 1 ...(6.5) The use of depth factors is conditional upon the soil above foundation level being not significantly inferior in shear strength characteristics to that below this level. 6.3.2.4 Factors for eccentricinclined loads. The effect of eccentricity can be conveniently and conservatively considered as follows: One way eccentricity (Fig. 6.3 a)  If the load has an eccentricity e, with respect to the centroid of the foundation in only one direction, then the dimension of the footing in the direction of eccentricity shall be reduced by a length equal to 2e. The modified dimension shall be used in the bearing capacity equation and in determining the effective area of the footing in resisting the load. Two way ecc?ntricity (Fig. 6.3 b)  If the load has double eccentricity (eL and eB) with respect to the centroid of the footing then the effective dimensions of the footing to be used in determining the bearing capacity as~ell as in computing the effective area of the footing in resisting the load shall be determined as given below: L' = L
A' = Lt

2 eL
eB
X
B' = B2
B'
Qv G.
~
e
I
Qh
,t"'.
"
,\7 ''\~1\Z2?r"
B or L
, ::.::~
.W')
a
:;!:f
243
.... ....
for B axis
(B') and e_ffe~tive length__(~? will be used in place of total width (B) and total length (L). For a design,;'eccOentricity' should be limited to onesixth of the foundation dimension to prevent the condition of uplift occurring under part of the foundation, Inclination factors Following inclination factors may be adopted in design.
m+l
,
ly 
Qh"
'
...(6.9) m
.
Iq
= [ 1
...(6.10)
iq
 [N:~~$] (when p
...(6.11)
O.
...(6.12)
where Qh is the horizontal component of the load Q acting on the foundation at inclination i with vertical. Values of m are taken as given below: (i) If the angle of inclination i is in the plane of Laxis
111 =(2+~)
(1+~)
,
..(6.13)
( .'
2+oB 1+B L) ( L)
...(6,14)
"
,.'
" As P~!)~,':640].:)981,:tlfernclination factors ~:,:::"."...' .   ,  ,,~. ,'  are give,n"by~~: ,.. ' .) 'q~cq:
~' . '; ..'
'..~
244
..0 '"
0 ID
0 Lt)
0
00
11
1J '"
0 ~
0 ~
.Z
Col V
0 M 11
0 N
.Z
tII V
.0
&
0 ~
0 ~
0 N
.0
0 0
0
0 ~
0 N
(6~p)q,
(6~p)
cp
'"
0 0
.
0 ~
0 co
0
11
0 ID
Col V Z 0 ~
0 N 11
0 M
0 N
t>I V Z
0 N
0 ~
'0 ~
0
0 N
0 ~
0 N
0
0
( 6~p)
<t>
(6~p)
et>
..
Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations
0 1.0
'"
~.
"}:Jl
245
.0 .........
0 \J')
00
tI
1
0 tIJ C') eT Z
'"
.........
"0
00 C')
0
N
1\
to... '\.u.
,
tI
r.
0 0 0
18
""
"0
0 ....
<P
..t
C')
II
'.
0
N
10
0 er
'" :: '"
(60p)
(6<>p)
cp
''"' ,.
..
O
7.
Ir: '.
.::>
'"
1
I
'"
.........
l i
00 11
1
.0 tIJ eT
0 0 N
11
,
10N
eT tIJ
0 ~
 o.
et)
~~
0 N
0
,'. <P
0
0 ~,
o.
0 0 N 0 '0
et)
(6<>p)
(6<>p)
et>
..."".
246
0 N
Foundations
".......
0 ..t
.c
,
0 00
_
"tJ
,
0 M
0
JI
.0
')0 Z
"
C:.I
0
"N
,Z
C:.I )0
.t
0
0 t
I.t'I M
0 M
I.t'I N
0 N
0 0
...t
I.t'I M
0 M
(6ap)cp
(6ap )
et>
0
U)
"....... 0
'"
0 N
0
JI
C:.I )0 "....... u 0 U)
z
0 co
N JI
0 ...:t
...t
0 N
0
::>
.t
0 M
0 N
b
..t
'1f) M
0 M
1f) N
00 N
et>
(6ap)
et>
ID
,<
.<'
,'
,,' ,,(i'
'f"
';
,.;.r"','.,, 171.
Foundations
,
"
"247 2
::':
'(
,t,
ic
= iq = ( 1 ~ ;0
, ":..(6.15) ...(6.16)
iy= (1
~J
For more accurate estimation of bearing capacity of a eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing, bealing capacity fa~tor:; as shown ,in Figs. 6.4 to 6.6 developed by Saran and Agarwal (1991) may ,b~,u$ed. These factors have been obtflined by carrying out a theoretical analysis based on limit equilibrium and
limit analysis approaches'. ~":":
As evident from these figures, bearing capacity factors (Nyei'Nqei and Ncei) depend on <j), i and e/B. Values of these bearing capacity factors are substituted in (Eq. 6.2) in place of Nc' Nq and NI for getting the bearing capacity of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing. If use of these bearing capacity, factors is made, then inclination factors, and reduced dimensions of B' and L' for accounting the effect of eccentricity and inclination are not us,ed.The!efore the mod~fiedbe~ring capacity equation will be as given below:
'
~,
1,
.
qnu
= cNeei .
...(6.17)
Use of Eqs. 6.6 to 6.16 make more'cons~rv~tiveqestimate of~he bearing capacity. , 6.3.2.5. Base inclination factors. If the base of foundation is inclined from the horizontal and an applied load acts nonnal to the base (Fig. 6.7), the pattern of rupture surface beneath the foundation will be different from the pattern that develop beneath the level footing carrying a vertical load (Meyerhof, 1953). For this condition base inclination factors as given below may be used: . , '"
, (lb) ,
...(6.18) ...(6,19)
"
= 1
0.0067 a
,
for 4>= 0
2
where a
represents
.q 1 57.3 If ) , .'[' the angle of the base inclination in degree with horiz~ilta1.. '
,
b = b =
(1  ~
tan'"
"
:;'
...(6.20)
"
_'0 "
rJ
,.,c
',," ",~ s
,:
248 6.3.2.6. Water table factors.
(Fig. 6.~).
rw
"
= 1.0  0.5
Df
d'
(For da ~ DJ Y
...(6.21):'
"
(For, db ,~ B) . ...(6.22} , where do and db represent the position of water table with respect to the base of the footing as shown: in fig. 6.8. For the position of water level 'below the base of footing, do = 0 i.e. rw = 1; and for the
r~ = 0.5 + 0.5 position of water level at depth more than B, db = B i.e. r'll' = 1.
'
"'"
B
Footi ng
vwot.rzr
Of
'
do
Irzvel
tB
I I
I water
'
I (rzv<z1
db
L L______J
(0)
\!
~ 1.0 L.
L." 0.9 0 .. u .B 0.8
,~ L.
1.0
~
0 Of
.:: 0.9 0 .. u c:
0.8
j. "". .f
c 0 0.7
.~ 0.7 .. u
'0 tI
::J
0.6
..
a:
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.8
~, " 'f
..
(c)
factors 'cor position of water table
,J..I
. , ,
.,,"~
~_.
J,~II1I~.,

ID
~,,'
<;~"",.;.
249
).3.3. Local and Punching Shear Failure. The assumption that the soil behaves as a rigid material s satisfied for the case of general shear but is not appropriate for punching and local shear. Comparison )f the relative pressuresettlement curves (Fig. 6.1) indicates that, for punching and local shear failure ;ases, the ultimate pressure is less and the settlement is greater than for the condition of general shear :'ailure.For design purposes, the general shear, local shear and punching shear failures can be identified 1Sper the criterion given in Table 6.1. Terzaghi (1943) proposed empirical adjustments to shear strength parameters c and <{I to cover the case of local and punching shear failure. Shear strength parameters cm and <{Im should be used in the bearing capacity equation and the bearing capacity factors are obtained on'the basis of <Pm instead of
:j>, where'
c
III
2 =  C
...( 6.23 a)
<{Im
= tan
1
(~ tan ~)
For example, value
"
...(6.23
h)
If the failure lies between general shear and local shear failure, then linear interpolation is done
to evaluate the value of bearing capacity factors. of Ny for
,
~=
34 will be
'Y 4>=36
(N ym ) CP=29
36  29
x (36  34 )
...(6.24 )
where (Nyrn)$ = 29 value of Ny factor for <{I ::;:29 considering local shear" failure condition. Therefore its value will be obtained using Table 6.2 for <1>m = tan 1 [(2/3) tan 29] = 20.29.
, .
6.3.4. Factor of Safety. The net bearing capacity of the soil is divided by a safety factor to obtain the net safe bearing capacity. It is denoted by qnF'
' .
A factor of safety is used as a safeguard against (i) natural variations (ii) assumptions (hi) inaccuracies in shear strength of soil, methods, made in theoretical
(iv) excessive settlement of footings near shear failure. A factor of safety of 2.5 to 3.0 is generally used to cover the variation or uncertainties listed above. Therefore qnF = qnu F 6.4 SETTLEMENT, TILT AND HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
...(6.25)
An eccentricallyobliquely loaded rigid footing settles as shown in Fig. 6.9 in which Se and Sm represent respectively the settlement of the point under load and edge of the footing. If' t' is the tilt of the footing,
then Srn is given by :
Srn
'
= Se + (BI2  e ) sin t
'
...(6.26)
....
"
,,250
Foundations
~
,
.'
"
" " ,~
e!I
e/2 1
.","'IQd(Zi,
I.,
I
(e/2~)
I
i
'
'
I ~ l_.l.
"
E
..I
Se
5,0
l:HD~
'
"
 ~)
~~el1.Fig,6.9: Settlement,
tilt and horizontal displacement of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footing
Agarwal (1986) carried out modeltests on eccentricallyobliquely loaded footings resting on sand Footings of different widths and shapes were used. In each test, for a pressure increment observations were taken to record Se' t and Ho' Effect of relative density of sand was also studied. In addition to these tests, pressure.settlement and pressuretilt characteristics of eccentricallyobliquely loaded footings resting on clay and Sand beds were also obtained using nonlinear constitutive laws of soils (Saran & Agarwal, 1989). From the model test data and results of analysis based on constitutive laws, plots of SeI So versus e . I Band Sm IS o versus elB were prepared for different load inclinations (Figs. 6.10
& 6.11). So represents the settlement of the footing subjected to central vertical load (i.e. elB = 0 = i) and obtained corresponding to the pressure intensity giving the same factor of safely at which Se and Sill values are taken. These plots were found independent to the type of soil, factor of safety, size and shape of footing The average relationships can be represented by the following expressions:
~e 0 =

Ao + AI (~)+A2(~r
,
...(6.27
~:=Bo + BI (~)
...(6.28
where.A"
1  0.56
(~ )0,82 (~)'
A,
4,74  \.38
,
(~ )lZ,4S(
I
',, '
) Bo = I  0.48 ( ~,...~.~;.
,/
""
( q, ) ",...'
i_h,"""'"
251
B\
~ 1.8~ + 0,94
W L63( ~)'
i ::150
...(6.33)
0.8
0.6
Se So
. .
.
04
0.2
~
0.1
0.2
'.,
0.3
= 15
1.2
, 0
I =
15
0.8
Srn 
So
0.4
0
,
0.1
0.2 e/B
: Sm/SO versus elB for i15 'Co):, ..
0.3
',;
252
Values of So can be obtained using the data of plate load test or standard penetration test in cohesionless soils, and consolidation test data in clays in conventional manner. Similarly a unique correlation was obtained between Ho / B and i/~. Ho i i 2 i 3 i 4 =0.121 (~)0.682(~) +1.99(~) +2.01(~)
...(6.34)
The above correlation is also found independent to the type of soil, factor of safety, size and shape of the footing. The effect of eIB was found small and the displacement value decreased little with the increase in eccentricity: This effect is neglected considering the results slightly on the safe side. 6.5 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
.
The dynamic bearing capacity problem attracted attention of the investigators in 1960 when the performance of foundations under transient loads became of concern to the engineering profession (Wallace, 1961; Cunny and Sloan, 1961; Fisher, 1962; Johnson and Ireland, 1963; Mckee and shenkman. 1962: White, 1964; Chummar, 1965; Triandafilidis, 1965). All analytical approaches are based on the assumption that soil rupture under transient loads occurs along a static rupture surface. In this section the sailent features of th~ analysis developed by Triandafilidis (1965) and Wallace (!961) for transient vertical load; and by Chummar (1965) for transient horizontal load have been presented.
qu
~
:
(enter
I
of rotation
T
(Fczllllnius)
.
0.43 8
rupture surfacll
ZPrandtl's
r,
B
\
~
r
I', r =2.20SB/rr
I
WCO5~
Fig. 6.12 : Illustrations of mode of failure, and dynamic equilibrium of moving soil mass
",.""
Foundations
253
5.5.1. TriandafiIidis's Solution. Triand~rllidis (1965) has presented a solution for dynamic response of continuous surface footing supporting by saturated cohesive soil (I\> = 0 condition) and subjec,ted to vertical transient load. The analysis is based on the following assumptions: (i) The failure surface of soil is cylinderical for evaluation of bearing capacity under static condition (Fig. 6.12)
.
(iii) The forcing function is assumed to be an exponentially dec~ying pulse (Fig. 6. 14) (iv) The influence of strain rate on the shear strength is neglected. (v) The dead weight of the foundation is neglected.
"0
er
CJ\ CJ\ I. C:II ...
U\ U\ C:II ~
.. U\
v
..
t/)
E
0 0
c >
'.
strain
Fig. 6.13 : Assumed stressstrain relationship Analysis
rima
Fig. 6.14: Transient vertical load
Let the transient stress pulse be expressed in the form = q e~ I = A. q e~ I qdoli where, qd = Stress at time t ~ = Decaying function q u = Static bearing capacity of continuous footing qo = Instantaneous peak intensity of the stress pulse
A.
...(6.35)
qu
".
The rupture surface is shown in Fig. 6.12 with centre of rotation at point 0 loc~ted at a height
of 0.43 B above the ground surface. The equation of motion is written by equating the moment of the disturbing and restoring forces taken about the point O. The only disturbing and restoring force is an externally applied dynamic pulse. The restoring forces consist of shearing resistance along the rupture surface, the inertia of the soil :rp~sspa~icipating in motion and the resistance caused by the ~isplacement
111&1::,
254
r. ,
Soil Dynamics
Machine Foundations
of c~ntre of gravity of soil mass. Driving moment MdP due to applied dynamic pulse is I 2
. .
Mdp
= "2qd B
...(6.36)
where, B= Width of footing The static bearing capacity of a continuous footing along the failure surface (Fellenius, 1948) is qu = 5.54 Cu where, Cu = Undrained shear strength Resisting moment Mrs due to shear strength is
Mrs
...(6.37 a)
; qu B2
...(6.37 b)
An applied pulse imparts an acceleration to the soil mass. The resisting moment Mri due to the rigid body motion of the failed soil mass is
Mri
where,
...(6.38)
 WB2 1.36 g W = Weight of the cylinderical soil mass = 0.31 Y1tB2 Y = Unit weight of soil WB2 ..
Therefore,
Mri
...(6.39)
...(6.40)
= 1.36,g e
...(6.41)
The displaced position of the soil mass generates a restoring moment Mrw ' which may be expressed as
For small rotations, where,
r =
2.205 B
1t
By equating the moments of driving forces to those of the restoring forces, the following equation of motion is obtained.
Mdp = Mrs + Mri + Mrw Sub'5tituting for moments and rearranging, we get
...(6.44)
q ""e  1] ...(6.45) [ W ] u Equation (6.45) is a second order, nonhomogeneous, linear differential equation with constant coefficients. The natural frequency and the time period of the system are given by
co. ~
e +e= 1tB
..
3g
O.68g
[,
~t,
~;~
2~ ~ ~
...(6.46)
.,.(6.47)
..
DynU'tJic Bear;n~ C9pacity of S~lllloHJ.Fpundatiolls
~.JI,,~'{!:
255
(8) ==
'T2 41t2+~2T2
0.68gqu'
[{
1).+
~2T2
 .41t2
cos
( )+sm (T 21t'
21tt
~).T .
2~t\
+).e
f}t
,~2T2
41i2
,
...(6.48)
The ab<?vere1ation can be used to trace the history of m~tion of the foundation. For determination of the maximum angular deflection 8, Eq. (6.48) can be differentiated with respect to time. Thus
0.68gqu
~(e)
21tT
4~2+~2r
AI
[{
21tt
21tt
...(6.49)
side of
For obtaining the critical time t = te which corresponds Eq. (6.49)is equated to zero. Since 2 1tT/ (41t2 + ~2 T2) :t=0
'\
41t2
[ ]
T
[ ].e
T
.
21t t
0
,'h
...(6.50)
,
be substituted
with
g qll )8max
= K, dynamic load factor. Figures 6.15, 6.16 a~~ 6.i7 give the values of K (s2)
~=
050
s1
V\
10
..
I
,
/
I0
+0 u
10
2
.
f
,,/",""""'" ~~ . ,,
~
~"
0 ....
'0 0 0
3 10
I,
,/
'/
/'
/'
/"
/'
"/"'"
'
"
"
f,' /" , , /
" /",
, ,.,
0 c ,>.
0
E 10
'10
4
1./ / .
.'
5
I
..
.
/<'
.. 1 ....
+0
B
0.0
"
O.Gm
.'
"u
6 10 10
7'
,f
.f
g
2.0
,""
;...
~
1.0
.) "0' "
..
3.0
ratio"
_.
4,0
F' "
5.0
Ov(Z,rload
Fig. 6.15 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 0.6 m wide ,. , " 1..1 .,,;,i

'..u.
~~,~~~
256
10
10
10
III
I
...,
~ ...
.. 0
0 0
10
2
I
I
","'"
;'
/'
,'
/'
0 u e 0
0
10
10
1
{/
'I
'
,...
N
III ~
10
I
u 0 00
i
0 0
102
,,'/ .,'
"/ //./.
.. ,'."'" '
   ;:;.::;:..;::.::;=~
..'
" ",
10
/
f:
I,' '/
'/
/../"
,/."
,
"
0.0
./
'0
10
3
/0.
~ 105
10
7
, ./
,/
"
.~ 10 E 0 c
l; 105 10
I .'// ;/ " ./
f/
'
"/ ; '/'
../............
"'"
,,/
.. /r
10 1.0
+~
i.'
= 3.0m
., 
c
~ I0
50.0
~_.,....
2.0 Qverlood
107 1.0
Fig. 6.16 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 1.5 m wide
Fig. 6,17 : Relationship between overload ratio and dynamic load factor for continuous footings 3.0 m wide
6,5,2, Wallace's
Analysis presented by Trianadafilidis (1965) is based on rotational mode of failure. However, it is possible that a foundation may fail by vertically punching into the soil mass due to the application of vertical transient load. Wallace (1961) presented a procedure for the estimation of the vertical displacement of continuous footing considering punching mode of failure. The analysis is based on the following assumptions:
Solution,
(i) The failure surface in the soil mass is assumed to be of similar type as suggested by Terzaghi (1943) for the evaluation of static bearing capacity of strip footings. This is shown in Fig. 6.18.
~B
9 ton r: ro t
~
<'
257
(ii) The soil behaves as a rigid plastic material (Fig. 6. 13) (iii) The ultimate shear strength is given by s=c+crtan<l> where, s = Ultimate shear c = Cohesion
(j
...(6.51)
strength
= Normal stress
<p= Angle of internal friction (iv) The dynamic load applied to the footing is initially peak triangular force pulse (Fig. 6.19).
(v) The footing is assumed to be weightless and to impart uniform load to the soil surface.
Peak
>.
intensity,
"t:! ..... c: 0
'" c:
(y CT\
..0
:J
..c:
c: ,
(1 ....
0
"U (1 0 ..J
(1 0 ..J
'.,
Tim e
Fig. 6.19 : Loading function
Analysis The applied load is assumed to be an initialpeak triangular force which decays to zero at time td (Fig. 6.19). The peak load q is expressed in pressure units. Since the function is discontinuous at time td' two equations are necessary
For 0
,;
,;
qB (1
~)
...(6.52)
...(6.53) For t ~ td' Loading function = 0 In Fig. 6.18, BD is an arc of a logarithmic spiral with its centre at O. It is defined by the Eq. (6.54).
r where, "0
= ro ea tan'
...(6.54)
= Distance
..........
....
_Uu_~

_';::'77~

IT' <
258 
Soil Dy~ic$.
The static bearing capacity  qu for such a' failure surface is given by
2 
...(6.55)
where,
Ne, Nq, and Ny = Bearing capacity factors The bearing capacity factors depend on <I> and K, K being 2 (Distance OA)/H, Fig. 6.18. The value of K locates the centre of the spiral which is the centre of rotation. Obviously the correct value of K is that which yields the minimum value of the bearing capacity. It is obtained by trial and error for each set of problem parameters. The values of N"{'Ne and Nq for various values of <I>  and K are given in columns 3, 4 and 5 of Table 6.4. Table 6.4 : Bearing Capacity Factors (N'Y'Ne, Nq' NI' NR)
<I> (deg)
K (2)
Ny (3)

Ne
Nq (5)
NI' (6)
NR (7)
NI (8)
(1) 0
(4) 5.7277 5,7124 5.7258 79.6255 29.8163 18.9958 14.3469 11.8179 10.2699 9.2580 8.5723
 0.05
0.00 + 0.05
0.0000 0.0000 0,0000 0.,1454 0,1445 0,1481 0.1553 0.1655 0,1786 0.1945 0.2\31
1.0 1.0 1.0 7.9664 3.6086 2,6619 2.2552 2.0339 1.8985 1.8100 1.7500
0.0633 0.0631 0.0633 0.3755 0.2280 0.1579 0.12\3 0.1011 0.0897 0.0833 0.0799
,
2.0125 1.9723 1.9433 8.9076 6.4362 5.0332 4.1699 3.6088 3.2299 2.9674
5.6366 5,5887 5.5394 4.8709 5.3126 5.6460 5.8636 5.9750 6.0020 5.9698
 0.30  0.25
0.2344
0.2585 0.2855 0.3154 0.3483 0.3843 0.4233 0.5700
8.1007
7.7778 7.5629 7.4291 7.3580 7.3366 7.3553 53.9491
1.7087
1.6805 1.6617 1.6500 1.6437 1.6419 1.6435 10.5127
0.0786
0.0785 0.0793 0.0809 0.0829 0.0853 '0.0881 0.1120
2.7828 2.6523
2.5604 2.4969 2.4547 2.4288 2.4155 2.4122 5.7922
5.9005 5.8108
5.7116 5.6099 5.5096 5.4128 5.3205 5.2330 7.1922
 0.20
 0.15
 O.IQ  0.05
0.00 + 0.05 10
 0.60
Dynamic Bearing Capacity OfShallow Foundations  0.55 0.5588 28.9945 ' 6.1125 ' 0:0935 4.8411
: 259 7.1948
 0.50  0.45.
~
0.5645 0.5832
0.6127 0.6521 0.7008 0.7586 ,0.8253
0.9012
20.5266 16.3539
13.9337 12.4031 11.3881 10.7004 10.2345
' 9.9267
4.6194 3.8837
3.4569 3.1870
;,
'0.0833 ',0.0779
0.0757 0.0755 0.0767 0.0790 0.0821
0.0858
4.2238 3.8095
3.5264 3.3323 3.2008 3.1147 3.0625
3.0360
7.1228 6.9932
6.8273 6.6445 6.4587 6.2781 6.1071
5.9474
0.40
 0.10
0.9863
'9.7361
,2.7167
' 2.6990,0.0948
0.0901
3.0294
3.0386
5.7994
5.6676
 0.05
0.00
+"
1.0807
1.1848
9.6352
9.6049
2.6936
0.0999
3.0604
5.5360
0.05
1.2986 1.5462 1.5342 1.5806 1.6540 1.7520 ,1.8730 2.0166 2.1825 2.3710
2.5823 2.8168
9.6313 46.5473 23.2038 19.3483 16.9964 15.4722 14.4550 13.7730 13.3257 13.0501
12.9048 12.8613 '12.8991
"
2.6983 13.4724 9.1124 7.2175 6.1844 5.5542 5.1458 4.8732 4.6905 4.5706 4.4968
4.4579 '4.4462 :'4.4563 17.8477
,
0.1053 0.0707 0.0696 0.0707 0.0734 '0.0773 0.0823 0.0881 '0.0947 0.1020 0.1101
0.1183 0.1282 0.1383 ' ,,0.0673
3.0923 5.2677 4.7177 4.3564 '4.1189 3.9669 3.8766 3.8322 3.8232 3.8418 3.8825
3.9413 4.0149 4.1008 5.6658
3.4187 8.6324 8.2310 7.8481 7.4903 7.1622 6.8645 6.5961 6.3542 6.1361 5.9388
5.7596 5.5961 5.4463 9.1768
15
 0.55  0.50  0.4'5  0.40  0.35  0.30  0.25  0.20  0.15 0.10
0.05 0.00 + 0.053.0750
1.519830.2759
20
 0.50
3.6745'
46.2884
 0.45
3.6419
33.8986
13.3381
,
0.0728 0.0796
0.0~77
'
5.3067 5.0886
.4.9684
8.5380 7.9941
7.5267
 0.40
, .0.35 '
3.6943
3.8151
27.6099
'
, ,. 11.0492 "
. 9.7067
23.9713
 0.30
. ,
3.9952"
.
2'i.5'S75
20.0542
19.0369\"7~9289
. 8.&572
""",,',
., '0.0970
i " ,
'
4.9199
7.1214
6.7672
',
0.25
4.2298'
'8.2992' '
0.1076
' 0.1194
 0.20
 0.15
~
4.5161 '
5.8533
. 5.2413;
:4.9746
5.0582
4.9258
6.4552
6.1783
18.J742:
17.?678 ;'
,< 0.1325
0.10
,', ,,0.1470
5.1704
5.9309
5.6804 "",:6.1717
.~~tt~:l...r,'
' ';; .,' , ': "8.5665", "', ':,'~; '. " , , ." ': , . '
"'.17:~542 :~~'.J7.6903
,
".7.4620
.,
,..:0.,1629
'..",,",
5.3068
,
5.7084 5.5072 ,
7.4368
"",.0.1802 ,
',0.0732, ' ,
5.4638
7.23469.9384'
l:~...!l.<lt5.7 ; \r/j~89
73.8778 "35.4499
'.\,.;,~~~l,989 ,,~5,~486
,~:3243
25
'. "',
. '"
'::" , ,~"
0.50
,/~;:~{~~r~,'1frY~/*~;;:~:' '/;2d'i~:!,
; ,";"J'\
',,' ";;"':~~!.;'"
;'.l';'t,',,~:
~'i""\
.,;c,'", ,
...'
~.,
260
8.3599 8.3728 8.5541 8.8760 9.3230 9.8871 IQ.5646 11.3542 12.2569 13.2745 14.4095 19.3095 19.1315 19.3718 19.940 20.1887 21.9566 23.3512 24.9984 26.8993 29.0580 31.4810 46.2942 45.4427 45.6687 4.6.7356 48.5145
.
51.2706 40.7056 34.7663 31.1015 28.7315 27.1750 26.1681 25.5533 25.2309 25.1345 25.2180 80.8644 62.4470 52.5548 46.6067 42.8208 40.3597 38.7778 37.8159 37.3127 37. 1624 37.2926 134.3023 100.6609 83.4477 73.3676 67.0529 62.9887 60.3926 58.8199 57.9989 57.7539 57,9662
24.9079 19.9814 17.2119 15.5029 14.3977 13.6720 13.2024 12.9157 12.7654 12.7205 12.7594 47.6872 37.0539 31.3426 27.9084 25.7226 24.3017 23.3884 22.8330 22.5425 22.4558 22.5309 95.0397 71.4837 59.4308 52.3727 47.9511 45.1052 43.2874 42.1862 41.6113 41.4398 41.5884 146.0161 .
,
0.0835 0.0954 0.1094 0.1254 0.1437 0.1646 0.1882' 0.2148 0.2445 0.2775 0.3139 0.1064 0.1267 0.1506 0.1787 0.2116 0.2500 0.2944 0.3456 0.4041 0.470<: 0.5457 0.1527 0.1887 0.2323 0.2849 0.3481 0.4237 0.5133 0.6191 0.7428 0.8868 1.0529
,
6.8363 6.6214 6.5339 6.5404 6.6199 6.7584 6.9462 7.1761 7.4429 7.7423 8.0710 9.3123 9.0899 9.0494 9.1446 9.3473 9.6392 10.0081 10.4452 10.9441 11.4998 12.1084 13.4981 13.2639 13.3114 13.5708 14.0015 14.5786 15.2895 16.1127 17.0515 18.0970 19.2451 20.8738
9.0503 8.3291 7.7297 7.2223 6.7864 6.4075 6.0748 5.7803 5.5178 5.2825 5.0704 9.3540 , 8.4705 7.7518 7.1533 6.6458 6.2095 5.8303 5.4979 5.2044 4.9436 4.7107 9.4021
8.3844 ,
 0.25
 0.20
 0.15
 0.10
 0.05
0.00 + 0.05 35  0.45  0.40  0.35  0.30  0.25
7.5703 6.9017 6.3419 5.8661 5.4569 5.1018 4.7911 4.5175 4.2753 8.0404
 0.05
0.00 + 0.05
'40
 0.40
115.7097
112.8231.
0.3229
 0.35
 0:30  0.25  0.20 0.15 ' 0.10  0.05 0.00 + 0.05 45  0.40  0.35  0.30  0.25  0.20
115.5504 117.6386 121.5875 127.1879 134.3346 142.9868 153.1451 164.839 178.1176 327.6781 325.4943 329.9752 339.8627 354.4804 373.4971 393.7473 424.2605 456.1177 492.4763
141.1002 123.0124 111.8576 104.7472 100.2323 97.5069 96.0866 95.6630 96.0303 322.2748 259.1345 224.0769 202.7837 189.3358 180.8450 175.7358 173.0775 172.2851 172.9729
21.1138 21.7125 22.6077 23.7619 25.1570 26.7775 28.6173 30.6724 32.9409 36.2961 37.0113 38.3965 40.3468 42.8070 45.7496 49.1634 53.0475 57.4067 62.2499
7.1701 6.4650 5.8817 5.3914 4.9741 4.6 I52 4.3038 4.0317 3.7924 7.4295 6.5559 5.8568 5.2846 4.8083 4.4062 4.0628 3.7669 3.5096 3.2843
88.8935
85.1051 82.8181 81.6263 81.2709 81.5791 323.2752 260.1349 225.0772 203.7840 190.3361 181.8452 176.7361 174.0778
0.8175 1.0168 1.2572 1.5450 1.8870 2.2904 0.6576 0.8611 1.1194 1.4447 1.8515
,
 0.15
 0.10  0.05 0.00 + 0.05
173.2853 173.9732
,
'
Any acceleration of the soil mass ACDBA due to the downward movement of the footing will cause inerti::1 forces which will resist jmch movement. The inertial forces are directly proportional to the acceleration of each individual soil mass and thereby dependent on displacements. The effective total inertial force is obtained by combining the inertial forces on ech separate mass using energy considerations.
2
The inertial
force
...(6.57)
where,
~ == Displacement
NI
==
at any time t
The coefficient NI. depends on cl> and K, and its values are listed in column no. 6 of Table 6.4. Displacement of the soil mass within the failure surface due to downward movement of the footing will increase the restoring moment about the point 0, and the increase in moment will be proportional to the displacement provided the rotation is not excessive. It is expressed as RF = NRB Y~ The '. coefficeint NR also depends on .
qi
"
...(6.58)
and K. Its values are listed in column no. 7 of ,. Table 6.4. The differenti~J" '; "'.." J ' . " equati~~s ""," are .'" setup",~Y,_~~uatingtheJour , .". . "  ~, 'vetiCalfo~ces \",.. to z~ro. .There ." ." m~st be
~
separ~te equation,s for be(qre!lP,~i~fteF >titpe id' sin~e the loading ~uncn~m is def11}edin !ha,t man!1er. , . ">,,,) ,..,.",.1"""," U,. ._, ,.'~ , . 0" ~~"" ".h' 'J,,~".' )
ForO "
"
"',
,,'
"
...(6.59 a)
or,
For t ~ td 2 d2A
...(6.59 b)
"
NI yB r+NR dt
or,
yBt!.+qu B =0 "
...(6.59 c)
d2t!. NR t!. =  qu +...(6.59 d) d t2 NIB NI YB The solution of the differential equations will yield equations of footing displacement versus time. The forms of the particular solutions ofEq. 6.59 (b) and Eq. 6.59 (d) are found to be
t!.
= Cl
cos(K't)+C2
Sin(K't)+
( NR"t, ] ( NRytd )
!kNRy
t ...(6.60 a)

and,
...(6.60 b)
coefficients
of integration,
The coefficients
Cl and C2 are evaluated by the initial conditions. The coeffIcients C3 and C4 are evaluated by the conditions of displacement and velocity at td as defined by Eq. 6.60 (a). Solution and substitution of
q
NR "t t!. ( qu .) For t ~ td
...(6.60 c)
(N:, Y) ~
\(1
...(6.60 d)
The coefficientsNY'Nc' N q, NI and NR are dependent only on values of <I> and . K. Using magnitudes
of <I> from 0 to 45 and ofK for the region where the ultimate static shear resistance could be a minimum, these coefficients were evaluat.ed. The' values obtai~ed are given ,in Table 6,.4for every fifth degree. The maximum displacement from Eq. 6.60 (a) and Eq. 6.60 (b) is the predicated permanent footing displacement,siticedoWnward niotion ceases at the.time'ofma?ci~Um displacemetit'imd rebdund is not

If' .~~
263
(p\)
0
UO!~OJ np
pOO1 IOUO!SU2>W!PUON
00
...
U") 0
ci
;
0
x C1
...
<I
~ , er
........
:J
..
U")
+c to' to' U 0
I.
E
a.
E ::I E
:: '"
.~ ...
~ ... 0 7.
... '"
N 0
U\ ."0
E :J E .x: 0 E
0 c 0
..i
c .....
OD ~
d
N
0 0
.~
C to'
.
. .
E ."'0
C 0
.0 0
\l'
U")
0
U") .'
:0 00
( P~ ) lLZ =
>I
P ~ uoHoJnp
POOl )OUOISU2>WIPUON
,)~f
264
Soil Dynamics
& Machine
Foundations
6.5.3. Chummar's Solution. Chummar (1965) presented a solution for dynamic response of a strip footing supported by c  4>soil and subjected to horizontal transient load. The analysis is based on the following assumptions: . (i) The failure of the footing occurs with the application of
(ii) The resulting motion in the footing is of a rotatory nature. The failure surface is a logarithmic spiral with its centre on the base corner of the footing, whic.h is also the centre of rotation (Fig. 6.21). (iii) The rotating soil mass is considered to be a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis. (iv) The soil exhibits. rigid plastic, stress  strain characteristics.
Q ~
...
AQ
C2
Log spiral
ro eetan
/c
Re~u1tant friction
Fig. 6.21 : Transient horizontal load on a continuous footing resting on ground surface.
Analysis The static bearing capacity of the footing is calculated by assuming that the footing fails whe' acted upon by a vertical static load, which causes rotation of the logarithmic spiral failure. The ultimat static bearing capacity qu is given by
1 BN + 2y y
...(6.61
B = Footing width and equal to the initial radious of spiral y = Unit weight of the soil
Ne and Ny
..
265 2
'
(~:'
",':m
Considering
d
Moment where
2 . cB 27ttan~ B ue to cohesIOn c, MRC = 2 tan cl> (e 1) = 'I' C \jI= ( 27ttan~ 1) e 2 tan cl>
...(6.62 b)
...(6.63 a)
where,
E =
4>
2 9 tan 4> + 1
...(6.63 b)
Moment
of qu about
qu
2
u
=
q 
MRC + MRW
...(6.64)
It gives,
c
tan 4>
(e
+ 1)
...(6.65)
9 tan2 4>+1
N =
c
e27ttan~  1
tan cl>
...(6.67)
With a suitable factor of safety F, the static vertical force on the foundation per unit length can ~ gIven as ...(6.68)
Q = ~(cNc+i'YBNy)
The variation of dynamic force considered in the analysis is shown in Fig. 6.22. In tnIS
Qd (max) =
AQ
...(6.69)
where Qd (max) = Maximumvalue of horizontaltransientload per unit length actingat height H above
"="~'.'~..~
~.."'~..'.~~~
,..
166
"U 0 0
.~ P E
c >Cl
0
Pmax
td Timq
For considering of the dynamic equilibrium of the foundation with the horizontal transient load, the moment of each of the forces (per unit length) about the centre of the log spiral needs to be considered: 1. Moment due to the vertical force Q M =
I
1 Q B
2
t
...(6.70
2. Moment due to the horizontal' force Qd at any time t Qd(max) Ht M2 where Md (max)= Qd (max)H 3. Moment due to the cohesive force acting along the failure surface is given by 'Eq. 6.620 4. Moment due to weight of soil mass' in the failure wedge is' given by Eq. 6.630. 5. Moment of the force due to displacement Figure 6.21) from its initial position:
M)
= Qd H =
td
Md(max) td
...(6.71
= W d..X
'Y B2 (i
It tan $
W=
 1)
...(6....( 6.
and R
= QCI
(Fig. 6.21). When ex is small, Eq. (6.74) can be written as /1 X = (R sin 11)ex ...( 6
Ilj,~"r:~!)"
267
However, where,
R
X
~(x)2 + ("2)2
4 B tan 2 <1> ( e31t tan cj)+ 1)
...(6.76) ...(6.77)
tancj) 1)
z =
...(6.78)
M3
= PB
(sin 11)a
...(6.79) ...(6.80)
where,
p =(e31ttan~+1)
3 ( ~9 tan2 <1> +1
)
...(6.81 )
M = Z J 4 ( d[ ) where J is the mass moment of inertia of the soil wedge about the axis of rotation J = 1 B4 [ 16gtan<1>] (i
1t tan $
.
 1)
...(6.82)
and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Substitution of Eq. (6.62) into Eq. (6.81) yields d2a M = ~c 1 B4 .4 g d [2
where ~c =
(e41ttancj)I)
...(6.83 )
16 tan ~
...(6.84)
Moment due to the frictional resistance along the failure surface will be zero as its resultant will, pass through the ce'ntre' of log spiral. Now for the equation of motion, 'M\ + M2 = MRC+ MRW+ M3 + M4 .Substitution of the 'proper terms for the moments in Eq. (6.85) gives
...(6.85)
...(6.86)
(~'t~)+ K' a
where
A [( Md;;")}
,
; QBE]
...(6.87)
k  A=~
gp sin 11 ~c B
E = \jIC132+ E 1 B3
,.fj:
III'II:~
268
Solution of the differential equation of motion [Eq. (6,86)] with proper boundary conditions yields the following results: For I ~ Id
a =For I > Id
1 EQB k2 2
cos(kl)'
A Md(max)
k3 td
, A Md(max).t 1 srn(kt)++QBE kZ ( Id 2
...(6.90)
a = (
) [G 1 k
()
~
Md (max) .
Id
Md(max)
srn ( k Id) +
A Md (max)
k
2
...(6.92
A 1 G2 = k' EQB ( 2
A Md(max)
cos(ktd)+
sm(ktd)Z'
...(6.93
Example 6.1 Proportion an isolated footing for a column of 500 mm x 500 mm size subjected to a vertical 10 of 2400 kN. The structure is located in seismic region. The earthquake force results a moment of 4 kNm and shear load of 360 kN at the base of the footing. The soil properties are as follows:
C
=6
. kN/m
, <I>=
39 and y = 18 kN/m
A plate load test was performed at the anticipated depth of foundation on a plate of size 600 r
x
600 mm and a pressure settlement record as given below was obtained. The permissible values
are 50 mm, 1 degree and 25 mm respectively. 480 720 1200 1440 960 5.0 7.5 12.0 16.0 23.0
l( 2
settlement, tilt and lateral displacement 2 240 Pressure (kN/m ) 0.0 Settlement (mm) Solution: 0.0 2.0
~OOOO
= 0.1667 m
~ tan t U4~O ) = 8.5 3'
~n
269
Let the size of footing is 2.0 m x 2.0 m and is located at 1.0 m depth below ground surface. Hence, and B' = B2 e = 2  2 (0.1667) = 1.667 m L' = L = 2 m
. qnu = [e Ne Se de ie + YIDlNq  1) Sq dq iq rw + 1. 2 Y2B NySydy iy r'J Since <1> = 39 it is the case of general shear Ny = 100.71 Depth factors are given asfailure. For <1> = 39, Ne = 70.79, Nq = 59.62 and
dq
= 1+0.2~
1.667
Sq = 1+0.2T
B' Sy = IOAT Inclination and factors:
= 1+0}2 , ,
1.667
= 10.4~
=(2+~)(1+~)
.
= (2+1.~67)(1+1.~67)= 5.195
m
Therefore,
i =i  (liq)
e q
= 0.438 (10.438)
70.79 tan 39
m+1
Ne tan <I>
. 'y 
1
h Q + B Lc cot <I> ]
"
6.195
= 1
360
= 0.374
".'
270
Soil Dynamics
Assuming water table to be below the ground surface at a depth greater than (Dj + B), hence = Y r '" = r' '"= 1, and also sa y Y1 = Y 2 hence, qllll = CNe Se de ie +YI Dj (Nq 1) Sq dq iq rw+~ Y2 B Ny Sy dy iy r~ qllll= 6 (70.79) (1.167) (1.24) (0.428) + 18 (1) (5~.62  1) (1.167) (1.13) (0.438) (1) + (0.5) (18) (1.667) (100.7) (0.6677) (1) (0.374) (1) = 263,06 + 609.45 + 376.92 = 1249.43 kN/m2 According to Meyerhof"
( ) (
=
853
1 90
= 0.82
. 2
I
Therefore,
ql1l1= 6 (70,79) (1.167) (1.24) (0.82) + 18 (1) (59.62  1) (1.167) (1.13) (0.84)
+
(18)(1.667)(100.71)(0.667)(1)(0.61)(1)
= 2259.74
kN/m2
From charts 
For
=0.0
144 68 88
= 0.10
42 30 37
i = 0 Ny N
; = 10
N .c
Hence for
Ne = 50.89, Nq = 34.62 and Ny = 42.43 In this case  [As effect of eccentricity and inclination has considered already] ;=;=;=1 e q y B =2m
~'~<I!! .......
..
271
.
D
de
= 1+ 0.4
= 1+ 0.4"2 = 1.2
=
0.8 (As footing is square)
Thus
= 6 (50.89) (1.3) (1.2) (1) + 18 (1) (34.62  1) (1.2) (1.11) (1) (1)
+ ~ (18) (2) (42.43) (0.8) (1) (1) (1) = 476.33 + 806.07 + 610.99
= 1893.39 kN/m2
Therefore, value of qnu from charts lies between values of qnu obtained by Eq. 6.17 and Meyerhofs method.
Hence
Qnu
Factor of safety = 7;:t~6 = 3.16 > 3, Therefore foundation is safe against shear. (2) Settlement computationWhen footing is subjecting to a central vertical loa~.only, in that case e / B = 0 and i = 0 For '" 't' = 390 'e N = 88'yN = 144 and Nq = 68 thus qnu =(6)(88)(1.33)(1.2)(1) + 18(1)(681)(1.2)(1.11)(1)(1)
+ ~ (18) (2) (144) (0.8) (1) (~) (I)
. Sf Now smce Sp
Bf (Bp+30)
(B f + 30) ]
= [ Bf
200(60+30)
So Now,
!...
= Sf = [ 60 (20 + 30) ]
x 22.2 = 37.77 mm
.
~  39
 8.53,,;,0.2187
I I
.;'!
272
Hence
AD
~
10.56WO.82(~J
(~ )5.67 (~)'
=3.51
A2
4.741.38(~)12.45(~)' e B +A2
..
() (
e B)
Se
and
i:
sm t
.
Bo+BI(~)=
0.856+(1.516)(.1;67)
= 0.7296
= S m S
B
Te
and H 1l
Ho = 0.0101 B = 0.0101(2000) = 21.21 mm"< 25 mm (safe) Example 6.2 A 1.5 m wide strip foundation is subjected to a'vertical transient stress pulse which can be given as qd = 650 eIOt kN/m2. The soil supporting the foundation is saturated clay with Cu= 60 kN/m2. The unit weight of soil is 19 kN/m3. Determine the maximum angular rotation of the footing might undergo.
~~".<
273
Solution:
1.
~ = 10s1
( 0.68 g qll )
8max
= 0.00298
2
W=0.311tyB
= 0.158 rad
= 9.1
Example 6.3 A 2.5 m wide continuous footing located at 1.5 m below the ground surface is subjected to a vertical transient load (qd (max) = 3000 kN/m2, td = 0.3s). The properties of the soil are y = 18 kN/mJ, ~ = 30 and c = 50 kN/m2. Calculate the maximum vertical movement of the foundation. Solution: 1 1. qu = CNe + y DJ Nq + 2" y B Ny
1 = 50 Ne + 18 x 1.5 Nq + 2" x 18 x 2.5 Ny
'.
= 50 Nc + 27 Nq + 22.5 Ny The computations of qu are done for 'I>= 30 and different values
.
factors from Table 6.4. These are given below in Table 6.5.
Table 6.5: Computations k
of qu for Different Values of k 2 qu (kN/m ) 5765 4553 3910 3533 3304 2512 2204 3070 3080 3118 3181
 0.45  0.40  0.35  0.30  0.25  0.20  0.15 .  0.10  0.05  0.00 +0.05
274
'. . Soil
=
2. For
= 10.0081 and
.
V~ = 5.8303
.
{N;:
.
NR Y = 10.0081 x 18 = 0 08174
qu k' 2204
~~~~
x
~~~ .
= 5.8303
3.
qd (max) 3000
~ 2~5 = 5.22
1.36
qu
= 2204=
For qd (max) = 1.36 and td k' = 1.566, Fig. 6.20 gives qu Y NR 'Umax qu
Therefore,
A
= 0.034
Example' 6.4 A 2.5 m wide continuous surface footing is subjected to a horizontal transient load of duration 0.4 s applied at a height of 4.0 m from the base of footing. The properties of the soil are y = 17 kN/m3, c = 30 kN/m2 and = 32. Determine the value of the maximum horizontal load that can be applied
<I>
on the footing. Also compute ,the rotation at time equal to 0.6 s. Solution: (i) Determine Q using a suitable factor of safety (= 2.0). c = 30 kN/m2, <I> = 32, Y = 17 kN/m:
md B = 2.5 m
.
.
.N =
c
e21t
tan,
tan
1=
32
(e
31t tan 32
1)
= 200
1 + 9 tan2 32
=! B 2
=
c N
+! YB N 2 y
)
x 17 x 2.5 x 200)= 8290 kN
2.5(30 x 79.4;
275
~ and
sin 11
H = 4.0 m td=O.4s
i1t tan'
 1
79.4
V=
E=

2 tan ~
=2
= 39.7
(1 + 9 tan2 ~) = 200 = 50 4
e 41t tanl\  1 ~c = 16 'tan~ = 256 =' 56.6
3[ ~9 tan2~+I] X '....
~=
e31t tan, + 1
" ,
= (2B)
.
SIll 11
~~:~
= 2.85 B
=
2.85 B
. "
Z, ~x2+z2
= 0.75
~(2.52B)2+(2.85B)2
k ~ ~g
P lleB =
sin 1]
(256x 2.5)
= 807
, "
A = E
= 0.0000577
.
= 'IIcB = 39.7
+ E 'YB
x 30 x 2.52 + 50 x 17 x 2.53
= 20700 kN
A.
H.
Qd (max) = H .
A.
.Q
A.
= 4 x 8290 A. =
(v) Determine A.crwhich corresponds to a.
33160
=0
sm(kt)+
a. =  2
k (E
) cos(kt).
2
A Md(max).
k3 td
A
k2
Md(maX)1
td
]
2
0.807
For a. = 0, A = 0.948 = Aa
(vi) Determine Md (max)for Md(max)= (vii) Determine Gland A
A.
= A.cr
G1 = 2 k
A Md(max) .
td
sm (k td ) +2 k
d(max)
sm(ktd)' k2
cos(ktd)+. k2
td
CL
G }GI k cos (kid) G, sin (kid)] cos(k 'd )+G}GI + E ~ ) (.!.QBK2 2
;!&~t'
277
"
= 0.807 [0.9159 x 0.807 cos (0.807 x 0.4) + 4:05 sin (0.807 x 0.4)] cos (0.807 x 0.6) + 0.;07 [0.9159 x 0.807 sin (0.807 x 0.4)  4.05 cos (0.807 x 0.4)] sin (0.807 x 0.6)
+ 0.0000577
0.8072
1. x 8290 x 2.520700 [2 ]
'
1 1 = 0.807 [0.701 + 1.285] x 884 + 0.807 [0.2346  3.841] x 0.466  0.9159 = 2.175  2.082  0.9159 =  8229
' ' ' ,
"
'
Chummar, A.V. (1965), "Dynamic bearing capacity of footings", Master of E'ngineering Dissertation, University
Cunny, R.W. and'Sloan R. C. (1961). "Dynamic loading machine and results of preliminary smallscale footing tests", A.S.T.M. Symposium on Soil Dynamics, Special Technical Publications. No. 3.5, pp. 6577. De Beer, E. and Vesic, A. (1958), "Etude experimental de la capacite portante du sable sons des fondations directed etablies en surface", Annales des Travaux Public ,~e Delgigue, .59 (3), pp 558. Fellenius, W. (1948) "Erdstatische bcrchnungen", 4th ed., W. Ernst Und Sohn, Berlin. Fisher, W. E. (1962). "Experimental studies of dynamically loaded footings on sand", Report to U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Soil Mechanics Series No.. 6. Hansen, J. B. (1970), "A revised and extended formula for bearing capacity", Bull. No. 28, Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhegen. IS : 6403 (1981), "Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity of shallow foundations"., Johnson, T. D, and Ireland H. O. (1963), "Tests on clay subsoils beneath statically and dynamically loaded spread footings", Report to U. S, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Soil Mechanics Series No. 7. M<:.Kee, K, E., and Shenkman S. (1962). "Design and analysis of foundations for protective structures", Final Report to Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology. Meyerhof, G. G. (1951), "The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations", Geotechnique, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 301331. Meyerhof, G. G. (1953), "The bearing capacity of footings under eccentric and inclined loads", Proc. Third Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Foun. Engg. , Zurich, vol. I, pp. 440445. Saran, S. and Agarwal R. K. (1989), "Eccentrically obliquely loaded footings", AS~E, Journal of Geot. Engs. , Vol. 115, No. 11, pp. 16731680. .
Saran, S. and Agarwal R. K. (1991), "Bearing ~apacity of eccentrically
obliquely
~~~';';';";;;>;".~~;:."'
'

278
Terzaghi, K. (1943), "Theoretical soil mechanics", John Wiley and Sons, New York. Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B. (1967), "Soil mechanics in engineering practice", 1st Ed. , John Wiley and Sons, New York. Triandafilidis, 'G. E.' (1961), "Analytic~l study of dynamic bearing capacity of foundations", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. Triandafilidis, G. E. (1965), "Dynamic response of continuous footings supported on cohesive soils", Proc. sixth Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Engin., Montreal, Vol. 2, pp. 205  208. Vesic, A. S. (1973), "Analysis of ultimate loads of pp. 4573. shallow foundation", J SMFD, ASCE, Vol, 99, SMI, .
Wallace, W.L. (1961), "Displacement of long footings by dynamic loads", ASCE, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, 87, SM5, pp. 4568. White, C. R. (1964), "Static and dynamic plate bearing tests' on dry sand without overburden", Report R 277, U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Describe stepwise pseudostatic analysis of designing footing subjected to earthquake loading. 2. Differentiate between Triandafilidis and Wallace analyses of dynamic bearing capacity of footing subjected to transient vertical load. Give the salient features of anyone. 3. Describe the method of obtaining the maximum horizontal dynamic load that can be applied on the footing. Give the expression of determining the rotation of the footing.
4. A 2.0 m wide strip footing is subjected to a vertical transient pulse (qu
supporting the foundation is Clay with Cu = 50 kN/m2. The unit weight of soil is 18 kN/m3. Determine the maximum angular rotation of footing that it might undergo. 5. A 2.0 m wide footing located at 1.0 m below ground surface is subjected to a vertical transient load (qd(max) = 2000 kN/m2, td = 2 s). The properties of the soil are y = 17 kN/m3, <I> = 32 and c = 30 kN/m2. Using Wallace's approach, determine maximum vertical movement of the foundation. 6. A 3.0 m wide surface footing is subjected to a horizontal dynamic load having duration 0.3 s. The properties of soil are y= 18 kN/m3, <I> = 35 and c = 20 kN/m2. Using Chummar's approach, determine the value of maximum horizontal load that can be applied on the footing. Also determine the rotation of footing after 0.2 sand 0.4 s'
DD
LIQUEFACTION OF SOILS
7.1 GENERAL \1any failures of earth structures, slopes and foundations on saturated sands have been attributed in the literature to liquefaction of the sands. The best known cases of foundation failures due to liquefaction are [hose that occurred during the 1964 earthquake in Niigata, Japan (Kishida, 1966). Classical examples of 'iquefaction are the flow slides that have occurred in the province of Zealand in Holland (Geuze, 1948; Koppejan, et al. 1948) and in the point bar deposits along the Mississippi river (Waterways experiment 'itation, 1967). The failures of Fort Peck Dam in Montana in 1938 (Casagrande, 1965;Corps of Engineers, 1939; Middlebrooks, 1942), the Cal~veras Qam in California in 1920(Hazen, 1920) and the Lower LaB \Jorman Dam during the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake (Seed et al., 1975) in California provide typical ~xamples of liquefaction failures of hydraulicfill dams, Liquefaction often appears in the form of s~nd fountains, and a large number of such fountains have Jeen observed during Dhubri Earthquake in Assam in 1930 and Bihar Earthquake in 1934(Housner, ,958; Dunn et al., 1939). When soil fails in this manner, a structure resting on it simply sinks into it. The nost recent Koyna earthquake of 1995 is an illustration of liquefaction phenomenon causingcatastrophic Jamages to structUres and resulting in loss of life a,nd property.
7.2 DEFINITIONS
7.2.1.Liquefaction. It denotesa conditionwherea soil willunde~gocontinueddeformationat clconstant ow residual stress or with no resIdual resistance, due to the buildup and maintenance of high pore water Jressure which reduces the effective confining pressure to a very low value; pore pressure buildup leadng to true liquefaction of this type may be due either to static or cyclic stress applications. 7.2.2. Initial Liquefaction. It denotes a coI1ditionwhere, during the course of cyclic stress applications, he residual pore water pressure on completion of any full stress cycle becomes equal to the applied 'onfining pressure, the development of initialliquafaction has no implications concerning the magnitude )f the deformations which the soil might subsequently undergo; however, it defines a condition which is
:
'.2.3. Initial Liquefaction with Limited Strain Potential, Cyclic Mobility or Cyclic Liquefaction. It lenotes a condition _inwhich cyclic stress applications develop a condition of initial liquefaction and ubsequent cyclic ~tress applicati?ns c~u~e limi~ed strains to develop either because of the remaining esistance ~f the ,soil todeformatio~ .or because the soil dilates, the pore pressure drops. and the soil
tabilizes under. the applied ,,'. loads. I. ! J, ('i, . ~ j'. c' c, ;: :.' i' ,' ,.
;'
  ~="~~
...
11
280
In laboratory undrained cyclic tests (triaxial, direct simple shear and gyratory shear) on saturated sands, cyclic mobility has been ob8erved to develop and to result in large strains (Lee and Seed, 1967; Seed and Lee, 1966). It is controversial whether cyclic mobility occurs in dilative sands in situ during earthquakes to the same extreme degree as has been observed in the laboratory. A simple means for understanding the difference between liquefaction and cyclic mobility as observed in the laboratory is through the use of the state diagram, which is shown in Fig. 7.1 (Castro and Poulos, 1976). The axes are void ratio and effective minor principal stress" The steady state line shown represen~sth~ 10c1,1s q[ states in which a soil can f1owOa(c~onstant effectiv.erilinor principal stre"ssa)'and constant shear stress. The void ratio at the steady state is the same a:>the critical void ratio.
'TI C d
_0
Q
.x. u .:J
\J)
0 
()I
E 'TI '.u
0
c d I ()I
>
"
..
,C
I I
:
Contractive
soils (loose)
>
<C 00
I J
B I
I
 ~
I sta t e
Cyclic mobility
(
. I
I I
:
/.
J I
'ne
I
I
.I

Fig. 7.1: Undrained tests ~n fully saturated sands depicted ODstate diagram (Castro and Poulos, 1976)
LIquefaction is the result of undrained failure of a fully saturated, highly contractive (loose) sand,' 1\"1 example starting at Point C and ending with steady state flow at constant volume and constant <1) a' Point A. During undrained flow, the soil remains at Point A in the state diagram. , The quicksand condition that is so familiar through the use of quicksand devices for instruction il soil mechanics is depicted by points on the zero effective stress axis at void ratios above Q. In this state sand has zero strength and is also neither diiative nor contractive. At void ratios above Q the sand grain are not in close contact at all times.
IDi1!1iII
~'
Liquefaction
.
,of SoUs
281
The mechanics of cyclic mobility may also be illustrated with the aid of Fig. 7.1. Consider first the behaviour in Fig. 7.r when a fully saturated dilative sand starting, for example, at Point D is loaded monotonically (statically) in the undrained condition. In that case the point on the state diagram may move slightly to the left of Point D but then it will move horizontally towards the steady state line as load is applied. If one now starts a new test at Point D, but this time applies cyclic loading, one can follow the behaviour by plotting the average void ratio and the effective stress each time the applied cyclic load passes through zero. In this case the state point moves horizontally to the left, because the average void ratio is held constant and the pore pressure rises due to cyclic loading. The magnitude of pore pressure build up in the cyclic test will depend on the magnitude of the cyclic load, the number of cycles, the type of test, and the soil type, to name a few variables. In particular, it has been observed in the laboratory that intriaxial tests for which the hydrostatic stress condition is passed duvng' cycling, and if a large enough number of cycles of sufficient size are applied, the state point for t1w d'\f,erage conditions in the specimen eventually reaches zero effective stress at Point B each time the hydrostatic stress state is reached. Subsequent application of undrained monotonic loading moves the
.
state point to the right toward the steady state line, and the resistanceof the specimenincreases. :
During cycling in the test described above, strains develop and the specimen becomes softer. If these strains are large enough, one can say that the specimen has developed .~yclicmobility. Adequate evidence has been presented to show that most of the strains measured in cyclic load tests in the laboratory are due to internal redistribution of void ratio in the laboratory specimens. For example, at the completion of such tests the void ratio at the top of the specimen is much higher than at the bottom (Castro, 1969). Thus the horizontal line DB in Fig. 7.1 is fictitious in the sense that it represents average conditions. Near the top of the specimen, the void ratio increases, and near the bottom the void ratio decreases. The pore pressures that build up and the strains measured in the lab~ratory are due to the formation of such loose
'
In summary then, specimens that lie above the steady state line on Fig. 7.1 can liquefy if the load applied is large enough. Such liquefaction can be triggered by monotonic or cyclic undrained loading. The further to the right of the steady state line that the starting point is, the greater will be the deformation associated with the liquefaction. If the initial point is above Q, the strength after liquefaction will be. zero. If the starting point is below Q, the strength after liquefaction will be small but finite. Saturated sands starting at points on or below the steady state line, will be dilative during undrained monotonic loading in the triaxial cell and the state point will move to the right. If cyclically loaded the state points will shift to the left as strains occur and the specimen softens. If enough cycles are applied, if they are large enough, and if the hydrostatic stress condition is passed during each cycle, then the zero effective stress condition (i.e. initial liquefaction) can ultimately be reached in the laboratory. 7.3 MECHANISM OF LIQUEFACTION The strength of sand is primarily due to internal friction. In saturated state it may be expressed as (Fig. 7.2). ...(7.1) S = on tan cp where, S = Shear strength of sand on = Effective normal pressure on any plane xx at depth Z = Yhw + Ysub (Z  kw)
cp = Angle of internal friction
. .
Y = Unit weight ~f soil above water table Ysub= Submergedunit weight of soil
~..
". ."0_"""",'.",,
0...
 _. , ,., ...,
.
Soil Dynamics & Machine Fo!,ndations
282
Surface hw
t '(sub
~[z
1l..
x
#
1
Fig. 7.2: Section of ground showing the position of water table
If a saturated sand is subjected to ground vibrations, it tends to compact and decrease in volume, if drainage is restrained the tendency to decrease in volume results in an increase in pore pressure. The strength may now be expressed as,
Sdyn. = (an  Udyn)tan $dyn
...(7.2)
$dyn = Angleof internal frictionunder dynamicconditions It is seen that with development of additional positive pore pressure, the strength of sand is reduced. In sands, $dynis almost equal to $, i.e. angle of internal friction in static conditions. For complete loss of strength i.e. Sdynis zero. Thus, or
or
a"  Udyn= 0
(Jn = Udyn
Udyn = 1 an
...(7.3)
written as :
Yw.hw
=1
Gl.'Yw'Z l+e or h Gl 1f. ==i Z l+e where, G = Sp~ific gravity of soil particles e = Void ratio
';0 ". . ier
er
...(7.4)
iquefltct;oll of Soils
283
It is seen that, because of increase in pore water pressure the effective.stress reduces, resulting in loss f strength. Transfer of intergranular stress takes place from soil grains to pore water. Thus if this 'ansfer is complete, there is complete loss of strength, resulting in what is known as complete liquefac.on. However, if only partial transfer of stress from the grains to the pore water occurs, there is partial JSS of strength resulting in partial liquefaction. In case of complete liquefaction, the effective stress is lost and the sandwater mixture behaves as a ;iscous material and process of consolidation starts, followed by surface settlement, resulting in closer Jacking of sand grains. Thus the structures resting on such a material start sinking. The rate of sinking )f structures depends upon the time for which the sand remains in liquefied state. Liquefaction of sand may develop at any zone of a deposit, where the necessary combination of in,itu density, surcharge conditions and vibration characteristics occur. Such a zone may be at the surface ,w at some depth below the ground surface, depending only on the state of sand and the induced motion, However, liquefaction of the upper layers of a deposit may also occur, not as a direct result of the ~roltnd motion to which they are subjected, but because of the development of liquefaction in an underlying zone of the deposit. Once liquefaction develops at some depth in a mass of sand, the excess pore water pressure in the liquefied zone will dissipate by flow of water in an upward direction. If the hydraulic gradient becomes sufficiently large, the upward flow of water will induce a quick or liquefied condition 111 the surface layers of the deposit. Thus, an important feature of the phenomenon of liquefaction is the fact that, its onset in one zone of deposit may lead to liquefaction of other z~nes, which would have remained stable otherwise.
,.
tal ground surface will be subjected to vertical effective stress er, which is equal to <Jvi'and horizontal effective stress Ko er, where Ko is the coefficient of earth pressure at rest (Fig. 7.3a). There is no initial shear stress acting on the element. Due to ground shaking during an earthquake, a cyclic shear stress "(" will be Imposed on the soil element (Fig. 7.3b). In the case of sloping ground, an element of soil will also' have initial shear stress, "(hi(Fig. 7Aa). During earthquake, the stresses on the element will be as shown in Fig 7Ab. The presence of the initial shear stresses can have major effect on the response of the soil to a superimposed cyclic stress condition and in general, the presence of initial stresses tends to reduce the rate of pore pressure generation due to cyclic stress applications. Since the most critical conditions are likely to be those associated with no initial shear stresses on horizontal planes, a condition analogus i:1 earthquake problems to soil response under essentially level ground is considered. Hence, soil elements can be considered to undergo a series ofcyc\ic stress conditions as illustrated in Fig. 7.5. The actual stress series are somewhat random in pattern but nevertheless cyclic in nature as shown in Fig. 7.6
..,
. .
i}:;"",':>','" ".:.,\'~ ,.,//~,' ' ,;.,.. ""',',.,;;",",' "' ,"',..~,,", ',,'"'.'" ". ',', _.. 
28~
f~
.
0= OVi
..
'1
DA
Ko ()
'//1'/1'1'
1////1'
"'1'
Ill'
"
"
Stresses
on element
(a)
No gr,ound
shaking
=+ z
0= OVi
Jh;""
 
rh
'L
OB
Ko 0~h
Stresses
on element
(b)
Earthquake
loading
Fig. 7.3 : Stress conditions for soil element below horizontal ground in cyclic loading conditions
Liquefactiollof Soils /
285
() = Uvi
! ..:hi
DA
0'"
" ""
/ /
" /
KO
(0)
No ground
shaking
Stresses
on element
cv= av i
I'
=r=
DB
L
r; h
Chi
1HDHPo
'"
>"'+"O'
uu"
(b)
Earthquake
loading
Stresses
on element
Fig.
7.4:
Stress
conditi ons
for
soil
ele me nt
below
sloping
ground
in
cycliiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiii
I I I
. I
k ..,
1 r
..
286
/I' /l1I/'"
I I
J
00
1I
I
00 
I ,
c=Jt
Initial
00
C
C_t
K0
0;
I I I
. t,
11 
1!KoCTO
Cyclic toad
Ko 00
stresses
sequence
40
1:max.
30
z

10 0
I.
..... 1I1
11
JI
ili li'
ai ffi
ill
 30
12 Ti.me (5)
18
24
30
7.4.2. Different Laboratory Tests. Simulating cyclic shear stress conditions, following types of test procedures have been adopted for liquefaction studies: (1) Dynamic trhixial test (Seed and Lee, 1966; Lee and Seed, 1967). I (2) Cyclic simple shear test (Peacock and Seed, 1968, Finn et aI., 1970, Seed and Peacock, 1971). (3) Cyclic torsid~al shear teSt (Yoshimi and OhOka, Ishibashi and Sherif, 1974). (4) Shaking. table test (frakash and Mathur, 1965; Yoshimi, 1967~Finn et aI., 1970). Typical studies 011above mentioned laboratory tests are described herein.
I
I I
I
I
101,.
11
IIIm
 
..
I!Io
288
7.5 DYNAMIC TRIAXIAL TEST Seed and lee (1966) reported the first set of comprehensive data on liquefaction characteristics of sand studied by dynamic triaxial test. They used the concept of developing cyclic shear stress on section xx of the soil sample as shown by the stress conditions I and 11on the sample given in Col. 1 QfFig. 7.7. The stress condition I is achieved by increasing axial stress on the specimen by an amount ad' keeping lateral stress a3 constant, and simultaneously reducing the all round pressure on the specimen by an amount adl2 (Cols. 3 and 4 of Condition I). Similarly the desired stress condition 11can be induced by reducing the vertical stress by ad' and simultaneously applying an increase in all round pressure equal to ad 12 (Cols. 3 and 4 of Condition II). It may be noted that during testing the pore pressure should be corrected by reducing it by ad 12 in condition I, and increasing by ad 12 in condition H.
Seed and Lee (1966) performed several undrained triaxial tests on Sacramento river sand (emax = 1.03, emin = 0.61). The grain size ranged between 0.149 mm and 0.297 mm. The results of a typical test
in loose sand (e = 0.87, DR = 38%) are shown in Fig. 7.8. In this testthe initial allaround pressure and the initial pore water pressure were 196 kN/m2 and 98 kN/m2 respectively, thus giving the value of effective confining pressure as 98 kN/m2. The cyclic deviator stress ad of magnitude 38.2 kN/m2 was applied with a frequency of 2 Cpg.The test data in Fig. 7.8 shows the variation of load, deformation and porewater pressure with time.
"0
8
I/)
01.S z
DR~38/o
1 eo=0'87,
OJ=98,OkN/m2
Time
'" h 38.2 kNjm
0"""
"3
Go
100 0 100 .
2St0
'H::L Extension
6
'15
E L.. .2E
Compression Time
"0 E.
0~
)( <C
~
I/)N
L..
::J
100
'
E '
.L..
o..z ~x.
a. 0
0
I
. 'Time
  .,' ,
f sec. t
Fig. 7.8: Typical pulsating load test on loose saturated Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee, 1966)
Juefactioll of Soils
289
:ompression 30
0
201
..
OR
38 /0
.
c '
10
04
~=. 98.0kNjm
at Od =(+)382 kNj m at Od = 0
.i..#, 0
10
)(
20  30
1
2
100
4 Number
L..~N
150 100
d E ~
~z L..~
~
L..
0.S
  
a.::J
~ ::J en\/) C III d ~ . L..
confining pressure
50
kNjm
ua.
2.
4 Number
1' of cycLes
lOO
150
L.. """N
L..
d E
0
50
 SO
2
.
10
20
40
100
Number of cycles
(c)Changein porepressure and numberof cycles
Fig. 7.9 : Typical pulsating load test on loose Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee, 1966)
290
From this data, variation of axial strain amplitude, the observed changes in porewater pressures, and the pore water pressure changes correct~d to mean extreme principal stress conditions with number of stress cycles have been plotted in Fig. 7..9.It was observed that, during the first eight cycles of stress application, th~ sample showed no noticeab!7.d~formati()n although porepressure increased gradually. The pore pressure became equal to O"} during the ninth cycle, indicating zero effective confining pressure. During the tenth cycle, the axial strain exceeded 20% and the soil liquefied. Similar tests as described above were performed by Seed and Lee (1966) for different values of 0" d' The relationship between O"d against the number of cycles of pulsating load applications is shown in Fig. 7.10. It is evident from this figure that number of cycles of pulsating load application increases with the decrease of the value of 0" d'
z ~
E 60
OR ::. 38 eo
::.
0/0
I;' 50 ..
~ ~
~
087
0\
40
03= 98,OkN/m2
III
c:
III :) Cl.
30 20 10 0
d ~ Q.
10
:~ .
30
300
1000
Number
.of cycles
Fig. 7.10: Relationship between pu~s~tingdeviator stress and number of cycles required to cause ~ailure in Sacramel1to river sand (Seed and Lee. 1966)
Test data obtained on dense Sacramento river sand is shown in Fig. 7.11. It may be noted that the change in pore water pressure become equal to o"}after about 13 cycles, however the axial strain amplitude did not exceed 10% even after 30 cycles. This is due to the fact that in dense condition soil dilates, and the pore water pressure reduces which in turn stabilises the soil under load. As discussed earlier this corresponds to cyclic mobility (Seed, 1976; Castro, 1976).
.iquefaction of Soils
11 P re
291
0 ,0
0
c:
sSlon 15
OR = .,0)=
'
78
0/0
'
_9~'.0~N/m~r
"
",,'"
at Od =
+68'7 kN/nf
d x
L111
0
 5 :10 15 1
"
at Od
tension
....
'..
2 4 Number 10 of cycles
"
20
"
'
"at Od =
~,68'7kN/m
2 100
40
~
:::I 111 111 ~ L
150
0..
100
L~ .....
d
AA a
A~at Od =0
u at Od =
~N ~ E ~ ........ 50
0 Z o...x
c<:I) CJ) c d . U
 \:r..s..t::~ 0
 68'7 kNim2
 50 1
4 Number
10 of cy cl e s
20
40
100
(b) Corrected change in pore water pressure Fig. 7.11 : Typical pulsating load test on dense Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee, 1966)
Lee and Seed (1967) have extended this work for studying the various factors affecting liquefaction and identified the followings : Relative density, Figure 7.12 shows the plots 'of peak pulsating stress ( Le.. the stress causing liq'uefaction) against number of cycles of stress in loose and dense sands. The initial liquefaction corre
spondsto the conditionwhen the pore waterpressurebecomesequal to the confIDingpressure 0')" Criterion for complete liquefaction is taken corresponding to 20% double amplitude $train. The figure indicates that in loose sand, initial liquefaction and failure occur simultaneously (Fig. 7. 12a). With the
.iquefaction of Soils
291
TtpreSSlon 15
0
0
10
OR = .78
0/0 '
. .","
at Od = at Od = 0
c: .0
0 )(
5
O I
.~,:03'= _98.0~~/m~r..
.K""
+68'7 kN/m2
\.....
111 ....
 5
"
:10
tension 15 1 2 4 Number
150
'..
10 of cycles
"
20
"
.
~,68.7kN/m
at Od =
2 100
40
::J
100
c:J .....
0
AA
 a 6~at
Od =0
50
u at Od =
..:\:r:st.:~ 68.7 kN/m2
c
 50
10 Number of cy cle S
20
40
100
(b) Corrected change in pore water pressure Fig. 7.11 : Typical pulsating load test on dense Sacramento river sand (Seed and Lee. 1966)
Lee and Seed (1967) have extended this work for studying the various factors affecting liquefaction and identified the followings : Relative density. Figure 7.12 shows the plots .of peak pulsating stress ( Le.. the stress causing liquefaction) against number of cycles of stress in loose and dense sands. The initial liquefaction corre
sponds to the conditionwhen the pore waterpressurebecomesequal to the confming pressure 0"3'Criterion for complete liquefaction is taken corresponding to 20% double amplitude strain. The figure indicates that in loose sand, initial liquefaction and failure occur . simultaneously .. (Fig. 7. 12a). With the
" .#",'..'
0292
"O""''O~~"'""'o"""o~"' "o , """_0"'
Soil Dynamics
~ Machine
.
Foundations
"':'~'"
incre~se in relative density, the difference betWeen the number of cycles to cause initialliquefacticin and'~ f?ilure increases.
.N
.
E
L.
0'\ C
'.:;100
11' "
'~.r
'..';
::J
~ tIJ
80
..
eo
=
=
0 87
38
0/0
strain
OR
111
OJ =
9 8.0 k N/ m~
0 VI
a. x 0 ..~ .
0 0
10
010,000
100,000
..........
200 160
\ \ Initial
z
x
98'OkN/m2
'" VI
c 0
VI
L. \I)
0'\
120
80 40
\~
...
\I)
::J
  . .~...
a. x 0 a.
10,000 100..000
Fig. 7.12: Peak pulsating stress venus number of cycles (Lee and Seed, 1967)
L \,
0 ._. .............
 _.0
..
[que/action of Soils
293
Confining pressure. Figure 7.13 shows the influence of confIning pressure on initial liquefaction md failure conditions. At all relative densities for a given peak pulsating stress, the number of cycles to :ause initialliquefaction tFigs:7:B"u and b}orfai1ure(i.e:26% strain, Figs:7:i3 c and d) increased vith the increase in confIning pressure
,N
~ ...
180
'OR
120 eo
=7 8
0/0
= 0.71
DJ (kNfm2) 1500
L. ....
CTI
c: .
0
'
d
a.
60

~~
Co
:J'
It
0
1
.

'A
.
I
'.
500
I
100
10
10~000
100,000
2000
,
............

'500
OR =
eo
=
100 0/0
0.61
l5' "
....
CTI
1000
c: .....
OJ (kNfm2) 1500
' 500
:J
0 Co
a.
10
&
.
100 of cycles
500
OO
' 10.000 100,000
10 
1,060 .,
Number
(b) For initial liquefaction in dense sand Fig. 7.13: Peak pulsating stress versus number of cycles (Lee and Seed. 1967) (...Contd.)
...:t.;",,!1;~,,!"J)'..
,f; <.,'~"";..!",,..~
1.> 'b\':;:"""';?"
i';~k1t~;!;';:".';';t;r;ft"';+,;:;;~("i,,(,t~~l't.~;;,
, '.:..Y""f.'i.':"~,;;;".
",;;.
~f~:ii:',~
294
N.
E ,Z 180 ..
.
VI t.I .. VI 0'\
i~
H'
"'
OR : 78/0
120
 eo :,0,71
".
.. ,
:J
a.
CS
VI
c:
~ (kN/m2)
60 1500 500 101 10~000 0 1
10
CS t.I a.
100 Number
1,000 of cycles
100,000
z "
~
~
III III
1:>1
1500
OR = 100
'0
eo
0.61
;: 1000 III
C7I c: III ..... :J Q
500 500
"
C
1:>1
'Q.
10
L10.000
100
100,000
,'
Fig. 7.13: Peak  pulsating stress versus , number ofc:yc:les(Lee and Seed,1967)
Peak pulsating stress. Figures 7.14 a and b show respectiyely the vari~t!onof peak pulsating stres~ Odwith confining pressure for initial liquefaction and 20% axial strain in 100 cycles. It may be noted tha for a giverirelative density and number of cycles ofload applicafion;the"odmcreases linearly with 03 fo initial liquefaction, while for 20% axial strain condition, similar linear trend exists only in loose sand5 ;," . "" " .. :. .";. I . . ~;'~;' ~
Liquefaction
of Soils
2000
........ N
z 1600
oX
E
\11
~ 1200 .L..
\11
.0
01 C
800
.x d
\11
:J a.
400
(:,) Cl.
0 0
400 ...
800
1200
3600
2000
03 (kNfm2)
2000
.........
, .'
E Z 1600
.......
\11 \11 ~ ....
\11 01 C
oX
.";::
1200
Initial ratio.)
void eo 0.61
\11 '
800 400
0 71
:J
a.
::s:
0'81
d ~ Cl.
400
800
1200
1600
2000
03 (kNjm2)
(b) 20% strain in 100 c)'des Fig. 7.14 : Influence of pulsating stress on the liquefaction of Sacramento river sand (Lee anti Seed. 1967)

..'."
'".'
~
_u_,," 
296
Number of cycles of pulsating stress. From the Figs. 7.12 and 7~13,one can conclude that for a given p\llsating stress, number of cycles needed for causing initial liquefaction and failure increases with the increase in relative density"and confining pressure. 7.6 CYCLIC SIMPLE SHEAR TEST
The cyclic simple shear test device is already described in C;:haptet 4:with a mention that it simulates earthquake. condition in a better way. Peacock and Seed (1968) reported the first set of comprehensive data on liquefaction studies by using this test. They performed tests on Monterey sand (SP, emax= 0.83, emin = 0.53, DIO = 0.54 mm). The sample size was 60mm square and 20mm thick. The samples were tested at relative densities (DR) of 50%, 80% and 90% giving the sand in loose, medium dense and dense states respectively. The oscillatory shear stress was applied at a frequency of 1 cps or 2 cps keeping the normal stress constant.
Initial Initial
relative void
density eo
=
R=50olo
ratio,
068
=
500 kN/m2
40
I'
\11C>lN
0
f' 20 40
;: E
1 Z
d
C>I ~ 
1111
cum
I
mum
M
.I:. if)
0 ; 1
20
I
c .0 11d
\11
0
10
j
124,eyc: le s
(b) Shear strain response
1ftttt
2u
Fig. 7.15 : Record of typical pulsating load test on loose sandin simple shear conditions (Peacock and Seed. t 968) ..
iquefaction
of Soils
~ 1:J \11
297
~oz4
~~
~ 1:::::> 0 0..
~Q.E 1LN
11'1
' 0 60 W
...
2 Cc
 ..
_ ..r
...lr"
""
'"
0
(c) Pore water pressure response
Fig. 7.15 : Record of typical pulsating load test on loose sand in simple shear conditions (Peacock and Seed, 1968)
The typical test data in Fig. 7.15 show the variation of shear stress, shear strain and pore water Iressure with time. As evident from Fig. 7.I5b, there was no significant shear strain of the sample during lle application of the first 24 cycles of stress. During the twentyfifth stress cycle, the shear strain sud.enIy increased to a value of about 15% and become 23% in the next cycle. Pore pressure increased ;radually until the effective confining pressure is reduced to zerc. (Fig. 7.15e). At this point the resulting leformations became extremely large, and the soil had essentially liquefied. Similar trend was also oberved in triaxial test. >eackock and Seed (1968) have also studied the effects of followll1g factors on liquefaction:
Relative density. Figure 7.16 shows a plot of peak pulsatingyress (1:h) dJUsmg initial liquefaction
\ith number of cycles of application for different relative densities and confll1ing pressures. From this 19ure it can be concluded that for a given value of confining pressure and number of cycles of stress lpplication, 1h increases with the increase of relative density'. A mo;"e clear presentation is shown in :ig. 7.17.
11'1
I/) ~
80
1
~
90/0
11'1
1.c
C x 'III~
cnZ
E 111"
~N
60 '\.
40
",
10
"'" 2""""'",
a .c.
:J
Q .::c
~ Q
 0 1
Qy
Number
of cycles
Fig. 7.16 : Initialliqu'efaction of cyclic simple shear test on Monterery sand (Peacock and Seed, 1968)
...
'
298
100
.........
of pulsating
stress
~
~ \/I \/I
..
L...
80
60
(kN/m2) 800
40
...
III
c "...
:J
oX
en
0 III
0. 0 Cl.
20
I
0 0 20 Relative 40 density
200
100 (/0)
Fig. 7.17 : Effe~t of relative density on cyclic stress causing initial liquefaction (Peacock and Seed, 1968)
Confining pressure.
From the data presented in Figs. 7.16 and 7.17, plot of'th versus aI, was pre of stress application, t,
pared as shown in Fig. 7.18. For a given value of DR and number of cycles increases linearly with the increase in av'
\/I III ~ L............. V)N L... E 0"..
75
Initial
relative. density,
DR= 50/0
=
~Z
\II~
enN c ............
I.!:
Initial 50
void ratio
eo
0,68
~~
:J
0.0
..
)
< .... }
Cl.
o~ ~
'1
Fig. 1.18: (a) Cyclic stresses required to cause initi~lliqueraction at different confining pre~sure
,II\N
75 '.......
11\ 11\ ~
' E
~z
'
0..........
1I\.x 0'1c: N
OR =50% eo = 0.68
10 c.ycles
50 100 cycle 25
.;: 0
11\ ::J
~ '1:)
0.0
.x
0 .r= ~I'J Q.
100
500
600
700
800 (kNfm2)
Initial
Fig. 7.18:
confining
pressure
(b) Effect of confining pressure on cyclic stress to cause failure in 10 cycles and 100 cycles (Peacock and Seed, 1968)
Peak pulsating
des ~o cause liquefaction. Further for a given value of "Ch:"number of cycles of stress application quired to cause liquefaction increases with the increase in relative density DR and confining presre 0"v .
Frequency ofload application. Tests were rformed at frequencies of 1 Hz, 2 Hz, and 4 ~, and the effect of frequency on the stress using liquefaction was found negligible. Seed and Peacock (1971) have studied the feet of coefficient of earth pressure (Ko) on e peak pulsating shear stress "Ch causing liq:faction in cyclic simple shear test. The value . Ko depends on the overconsolidation ratio )CR). Figure 7.19 shows a plot of stress ratio ,la,,) with number of cycles of stress appli.tion for different values of Ko' For a given lative density and number of cycles of stress 'plication, the value of ("Cia,.) decreases Ith the decrease of K0 ..
J"
0.4
~
0
s::.
0
~
0.2
OCR:
1/1
1/1 ~ ~
ko : ,
0.1 OCR:" Ko : 0.75 OCR: 1 Ko : 0.4 1 Number 10 ot cycles 100 causing '.000 10.000 initial liquefaction
Fig. 7.19 : Influence of overconsolidation ratio (OCR) on stress causing liquefaction in smiple shear tests
. (Seed
.iJ;
.1;'\ 300
Soil Dynamics
& Machine
Foundations
7.7 CO~IP ARlSON OF CYCLE STRESSES CAUSING LIQUEF~.\CTION UNDER TRlAXIAL AND SIMPLE SHEAR CONDITIONS , PeaCock and Seed (1968) performed both cyclic triaxial and cyclic simple shear tests for liquefaction
150
N
.........
""
.......
~
.
Triaxial
test
results OJ{kN/m2)
z ~
N
.
800
l5'
~
'~~
100
,
.
Simple
500
La
~ .J::. IfI
""""~
50
'\
eshear
300
test results
CJ)
..... a
VI :J a.
"
......
, "
oX
a
~
0..
OR = 500/0 eo = 068 0 1
10
'i
Fig. 7.20: Cyclic stress required to cause liquefaction of Monterery sand at different confining pressures in triaxial and simpl~ shear tests (Peacock and Seed, 1968)
.;quefact;on
of Soils
301
2: 150
~ Le
Relati ve density} OR
500/0
.:.
Initial
U\ U\
~ 100 U\N
.c.~
U\
E 0~z
LCJ'I
.S
10 cycles
50
0 U\ ::) a.
100 cycles
~ 0 ~
Q.
~
100, Initial
200 effective
300
400 confining
500
600
700
800
pressure
03 or
OV (kNfm2)
Fig. 7.21 : Comparison of pulsating shear strength of I~ose Monterey sand under cyclic loadingsimple shear and triaxial conditions (Peacock and Seed. 1968)
FOR LIQUEFACTION
For evaluation of liquefaction potential, Seed and Idriss (1971) developed standard curves between cyc lic stress ratio (crd/2/a)) versus mean grain size (Dso) for 10 and 30 number of cycles of stress application for an initial relative density of compaction of 50% (Figs. 7.22a and b). These curves were prepared by compiling the results of various tests conducted by several investigators on various types of sand.
The values of stress ratio ("th/a~.)causing liquefaction, estimated from the result of simple shear tests, have ~hown that the value of"th/av is less than the corresponding value ofad/2 a) (Fig. 7.20,7.21 and 7.22). The two stress ratios may be expressed by the relation.
ad "th == ,CI ( av ) simple~hear ( 2 cr)) triax.
...(7.5)
\,
where, Cl = Correction factor to be applied to laboratory triaxial test data t? obtain stress conditions causing'liquefaction in the field "
".
~,",.' ';
..,~. .~:
302
N '...... 1:5' ... lfo
Soil Dynamics
1:5' 0.30
& Machine
Foundatiolls

.
~
0.25
r
.
0.1
:J
(J)
0.20
C>i
 15

Field value at Ch/ay causing lique taction esti mated tram re su Us ot sim pie sh ear tests
G
d If)
:J d
0 10
Relative
0 05
density
cycles
50%
=
No. of stress
10
L..
1.0
003 050' mm
0.01
size
(a) In 10 cycles
N
0.30
...

tj'
u
M
1I1 C>i
.
025
>u 0
C
'V
c: 0
0.20
test
15
,
Field value at7:h/r:sv causing liquefaction estimated from resul ts at simple shear tests
Re lative densi ty
10
0 .....
No. of stress
0 2.0
50 /. cycles =30
(f)
03
Me an grain
0.1
size
050, mm (b) In 30 cycles
003
0.01
Fig. 7.22 : Stress conditions causing liquefaction of sands (Seed and Idriss, 197\)

Liquefactioll
of Soils
303
~
Koal, now
ad
...(7.6)
2a3
...(7.7)
KoOV
..... V1 L
(a.)
~ s:::. if)
KoOV
.. " ,
QV NormaL s t re.ss
(b)
ay
Ko CYy
rh
.....
V1
L
V1 V1 ~ L
(c)
Th
s:::. VI
Normal stress
(d)
Fig. 7.23 : Maximum shear stress for cyclic simple shear tests
(ii) Ratio of maximum shear stress to the mean principal stress. In simple shear test (Fig. 7.23 d)
...
_.
304
.1 
1 =. 0" (1 + 2 K )
3 v 0
...(7.9)
=J
a 2
...(7.10) ...(7.11)
0"3
2 l +  {0" (1 K )}
.
Therefore,
= .:!.L
20'3
...(7.12)
[~crv(1
+ 2 Ko)]
'th 
It gives
= . .:!.L
1
( O"vJ
.
( 2 0'3 )~ 9
.!.(1+2K 0 )2_.!.(1Ko)2 4 2 1 2
/(ad/2a3)2
...(7.13)
Hence
Cl
= ,/(I+2Ko) 9
(IKo) 4
/(ad/la3)
...(7.14)
(Hi)Ratio of maximum change in shear stress to the mean principal stress during consolidation.
"rh
Ja;)
a3 (1+2 Ko) Cl = 3 of normally consolidated sands
,...(7.l5)
...(7.16)
. It gives
[crv(1 +32Ko)]
...(7.17)
Castro (1975 has prop<?sed that the initial liquefaction is better repr~sented by the criteria of the ratio of the octahedral shear stress during cyclic loading to the effective octahedral normal stress during con
.
2 (1+2 Ko)
(3.[3) ...(7.18) Values of Cl computed from the above equations are given in Table 7.1 Weighted average values of
'. ..
, ..
II1II
,
,.;"~'".;:,:'<,.""'".",,,;, .
'"
Liquefaction
of Soils
Value orc!
Ko 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Equation 7.7 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Equation 7.14* Negative value Negative value 0.25 0.54 0.71 0.83 Equation 7.16 0.53 0.6 0.67 0.73 0.80 0.87
using
* For 
ad
= 0.4
2 0'3 In simple shear test equipment, there is always some nonuniformity of stress conditions. This causes specimens to develop liquefaction under lower horizontal cyclic stresses as compared to that in the field.
Seed and Peacock (1971) demonstrated this fact for a uniform medium sand (DR
= 50%)
in which the
field values were about 1.2 times the laboratory values. It can be expressed by the following relation:
"Ch ( cr )
C
"Ch
"
v field
~.( cr )
...(7.19)
v simple shear
where Cz = Constant to account the nonuniformity of stress conditions in simple shear test Combining Eqs. (7.5) and (7.19), we get "C a a 1:L =C C IL =CL I z ( 20' ) r ( 20' ) ( cr )
v field 3 triax. 3 triax.
...(7.20)
where Cr = Cl Cz Seed and Idriss (1971) suggested the values of Cl' as given in Table 7.2. Table 7.2 : Values of Cr
Relative density OR (%)
Cr
...(7.21)
050 60 80
0.57
0.60 . 0.68
As evident .from Fig. 7.17, upto a relative densitY of 80%, the peak pulsating shear stress causing liquefaction increases almost linearly with the increase in relative density. Keeping this fact in view, the following general relation is suggested:
"Ch
( cry) field DR
.
'.
...(7.22)
306 where
~h
( crv) field OR
5!iL ( 2 cr3J triax. 50
7.9 EVALUATION OF ZONE OF LIQUEFACTION IN FIELD At a depth below the ground surface, liquefaction will occur if shear stress induced by earthquake is more than the shear stress predicted by Eq. 7.22. By comparing the induced and predicted shear stresses at various depths, iiquefaction zone can be obtained. In a sand deposit consider a column of soil of height h and unit area of cross section subjected to maximum ground acceleration Qmax(Fig. 7.24). Assuming the soil column to behave as a rigid body, the maximum shear stress 'tmax at a de p th h is g iven by
'tmax
rh  ( g ) . Qmax

...(7.23)
where
. .. '. .
:
.~~::~.:':I
Tmax=("(hf9)
amax.
Fig. 7.24 : Maximum shear stress at a depth for a rigid soil column
Since the soil column behaves as a deformable body, the actual shear stress at depth h, ('tmax)act is taken as ( where, rd )
rh rd ( g ) .omax
. .'
...(7.24)
= Stressreductionfactor
;qllefact;on of Soils
307
Seed and Idriss (1971.)recommended the use of charts shown in Fig. 7.25 for obtaining the values
)f rd at various depths. In this figure the range of rd for different soil profiles alongwith the average value
lpto depth of 12 ni is shown. The critical depth for development of liquefaction is usually less than 12 m.
rd
0 0
0'2
04
0.6
1'0
6 Average value
.
Q. ~ 0
E ......
18
24
30
Fig. 7.25 : Reduction factor r d versus depths (Seed and Idriss, 1971)
The actual time history of shear stress at any point in a soil deposit during an earthquake will be as shown in Fig. 7.6. According to Seed and Idriss (1971), The average equivalent uniform shear stress 10\' is about 65 percent of the maximum shear stress 1max'Therefore 'tav
'.
rh
...(7.25)
The corresponding number of significant cycles Ns for 'tav is given in Table 7.3. Tabl~ 7.3: Significant Number of CyclesNs Corresponding to 'ta\'.Earthquake magnitude, M
Ns on Richter's scale 7 7.5
t... .~ '.~ 8 . . ..
10 20 30
~
308
The procedure of locating liquefaction zone can be summarised in following steps: (i) Establish the design earthquake, and obtain peak ground acceleration amax'Also obtain number of significant cycles Ns corresponding to earthquake magnitude using Table 7.3. (ii) Using Eq. 7.25, determine 'tav at depth h below ground surface. (iii) Using Fig. 7.22, determine the value of Jd/2 <J3)for given value ofDso of soil and number of equivalent cycles Ns for the relative density of 50%. (iv) Using Eq. 7.22, determine the value of
.
th
( crv) field
OR
Multiplying
'th
th
( crv ) field OR
with effectives stress at depth h, one can obtain the value of shear stress
(vi) Repeat steps (ii) to (iv) for other values of h to locate the zone of liquefaction. 'tav and 'th can be plotted as shown in Fig. 7,26,
Equivalent
.
peak shear
stress
c::.I
. 
Critical

liquefactionJd "',.tab~~
'GWT .::
0
~
:J \11 "0 C :J 0
~ 0'1 c::.I
0 ....
~I
.
L
Equivalent cyclic due~
a.
c::.I
shear
stress
developed
0
,
'
earthquake cycLes
inNs \
Fig. 7.26 : Zone of initiai liquefaction in field
fuefaCtion of Soils
309
1.0VIB~TI9,N
l
TABLE STUDIES
bration' table~fig. 7.27 sho:ws atypical setup of a horizontal shake table available at University of oorkee.Ji conSlslsofa rigid platform on which the test tank (LOSm x 0.6 m x 0.6 m high) is mounted. he platform with wheels' rest~ on four knife edges being rigidly fixecl.on two pairs of rails anchored to le foundation. The platforin is connected with motor and brake assembly for imparting vibrations. Some
"
.
.
.Amplitude
.Frequency Acceleration
~

010 mm
020 Hz 020 g
Facilities are available for measuring pore/pressures at different depths in the sample placed in tank. [he procedure of carrying out test is simple. Firstly the sand is placed in the tank under saturated conjition. The table is then excited with the desired amplitude and acceleration. Variation of pore pressure
The main advantages of vibration table studies are: (i) It simulates field conditions in better way as the size of sample is'large, prepared and consolidated under anisotropic conditions. (ii) It is possible to trace the actual porewater pressure distribution during liquefaction. (iii) Deformation occurs under plane strain conditions. (iv) Visual examination of sample during vibration is possible. 1. Vibratory system 2. Horizontal shaking table with a tank mounted on it. 3. Settlement measuring Device. . 4. PorePressure measuring system
..
1. Motor 2.Pulley 3. Eccentric wheels 4. Crankshaft 5. Connecting rod 6. Fly wheel 7. Hand break 8. Revoluation counter
(b) Vibratory
system
Since 1957, many investigators have studied lIquefaction characteristics of sand using vibration table on different sizes of soil samples and dynamit: characteristics of load. The effect of the following aspects have been studied: (i) Grain size characteJ:istics of soil. (ii) Relative density. (iii) Initial stress condition i.e. overburden pressure. (iv) Intensity and character of excitation force. (v) Entrapped air. The important conclusions drawn from vibration table studies are: 1. For a given sand placed at a particular density, there is sudden increase in pore pressure at a definite acceleration. This is termed as 'critical acceleration'. Critical acceleration is not unique property of sand. It depends on the type of sand, its density, the amplitude and frequency of oscillation and the overburden pressure (Maslov, 1957; Matsuo and Ohara. 1960: Florin and Ivanov,1961). 2. If sand is subjected to shock loading, the whole stratum liquefied at the same time, while under steadystate vibrations, the liquefaction starts from the top and proceeds downward (Florin anp Ivanov,1961). .', 3. As the surcharge pressure incre~sed, the number of cycles required to cause liquefaction 'in. creased (Fig. 7.28; Finn, 1970). Tests have shown that, even small drainage surcharge wil reduce the time of the liquefied state tenfold (Fig. 7.29; Florin and Ivanov. 1961).
.'
le/action of Soils
311
E
..........
70 Ac c el era tron
5.6
0.25 9 2 Hz 0.67
z
~
oX.
I:J VI VI ~
Frequency eo
~
42
First liquefaction
thin membrane 6
A
Ia. 28
~ 0'1
First liquefaction thi c.k mem brane First liquefaction for old container results A
a .c
I:J I.f'I
\J
I
10,000
"
table studies
(Finn,

1972)

22.5
20
, .'
C 0
15
1/1
v
::I tT 0
c 10
C>I
/:~.~r
. , ..'
q (k NI m2)
~
'"
C}()
O. 2 20 6 50 100
...
tr
)fj(
0 0
25
50 of impacts
75
100
Number
Fig. 7.29 : Influenceoftbe intensityor dl'alnlng~w:cbarge on tbeperiodof1lme within which the sand remain liquid (Florin"and Ivanov, i961i
~
"~,

'"
312
,''
, ,., ,  '.
'
'
'..~
 So.il
4, The time during which the ~iquefiedstate lasts is much less for coarser grained soils than for fine grained' sbiiS (Fig: 7,'30.,Gupta,'l979). He carried out liquefaction studies on four sands namely (i) Ukai sanq (Dso=,l.& mDJ.}i (it) Obra sand (Dso = 1.0 mm), (iii) Tenughat sand (Dso = 0.47 mm) and Solani sand (Dso = 0.15 mm). The maximum pore water pressure developed in about 6 to 10 cycles. It started dissipating immediately after attaining maximum valu~. The total time required for dissipation was about 6s for Ukai sand, and 20s for 01;>ra and Tenughat sands. The corresponding value for Sohmi sand was 12Us,it"re~ained c9nstant for ~bout 35s: thu~ ,the time required for, dissipation decreases with the increa~e in coarseness. Time,s
0'2 20 0.4
 ", '
0,8
1.2 ',.,
04
"12
200
E
u
L::I
'::
<:I} <:I}
Accl. 10010 9
,5Hz '.
,
/",Sotani.sand,
';~'~ ',:" ,",:::'!, ~"
10
155mm depth
L
a.
<:I}
L
e
ll.
1
Number
40 of cvcles
200
400 600
1OC
Fig. 7.30: Pore pressure versus number of cycles for different sands (Gupta, 1979)
Since the liquid state lasts for only a short time, the liquefied masses of soil have no time for displacements, so that there is practically no indication that the phenomenon of liquefaction occurs in coarsegrained soils. 5. The excess porewater pressuresdec!e,ases with the increase in initial relative density (Maslov, 1957; Gupta, 1979). Figure 7.31'shows a typical test data indicating the effect of relative density on an increase in pore pressure at 10 percent g for Solani sand (Gupta, 1979). In this case, no porewater pressure increase was observed when initial density became 62 percent. Tests performed on other types of sand with different accelerations gave the values of relative densities as listed in Table 7.4 beyond which no porewater pressure was observed.
Table 7.4 : Initial Relative Density Beyond , . which no Excess Pore Pressure Develops (Gupta, 1979)
Intia/ Re/ative Density
Acceleratioll
(g) Percent 10 20 40
50
is;;
efaction of Soils
313
360
15
32
"
~ .......
"""
.
0 0
Oepth(mm)
60
280
~
~, "
155 250
1.0
""'0...,
'~
"
"CA...
E E
~
"
240
"
ay
05
'. "C\
Excess pore pressure
\~
L.
200
160

u/ov
a. ~ L.
a Cl.
120 80
40 0 20
30
Initial
40
50
relative
60
density
70
(/0)
80
90
DeAlba, Seed and Chan (1976) presented the results of shake table tests in the form of stress ratio
.
la) and number of cycles required for causing liquefaction as shown in Fig. 7.32. It indicates that for iven value of'th' more number of cycles are required for liquefying a sand having more relative density. is is a similar conclusion as obtaine~ by ~eed and Peacock (1971) by cyclic simple tests. In shake table IS, the value of'th is given by : . . ... W '
o'tho=.am g where W = Tot~l p~essure exert~d OJ?the bas~ of t~nk p~ac_ed on t!1eshake table 00am = P~ak ac~eleration of die uniform cyclic mQtion
...(7.26)
314
+0 L.
11'1 111
0.4
OR (0/0)
~
'U
~
.r::.
0.3
'
,
ee.
54
~ P 0.2 u
u
~ L. L. a
0.1
10
Num be r 0 fey
100
cl e S J Ns
1000
liquefaction
7.11 FIELD BLAST STUDIES In blast tests, predetermined charge (like ammonia, gelatin etc.) with electric detonators is installed at predetermined depth in a cased bore hole. The hole is later filled with sand and the casing ~swithdrawn. Lead wires from detonators are connected with blaster so that the charges may be fired at any desired moment. Acceleration pickups are placed at regular intervals from the blast point to record horizontal and vertical acceleration at the time of blasting. Similarly porewater pickups and settlement gauges are placed at certain distances from the blast point to record the increase in pore water pressure and ground settlements, Accelerations, porewater pressure and ground settlement at the blast point are then obtained by extrapolation. The data is then interpreted to obtain the liquefaction potential. One of the main purpose of carrying out blast tests is to ascertain whether the soil at the site will liquefy under simulated earthquake loading. Field data using small explosives at some depth at the site alongwith pore pressure and settlement observations for predicting liquefaction potential are available ir literature from few investigations (Florin and Ivanov, 1961; Kummeneja and Eide, 1961; Krishna am Prakash, 1968; Prakash and Gupta, 1970; Arya et aI., 1978; Gupta and Mukerjee, 1979). For examining the chances of liquefaction at barrage site, Gupta and Mukerjee (1979) performe< blast tests in a river bed having the soil profile as given below: Depth
04 m 4m7m
.
Description of Soil
Average Nva/ue
'5 .", 
Remarks ., ... ' . .  Cu ='2.47, 50 = 0.12 mm Position of water table near the surfal Cu = Uniformity coefficient
7 m  20 m
The critical hydraulic gradient of top loose sandy deposit works out,to be 0.8. Special gelatin (( percent, 2 kg) was installed at 4m depth in 150 mm diameter cased bore holes. Blasting was done wi the help of an electric exploder. Horizontal surface accelerations were measured using acceleration pie ups placed at various distances fro,mthe source point. The depth of each acceleration pickup was 200 IT below the ground surface. The porewater pressures at vari~us .dls~ances from sourc~ point were measur
at 2.5m depth from the ground surface.
iIIIb.,
Liquefaction
of Soils
315
B7
I
10m
I
r
86
1am
8S
I
812
10m
10m
84
B:f lOm
, .
Srn
~ 0
Srn
B13
.814 .
. 
point
B15 816
Fig. 7.33: Site layout for field blasting tests (Gupta and Mukerjee. 1979)
Figure 7.33 shows the sketch of layout of the tests at the site. A typical acceleration record obtained lt 35 m distance from the blast point is .shown in Fig. 7.34. Variation of maximum horizontal accelerajon and porewater pressure' with dis;tan~~' from blast point are shown respectively in Figs. 7.35 and 7.36.
, 316
On the basis of past earthquakes, the maximum possible acceleration record at the site is assumed as shown in Fig. 7.37. Using the method of Lee and Chan (1972) this earthquake record is worked out to be equivalent to 19.6 cycles of 0.075 g acceleration (Table 7.5)
24 20
\ \
\
0 (
0'1 0
;c 0
;::.
16
12
"
(
"
u u 0
...
C>I
C>I
8
4
(
i'. "
'.
""'(
.3C
a.
C>I
" ......
'80
0 0
10
50 (m)
60
70
).0
Depth of blast
2.5 E
C>I
11\
4m measured
=
~
0/1 C>I
2.0
1.5 1.0
1174
:i
C>I
...
0
a. u E 0 c
>
05
0 0
1 7'5 trom
I 10.0 blast
I 12.5 (m)
15'0
175
200
. Fig. 7.36: Port: jJressure vs. distance (Gupta and Mukerjee, 1979)
",
,"",~~",
iquefactionof
~oils
317
','""
. ..
N
<
0 .
co
0r0
., .

.; ....
... .::0: = :::.
"C c <": <":

If)
C.
E 
.:
.2
...:r
E ...
... '" '"
0"
.. r
':
N
roD
.;
0
/'
0 ,." :,;.
0
,"
0 0 0
(3
co 0 . 0 .,,"
c0
'"
, " " . , t.' "
"'
;~(!.,.J;"k\/t,:"J
.JVi..,.at~fl:t j. 11.',
318
Table 7.5 ~EquivaleDt Cy~les for Anticipated Earthquake Acc!' level in percent ofpeak  acc!.  (1) 10080 8060 6040 40100
Number of cycles
(3) 17/2 = 8.5 8/2 = 4.0 25/2 = 12.5 > 1000
              
Conversion factor 1.6) (Fig.  (4) 2.6 1.2 0.20 negligible Total
 
Equivalent number of 0.651: . _"J.iL cycles  at (5) 22.1 4.8 2.5 0.0 29.4
22 20
~19'6
i\ 1\
,.......
z
0"1
0 16
~
r0 0 0
12
u
111
\
8
0
4
>u c
~
...
0 > :J er UJ
I I I
J
0
.
2.9
10
20
from bLast (m)
30
40
Distance
Fig. 7.38: Equivalent cycles versus distance (Gupta and Mukerjee, 1979)
Liquefaction of Soils
'319
Similarly the blast records at different distances are also converted into equivalent number of cycles of 0.075 g acceleration (Fig. 7.38). From this figure it can be observed that vibrations generated due to blast at a distance of2.9 m are equivalent to 19.6 cycles of 0.075 g, the expected earthquake i.e. the blast has the same severity as the design earthquake at a distance of 2.9 m from the blast hole. From Fig. 7)6, the pore pressure developed at a distance of 2.9 m, and at a depth of 2.5 m is 1.74 m of water column. The critical hydraulic gradient for this site is 0.8, therefore at a depth of 2.5 m the critical porewater pressure or hydraulic head is 0.8 x 2.5 = 2.0 m. The pore pressure developed is 1.74 m. The actual porewater pressures developed will be larger than the measured value of 1.74 m, '~ecause there will'be a time lag in rise of water level in piezometer pipe. Hence under the above conditions, a larger pore pressure is expected to be developed and complete liquefaction of site is expected during the earthquake. 7.12 EVALUATION OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL USING STANDARD PENETRATION RESIST ANCE The standard penetra~ion test is most commonly used insitu test in a bore hole to have fairly ~ood estimation of relative density of cohesionless soil. Since liquefaction primarily depends on the initial relative density of saturated sand, many researchers have made attempt to develop correlations in liquefaction potential and standard... penetration resistance. IS: 21311981 gives the standard procedure for carrying out standard penetration test. SPT values (N) obtained in the field for sand have to be corrected for accounting the effect of ovberburden pressure as below: NI = CN . N ...(7.27) NI = Corrected value of standard penetration resistance
CN
0.4
0
'"'
N
0.6
E
t>I ~

1.8
20
 100I
:J
III III t>I ~ '.
oX
/
/
"
~
c. c
200
t>I
:J .D
~ 0 v
~ t>I
L t>I
300
1/
I I
.
>
= Correction factor
(Fig. 7.39)
U t>I
> 400
t>I
/ /
I
tU
The correlation between ~ 1 values and relative density of granular soils suggested by Terzaghi and Peck (1967) is given in Table 7.6.
500
Fig. 7.39: Chart for correction ofNvalues in sand for inOuenceof overburden pressure(pecketal., 1974)
~. ",
J.
...
320
After the occurence of Niigata earthquake, Kishida (1966), kuizumi (1966), and Ohasaki (1966 studied the areas in Niigata where liquefaction had not occured and developed criteria for differentiatint between liquefaction and nonliquefaction conditions in that city, based on Nvalues of the sand deposit (Seed, 1979). The results of these studies for Niigata areshown in Fig. 7AO.Ohasaki (1970) gave a usefu rule of thumb that says liquefaction is not a problem if the blow count from a standard penetration tes exceeds twice the depth in meters.
z E
.........
I I
I
I
50
Light damage
& no liquefaction
L~ VI \11 ~
L0.
100
Heavy damage. and liquefaction
(:,)
150

Boundar y determined
by damage
survey (Kishida)
Boundary
UJ
Ohasaki
10
20 0
20
30
40
'.~:
Liquefaction
of Soils
321
On the basis o(more comprehensive study on the subject and data presented by other investigators (Seed and Peacock, 1971; Christian and Swiger, 1976; Seed, Mori et aI., 1977), Seed (1979) proposed the following procedure for liquefaction analysis: (i) Establish the design earthquake, and obtain the peak ground acceleration Qmax' Also obtain number of significant cycles corresponding to the magnitude of earthquake using Table 7.3. (ii) Using Eq. 7.25, determine "Cav at depth h below ground surface. (iii) Determine the value of standard penetration resistance value (N) at depth h below ground surface. Obtain corrected NI value after applying overburden correction to N using Fig. 7.39. (iv) Using Fig. 7.41, determine ('Ch/crv)for the given magnitude of earthquake and NI value obtained in step (iii). Multiplying ('Ch/ crv) with effective stress at depth h below ground surface, one can
"Ch required
.........
06
Solid poi nts indicate sites and test conditions showing liquefaction
z
0
:J 0 1.1\1.1\ 11
..x
.
KI~
~
L.. L..
0
~
8.'\J
>.9
0
\J
\J
C c::v
Q.
0 4
86'5
..:.::
c::v
0"1
Cl
c .
Cl.
2 0.3 
113 ~ O. 2
r== 0 ..c.
L..
0
L.. III
c::v 0 ....
Extrapolated from results 11 of.large scale laboratory tests 0 0 10 20 30 resistance> 1,0 Nlblows/ft. 50
;}
.~ .0 v
U
>Cl
L..
Modified1.i:)~netration
Fig. 7.41 : Correlation between field liquefaction behaviour or'sands for level ground conditions and penetration resistance (Seed, 1979)
iI...
,I;
322
(vi) Repeat steps (ii) to (v) for other values of h to locate the zone ofliquefaction. Iwasaki (1986) introduced the concept of liquefaction resistance factor FL which is defmed as R F =...(7.28) L L R is the ratio of insitu cyclic strength of soil and effective overburden pressure. It depends on relative density, effective overburden pressure and mean particle size. It is given by For 0.02 < Dso < 0.6 mm
~
For 0.6 < Dso < 2.0 mm
0.35
...(7.29 a)
...(7.29b)
crv = Effectiveoverburdenpressure at the depth underconsiderationfor liquefactionexamination in kN/m2 D50 = Mean grain size in mm L = is the ratio of dynamic load induced by seismic motion and effective overburden pressure. It is given by a max crv " 'd L  .=:. ...(7.30.
g crv
amax
...(7.31
Liquefaction
of Soils
323,
8
~
.g
:J
C
0'1 0
6
Mean line
=
5 4
(M>6)
L09100 1
087 M4S
'r 0
10 epicentral
20
50 distance
lOO"
200
500
1000
Maximum
ot liquefied
sites,D (km)
Fig. 7.42: Relationship between the maximum epicentral distanceofliquefied sites (D) and earthquake magnitude (M) (Kuribayashi, Tatsuoka and Yoshida, t 977)
7.13 FACTORS
AFFECTING
LIQUEFACTION
'
Although the factors affecting liquefaction have been discussed during the laboratory and field studies on liquiefaction, they are summarised below: 7.13.1. Soil Type. Liquefaction .occursin cahesionless soils as they lose their strength completely under vibration due ta the development of pore pressures which in turn reduce the effective stress to zera. , Liquefactian daes not occur in case of cohesive soils. Only highly sensitive clays may laase their strength substantially under vibration. 7.13.2. Grain Size and Its Distribution. Fine and uniform sands are more prone to liquefaction than coarser ones. Since the permeability of coarse sand is greater than fine sand, the pore pressure develaped during vibrations can dissipate faster. 7.13.3. Initial Relative Density. It is .one .ofthe mast important factars contralling liquefactian. Bath pare pressures and settlement are canstderably reduced during vibratians with increase in initial relative density and hence chances of liquefaction and excessive settlement reduce with increased relative density. '7.13.4. Vibration Characteristics. Out .ofthe four parameters .ofdynamiuc load namely (i) frequency; (ii) amplitude; (iii) acceleratian; and (iv) velacity; frequency and acceleratian are mare impartant. Frequency .of the dynamic laad plays vital rale ,.only if it is clase ta the natural frequency .of the system. Further the liquefactian laad i.e. whether'it isa transient laad .,,', depends. .onthe . ..11 type I" of the .dynamic ""', " .orthe .
,
laad causing steady vibratians.'.'" , ' '0.' , ,. , . '" ~L'>+ ::' '
..
r,
.:
'
324
'
Soil Dy"amics
Whole stratum gets liquefied at the same t~eunder tra~sient loading, while it inayproceed from top to lower layers u?der steaqy state vibrations (Florin and Ivanov, 1961). ,For a given acceleration, liquefaction occurs only after ~ certain number of cycles imparted to the deposit. Further, horizontal vibratiorls have more severe em~c.t than vertical vibrations. Multi directional shaking is more severe than one directional loading (Seed ~t al.~ 1977), as the pore water pressure build up is much faster and the stress ratio required is about 10 percent less than that required for unidirectional shaking. 7.13.5. Location of Drainage and Dimension of Deposit. Sands are more pervious than fine grained soil. However, if a pervious deposit has large dimensions, the drainage path increases and the deposit may behave as undrained, thereby, increasing the chances of liquefaction of such a d~posit.The drainage path is reduced by the introduction of drains made out of highly pervious materiaL"
7.13.6. Surcharge Load. If the surcharge load, i.e. the initial effective stress is large, then transfer of stress from soil grains to pore water will require higher intensity vibrations or vibrations for a longer duration. If the initial stress condition is not isotropic as in field, then stress condition causing liquefaction depends upon Ko (coefficient of earth pressure at rest) and for Ko > 5, the stress condition required to cause liquefaction increases by at least 50%.
7.13.7. Method of Soil Formation. Sands tmlike clays do not exhibit a characteristics structure. But recent investigations show that liquefaction characteristics of saturated sands under cyclic loading are significantly influenced by method of sample preparation and by soil structure. 7.13.8. Period Under Ssustained Load. Age of sand deposit may influen<:eits liquefaction characteristics. A 75% increase in liquefaction resistance has been reported on liquefaction of an undisturbed sand compared to its freshly prepared sample which may be due to some form of cementation or welding at contact points of sand particles and associated with secondary compression of soil.
7.13.9. Previous Strain History. Studies on liquefaction characteristics of freshly deposited sand and of similar deposit previously subjected to some strain history reveal, that although the prior strain history caused no significant change in the density of the sand, it increased the stress that causes liquefaction by a factor of 1.5. 7.13.10. Trapped Air. If air is trapped in saturated soil and pore pressure develop, a part of it is dissipated due to the compression of air. Hence, trapped air helps to reduce the possibility to liquefaction, 7.14 ANTILIQUEFACTION MEASURES
A comprehensive study is required to find out various possible measure to prevent liquefaction. Tho.ugh it depends on a number of factors, however, few can be controlled in field. Based on these, certain methqds have been suggested (Lew, 1984). Liquefaction resistance to some extent can be improved by :
7.14.1. Compaction of Loose Sands. As has been indicated earlier, loose saturated sands are more prone to liquefaction than dense saturated s~nds. Therefo~e!the liquefaction potential can be,redu~ed by coI?patting the loose sand deposit before any structure is constructed. The various 'methodssuggested for
compaction loose' sands . of in'situ
.
are: .
'
' . 
. .' .h
'
7.14.1.1. Rolling with rubber tyrerollers: It may be accompli~hedby excavati~g some depth, then carefully backfilling in controlled lift thickness and compacting the soil. When ruJ>bertyres are used, lifts are commonly 150 mm to 200 mm. This method, however cannot be used for compacting deep sand deposits.
;qllefactioll of Soils
325
,14.1.2. Compaction with vibratory plates and vibratory rollers: Compacti'on of cohesionless soils can c achieved using s~ooth wheel rollers commonly with a vibratory devIce inside. Lift depths upto ahout .5m to 2m can be compacted with this equipment (Bowles, 1982). Also plates mounted with vibratory ~semblycan be used; however, small thifkness of soils ca~ be compacted by these methods and they can'
ot be used for large deposits.' . ,.
.14.1.3. Driving of piles: Piles when driven in loose deposits, compacts the sand within an area overed by eight times around it. This concept may be utilized in compacting the site having loose sand \eposits. As pile remains in the sand, the overall stiffness of the soil stratum increases substantially.
'.14.1.4. Vibrofloatation : The method is most commonly used to densify cohesionless deposits of sands L11d gravel with having not more than 20% silt or 10% clay. Vibrofloatation utilizes a cylindrical penetrator. t is an equipment of about 4m long and 400mm in diameter. The lower half is vibrator and upper half s stationary part. The device has water jets at top and bottom. Vibrofloat is lowered under its own weight vith bottom jet on which induces the quick sand condition, when it reaches the desired depth, the flow )f water is diverted to upperjet and vibrofloat is pulled out slowly. Top jet aids the compaction process. \s the vibrofloat is pulled out a crater is formed. Sand or gravel is added to the crater formed. 7.14.1.5. Blasting: The explosion of buried charges induces liquefaction of the soil mass followed by ~scape of excess pore water pressure which acts as a lubricant to facilitate rearrangement and thus leading the sand to a more compacted state. The earliest use of detonating buried charges of explosive for compacting loose cohesionless soils in [heir natural state has been reported by Lymari. (1942). He concluded that (i) Lateral distribution of charges should be based on results obtained from a series of single shots. ,~ (ii) Where loose sands greater than 1Om thick are to be compacted, two or more tiers of small charges are preferred. (iii) For deposits less than 10m thick, charges placed at 2/3rd depth from surface will generally suffice. (iv) There is no apparent limit of depth that can be compacted by means of explosive. Later Hall (1962) reported that (i) Repeated blasts are more effective than a single blast of several small charges detonated simultaneously. (ii) Very little compaction can be achieved in top 1m.
.
(iii) Small charges are more effective than large charges for compacting upper 1.5m of sand. (iy) The compaction gained by repeating the blasts more than 3 times is small. (v) The relative densities can be increased to 80%.
. . ..
.'
. 
7.14.2 Grouting and Chemical Stabilization. Grouting is a technique of inserting some kind of stabi 'lizing agent iI:1to the soil mass under pressure. The pressure forces the agent into the soil voids in a limit space around the injection tube. The agent reacts with the soil and/or itself to form a stable mass. The most common grout is a mixture of cement and water, with or without sand. Generally grout can be used if the permeability of the deposit is greater than 105 m/s. Chemical stabilization is in the form of lime, cement, flyash or combination of these.
......
"","""""""
"'"
326
7.14.3. Application of Surcharge. Application of surcharge over the deposit liable to liquefy can also be used as an effective measure against liquefaction. Figure 7.43 shows a plot between rise in pore pressure and effective over burden pressure at an acceleration of ten percent of g. It indicates that pore pressure increases with increase in overburden pressure till a maximum value of pore pressure is reached, after which it starts decreasing with further increase in surcharge. Thus an overbuden prssure above this value, depending upon the situation, makes the deposit safe against liquefaction.
201
DR=20 15Hz
Dead weight surcharge 250 mm depth _Acct. 10% gNo. of cyc les 10
Cl! L
16
~ I Zone ot liquefaction ~ 12
.
a.
Cl! L
a.
III III .CI!
8
4
v
)(
UJ
48
0 overburden pressure
Fig. 7.43: Excess pore water pressure versus initial pressure on Solani sand (Gupta, 1979)
7.14.4. Drainage Using Coarse Material Blanket and Drains. Blankets and drains of material with higher permeability reduces the length of drainage path and also due to higher coefficient of permeability, speed up the drainage process (Katsumi et a1. 1988 and Susumu et a1. 1988). 7.15 STUDIES ON USE OF GRAVEL DRAINS Yoshimi and Kuwabara (1973) were first to introduce gravel drains to stabilize a potentially liquefiable sand deposit. Seed and Brooker (1976) have proposed an analytical procedure for designing such drains (Fig. 7.44). These drains are considered fully effective if the permeability of material of drains, ktJ' is about 200 times the permeability, ks' of the soil in which they are installed i.e. (kd/ks) > 200. The effectiY,e drainage path is reduced by ,the introduction of number of artificial drams. Seed and Brooker (i97~) developed nondimensional charts as shown in Fig. 7.45 .'for determining the spacing of drains. Vario~5 . '1 terms shown on this figure are as below: ., . .' ." '. .< . ill(
..
, ,
.. ~ .~
'~q~~e!aftioll;
t'~~Lf
C,',
'.,
\, "
.
'",'" ',~
.
,".',
327 f:~;,
c,:
, "
e'
,,'.
.e'
'" "
.
(0 ) Plan
'"",'
..
, :.
 ':
','..."; :;""",,,
: . .'  t ,~
1
~ "'.:
',.',,...
. ':,,',
":',~,','~":",.',,.
",'
'
'r"
,,..'
"
,...
/'~:'"
"',
~ "::~~LG_WT ~
':::'{. ". ',.',, c '
,~"'::
I:',
, ,',  ,. ,,','
.
Re'
,
, ..
"
'..
J , '
'" , '.' .' , "r
, :,', t" "" " 'N .:~;.. " '" .,,
Re
. ..
; "
~
,..
".':
.:2"::::.,
.'~';;':!"":~',~~ :,/
,:;.,,y,~~:,J'.:)
Rd ~
$"
:: 'G
" .;
;')
(b)
: i."".', .
, ,;"::,. ;'"",","'{',,","
\~\
";;'"""",,"'!"~'~;,,,,~;'\"""
328
Founda~s
<
06
rg
0.4
0 .211f:J
0 0
0.1
0'2
Rd
0'3
04
O'S
06
/ Re
(a) iNl = 1
1.0
rg
04
02
0 0
0.1
0.2
03
R.d / Re
(b) NiNl
0.4
05
06
=2
Fig. 7.45: Relation between gr~3test perewater pressure ratio and drain system parameters (...Contd.)
:.
I!
.
~19
o~
lefaaion of Soils
,.0
08
0 6 trg 0.4.
0.2
110
Tad
 200
0 0
1.0
2.0
30
Rd
~.O
5.0
6.0
/ Re
(c) N/Nt = 3
1.0
0.8
0,6 rg
0.4 0.2
"
.:.01
0'2
0.30,4
.' . 0,5
0.6
'J:
Rd
/ Re
(d) .NslNl = 4
Fig. 7.45: Relation between greatest porewater pressure ratio and drain system parameters
'" I
" .' c' .:.
. .'
330
Ug chosen for design r = Limiting value of ,, ..
g
0
Soil Dynamics
& Machine
FiJII;idat;o;u
.'
cry
~
'~'
<'~
Uu = Excess porewater pressure build up in ~.cyclic 'simple sh~ar test (Fig. 7.46) ,
'
'
ad  'ro 'my ( Kh
R~
1d
= Duration
1.0 0.8 0.6
of earthquake"
Ug
ay 0.4
0.2
0 0
0.2
,
0.4
0~6
0.8
. 1.0
N/N,
Fi,g. 7.46: Rate of pore water pressure buildup in cyclic simple s,hear test
Yosufumi et al. (1~84) had,developed a method to evaluate liquefacti~~resistance under partia drained condition, They assumed that the dissipation of excess pore water pressure induced by an ea! quake will occur according to Darcy's'law. Dynamic triaxial apparatus was used to conduct tests un perfectly undrained and perfectly drained conditions. In case of perfectly uildrained condition, liquet
tion resistance was neither influenced by permeability of sample nor by the frequency of loading. Thi
reasonable, because, no drainage of water is involved and hence permeability of soil does not have a I to play, It was also concluded that in case of p'artial~ydrained condition, the effect of drainage frequency is remarkable for soils with relatively largef1relative density, OR' and not so significant soils with smaller relative density: But for loosesoils'rat~ of generation' of pore pressure depend' number of cycles of stresses which in turn depends on frequency. Rate of pore pressure built up depl on the rate of dissipation of pore pressure, which is based on draInage.
'luefactidn of Soils
",'
331
Yasushi and Taniguchi (1982) carried out large scale model tests to confirm the effectiveness of 'avel drains for preventing liquefaction of sand deposits. The purpose of the tests, as stated by them, as :
.
(i) to know the generation and dissipation of ' pore water pressure, ,. " characteristics ,
"',' '".',, " , ,0" ", "
(ii) to clarify the effective are~foithe g~aveldra~fromthe viewp~int of preventing liquefaction and (iii) to know whether the grayel drain.is effective in preventing the liquefaction of subsoils under a road that is partially buried. ' :'  ,,"", . They performed tests on shaking table of 12 m x 12 m x':3ffi(deep) size, filled with cohesionless soiL 'he acceleration of loading was 200 gals, the duration of shaking w,as, one minute and the frequency was cps. They concluded that pore water pressure within 500 mm from the edge of a gravel drain is much maller than that, for away from the gravel drain.
'
Wang (1984) made experimental study on liquefaction inhibiting effect of gravel drains. A shaking )oXof size 1.5 m x 0.28 m x 0.5 m was used. He used gravel drains walls under the foundation and it was lssumed that under plain strain condition the walls ar~ referred as drains. It was noted by him that the ,ection of non liquefied zone of deposit was basically a trapezoid in which pore pressure ratio (i.e. the "atio of excess pore w<l.ter pressure to the effective overburden pressure) was generally below 0.6. Basi~ally this zone did not reduce<with ~ncreasingvibration time.
' ' , .
As the number of d!'ainsin~talled is increased, the non liquefied zone increases. As the acceleration increases, the zone reduces gradually but the increase in time does not reduce the non liquefied zone. The angle of trapezoid was found to be 15 to 17 in the 'direction of depth. The zone is about 40 mm outsid,e the drains. It was also observed by him that the surface drains may effectively prevent foundation settlement. In order to obtain good effect in reducing foundation settlement it must be ensured that adequate dept.I1,~nd widthQf drains qe inst~lled when ~n~tallingshallow dr~ins and outside drains. ahara and Tamamoto (1987) pi"ese'nteda fundamental 'study on gravel pile for preventing liquefaction. They used a shaking box of size 1.0 m x 0.35 x 0.65 m (deep). Radii of gravel piles were 0.75 m, 0.15 ~ etc. The flow of pore water was assumed to be horizontaL They measured the pore water pressure at points near the dr~iris a~d away from the 'drai~s.They concluded that liquefaction occured at points too far from the drain and that at points close to the gravel drain, liquefaction did not occur. Results obtained by them presented in form of optimum radius of pile and optimum spacing between gravel piles. Figure 7.47 shows the effective circle whiChis defined as the circle with area equal to area of square with sides equal to the line joining mid p~ints of the ~pacing between adjacent gravel piles. The sides of the squares are tak~n as optimum spacing between gravel piles. They found that the effective area of gravel pile increases in proportion to the diameter of the gravel pile and the permeability. For a fixed diameter of pile and permeability of'soil, as the optimum distance decreases, the pore pressure ratio decreases. As the permeability increases, pore pressure ratio decrea~es very sharply. Highly permeable gravel are much more effective even at higher optimum distance and smaller diameter of drains.
, ,
,
AJlexible ve~tical drain formed by us'ing organi,c fibres like jute or coir has been used in several projects. The 'most important properties of.such drains are permeability and tensile strength, The jute filter cover h.~spermeability better than 105m/sec. This facilitates the flow of water from pervious lenses present in the seams and layer of sand and speeds up the pore water pressure dissipation. They have the advantage of decaying and getting mixed with the soil without harming the environment. When the filter permeability 'is large, the clogging of the drain has to' be considered.   ,
332
..
C ire le of et f e cti ve a re a
'EL:~
i"
l'77'r~'.
~I
Fig. 7.47: Radius and distance (or spacing) of gravel pi/es (Ohara, 1987)
Geotextiles are used fairly widely in surface and subsurface installations, (Krishnaswamy and Issac, 1995), Crushed stone wrapped in geotextiles have often been used as surface and subsurface drains. Perforated plastic pipes too may be used for this purpose. They may be filled with crushed stones, if necessary.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Example 7.1 At a given site, a boring supplemented with standard penetration tests was done upto 15.0 m depth. Tht results of the boring are as given below:
Depth (m) 1.5 3.0 4,5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0  13.0 15.0 Classification of soils SP SP SM SM SM SP SW
' SW
NValue
DR (%) 19 30 35 40 45 52 52
46
Remarks
3 5 6 9 '. 12 17 20
18
(i) Position of watt table lies 1.5 m below the grour surface
(ii)
'YmOiSI =
19 kN/r
SW SW
0.22 0.24
24 30
60 65
'Ysub = 10 kN/m
.'
iquefaction' of Soils
333..
The site is located in seismic ally ,active region, and is likely to be subjected by 'an earthquake ,of
(a) Seed and Idriss (1971) method (i) From Fig. 7.42, For M = 7.5, D = 106 Km From Eq. 7.31, amax = 0.984 x 10(0.302 x 1.5) x 10~.8 = 0.083 g 9.81 Number of significant cycles (Table 7.3), Ns = 20 (For M = 7.5) (ii) From Eq. (7.25)~
'tav
= 0.65yh.  g . rd
= 0.054 Y h rd
amax
= 0.65 x Y h x (0.083) rd
It may be noted that y h represents the total stress at depth h below ground surface. Value of rd are read
from Fig. 7.25. Values of total stress, ad and 'tav at different depths are given in Cols, 3 and 5 of Table 7.7. (iii) For 50% relative density, the stress ratio ad/2a3 is read from Figs. 7.22a and'b for given values of,Dso' Average of the two values is the stress ratio for number of significant cycles equal to 20.
The stress causing liquefactionat any depth is then, c9mputedusing Eq. 7.22. .
ad
'th=
'.
DR
'
( 2a 3 ) 50%"50.Cr.av
Table 7.8.
Values of Cr are .obtained using Table 7.2. The details of computations of 'rh are summarised in
.
Table 7.7 : Computation of 'ray S.No. (m) (I) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1p. Depth (kN/m2) (2) 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 .15.0
Total stress rd
tal' (kN/m2)
(3) 28.50 58.50 88.50 118.50 148.50 178.50 208.50 238.50 268.50 298.50 (4) 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.92' 0.91 0.90
(5) 1.52 3.10 4.64 6.21 7.69 9,14 10.54 11.90 13.23 14.51
3:J~;,
Id
.),' :"
& Machine
Foundatiolls
7.8 Computations'
of 'thfrom DR
(1971) Metbod"
, .rh/a!,
No
Depth
(m)
Effective stress. cr
(kN/m2)
Cr
.rh
;,
(kN/nO 19 30 35 40 45 52 52 46 60 65 0.55 0.55 ,0.55, 0.55 0.555 0.573 0.573 0.556 0.60 0.61 0.2198 0.2260 0.2012 . ' 0.2074 0.2043 0.2136 0.2260 0.2298 0.2298 0.3336 1.31 3.24. 4.53, 6..71 9.03 13.17 15.96 15.69 24.57 30.29
.'
I. 2. 3, 4. 5. 6.
1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5. 15.0
28.50 43.50 58.50 73.50 88.50 103.50 118.50 133.50 148.50 163.50
7. 8. 9, 1O,
(b) S,eed (1979) Method. " . '( i) In. this method, the value of shear' stress at any depth induced 'by the earthq",lake is obtained , ,.;'. exactly in th,e same manner as illustrated in Seed and ldriss (1971) method (Table 7.7) (ii) To de,termine 1:hfirstly Nvalues are corrected for effective overburden pressure using Fig. 7.39. The stress rati<?1: hla v is then obtained using the relevant curve of Fig. 7.41 for the given value of corrected N. The details of computations are ~iven in Table 7.9.
Table 7.9 : Detail of Computations S.No. Depth (m) (2) N Va/ue
",
Corrected
N stress
(5) (1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6:7.. 8. 9. 10. (3) (4) (6)
. ."
(7)
>
1.5
3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12,0 13.5 15.0
3
5 6 9 12 17 20 18 24 30
4
6 7 10 13 17
' 18
28.50:,
43.50 58.50 73.50 88.50 103.50 118.50 133.50 148.50 163.50
0.045
0.067 0.079 0.113 0.146 0.191 0.194 0.183 0.225 0.269
'
"
'1.28
 2.91
17
" 20
I
25 .
l'UeTattwn
ofSolls:
,'"
,<""
I Iwasaki's
Method
. , . , ,,' .. '
0.35 R .= 0.882~
V~:+ 70,
+0.225 loglO
50
Method
R
S,No,
      (I) 1. 2. 3.
4,
'          (mm)              (3) 28.50 43.50 58.50 73.50 88.50 103.50 118.50 133.50 148.50 163.50,' (4) 0.18 0.20 ' 0.12 ,0.14 0.13 .0.16 0,20 0.22 0.22 0.24
/.
2 (kN/m )
ay
(5) 3 5 6 ,9 12 17 20 18 24
" 30
(6) 0.2189 0.2398 0.2950 0.3104 0.3394 0.3525 0.3419 0.3077 0.3377 0:3464
4.5
6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15:0
"
.'
L =
.
a
d
The details of computations are given in Table 7.11. The ratio of factor of safety RlL is listed in the
astcolumnofTable7.11.
, .,"
",'
'.,
' ,
of Obtaining
Liquefaction rei
(4) 0,9,9
Potential
by Iwasaki's J\1ethod L
(5)
,
.
(I).. (2)
,).5., 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 . ; 9.0
., ,Depth
(m). ,
. crJcrv'"
'. (3), 1.000 1.345 1.513 '!' .' .1.612 . ~, '1.678 ' '1.725
FL
(6)
L. 2. 3. 4.
5,
. 6: 7,
. . , 0.1369
0.1362 0.1363 , 0.136,1
:
0.90
2.4 78 2.545
...
336
In Table 7.12, summary of different methods are given. It is evident from this table that liquefaction ,tl occurs only uptoL5 m depth according to Seed and Idriss (1971) method, 3.0 m depth according to Seed $' (1979) method; and no liquefaction according to Iwasaki's method. Table 7.12 : Summary of Different Methods
S.No,
Depth t'av
t'h th
Seed (1979) (kN/m2) 1.28 2.91 4.62 8.30 12.92 19.77 22.99 24.43 31.93 43.98
'I
/wasaki method
FL (R/L)
method (1971) (kNlm2) 1.31 3.24 4.53 6.71 9.03 13.17 15.96 15.69 24.57 30.29
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0
1.52 3.10 4.64 6.21 7.69 9.14 10.54 11.90 13.23 14.51
2.670 2.196 2.427 2.397 2.544 2.597 2.498 2.260 2.4 78 2.545
Arya, A. S., ~andakumaran, p" Puri, V. K. and S. Mukerjee, (1978), "Verification of liquefaction potential by field
blast tests", Proc. 2nd. International Conference on Microzonation, Seattle, USA, Vol. II, p. 865. Bowles, 1. E. (1982), "Foundation analysis and design", McGraw Hill Book Co. SIngapore. Casagrande, A. (1965), "The role of the calculated risk in earthwork and foundation engineering", 1. Geotech, Engg. Div., ASCE, Vo\. 91, No. SM4, pp: 140, Proc. Paper 4390. Castro, G. (1969), "Liquefaction of sands", Harvard Soil Mechanics Series No. 81, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts:
Castro, G. (1975), "Liquefaction and cyclic 'mobility of saturated sands", Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 10L(GTS), pp. 551569. Castro, G. and S. 1. Poulos (1976), "Factors affecting liquefaction and cyclic mobility ", Symposium on Soil liquefaction, ASCE, National Connvention, Philadelphia, pp. 105138. Christian, J. T. and W. 'F. Swiger (1976), "Statistics of liquefaction and S.P.T. results", 1. Geotech. Engg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 101,No. G T 11, pp. 11351150. . Corps of Engineers, U. S. Dept. of the Army (1939), "Report of the slide of a portion of the upstream face at fort peck dam", U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. DeAlba, P., H. B., Seed, and C. K. Chan (1976), "Sand liquefaction in large scale simple shear tests", J. Geotech. Engin. Div., ASCE, Vol. 102, No. GT9, pp. 909927. Dunn, J. A., 1. B. Auden and A. M. N. Ghosh (1939), "The Bihar Nepal earthquake of 1934", Mem. Geol. Surv., India, Vo\. 73, p. 32. . Finn, W. D. L., P. L. Bransby and D. 1. Pickering (1970), "EffeCtof strain history on liquefaction of sands", 1. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE, Vat. 96, No: SM 6, pp. 1971':J934.
'
Liquefaction of Soils
337
Finn, W. D. L, J. J. Emery and Y. P. Gupta (1970), "A shaking table study of the liquefaction of saturated sands during earthquakes", Proc. Third Europ. Symp., Earthquake Engin., pp. 253262. Florin, V.A., and P. L Ivanov .(1961), '~Liquefactionof saturated sandy soils", Proc. Fifth Into Conf. Soil mech. Found. Engin., Paris, V01. 1, pp. 107111. Gupta, M. K. and S. Mukherjee (1979), "Blast tests for liquefaction studies", Proc. International Symposium on Insitu Testing of Soil and Rock and Performance of Structures, Roorkee, India; vel. I, p. 253. Geuze, E. (1948), "Critical density of some dutch sands", Proc. 2nd ICSMFE, vol. 1Il, pp. 12513{). ... Gupta, M. K. (1979), "Liquefaction of sands during earthquakes", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Roorkee, India. Hall, E. C. (1962), "Compacting of a dam foundation by blasting", ASCE Journal, Vol. 80. Hazen, A. (1920), "Hydraulic fill dams", ASCE Transactions, Vol. 83, pp. 17131745. Housner, G. W. (1958), "Mechanics of sand blows", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., Vo1.48, No. 2, pp. 155168. lshibashi, 1.and sherif, M.A. (1974), "Soil liquefaction by torsional simple shear device", Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 100, G T 8, pp. 871888. Katsumi, M. M. Maraya and T. Miteuru (1988), "Analysis of gravel drain.against liquefaction and its application to design", IXth WCEE, Tokyo, vol. Ill, pp. 249254. Kishida, H. (1966), "Damage' of reinforced concrete bu,ildings in Niigata city with special reference to foundation engineering", Soil Found. Engin. (Tokyo), Vo\. 9, No. \, pp. 7592. .~, . . Koppejan, A. W. ,Wamelen, B. M. and L J. Weinberg (1948), "Coastal flow slides in the dutch province of seeland", Proc. 2nd lCSMFE, Vo\. 5, pp. 8996, Rotterdam. Krishnamaswamy, N. R. and N. T. lssac (1995), "Liquefaction analysis of saturated reinforced granular soil", ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 9, pp. 645652. Krishna, J. and S. Prakash (1968), "Blast tests at obra dam site", J. Inst. Engin. (India), Vol. 47, No. 9, pt. CI5, pp.
12731284. ..,'
Kuizumi, Y.{1966), "Change in density of Sand subsoil caused by the Niigata earthquake", Soil Found. Engin. (Tokyo), Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 3844. Kuribayshi, E., Tatsuoka, F.and Yoshida, S. (1977), "History of earthquake induced soilliquefactiori in Japan", Bulletion of PWRI, 31. Kuwabara, F. and Yoshumi, Y. (1973), "Effect of sub surface liquefaction on strength of surface soil", ASCE, JGE,.
VoI.19,No.2.
Lee, K. L , and C. K. Chan (1972), "Number of equivalent significant cycles in strong motion earthquakes", Proc. , First lnt. Conf., Microzonation, Seattle, Vol. 2, pp. 609627. Lee, K. L. and H. B. Seed (1967), "Cyclic stress conditions causing liquefaction of sands", J. Soil Mech. Found, Div., ASCE, Yo\. 93, No. SMI, pp. 4770. Lew, M. (1984), "Risk and mitigation of liquefaction hazard", Proc. YIIlth WCEE, Yol. I, pp. 183190. Lyman, A: R. N. (1942), "Compaction of cohesionless foundation soil by explosive", ASCE Trans., Yo\. 107. Maslov, N. N. (1957), "Questions of seismic stability of submerged sandy foundations and structures", Proc. Forth Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Engin., London, Vol. 1, pp. 368372. Matsuo, H. and S. Ohara (1960), "Lateral earth pressure and stability of quay walls", Proc. Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Vol. 1, pp. 165182. Middlebrooks, T. A. (1942), "Fort peck slide", ASCE Transactions, Vol. 107, pp. 723764. Ohasaki, Y. (1966), "Niigata earthquake 19'64,.buildingdamag~ and soil conditions", Soil ~ound.(Tokyo), Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 1437. ,', : Ohasaki, Y. (1970), ;"Effectsof sand.c~mpacti~n on liquefaction during the Tokachioki earthquak~",,S()il. fQ.und.
,
' ,
. (Tokyo),Yol.;.lO,No.2,'pp.";t112J28...
';,
'.I'
! i. ',!
"',
338
Soil Dynamics
Ohara, S. and T. Tamamoto (1987)" "Fundamental study on gravel pile.method for preventing liquefaction", ECEE 87, pp. 5.3/4148. Peacock, W. H. and H. B. Seed (1968), "Sand liquefaction under cyclic loading simple shear conditions", 1. Soil Mech. Found., Div., ASCE, Vol. 94, No. SM 3, pp. 689708. Prakash, S. (1981), "Soil dynamics", McGraw HillBook Co. Prakash, S. and M. K.Gupta (1970a), "Final report on liquefaction and settlement characteristics of loose sand '" under vibrations", Proc. International Conference on Dynamic Waves in Civil Engineering, Swansea,
.
pp. 323328~'
"Blast tests at Tenughat dam site", 1. Southeast Asian Soc. Soil mech. Found.
.
Engin (Bangkok), Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 4150. Prakash, S. and M. K. Gupta (1970c), "Liquefaction and settlement characteristics of Ukai dam sand", Bull Indian Soc. Earthquake Tech. (Roorkee), Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 123132, Prakasn, S. and mathur, 1. N. (1965), "Liquefaction of fine sand under dynamic loads", Proc. 5th Symposium ofthl Civil and Hydraulic Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore., India Seed, H. B. and K. L. Lee (1966), "Liquefaction of saturated sands during cyclic loading", ASCE, JGE, VoL 92, No SM 6, pp, 10534,
. .
Seed, H. B. and Idriss, L M, (1971), "Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential", Journal of So; mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 97, SM9, pp, 12491273. . Seed, H. B" Lee, K, L. , Idriss, L M. and F. L Makdisi (1971), "The slides in the San Fernando dams during tlearthquake of Feb, 7, 1971", Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Proceedings, ASCI VoL 101,No.GT7.
.
Seed; H. B. and Booker, 1.R. (1976), "Stabilisation of potentially liquefiable sand deposits using Gravel dra system", Report No. EERC 7610, Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, University of Califc nia, Berkeley. Seed, H, B. (1976a), "Some aspects of sand liquefaction under cyclic loading", Conference on Behaviour of 0' shore Structures, The Norwegian Institute of Technology, Norway. Seed, H. B. (1976b), "Evaluation of soil liquefaction effects on level ground during earthquakes", State of the f Paper, Symposiumon Soil Liquefaction, ASCENationalConvention,Philadelphia, pp. 1104. Seed, H. B. (1979), "Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility evaluation for level ground during earthquakes", 1.Geote Engin. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. GT2, pp. 201255. Seed, H. B., I.Arango and C. K. Chan (1975), "Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential during earthquakes", ReJ: on EERC, 7528, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. Seed, H. B. and L M, Idriss (1967), "Analysis of soil liquefaction Niigata earthquake", J. Soil mech. Found. D ASCE, yoL 93, No. SM 3, pp. 83108. ' Seed, H. B. , K. Mori and C. K. Chan (1977), "Influence of seismic history on liquefaction of sands", J.Geolt Engin. Div., ASCE, VoL 103, No. G T 4, pp. 246270. Seed, H. B., and W. H. Peacock (1971), "Test procedures for measuring soil liquefaction characteristics", 1. Mech. Found. Div., ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM 8, pp. 10991199. . Susumu, I. A. I. , Koizimi, K., Node, S. and H. Ysuchia (1988), "Large scale model tests and analysis of Gr drains", IXth WCEE, Tokyo, Vol. III,pp. 261266. Terzaghi, K. and R. B. Peck (1967), "Soil mechanics in engineering practice", John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New 'r Wang, S. (1984), "Experimental study on liquefaction inhibiting effect of gravel drains", Proc. VIII WCEE, Cal . nia, Vol. 1, pp. 207214. .
.
Liquefaction of Soils
339
Yasushi, S. and Taniquchi, E. (1982), "Large scale shaking table tests on the effectiveness of Gravel drains", Earth"
.Yosufurni, T., Kokusho, G. and Matsui (1984), "On preventing liquefaction of level ground using Gravel pnes",
<'
,Yoshimi, Y. 'and H. Ohaka (1973), "A ring torsion apparatus for simple shear tests", Proc. 8th International Con' . ' ference on Soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 12, Moscow, USSR.. . Yoshimi, Y. (1967), "Experimental study of liquefaction of saturated sands""Soil Found. (Tokyo), Vol. 7, No. 2 pp.
'.", ,2032. ,,' " " :
saturated sands"" " Soil FolJnd.(Tokyo), Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 2740.
'
'
'
'
"'..
,."'"
,,',
,'C'
,',
..'
','
:,
,..',,',;
,:
.."
,,
L,
'
!'..'"
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
,
:
,'..
7.1 Explain the terms 'initial liquefaction', 'liquefaction' and 'cyclic mobility'. Illustrate your an.
,s~er 'with
"
neat
~ketches.
'
'
"...
7.2 listand ,
7.3 Give the salient features of the liquefaction studies made by (a) triaxial tests, (b) shake table tests, and (c) blast tests.
'
'/>'
7.5 At a given site boring supplement with SPT was done' upto 20.0 m depth. The results of the boring are as given below': " . '. ~ . :
,
, '
'
Depth
Classification
D50
NValue
'DR"
, ,(%)
Remarks"
, ,"I, ;, .f
(m)
;'.2,0
of soils
SM ,
(mm)
0.20 . ,,4
25
(i)
Position
of water
SM SP SP SP SP
,
4 5 7 9 I0
',' 12 "
30 33, 40 43 ~' 45
52
16,0
18.0
SW
, ::'
SP'
0.30
0.32
14
16
56
60
SW
20.0
SM '.
0.20
18'
.'
,~3
.
.~
This ~jte is 10catedTD.s~{smically ,actIve region, ,and the .likely to be subject~4 by an ~aitliquak~,of magnitude liquefaction ,by the three methods mentioned in Prob. 7.4. ;, ' 7.5. Determine',:ih~"zoneof , ,"',. " . '
" ,.. <':1 ':'.. t' , ; ,, .; , '. :. .,..'" , , . '; " DLJ u
the vibration levels producedby the machine, otherwisedeformationwill increasewith each cycle (
loading and excessive settlement may occur. The most important parameters for the design of a machir foundation are: (i) natural frequency of the machinefoundationsoil system; and (ii) amplitude of ID! tion of the machine at its operating frequency. 8.2 TYPES OF MACHINES AND FOUNDATIONS There are various types of machines that generate different periodic forces. The main categories are: 8.2.1. Reciprocating Machines. These include steam, diesel and gas engines, compressors and pum; The basic mechanism of a reciprocating machine consists of a piston that moves within a cylinder connecting rod, a piston rod and a crank. The crank rotates with a constant angular velocity. Figure shows the outline of a typical Gangsaw in which the out of balances forces may lead to vibration pr' lems. The operating speeds of reciprocating machines are usually smaller than 1000 rpm. Large feci! cating engines, compressors and blowers generally operate at frequencies ranging with in 50250 r Reciprocating engines such as diesel and gas engines usually operate within 3001000 rpm. ~ The magnitude of the unbalanced forces and moments depend upon the number of cylinders iD machine, their size, piston displacement and the direction of mounting. The mechanism developiDf of balance inertia forces for a single crank is ~hown in Fig. 8.2. It consists of a piston of mass mp~ 'within a cylinder,"a connecting rod AB of ma~smr and crank AO of mass mewhich rotates abou~JI at ~freq~ency 00.The centre of g~avity of the connecting"rod is lo~ated at a distance L) from PO1~' "the rotatmg masses are to be partially or fully balanced, counterweights of mass mwmay be locat~ their centre of gravity at point c"
c~
341
,,'
"
, '..
,E In C 0 lit C
log teed
Uppu slide
b aock
Saw 'Modes
lower said~ block
"
... '
., E
,'r',
c.onn~ctin9
rod
a. > c.ounter ~
weight Fly wheel
. .,. . ..
.'" '
Foundation block
. "'.
 " . . . '. .. .
Piston
mp,"
"'., '"
,,
, 0, ..
'..
"""
"
'v COUnt,,...~ttt
>
z
Fig. 8.2 : Crank mechanism
1RUP...&4i.
Foundation
Design
341
,,'
" '
,E In
Logteed l.
Saw 'blad~s
Lower slide block
c: 0
,
UppuSl~,de., blO'ck
lit
c: ., E
'0
 '0'1' u
.
Q. > c.ounter ~ w~ight
c.onnecting
rod
Fly whul
. .'" .
':: :
foundation block
... "'.
 '" ,..',".
Piston
mp,"
"'., ".
,', " 0, ..
"
''J' ..
"v
Count~.. '7~t
,~'
342
,"
In order to simply the analysis of the motion of the connecting rod, the mass mr is replaced by two equivalent masses; one rotating with the crank pin A, the other translating with the wrist pin B. The inertia forces can then b~ e~pre~sed in.t(:OI1s of thtHotal rotating 'mass (mrot)and the total reciprocating mass (mrec)'The total rotating'mass is a'ssumedto be con~entrated at the crank pin A. r2 L2' r;'
=,'me+  mr~ mw
' L
+~ LI
'
,ri'
...(8.1) ...(8.2)
mrec
mp
L mr
'
C .'
Jt
r. 2CJ:) 2
F : mre c: 1
cos 2 u.J t
",
'.
~
0./
.
';~
1r
2'1r
'
..
00'
31T "
L.1T
.'
,:,,;.'
. ' ...\
,.'
,. ;; ~:!'~
'" 
Design
343
= (mrot +
'
2 (0 cos 2 0> t,
'
" ..,.(S.3)
lchhas a primary component (F1 acting at the frequency of rotation, and a secondary component (F") [ng at twice the rotation frequency. Fz = Ft + F" ...(S.4) And in the y direction
2
. ,
,,':
,,'
""'' I
'
ectlon becomes
Fy = mrot . rl 0> sm 0>t .,.(S.5) The time variations of these inertia forces are illustrated in Fig. S.3. If. the rotating mass is balanced, the inertia force in the y direction disappears and that. in the z
,,',',
'
"
, '1 ',:
'
,
.'
"
"
"
." '
F; = mree r 1 ,.,2 VJ
,
..'
0'
',"
"'
COS Cl) t
+ rl cos 20) t
L'
"
..,
( S, 6)
The amplitude of the primary (F:nax)and secondary (F;ax) inertia forces are then relat~da~J.ollQWs' F"
max
r, = ~ Ft L max
'; ..:(8,7f
The preceding development relates to a single cylinder machine, which possesses unba~ancedpriary and secondary forces. As more cylinders are added the unbalanced forces and couples are modified shown in Table 8.1 (Newcomb, 1951). With a six cylinders machine complete balance is achieved. Different crank arrangements pertaining tot,able S.l are shown in Fig. S.4.
x
(a)
~
Intincz cytindczr (b)
~
Qpposczd cytindczr
lM
(c)
y
(d)
~
(e)
0
h1u(I)
1~
+~
C ran ks at 90
(g)
Cranks at 180
A
.' ,"
J:m,1;t
(h)
Fig. 8.4 Different crank arrangements: (a) Single cr;ank(b) Two cranks at 180(c) Two cranks at 90 (d) Two cylinders at 90 on one crank (e)T,io'op~s;d ~yllnders ~~one crank (g) Four cylinders (h) Six cylinders ', .".. ...:\
, .! 1 ~..:. :_~,~
"""""~>""">"';";""';""'.
"i"
"
:C
:If'
j
344
,
Soil Dynamics & Mac/,ine Foundations ,~, "
,.
Reciprocating machines are very frequently encountered in practice. Usually the following two types of foundations are used for such machines: ," ; (a) Block type foundation consisting of a pedestal of concrete on which the machine rests (Fig. 8.5). ; "Cb) Box or Caisson type foundation consisting a hollow concrete block supporting the machinery on its top (Fig. 8.6). "
;
,
':
',..., .
8.2.2. Impact Machines. These include machines like forging hammers, punch presses, and stamping machines which produce impact loads. Forge hamIners are divided into two groups: drop hammers for die stamping and forge hammers proper. These machines consist of falling ram, an anvil, and a frame (Fig. 8.7). The speeds of operation usually range from 50 to 150 blows per minute. The dynamic load~ attain a peak in a very short interval and then practically die out.
'
Anvil

:etll!rilf'Principles 'ofMddtitte'Ft1tIiidation
Design
'345
:able' 8.1 : Unbalanced Forc:esalid Couples for Different CFank Arrangements (Newcomb, 1951)
Crack arrangements
Forces ,
'
Couples
.
Primary
Secondary
Fit
,Primary
0
, :Secondary
..F' without counter wts. (0.5) F' with counter wts. 7. Two cranks at 1800 Inline cylinders Opposed cylinders 0 0 (0.707) F' with counter wts. 1. Two cylinders on
, one crank, cylinders at 90 F' without counter wts. 0 with counter wts.
:0
0 :0 0
(1.41) F' 0 without counter wts. E" 0 (0.707) F' 0 with counter wts.
0 0
1.41 F"
, .
0
,
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
(1.41) F'O without counterwts. (0.707) F' 0 with counterwts. 0
0
'(4.0) F" 0 0
F' = primary force; F" = secondary force; 0 = cylindercentre distance Impact machines may also be mounted on block foundations, but their details would be quite different from those of reciprocating machines.
8.2.3. Rotary Machines. These include high speed machines such as turbogenerators, turbines, and rotary compressors which operate at frequencies of the order of 3000 rpm to 10000 rpm. Associated with these machines there maybe a consider~ble amount of auxiliary equipment such as condensers, coolers and pumps witl1connectingpipework and ducting. To accomodate theseauxiljary 'equipments a common foundation arrangement is a two storey frame structure with the turbine located on the upper slab and 'the auxiliary equipment placed beneath, the upper slab being flush with the floot .level of machine ?all (Fig. 8.8).
~
,0,
.'
~""
,.__'0'
'0'.
eo
"'
+ '
._
'...
0"
'0'" ..
0',.
i +.tt~JJ\;
0./ '
0.)
\' ,it
Co<
..
.~.. ~
346
Turbin~
G ~ n ~ ra tor Floor
. "....
==:J
L1m~
Upper
stab
c::.
'::';.'~':: ..
u ':
, ,.
: ::.
. .:'
 '0"' ",
. :.':"'"
',.
Base stab
Fig. 8.8 : Concrete frame turbogenerator foundation
Rotating machinery is balanced before erection. However, in actual operation some inbalance always exists. It means that the axis of rotation lies at certain eccentricity with respect to principal axis of inertia of the whole unit. Although the amount of eccentricity is small in rotary machines the unbalanced force may be large due to their high speed. Figure 8.9 a shows a typical rotating mass type oscillator in which a single mass me is placed on a rotating shaft at an eccentricity e from axis of rotation. The unbalanced forces produced by such a system in vertical and horizontal directions are given by
Fy
= me e ol sin rot
FH
= me e cos rot
...
3 c
...(8.8 a) ...(8.8 b)
In UN /
F ::
me
~(A)l
'
F::me~w2
F( , f .)F /
""
,.c.
347
Figure 8.9b shows two equal masses mounted on two parallel shafts at the same eccentricity, the 1aft rotating in opposite directions with the same angular velocity. Such an arrangement produces an ;;cillating force with a controlled direction. For the arrangement shown in Fig. 8.9b, horizontal force )mponents cancel and the vertical components are added to give F = 2 me e 002 sin 00t .3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF MACHINE FOUNDATIONS or the satisfactory design of a machine foundation, the following requirements are met: 1. The combined centre of gravity of the machine and foundation should as far as possible be in the same vertical line as the centre of gravity of the base plane. 2. The foundation should be safe against shear failure.
.
...(8.9)
3. The settlement and tilt of the foundation should be within permissible limits. 4. No resonance should occur; that is the natural frequency of the machinefoundationsoil system should not coincide with the operating frequency of the machine. Generally, a zone of resonance is defined and the natural frequency of the system should lie outside this zone. If 00represents the operating frequency of the machine and oonas the natural frequency of the system, then
(a) In reciprocating machines (IS: 2974 pt 11982) For important machines: 0.5 >
For ordinary machines:
> 2.0
"
(On
(0
0.6 > 
> 1.5
(On
> 1.5
0.8 > ; n > 1.25 It may be noted that where natural frequency of system oonis below the operating frequency of machine 00,the amplitudes during the transient resonance should be considered. For low speed machines, the natural frequency should be high, and vice versa. When natural frequency is lower than the operating speed, the foundation is said to be low tuned or under tuned, when the natural frequency is higher than the operating speed, it is high tuned or over tuned. 5. The amplitude of motion at operating frequencies should not exceed the permissible amplitude. In no case the permissible amplitude should exceed the limiting ampli~~e of the machine which is, prescribed by the manufacturer. . . . . 6. 'The vibra'tiOli~ must not be amloying to the persons working in the fact~iy or be damaging to other precis;.on machines. Th~ '~ahiie 'of vibrations that are perceptible, annoying, or harmful depends on the frequency of the vibrations and the amplitudes of motion. Ri~rt (1962) devel
~~~":".:,.':;;;:';';;"';":,:";::,L_:~,_':"'".:1:L''~U:t
"'"
" '";,,,
."",
,"""
"
348
oped a plot for vibrations (Fig, 8,10) that gives various limits of frequency and amplitude for different purposes, In this figure, the envelop described by the shaded line indicates only a limit for safety and not a limit for satisfactory operation of machines,
0 .
0
0
0
0
0
N
0
0
o.
.....g 0
U1
.....
0, N
0
0
U1
0 .....
'/
0 '"
A
0
0 N
"o
0
r
0
)"D q.;>0 )( 0"
') ,o
,
oCO '1
.0
..... 0 0 0 N
0
'" )"D
"D"""
"
,>0
0'" ",Y>
0
)"D
0"
" 0 3 0 0
V'1 0 0 0 ..... 0 .. 0 0 0
for a particular
8.4 PERMISSIBLE AMPLITUDE For the design of machine foundation, the values of permi~sible amplitudes suggested by Bureau Indian St~ndards for the foundations 'of different typ~s of~chines.are given:"", in Table 8,_2, , ,t, 'i' "," ,. "',;', ",. ',"",','" '
,x/A (~,N~ ;: :~
" ,.,; ',"
'0 .  .
.'
, ., .." , .
,.
eral Principles of Machine Foundation Design Table 8.2: Values of Permissible Amplitudes for Foundations of Different Machines
,
349
No.
Type of machine
Permissible amplitude mm
.
Reference
I. 2,
3.
Reciprocating machines Hammer. (a) For foundation block (b) For anvil Rotary machines (a) Speed < 1500 rpm (b) Speed 1500 to 3000 rpm
0.2 1.0 to 2.0 1.0 to 3,0 0.2 0.4 to 0.6 Vertical vibration 0.7 to 0.9 Horizontal vibration 0.2 to 0.3 Vertical vibration 0.4 to 0.5 Horizontal vibration
 IV)
III): 1992
Permissible amplitude dependents on the weight of tup, lower value for 10 kN tup and higher value for the tup weight equal to' 30 kN or higher. ..
,5 ALLOW ABLE SOIL PRESSURE he allowable soil pressure should be evaluated by adequate subsoil exploration and testing hi accormce with IS: 19041978, The soil stress below the foundation,s,hallnot exceed 80 percent of the allow)le soil pressure. When seismic forces are considered, the a1f6wablesoil pressure may be increased as ~ecified in IS: 18931978. .6 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES OF CONCRETE AND STEEL or the construction ofthe foundation of a machine MI5 or M20 or M25 concrete in accordance with IS: .561978 shall be used. The allowable stresses of concrete and steel shall be reduced to 40 percent for oncrete and 55% for steel, if the detailed design of foundation and components is limited to static load )f foundati'Jn and machine. Considering temperature and all other loadings together, these assumed ,tresses may be exceeded by 33.5 percent. Alternatively, full value of stresses for concrete and steel as ;pecified in IS: 4561978 may be used if dynamic loads are separately considered in detailed design by lpplying suitable creep and fatigue factors. The following dynamic moduli of concrete may be used in the design: Grade of Concrete MI5 M20 M25 M30
Dynamic elastic modulus (kN/m2) 2.5 x 107 3.0 x 107 3.4 x 107 3.7 x 107
"',
.....
'~"'"'
"'"""'""'''
''
"""'"
'"'
',..""
(~~.
350
'".
8.7 PERMISSffiLE
STRESSES OF TIMBER
The timber is generally used under the anvil of hammer foundations. Grade of timber is specified accord\'> ing to the size of defects like knots, checks etc. in the timbe~ Timber is thus classified into three grades." Select, Grade I and Grade H. The best quality timber having minimum or no defects at all is of the select ~rade. ?rade I timber is one hav~g. defects not larger than the ~peci~ed ones. Grade H t~mberi.spoore~ In quahty than grade I. The permissible values of stresses are given IDTable 8.3 for species of timber of grade I. In machIne'foundations timber of select grade is used. The permissible stresses of timber given in Table 8.3 may be multiplied by 1.16 to get the permissible stress of timber of select grade. t Table 8.3  Minimum PermissibleStress Limits (N/mm2)in Three Groups of Struc,turalTimbers (For Grade I Material)
S.No. Strength Character
Location of Use
(i)
Inside(2)
(ii)
All locations All locations Inside(2) Inside(2) All locations and grade 11.1 4.0 12.6 1.8 2.5 9.8 4.9 1.1 5.6
Compression parallel to grain Compression perpendicular to grain Modulus of elasticity (x 103 N/mm2)
(I) The values of horizontal shear to be used only for beams. In all other cases shear along grain to be used":
(2) For working stresses for other locations of use, that is out side and wet, generally
The permissible bearing pressures on other elastic materials such as felt, cork and rubber are gener.J ally given by the manufactureres of these materials. No specific values are recommended here since theY4 vary in wide limits. . , 1
...
.. .
", "'~ }  . .I; ..
 ,
'
..
9.1 GENERAL Reciprocating machines are common in use. Steam engines, internal combustion engines (e.g. diesel, and gas engines), pumps and compressors fall in this category of machines. Block type or box type foundations are used for reciprocating machines. For the satisfactory performance of the machinefoundation system, the requirements given in sec. 8.3 should be fulfilled. For this, one has to obtain (i) the natural frequency of the system, and (ii) the amplitude of foundation during machine operation. In this chapter, methods have been presented to obtain these two parameters in different modes of vibration. The basic assumptions made in the analyses are: (i) the foundation block is considered to have only interial properties and to lack elastic properties, and (ii) the soil is considered to have only elastic properties and to lack properties of interia. Design steps and illustrative examples are given at the end of the chapter. 9.2 MODES OF VIBRATION OF A RIGID FOUNDATION BLOCK A rigid block has, in general, six degrees of freedom. Three of them are translations along the three principal axes and the other three are rotations about the three axes. Thus, under the action of unbalanced forces, the rigid block may undergo .vibrations as follows (fig. 9.1) :
1. Translation along Z axis 2. Translation along Y axis
 Vertical

vibration
3. Translation along X axis  Lateral or sliding vibration 4. Rotation about Z axis  Yawing motion 5. Rotation about Y axis  Rocking vibration
6. Rotation about X axis
The vibratory modes may be 'decoupled' or 'coupled'. Ofthe six modes, translation along Z axis and rotation around the Z axis can occur independently ot any other motion and are called decoupled modes. However, translation along the X or Y axis and the corresponding rotation about the Y or X axis, respectively, always occur together and are called coJlpled modes. Therefore the dynamic analysis of a block foundation should be carried out for the following cases: (i) Uncoupled translatory motion along Z axis i.e. vertical vibration.
(ii) Coupled sliding and rocking motion of the foundation in X Z and Y  Z planes passing through
the common centre of gravity of machine and foundation. (iii) Uncoupled twisting motion about Z axis.
353
A rigid block being ~ problem of six degrees of freedom has six natural frequencies. The natural requency is determined in a particular mode (decoupled or coupled) and compared with the operating requency. Similarly, amplitude is worked out in a particular mode and compared with the permissible
~.
vczrtical
'
Rocking
~',
+X
Latczral
/ "
9.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS The following two methods are commonly used for analysing a machine foundation: (i) Linear .elastic weightless spring method (Barkan, 1962) (ii) Elastic half
In the first method which is proposed by Barkan (1962), soil is replaced by elastic springs. In developing the analysis the ,effects of damping andpartidpating soil 'mass are neglected. Damping does not affect the natural.frequency of thesystem appreciably, but. it affects resonant amplitudes considerably:
Since the zone of" resonance is avoided in designing !I1achine foundations,the effect of dampingon
amplitudes computed at operating frequency is also $mall. Hence neglecting, damping may not affect the design apPI:eciably,and if any that on the conservative side. Empirical methods have been suggested to obtain the soil ma~s ,participating'in vibration. '
'
In the elastic halfspace method,;:,!he"machine:foundation is idealised as a vibrating mechanical oscillator with.a circular' base resting ~Il,the~surface;ofgroumLThe .ground is assumed to bean elastic, homogeneous, isotropicf;semi~infiriit~ody~~whichis referredto.asanelastic halfspace. This approach is apparently more rational, but relatively more complicated.
.
354
>i
In the above two methods, the effect of side soil resistance is not considered that is the foundation is assumed to rest on the ground surface. 9.4 LINEAR ELASTIC WEIGHTLESS SPRING METHOD Barkan (1962) has given the analysis of block foundation in following modes of vibration: (i) Vertical vibration (ii) Pure sliding vibration (iii) Pure rocking vibration (iv) Coupled sliding and rocking vibration (v) Yawing motion
Machinq;
L<zv<z1
'"
Of
L
Soil
Fig. 9.2: Block foundation
Let us consider a block foundation of base contact area A placed at a depth Dfbelow the ground level (Fig. 9.2). Neglectingthe effect of side soil resistance and considering soil as weightless elastic material,
the machine
 foundation
soil system can be idealised to massspring system shown in Fig. 9.3 a to 9.3 e
for different modes of vibration. Barkan (1962) had introduced the following soil parameters which yield the spring stiffnesses of soil in various modes: (a) Coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C,) : It is defined as the ratio of compressive stress applied to a rigid foundation bl~ck to the 'elastic' part of the settlement induced consequently. Thus Cu =!!.L (Fig. 9.3 a) Sez It is used in vertical vibration mode. From defmition, spring constant Kz
K=
z
...(9.2)
Load
elastic deformation
qz A ==C.A
Sez
...(9.3 )
.
355
.1 Fz<t)
t Fz(t)
 m
Fz K.Z = Se2
L


~~.
f
..,
ez
m
.
I I
I I .
I
. .
Fx (t)
I
I I
..
,
Kx
(b) Pure sliding vibration
.'
Fx (t),
. ..
Fx KX = Sex
,
,.
....
I
+I~'Sex I
I "'7jN...
I I I
I
 My(t)
""""
'"7
I I I I I I I
My(t)
I I I I I
f:\
""....
rp'
F:)
K,=
My T
'....
'U:{f
K~
(c) Pure rocking vibration Fig. 9.3 : Types of motion of a rigid foundation (...Contd.)
356
,
,
, ';Soil"'vDymnnics'>&
~Mfld,ine
'Fl1wuJtltions
'i = Angle
.
nMZ{t)
torston ot
ot
~MZ{t)
/
(d) Yawing vibration
r, a....
Fd (t)
... ...... ....
Fd (t)
..
i., ....
'. ~"'.
,,
, , ,
, "
.... ...
....
I , ,, , I
'...
'.
'Kx
Kx
i 'r' ~~
tSex
"...,
,"
>."'"
K~
(e) Coupled slidding and rocking vibration
(b) Coefficient of elastic uniform shear (Cr): It is defined as the ratio of the average shear stress a the foundation contact area to the elastic part of the sliding movement of the foundation. q
Ct = Sex x (Fig. 9.3 b)
...{9.4
It is used in analysing sliding vibration mode. The spring constant Kx is given by . K = Shear load = qx .A = C . A x t
Sex Sex " ... (9 ".
(c) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform Compression (C~ : It is used in rocking vibratic (Fig. 9.3 c). In this case the elastic settlement of the block is not uniform over the base. It defined as the ratio of intensity of pressure at certain location from the centre of the base of bloc to the corresponding elastic settlement. If cpisthe angle of rotation of block, then at a distaDI from the centre of the base of block, the elasticdeformation will be I cp.Taking the intensity , pressure at this location as q, C. is given by q C~ =[cp
...(9.
J57
is given by
...(9.7)
where,
J = Moment of irf'rtia of the base of block about the axis of rotation M = Moment caused due to soil reaction
(d) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear (CljIJ: It is used in yawing motion. If a foundation is acted upon by a moment with respect to vertical axis, it will rotate about this axis (Fig. 9.3 d). Tests have shown that the angle of rotation \j/ of the block is proportional to the external moment.
Therefore, M z =K 'I' \j/ where K =C .J 'I' 'I' z J = Polar moment of the intertia of contact base area of foundation. ...(9.8) ...(9.9)
In the rotation of a' foundation around a vertical axis, the base of the foundation undergoes nonllniform sliding, hence the term "Coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear". is applied to the Coefficient C IjI .
Barkan (1962) derived the q. (9.10) for determining . the value of CU . It is based on theory of elasticity. . 1.13 Cu=I~2'JA
where,
1 ...(9.10)
,
.'
He also developed the relationships between Cu' Ccp'Ct and C'I" For analysis and design of machine foundation, he recommended that
Cu=2Ct
...(9.11)
Ccp=.2Cu. ...(9.12) Ct = 1.5 C'I' ...(9.13) For preliminary design, Barkan (1962) recommended the values of ClI as listed in Table 9.1. The procedure of determining th.evalues of cu' Ct and G have been given in detail in sec 4.3 of chapter 4. As discussed in that section; dynamic elastic' constants depend on (i) base area of foundation, (ii) confining pressure and (iii) strain level. The method of converting the value of adynamic elastic constant obtained from a field test for using in the de~ign of actual foundation has been illustrated in examples 4. 2 and 4.3.
',. ~
c :".; r .
,t. "': . n.!,
~.
358
Table 9.1 : Recommended Design Values for the Coeficient of Elastic Uniform Compression Cu 2* for A = 10 m
Soil Soil group Permissible static load, kN/m2 2 Weak soils (clays and silty clays with sand in plastic state; clayey and silty sands; also soils of categories II and III with laminae of oraganic silt and of peat)
11
Cu' kN/m
3 up to 150
4 4 up to 3 x 10
Soil of medium strength (clays and silty clays with sand close to the plastic limit; sand) Strong soils (clays and silty clays with sand of hard consistency; gravels and gravelly sands; loess and loessial soils) Rocks
III IV
* After Barkan (1962) 9.4.1. Vertical Vibrations. For the purpose of analysis, the machine foundatonsoil system shown in Fig. 9.3a is represented by the idealised massspring system shown,in fig 9.4. Let the unabalanced force is representd by (91.4) Fz.(t) = Fz sin rot
 of machine
plus foundation
Kz
Cu.A
If the centre of gravity of the foundation and machine and the centroid of the base area of the foun dation in contact with the soil lie on a vertical line that coincides with the line of action of the excitint force Fz, then foundation will vibrate vertically only. The equation of motion of the system is mz + Kz' Z = Fzsin ID t' M = Mass of machine and foundation
(9.15
where,
Kz = Equivalent spring constant of the soil in vertical direction for base area A of the foUl
dation = CuA
.,
,,
359
;.
Cu
(9.16)
A.
(9.17a)
or
Fz sin 0) t
m ( 0) nz 
0)
'
(9.17b)
Fz
(9.18)
) . .
m (Ct>nz.ro
3.2. Sliding Vibrations of a Block. In practice, rocking and sliding occur simultneously. But if the bration in rocking can be neglected ,then only horizontal displcement of the foundation would occur tderan excitingforce Fx(t) on the block of area A (Fig.9.3b). This system can be indealised as shown Fig.9.5.
, . I
I I I , I I I I
I
~x ~/
Fig. 9.5: (a) (b) Equivalent model
,\..
mx + K.~ = Fx sin ro t
vhere, x = Sliding displacement of,the foundation Kx
Ct
(9.19)
= Equivalent spring c~nstap.t of the soil in sliding for base area A of the foundation = Ct. A,
'",
is
q
~;',~
nx"
: (9.20)
....(9)J) . . .. ",
360
9.4.3. Pure Rockmg Vibrations of a Block. Consider only the rock~ngy~bri,J,tions in~uced in a foundation block by an externally exciting moment Mv(t) (FIg. 9.3c). this "isalso a hypothetical case as rocking vibrations are coupled with sliding vibrations. Let the unbalanced moment be given by My (t)
= My sin IDt 
(9.22)
where, My = Moment acting in the X  Z place' At any time t, considering that the applied moment is actIng in clockwise direction the"displaced position of the block will be as shown in Fig. 9.6. In ~achine foundations, as the rotation <pis small,
tan <p= <p in
radians. The equation of motion can be obtained by applying Newton's second law of motion. My (t) = My Sin GJt
~'
(
',"
...
~
( a)
x 
qst
I dA (b)
Fig. 9.6 : Block foundation under pure rocking vibrations
Elem<znt
The various moments acting on the foundation about the centre of rotation are obtained as descri below: (i) Moment MRdue to soil reaction: Consider an element dA of the foundation area in contact' the soil and located ar ..: :..tance / from the axis of rotati~n (Fig. 9.6 b). At any time, the soil wil
"
Machines ",
361
.
npressed nonuniformly.
From t~e de~n~t~on of ~oef5cient of dastic un}form compression, ,C~ ~s d R I dA C~ = 14> ...(9.23 a)
.ere,
= Angle of rotation
I~~hefoundation does not lose contact with soil, then the soil reaction will be as shown in Fig. 9.6 b. le total reactive moment MR against the foundation area in contact with soil is given by
,
'
MR
= J C~.l~dA.l == C~.cI>JPdA = C~ I
<\>
...(9.24 )
here,
I = Moment of inertia of tpe foundation area in contact with the soil with respect to the axis of rotation. .
'
(ii) Moment Mw due to .the displaced position of centre of gravity of the block: As shown in ig. 9.6 a, the centre of gravity of the block is shifted from point 0 to 0' . As angle of rotation <\> is small,
:le moment Mw of Weight W will be Mw =WLti\
'
't'
...(9.25 )
vhere, L = Distance between the centre of gravity of block and axis of rotation. This moment acts in the clockwise direction. (iii) Moment Mj caused by intertia of foundation: It is given by .vhere, Mj
,
"
= Mmo ~
...(9.26)
Mmo =; Moment of inertia of the'mass of the foundation and machine \"":"ith respect of axis of rotation.
'
.
~
The equation of motion can be written by equating clockwise moments to anticlockwise moments Therefore,
or
,
c cl>14> +
Mmo
...(9.27)
. ,
~. Mmo(ron,~ro)
. '. "",
My
2
".
.' .' . ,"
.'
...(9.29)
 .'
362
Foundatiolt/;
'.0;, 'l
con. =I M mo
~
Y
.I
...(9.30)
,;~
If the dimensions of the footing at the base are a and b in the X andY direction~, respectively, ba3 1=, ...(9.31) 12
.
conI/!
= "MU /nO
Cell ba3
...(9.32)
It is seen from Eq. (9.32) that the linear dimension of the contact area perpendicular to the axis of rotation exercises a considerably greater effect on the natural frequency of rocking vibrations than the other dimension. This principle is sometimes used in proportioning the sides of the machine foundation undergoing predominantly rocking yibrations.
, '
The amplitude of the vertical motipn of the edge of the footing is Azr = ~xA, Mya/2 = Mmo(O)~'  0)2) Similarly, the contribution of rocking, towards the horizontal amplitude is Axr = h. A, where, h = Height of the point above the base where amplitude is to be determined. ...(9.33'
...(9.34
Azr and Axr are added to Az (Eq. 9.18) and Ax (Eq.9.21) respectively to obtain total vertical an sliding amplitudes when rocking is combined with vertical and sliding vibrations. 9.4.4. Yawing Vibrations of a Block. A foundation is subjected to yawing motion if it is subjected to torsional moment Mz (t) about Zaxis (Fig. 9.7a). The positionof the foundationat any time t mayt defined in terms of angle of rotation "'. Let the unbalanced moment is given by Mz(t) = Mzsin (J)t As explained in Sec. 9.4, the resistive moment due to soil is C'II'Jz "'. The equation of motion is written by taking moment about Z axis. It gives
Mmz iV
...(9.3
...(9.:
~~
where,
Mmz
= Mass moment of inertia of the machine and foundation about the axis of rotat
(Zaxis)
Foundations
'.
of Reciprocating
Machines
363
(a)
Isom~teric
vi<zw
" .'
,
.'
"
( b)
pia n
.
The' expressions' for natural, frequency an{ma~imux:n angular displacements are as follows:
(J)nl/f ,A
Mmz  tw J,
. .
...{9,37)
2
CD
where,
Ah'l' = r A'I' ...(9.39) r = Horizontal distance of the point on the foundation from the axis of motion (Zaxis)
'9.4.5. Simultaneous'Vertical, Sliding and Rocking Vibrations. In general, a machine foundation is subjected to time dependent vertical force, horizontal force and moment, and therefore it simultaneously slide, rock and vibrate vertically. In Fig. ~.8, a foundationblock subjected to a vertical force (Fzsin 00 I),
....
i:
~\ 364
SoUDynamics & Machine Foundations
,~
a horizontal force (Fx sin (J) t) and an oscillatory moment (My sin (J)t) is shown. These forces and moment are considered to act at the combined centre of gravity 0 of the machine and the foundation, which is alsotaken as the origin of coordinates. At any time t, considering the vertical force acting in downward direction, horizontal force in righthand side direction, and moment in the clockwise direction, the foundation block will be displaced as shown in Fig.'9.8. It is therefore subjected to (i) displacement z, in the vertical direction (ii) displacement Xo in the horizontal direction at the base and (Ui) rotation <1> of the base.
z
I
'
Fz Sin C.Jt
Initial position
~
z
Fig. 9.8: Block foundation subjected to simultaneous vertical, sliding and rocking vibrations
The equations of motion can  be written by evaluating the resisting and actuating  forces , and.moment acting on the foundation in the displaced position. These forces and moments are obtained as give: below: . (i) Upward soil reaction Rv due to vertical displacement z :
Rv Rx
= Cu A z = C't
A Xo
...(9.4( ...(9.4
..,(9.4
jJ
(ii) Horizontal soil reaction Rx due to horizontal displacement xo: As the origin is at 0, Xo can be expressed in terms of x and 4> as below: xo=xLcp where L = Height of Centre of gravity 0 from base of the block (tU) Moment MRdue to resistance of soil induced by rotation:of the foundation by $ : The MR about point 0 is given by MR=C .'" "'I
+ .
.:.(90'
"
,
'
'<,
','
","
Machines
365
(v) Moment MxRdue to horizontal resisting force Rx : Moment MxRabout point 0 is'give~ ~y . .L MxR = Rx . L = C~ A (X  L"' ~)
(vi)
...(9.45)
Fiz Fix
= mi = mx = Mm ~
...(9.46) ...(9.47)
...(9.48)
'
M m = Mass moment Of inertia of the machine and foundation about an axis passing through
combined centre of gravity 0 and in the direction of Yaxis Cheequations of the motion 'can now be written as below: In the Z  direction:. mi + Cu Az = Fz sin cot In the X  Direction: mx + CtA Xo= Fx sin cot Substituting the yalue of Xo from Eq. (9.42) in Eq. (9.50), we get mx + Ct A (x L<I = FX sin CO t In the rotational mode..
Mm <i> + C$ <I> I  WL <I>  Ct A (x  L<I
,
"
.,
...(9.49) ...(9.50)
...(9.51)
= My sin co t
...(9.52)
or
..
 direction
is independent of
,
any other motion. The solution of this equation is already given in Eqs. 9.16 to 9.18. Equations (9.51) and (9.52) contain both x and <I> and are interdependent. Therefore, sliding and rocking are coupled modes. A solution for simultaneous rocking and sliding vibrations is presented below.
is a twodegreeoffreedom system. The solutions for natural frequencies are obtained by considmx + C~ Ax  c.~ AL<I> =0 ,
'
Hence,
...(9.53) ...(9.54)
...(9.55)
and Mm ~  Ct A Lx + (C$ I  W L + C~A L2 ) <I> == 0 Particular solutions of these equations may be assumed as x = xI sin (con t + ex)
and
<I>
= <1>1 sin
(cO n t
+ ex).
...(9.56)
in which x I' <1>1 and exare arbitrary constants whose values depend upon the initial conditions of motion.
i::~
I.',
366
By substituting Eqs. (9.55) and (9:56) into Eqs. (9.53) and (9.54) and dividing by sin (con t + a), we get,
mOOn Xl + Ct A xl  Ct A L<I>I = 0
or Xl (CtA
2 moon)CtAL<I>1
"., :"
,
...(9.57)
~
...(9.58) ...(9.59)
By substituting the value of xI from Eq. (9.59) into Eq. (9.58), we get <1>1 [C~ A 2 L2+ (Cc!> I  WL + Ct AL2  Mm oo~)( CtA m oo~)] = 0
...(9.60)
For a nontrivial solution, <1>1 can not be zero. Hence the expression within the parentheses mu~tJ)(
zero, This gives'
2 2 2
I ~
CtA
L + (C. I
mOOn) =0
...(9.6~
The term (On'which represents the natural frequency in combined sliding and rocking, is the onI ,unknown in Eq. (9.61), which can now be solved. Equation (9.61) may be rewritten as follows: C~A2L2+C~A2L2+CtA(C.I WL) CtAMmoo~CtAL2moo~(C.IWL)moo~+Mm1nro:
=
...(9.6
2
n [(
CA.IWL
'f
C A(M
t
+mL2)
+L]
C A CA.IWL
'f
=0
...(9,(
Mm
mMm
Mmb
By definition, the quantity (Mm+ mL2) is the mass moment of inertia of the foundation and mach about an axis that passes through the centroidof the base contact area and is perpendicular to the'~1: of vibrations. This is denoted by Mmo. Thus, , ij~ 2 ,M I Mmo = Mm + mL .:;t9.
'
M
Further, by denoting
~
, ,
.',.: ,c
C.IWL
Mmo
CtA C.I+m
WL
=0 =
2
00 nx
.t't.;.(S
,
'
,,
"
tMmo
CtA
",
~, ""

..
367
2 2 0>nx + 0>ncp 2 2 0>nx Cl) n+
.
Foundations
of !leciproC/lting Machi,!es
'2y writting the Eq. 9.66 in terms of OOn, and CJ)n~ we ?et
,
0>
2 n
0> +
n
=0
.
...(9.69)
The Eq. (9.69) has two positive roots, CJ)nl and CJ)n2' which correspond to two natural frequencies of the system: The ro~ts of Eq. (9.69) are:
.
2
O>nx
'2
0>2
nl,2
=1. 2
[(
+ O>nq,:t
(Onx+ O>nq,
 4(J)n."(J)ncil r
...(9.70)
]
.
I
2r
[( (J)nx+(J)ncp
2 2
)+
2 2 ,2 7"~ (O>nx+(J)ncpo
r(J)nx (J)nq,)1
...(9.71)
O>nl+O>n2
2 2
0> nx + 0>ncp
r
0>2
...(9.72)
(J)nl x (J)n2
=~
r ncp.
0>2
...(9.73)
...(9.74)
and
and 00 ncp will always lie bet~~en limiting natural frequencies 0001 and 0002'
9.4.5.2. Amplitudes of coupled rocking a,nd sliding. The amplitudes of vibration are determined in the following three cases: Case I. If only the horizontal force Fx sin ootis acting: Eqs. (9.51) and (9.52) may be rewritten as follows: ' .
Mm~ + ~(Ct AI.: + Ccp 1 WL)Ct ALx = 0 Assume that the particular solution to these equations are
,
mx+ Ct
2"
Ax  Ct AL~ = Fx sin
(J)t
...(9.75) ...(9.76)
Ax'sin
(J)
(J) t
in which Ax and Acp are the maximum sliding and rocking amplitudes respectively. By substituting these solutions into the above equations, we get
,
Ax (Ct A
 moo) 
Ct ALA.
= Fx
...(9.77)
...(9.78)
~~'
:' (~ ,.t~
368
."
.~ ~
~~~ "
.,
. "
):'j
A~
=..
mM . m[
CtA+(C",IWL)
. 't' mMm
00
2 C tA(mL2+M
t
m +
(C",Iwt)
't' Mm
+00
4 x.~t'f";.;". t.
mMm
. .('
=
2 2
mM m
OO IlX 00 Il~
[
:':~By using the relations A ~ 
 ~ ( 2 + 2 )+ 4 00Il~ 00n.l. 00
'
Ct~L
FX
. 't'
...(9.80)
C AL t
2
(oon1+oon2)+00
CtAL
...(9.81) ...(9.82)
= ~(oo )
C AL ~
t (00)2
A =
~
F
x
...(9.83)
...(9.84)
,.v
Case 11.
mx + Ct
and
'.
Ax Ct ALcp = 0
...(9.85'
.. .., Mmlj>Ij>(CtAe+C4IWL)CtALx
,'.
=Mysinrot
. . '.
...(9.86
11.
By assuming solutions as for Eqs. (9.75) as (9.76), it can be shown that the following expression hold: My t Ax = ~ (002) 2
CAL
..:(9.B';

and
, ,
A.
 Ct Amoo 2  ~ (00.)
My
...(9.B'
'i.
.. .. ..
Poundations of Reciprocating Machines
 oii
369
of m~tion are
Case Ill.
A=
x.
(C'tAL
0
My
...(9.89)
and
"
A 4>
My
...(9.90)
The total amplitude of the vertical and horizontal vibration are given by a
.
Ay
= Az+2A~
...(9.91) ...(9.92)
and
Ah
= Ax + h ArpH__,__
where,
h = Height of the top of the foundation above the combined center of gravity.
In foundations with two degrees of freedom, specific forms of vibrations correspond to the frequencies (0/11 and (0112' These vibrat~ons are characterised by a certain interrelationship between the amplitudes Ax and A.pwhich depends on the foundation size and the soil propet:t~es,but does not depend on the initial conditions of foundation motion. .. .. Let us examine the case when the foundation is subjected to exciting moment My only. The ratio of amplitudes Ax and A4> obtained using Eqs. (9.87) and (9.88) is given by . 2 Ax CtA L ronx L ...(9.93) p = = 2 = 2 2 AA )nx  ) 'I' Cor A  m ro
0
o'
, , , ,

I I
z
",/
..."\ \
\
,.
:\ \
..."\ \
 ' )
....
..J

\
/
~
(
\
/
",/
(b) (a) Rocking and sliding in phase with each other (b) Rocking and sliding In opposite phl1se
370
'(U) If 00'= (On2' (O~ 2 being the lower limiting natural frequency, then oo~  00;2> 0 . It m~ans that
position, for example, the positive dir~ction of the X  axis, the rotation of the foundation will also be positive, and changes of amplitudes Ax and A, will be in phase. The form of vibration will be as shown in Fig, 9.9 a, i.e. the foundation will undergo rocking vibrations with respect to a point situated at a distance PI from,the centre of gravity of foundation, The value of PI is determined by the absolute value of expression (Eq. 9.93) if 0> n2 is substituted for O>n'
(Ui) If 0> = O>nl then oo~  00;1< 0, P will be negative, and Ax and A~ will be out of phase, Figun
during vibration at frequency (0 n2' when the centre of gravity deviates from the equilibrium
9.9 b illustrates the form of vibrations around,a point which lies higher than the centre of gravit; and at a distance P2 determined from expression (Eq. 9.93) if 0> nl is substituted for O>n' 9.5 ELASTIC HALFSPACE METHOD
. . ,r<tJ
'., ; "
F (t)
.
~':~~':.:::::,',::~,..': G
pe . :':'::':~"""':;"~::',<;,
p
)J
(a)
P
JJ
(b)
9.5.1. Vertical Vibrations. Lamb (1904) studied the problem of vibration of a single oscillating fon (Vertical or horizontal, Fig, 9,10) acting at a point on the surface of an elastic half space. Reissner (193. developed the analysis for the problem of vibration of a uniformly loaded flexible circular area (Fig. 9,1 by integration of Lamb's solut~on for a point load, Based on his work; the vertical displ<icementan] centre of the circular area is given by Foe ;rot I' ' Z0 = Gr (J 1 + I f 2) 0 where, ,..(9.9
,.., "
III
.
in iii
Fountiatitins
'0/ Rlc;procatin'g"Mai:h
371'
~ : .', ::,: '
'
'",.., ,
, .j:" ,
. ,:,;,;
F. i  0 (Z
,__
(..;t
'
'r
,:
.""
.>.
o':! i: ;
: . .'
Go '00'0"
'
"
'. ","
,
l":::":':
p(Zr
=
p
)J
unit or(Zo
F. (ZiG.)t 11" r2 0
Reissner introduced following two nondimensional tenus : (a) Mass ratio, b : It is given by
,. m W ..,(9,95) b=~=~ pro yro It describes the relation between the mass of vibrating footing and a certain mass of the elastic halfspace.
Jp = Cllr
,
Iv
,oVa..
O,S_,
...(9,96)
where,
Using the displacement Eq. (9.94), and solving the equation ofeguilibrium forces, Reissner obtained the following expression for the amplitude of foundation having circular base: Az = Azn ~. ,(FofG ro) where;
,'A "'"
...(9.97)
. , ,,' : .., : ,':' i '.1 : i .. {J':.."
,Az
zn
,
= Amplitude
""":"',""""")"':""'j"'.'",
of foundatiQn,.>
' "
i ; ,::;
:,
;,
= Dimensionless amplitude; .
0
,
,",
"'"",,,"
. V~lue,s,of disp~a~einentlu~ctio~fi'ai!2f2 ~~ ~o.~d dep~~dien(op. P~is~o~~sr,a~o ~..an~ ~~~~.~n~i?~~ less frequency factor a '.Their~values fo~"f1exible'"'circular' foUndation are' giveIi'iii Table 9.2:;:'.' :''., , J!
. '.it';~. ,:.[
372
Table 9.2 :Values of Displacement Function 'of Flexible Foundations (Bowles, 1977}
Poisson's Ratio J.1 0 0.25 0.5 Valus of(fl)
a/ 10.07405 a04 a/
+ 0.002432 a04
Values of ( 12) 0 0.25 0.5 0.214474'ao'~'. 0.148594 Go 0.104547 Go 0.029561 'a03+ 3 0.017757 Go + 3 0.011038 Go + 0.001528 a05
0.000808 0.000444 5 Go 5 a0
The classical work of Reissner (1936) for circular loaded area was extended by Quinlan (1953) and Sung (1953) for the following three contact pressure distributions: F e;w/
(i) Rigid base (Fig. 9.12 a), fz =
..
2rrr0 r0
~
: for r::;; ro
...(9.98)
F e;w/
0
I~ =
~
2 rrro'
for r ::;;ro
...(9.99)
It is the same as considered by Reissner i.e. for flexible foundations with circular l>ase 2 (r2  r2) F iwt (iii) Parabolic (9.12 c), f =
Z
.0
1t ro
for r ::;; ro
...(9.100)
,
Cl
~
/'
. ~d' (0)
(b)
under a circular foundation
(c)
~ .j
In the above equations, fz is the contact pressure at a distance r measured from the centre of foun,tf dation. Equation (9.97) holds good for all the three types oJ conta9t pressure distributions with change4: val~es of/l a~d/2. The v~lues off} an4/2f~~ rig~dbas~ foundatio;nswere comp~ted by Sung (19~~)?Jt1l/ '~A the assUinpt~o!l ~at the.press.ur~.di~~b~~~~ri:r~ma,in unchang'e~ with,frequency. Their values ~re ~~v , '
. .
in Table 9.3.
.,'
'"
.I .,; . ..
datio/fs o/,Reciprocating
{; ,": ',: ',' '.. .
M/lcMnes
,
':
373,
, ,':
"',.
i ' "
.: . "."
'',
.,.
~';
0.7
poisson's
,',
ratio)
j.J = 0.25
0.6
O.S c:
,0.4
N <t
c:,I 'U ;:) +'
,,.
a. E
0
c
0
C tI
\11 VI
c:,I
0.3
1/1
E 0.2 b
0.1
0
,
0,
0; S
'.
"
. .'
,'
1.0,'
.. "f.. ',',
1.S
: ,, "
>\'
Fig. 9.13: Plot of AZA versus ao for a rigid circular foundation subj~te~ to:constantexcitati.on, r~rce (Ric~art,I,962) , , i. .r' ',', ;,
.. ,

,
,~
374
\,
Poisson's
ratio J.1.
V alues' of 11
0 0.25 0.5
2 4 0.250000  0.109375 ao + 0.010905 ao 0.187500  0.070313 a02 + 0~006131a04 0.125000  0.046875 a/ + 0.003581 a04 Values of /2 3 5 0.21447 ao  0.039416 ao + 0.002444 ao 0.14894 ao  0.023677 a03 + 0.001294 a05
3 5 0.104547 ao 0.014717 ao + 0.00717 ao
0 0.25 0.5
Figure 9.13 shows a typical plot of Azn versus a0 for various values of mass ratio b for a rigid base . circular footing subjected to a constant force excitation F0 e/(JH. A high mass ratio (greater height of footing and smaller contact radius) implies a large amplitude of vibration for a given set of conditions. Manytimes foundations are subjected to a frequency dependent excitation (Fig.2.1~). The amplitude of the external oscillating force is given by 2 F=2m em ...(9.101) 0 e where, 2 me= Total rotating mass For this condition, the amplitude of vibration Aze is given by
2 2 me e CO Aze= or Azen Ora Az 2 2 I1 + 12 (lba~/I)2+(ba;fz)2
2 2
...(9.102)
I1 + 12
:..(9.103)
where,
Azen
Figure 9.14 shows a typical plot of Azenversus ao for various values of mass ratio b for rigid base circular footing subjected to frequency dependent excitation. It may be noted that the curves shown in Figs.9.13 and 9 .14 are similar to the frequencyamplitude curves shown in Figs.2.13 and 2.16 resp~<::tively. Richart and Whitman ( 1967) have studied the effect of the shape of contact pressure distribution and Poisson's ratio on amplit~d'~'~freq~en~y;esponseof rigid circular footing ~~bjectedto frequency dependent excitation.Figure9.15 demonstratesthenatureof variationof Azenwith ao for three types of contact pressure distribution; i.e. uniform, rigid and parabolic. Parabolic and uniform pressure distributions produced higher displacement than a rigid base. The effect of Poisson's ratio on the variation of Azencap be seen in Fig. 9.16. The peak value of Azendecreases with the increases in the value of J.1.; but the corresponding value of ao increases with increase in J.1.. . i'
l ;.4 ",
375
0.28
poisson'5
.'....
ratio,
).J = 0.25
0.24
0.20
c
~
"0
~ N
...
0.16
::::J
....
0
E
0
III III
0.12
"
C 0 III C ~

E 0.08
(:)
0.04
0 
0.5
1.0
1.5
Fig. 9.14: Plot of AzcD versus.o for. ~igid ~in:ular foundation subJ,ected to frequencydependentexcitation . " ... (Rlchart,1962) "" . ",
"
..
 .. . ,
' ;

Soil Dynamiq_&Machine,Founda.(~(Jf3
376 0,6 c:
<t
~ g
~ O.S
0.41,
parabolic
pnz ssu rq distribution
,
a. E
0
U1 U1 b.I
0.3
C 0.2 0
U1 C \:11
'0
0.'
00
0.5 1.0 1.5
Fig. 9.t 5 : Effect of c~ntact pressure distribution on the variation of Aze,n with ao (Richart and Whitman. 1967)
c
<t
0.4Rigid basq b : 5
... ~ "U
~ 0.3
a. E
0 U1
III ~
0.2
0.5
0 'jA 0.1 c:
~
c:
E
0
0... 0
0.5
1.0
1.5
',dations of Reciprocating
Machines
.)
. 0 .0 ....
III III
Rigid 10
bas(Z
...
= 0.5
<,
10 .2
0.4
0.6
0.8
ao at
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
ya lu (Z of
r (Z50 no nc (Z
Fig. 9.17 : Plot of mass ratio b versus ao for reso!,ance condition for vertical vibrations (Richart, 1962)
100
\ '\
\'\
\ \,
, \\
\"
.) I , \\ \ \\ \ \\ \ \\ \ \\
.;:
10
0 fJ
,"
\\
'\
Rigi d
ba C;(Z
Ji< \ =0.5
"
Rota'ting
..~ . . ,
0.25 0
ma5S
. ",
. .
Con s'tant"
torc(Z
,,;
1
.0
. ~. Dim(lnsio'rdess',,:omplitude ot
1.0
re5.0nanC(l
1.2
'1.4
..~
Fig. 9.18: Plot of mass ratio bversus, dim~nsio.nless~mplitude at resonance (Ricbart, 1962) ;)""\"";*~;,'J..~.~, ~'",
,
" "'..
'.~\!;,A
,~,{~,:'H"...;,,~) ':!l~t:...n~iv~ir~l1'i'
~(1'i
'r,;',,~~ ~,
,,~4 {
'.f,,<'"
378
Lysmer and Richart (1966) propose4 a .siplplifi~dmass~pringdashpot analog foLcalculating,the response of a rigid circular footing subjected to vertical oscillations. The values of spril1gconstant It and damping constant Czwere taken as giv~n ~elow :" :
.
K=z
, 4Gro
IJ.t 2
...(9.104)
and
C = vpv
...(9.105)
iwt .. 3.4 ro er;. 4 G ro mz+vpG.z+_.z =F e IJ.i. IJ.i. Z Lysmer and Richart (1986) also suggested the modified mass ratio as 1J.I. IJ.I. m ~.b 3 B z
. ...(9.106)
"
pro
...(9.101'
3.4 r;
JPG
~, C: ~ 2J~, m ~ IJ.I. To m Putting the value of m in terms ofBz from Eq. (9.107), Eq. (9.108) becomes
to
...(9.108
 0.425
z
...(9.t'0'
The response of the system can be studied using Eq. (2.58). The dashed curves in Fig. 9.19 illustrate how well the response curves for the analog agree with t! response curves for half space method. The derivation of magnification factor, Mz is given below.
'3 }J = 1/3 Haltspace theory
:E
  Si mptitied
2 Bz :: 5
ono log
.1
....
L
Constant
torce excitation
'" ',1 ~ ~J
u 0
) Z
.... 0
u c
(JI 0 ~
..0 ... :t!?
..",
. "I!.
~,
0.5
. L0
1.S
, Dimen'sioritesS' freq"uency, 'cro" "l , " , ~ "i Fig. 9.19: Response of a rigid circular footID ' for vertical vibrations (Lysmer and Rlchart, 1966) """, ~ ~' ~: 1 .I
379
. .
<.0
= ri L.
m
""
'."
~l~
2"
...(9.110)
tting the valu'e~'of Kz, ;n a~d~~zfromEqs:' (9.104), (9.107) and (9.109) into Eq.(9.110), we get
<.0
nz'
f(Bz
 0.36) 0 .~ 0 Bz r0 '.
...(9.111)
...(9.112)
Fo
(Az)max
"
Bz
...(9.113a)
...(9.113b)
(Az)max =
40'0
. 0.85~Bz  0.18
vlagnificationfactor,
M =
"
(A)
z max
.4G,
. 0
Fo(1J.1)
z 0.85.JBz0.18
~or a frequency  dependent excitation ,the resonant frequency and the maximum amplitude are
1 by :
H
0.90
<.onz
1 Bz
B' z
,
...(9.114)
...(9.115)
and
(Az)max
Magnification factor,
:re
Mze = 3mee
 0.85~Bz0.18)
...(9.115 a)
.2. Pure Sliding Vibrations. Amold et at. (1955) have obtained theoretical solutions for sliding
~y have presented the solutions for two cases namely (i) constant force excitation, and (ii) frequency )t:nderit excitation.
'F.
.. ...
"'
Ax = O~0 Axn
...(9.116)
" ..
lere,
=.""==~
;;:;;~
380
...
.. F""(Z 0 iQt
Foundation
otT f
f<i
s.t :~'"
,
'
1}\
1.S f
,
I
P
}.J
r0
h'J' J.'I..~;
z
Fig. 9.20: Rigid circular foundation subjected to sliding oscillations
";J
The variation of amplitude versus frequency is shown in Fig. 9.21 by dotted lines. The envelop <Jrav.T
to these curves is used to define the frequency at maximum amplitude, The definition of mass ratio.b 1 same as given in Eq. (9.95). The plot of b versus Go for resonant amplitude is given in Fig. 9.22~ :xi
10 ti
f}J = 0
t,
~
c
ti x
 Axn
..~,
a. E 0
0'1
1:) .III
~"~
.= <{
0
C )(
....
~I '"
,
"I it
'":I
III
ti C 0 III C ti
T'
E ,c 0.10.2
1.0
0
Fig. 9.21 : Plots of AsDand AscII versus ao for sliding vibrations (RIchart, 1962)
tionsof
ReCiprocating Machines
Eccentric oscillator

Plot of mass ratio b versus a 0 for resonance condition for sliding vibrations (Richart. . .
1962)
ci ,the
/,
. ...(9.117)
 2 me e Ax  rAxen pro
The firm line in Fig. 9.21. shows the envelop of Axen versus ao for resonant condition. The variation he mass ration b versus ao for resonant condition is given in Fig. 9.22. Hall (1967) propos~d a simplified massspring dashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid :ular footing subjected to sliding vibrations. The values of the spring constant Kx and damping con1t Cx were taken as given below.
;
K
.
. 78J.1
...(9.118)
and
C =
x ' P .x+ JPG. . .
J.1)
ro vPuo
2
c:;:;
...(9.119)
.. 18.4 (1J.1f
7  8J.1.
32(lJ.1) G r .x 
7  8J.1
\. "
F e;CJ)l
0
..,(9.120)
B
".',.,..".."",J,,'I,
7 8J.1
m
'.'
"".
...(9.120 a)
.
382
~  Cx Cx x  Cc  2 ~kx m Putting the values of Cx and kx from Eqs. (9.118) and (9.119) in Eq. (9.121), we get
...(9.121)
x
 0.2875
Fx
...(9.122)
Figure 9.23 illustrates how well the response C\lrvesfor the analog agree with the response curves for the half space model.
4 Bx = 5 Exact solution
  Analog solution
3 x
::E L0
...
.....
.....
0 ......
u 0
u ......
.
It
i1~.j
.' T.:!i;
"
C
0'1
0
::E
..
tii.
",'
.,'
0.5
,0
1.0
.~.~~ ,:;,,
1.5
Fig. 9.23 : Response of rigid circular footing for pure sliding (Hall, 1967)
(1 /1.1' ~.
383
The natural frequency <.ollt and maximum value of amplitude (Ax}m~ can be' computed using Eqs. 23) and (9.124) respectively. . . .
<.0
nx X
2 x
...(9,123)
...(9,124)
and
(AJ
" ma
=
2
Ft / kx
~x .R 1 ~x
,2. Pure RockingVibrations. Amold et al. (1955) and Bycroft (1956) have obtained theoretical soons for rigid circular foundations subjected to pure rocking vibrations (Fig. 9.24). The contact pres~ below the foundation is varied according to
. . q 
(for r ~ ro)
...(9.125)
ere
My
a = Angle of rotation
\
I
\rjJ
\~I

fJ /
Footing,
i\T7\
\
,
, " '. ., ,..' ., " .". ."" , . G '. .' . '"', . . ~
My Cli~,t
' ',,'
r
"
:
I'
.,...
/"",
,'"
.~
1I
0 ,
~
~:,
':"',:"
p
}J
,;"
"
';} ,
y
tootin9'~ .~..,
,t'
:
. "'"~~~~ptali~;bt 1..1 ;
Fig. 9.24
'.;."
.. ..~
4;':'
,.)"~:;>
384
Soil,Dynamics
&:. Machine
Fou"dtltioM
Borowicka (1943) gave the following equation for computing static rotation of the foundation under the static application of moment My' 3(1J.l) Mmo A~ =
~ pro
...(9.126)
Under dynamic conditions the amplitude of rocking is a function of the inertia ratio B. which is given by 3(1J.l) Mmo ...(9.127) B. =8 5 pro where, Mmo = Mass moment of interia of machine and foundation about the axis of rotation For the dynamic moment My, the amplitude of angular rotation A. can be expressed as A. = where A.n
( Gro )
MY3 'A,n
...(9.128)
= Nondimensionalrotational amplitude
Fig. 9.25a shows the variation of A.n with dimensionless frequency ao for various values of inertia ratio B.. The envelop curve shown by the flfm line can be used to define the relation between ao at maximum amplitude (resonant condition). The plot of inertia ratio B. versus ao for resonant amplitude is shown in Fig. 9.25 b.
.
Hall (1967) proposed an equivalent massspringdashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid circular footing subjected to rocking vibrations. The plot of spring constant k. and damping constant C. were taken as given below:
8G 1~ K. = 3(1J.l)
...(9.129)
0.8r: ,fGP
Ccp= (lf.l)(I+B,)
't) :I
...(9.130)
'"
40
..
0 0
c
0
~
a. E
10
'f :' 1I ,I
11 ,I
'
JJ = 0
.. c 0"6+4 0
0
, ,, 'I ,\ , 'I
,
"

"
"
c 0
'" C tII
,
I
I
'\
, \
20 \ I
I
"
\ \
\I (
1\
'\
\
E
0
1 0.2
,I
\1 1\
10 \ I 0.6
S\ \
0.4
0.8
1.4
1962) (...Contd.)
0
Fig. 9.25 : (a) Plot of A." versus 10 (Richlrt.
'j .j...
H'I\!~
Foundations
of Reciprocatipg
Machines
385
60
e.
)J = 0
10 .....
0 0
... 0
....
......
L..
C
1 0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
0
(b)
Fig. 9.25: (b) Plot of B. versus. ao for resonance condition for rocking oscillations of rigid circular foundation (Richart. 1962),
/
The equation of motion can be written as 4 ~ 3 i(f)/ ;j, 0.8ra "Gp .h 8Gra '" _ M ",+ '",+ '",  M e m$ (lfl)(l+B~) 3(1fl) Y For critical damping,
...(9,131)
...(9.13'2)
(1+ B$ "B~
..,(9.133)
Figure 9.26 illustrates how well the response curves for the analog agree with the response curves for the half space model. The undamped natural frequency ron~and amplitude A$ in rocking vibrations are
givenby
ro =
n~
~
~
...(9.134) My
. ..
Mina
...(9,135)
A.
k'[{l:~r+~'ro:ni
386
".
50
B~=S
20
 
Analog
solution
9) 
.. 10 
J :) 
:>
+c:
u 0
5'
0\ 0
0.5 0 0.5
0
9.5.3. Torsional
1.0
t.' "
l<
Fig. 9.26: Response of rigid circular foundations subjected to pure rocking vibrations (Hall, 1967)
Vibrations. Reissner and Sagoci (1944) have obtained theoretical solutions for rigid circular foundations subjected to torsional vibrations (Fig. 9.27). The variation of tangential shear stress is given by
3
't 9 Z
Mr
3
. = :.~ ro
41t
ro
 r.
...(9.136)
"'.
~ I>
Wo
where
'tz9
'if. "!
M
z
~
.u(9.I31~i .,.
~. "
...
'j'
387
'',"'.
""''.""~"'""
...(9.138)
where
Under dynamic condition the am~litude' of torsion is a function of inertia ratio Bw which is given by Mmz Bw = S ,..(9.139) pro where Mm= = Polar mass moment of inertia of the machine and foundation about the' axis of rotation
.
.(
Footing TZ9
."r, : ...""
,
.
,"'00"'
z'
ro ~
.
',_..
.,
"
Flaxibl<z foundation
,,
ro
(b)
Ize
'..
 .. (a ).
,.,..,,,'"
ro (c)
~'
Figure 9:~8 _a shows the ~ariation of Awn with~ime,n~ionless frequency ao for ~~rious values of inertia ~atioB",:'~e' ~nveIop'cur~f's,ho~'~y !~~,:~~..lirie'c~n'~.~.~s~ato,defme 't~e relation between ao at maXimum amplItude (resonant condItion) ana the'values of Intena ratio B", (FIg. 9.28 b)
,
388
~.
F:oulldatioRS
~,,tII '0
10
::J ....
Co
, "II
E
0 0
1\
I I r
""
I1
,
\ \
/
I I
1
, I
\
\
, I'
,
"V'.......
.
Flczxiblcz
"
Rigid"
"
.......
B4' = 10!
/
//
/;\
/ \,
/ /
"'"
5, \,'
\
\)/ /'
\
E
Q
0.2
0
(a)
/./
\ ~;.\./
I
/'
\
\
\
I
\ 00
0..4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
60
7 m
.~ .... 10
0 L.
'" '" 0
1 0 (b)
0.4
0.8
00
1.2
1.6
2.0
versus ao; (b) Plot of B. at resonance versus ao for torsional oscillations of a rigid circular foundation (Rlchart,1962)
." iO' ~
",. .......
389
Richart and Whitman (1967) propose~ an equivalent massspringdashpot analog for calculating the response of a rigid circular footing subjecred to torsio~al vibrations. The values of spring constant kw and damping constant CIjIwere taken as below;
,
= 16 G r3
J
0
~::
...(9.140)
',.'"
and
...(9.141)
I+B
IjI
"",
3:
...(9.142)
,"
C,o.s
,..(9.143)
~1j1
= 2 ~K:
.m
(1 + 2 BIj1)
The undamped natural frequency wnlj1and amphtude AIj1of the torsional vibration are given by
'K
wnlj1=
"
vM:;
=
Mz
...(9.144)
...(9.145)
W " KW[{I
~:r +~Wro:Jr
9.5.4. Coupled'Rocking and Sliding'Vibrations. Figure 9.29 a shows a rigid circular foundation resting on the surface of elastic halfspace and subjected to an oscillatory moment Mv /(JJlan a oscillatory horizontalforce Fx e,m{.The sign convention chosen is illustrated in Fig. 9.29 b, which indicates that + x and + F act to the right and that + 4> and + Mare clockwis'e. Figure9.29c showsthe motionof the footing when both translation of the e.g. and rotation about c.g. are positive (i.e. in phase). In this case. the centre of rotation lies below the base of the footing, and the motion ,is termed as first mode of vibration. If the translation is positive while the rotation is negative, then the centre of rotation lies above the e.g. and the motion is designated as the second mode' of vibration.
': "',1/ ,~}') ,/1' Nl J > " 1t
." ..
390
Soil, Dynamks
I
J
My (l iwt
I
I
I
... ~
I
I
,
!.
m
.. Fx
Fx(li6.>t
I
fMR
(a)
r
IL
Er MR ~+Fx
( b)
+x
I I
I
~
I +
/:[1 1.Xo1r
1
I
II
(c)
~~ leA]
1967)
Lc,&
..,(9,146)
where
Therefore
.
Xo = x L <I> m x + Cx
The equations of motion are written in terms of x and <\>. The equation of motion for sliding is ~ ,
..
Xo
+ Kx Xo = Fx eirot
or
or
r ...(9:148
, .[)"\Or
.,.1 ~aiJ ., ~:y;t
irot
= M.ve = My
irol
Sustituting the value of Xo from Eq, (9.147), the above equation simplifies to Mm ~+(C~ +L2tx) ci>+(K~ + L2K:c}cp L Cx x L Kx'x
'~:',;~!
'Idations of Reciprocating~Machines
391
The natural frequencies of coupled rocking and sliding are obtained by putting forcing functions in
,
x x x n.LK 'I'
"
x .n. 'I'
=0
...(9.150)
) (
=0
...(9.151)
...(9.152) ...(9.153)
= B eiCiJndt
which A and B are arbitrary constants. By doing this the Eqs (9.150) and (9.151) become A LKx +i LCx,oond . B2 m OOnd + K x + I c x OOnd
d A Mm OO;d+(KcjI+L2 Kx)+i(CcjI+L2 Cx)OOnd ...(9.154)
...(9,155)
oonx
= , m oonq x
if
ff.
,d
~4I 4 2 2 roncP+ronx
rond 
4~x~~ronxron~
)
r
J
...(9.156)
4 ~xronxrond r [
2  2. ro~ )+ (ro~
~~ron~rond
2(ronx
2 2ro~ 0 )]
It may be noted that Eq. (9.156) reduces to Eq. (9.69) when ~x = ~cjI= O.As the effect of damping on laturalfrequency is small, the undamped natural frequencies for coupled sliding and rocking vibrations an be computed using Eq. (9.70). . The damped amplitudes of rocking and sliding of a foundation subjected to a horizontal force For /)1 aregiven by
lfJ
A xl
 Fr
...(9.157)
and A =L.1 Mm
2'
112
...(9.158)
~ (ro2)
...
392
,
Soi/Dynamics.&
2 2
Machine Foun ;~
'." '
where
lI. (CO2)~ [ ",4_",2
{ '" ,+ :"'M
4 ~x~+;M
]
2 ln
...(9.IS~~ "':'
"
.,
,
~I
't
"
,.
:4
The dampedamplitudesof rocking and slidingof the foundationsubjectedto an excitingmoment iw . M, e are gIven by '$I
,c
2
A' Mv
2
+(2;x
2 1/2
OOn.t) ] ,
x2 .
M III
Mm
[ (OOnx)
" (00 2 ) D.
2 2 2 2 112
."(9.Jf~1 ",
iI !I1'r
and
 My [ (OO"xOO)
A<j>2
+(2;xoo/lxoo)
f..
"'
"
(00
2
)'.
...(9.1~!
,
~,,
When a footing is subjected to an oscillatory moment Myirot and a horizontal force Fx im/ simulb. "j
...(9.162
...(9.163
= Acjll +
A<1>2
fy Elastic halfspace theory was developed for a footing with circular contact area. Response of a footing~1 influenced by the shape of contact area. The usual practice is to transform area of any shape to an equjy: lent circle of same area (for translational modes) or equivalent moment of interia (for rocking and)b sional modes) (Richart and whitman, 1967 ; Whitman and Richart, 1967). Thus
~'
r0 =
i!
7t
b
3 1/4
..(9.U
,;;:.1
ro
= ( b3: J
114
=[
61t
, "
~.j91,
'. ~'.~if
= Equivalentradius
tt'
a = Width of foundation (parallel to the axis._ofrotation for rocking) b = Length of foundation (perpendicular to the axis of rotation for 'rocking)
I ["'~
t " ,1 '
'
"
,,
d1,, , ,
"'
i<)
"4!t"l:'1
,,
.' '"
,~ ,
' ~~.h.. '' ' ' ,5 ' " .' " ~ 't\' , "" , , 'ft, , , '"r ", ~ ,
394
,.
9.7 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF EMBEDDED BLOCK FOUNDATIONS  ~i For an embedded foundation, the soil resistances are mobilised both below the base and on the sides. Th~ additional soil reaction that comes into play on the sides may have significant influence on the dynamit response of embedded foundations. Typical response curves showing the effect of embedment are pre~ sented in Fig. 9.30. It gives that as a result of embedment, the natural frequency of the foundation soil, system increasesand the amplitude of vibration decreases (Novak, 1970, 1985;Beredugo(1971) ; Beredugo
and Novak, 1972; Fry, 1963 ; Stokoe, 1972 ; Stokoe and Richart, 1974 ; Chae, 1971 ; Gupta, 1972
Vijayvergiya,1981). . The problem of embedded foundations has been analysed by both linear elastic weightless spring approach (Prakash and Puri, 1971, 1972 ; Vijayvergiya, 1981) and elastic halfspace theory (Anandkrishan and Krishnaswamy, 1973; Baranov, 1967; Berdugo and Novak, 1972; Novak and Beredugo, 1971).Th~ analysis developed by Vigayvergiya Cl 981) is simple and logical, and therefore selected for presentati9P here. On the basis of theoretical analysis, he had recommended the.equivalent spring stiffnesses in different types of motion as given below:
.
(Fig. 9.31)
! Fz5in
6>1
Machin<z
~,~
Foundation
bxh)
1
f..
where a
...(9.! spring stiffness of the embedded foundation Coefficient of elastic uniform compression obtained at the base of foundation
= Averagevalue of coefficientof elasticuniformshear =
Ct
= Coefficient of elastic uniform shear at the ground surface Ceofficient of elastic uniform shear at the base of foundatiqn
.
Foundations of Reciprocating Machines 395
..
= Fzsin rot
...(9.168)
The natural frequency oonzeand maximum amplitude Aze of motion are given by
fK:
oonze
= v;;;
=
Fz
...(9.169a)
Aze
2 ronze
 ro )
...(9.169b)
Machin<z
, ,
....
Fx Sin wt
~
0
FxSin wt
~ ..
Foundation
h)
i
'.
...(9.170)
C +C
Cl/a v
!!.
uD
m x + Kxe
...(9.171)
fK::
oonxe
= v;=
Fx
2 m (ronxe
...(9.172)
~.
A xe
 ro )
...(9.173)
..
~
396
Follndatioi;.\ ,
,.
My Sin
::.'\\,:
GJt
Foundation (axbxh) 0
~
I..
1 ./
C~av b
3 2
r
f
Db a2
)+2C~avlo+Ctav 2
24
(16D
12hD
...(9.7< :1
,"1 l
t
CIjID=
L = Height of the combined e.g. of machine and foundation from the centre of the base J W = Weight of foundation b 3,
I=~ 12
'~J
.,.
= My sin rot
...(9. I
J'; J ...(9 .,. }  i
~e M mo My
A :ce
M",O ( ro119  ro )
~ IJI ~
Foundations
,.Fo/llldatiolls
of Reciprocating
Machines
397
"
9.7.4. Coupled sliding and rocking Vibrations. The equations of motion in coupled vibrations are given as mx+K.u,x+Kxtp'<I> = Fx sinrot and
}\There
Mm~+KcI><I>'<I>+Ktpx'x = My sin rot
]
>
= Ctpavb = CtpD1+
=  [ C'tD
Kq,tp
a2
+ 3' Ctpav [L + (D  L )]
...(9.182) ...(9.183)
I I I , ,
~K~t2
~ ~
Ktpx
AL + 2 Cl/a v bD
( L ~ ) +
2 C'ta v
( L  ~ ) aD]
where
CljIlIV =
ly = Moment of inertia of area a x Dlying in the plane of vibration about axis of rotation Da3 =+12 aDb2 4
I '11 . . . JI
~ I 1'1 . I ~\j
,..(9,174) on
D
1'he natural frequencies of the system can be obtained by solving Eq. (9,184) m Mm co~e  (r:zKtptp + Mm Kx.~)co~e + (K~~K~  K~x x Kxtp)= 0 The amplitudes of vibration ofthesystem can be obtained as below: (a) Only the horizontal force Fx sin ootis acting: m x + Kxx . x +
Kfttp
...(9.184)
d.
<I>
= Fx sin
00 t
the base
The solution of the above equations can be represented by x=Adsinoot ...(9.187) ...(9.188)
...(9.189)
l
t I
<I>=
Atpfsin 00t
sin 00 t
By substituting x and <I> from Eqs, (9,187) and (9. 188) in Eqs, (9.185) and (9.186), we get
(Kxx  m 002) Axl + Kxtp Atpl 2
= Fx
=0
2
...(9.190) Q,
Fx
,..(9)75)
.
...(9.176\ '"
Axl
(Kxxmoo
.(K~~ Mm 00 )
2 2
...(9.191)
)(Ktp~Mmoo 2 K~
)KxtpK<I1~
r.
...(9.192) I I I~ . I
...
~
O//II~
""i"'""
~
cl!
~
(b) Only the moment My sin cot is acting: The equations of motion will be :
11
m x + Kxx . x + Kcpx<I> =
0
as:
...(9.193) ...(9.194)
...(9.195)
I.i
1I
Mm + K.p.p . <I> + K.pxx = My sin COt The solutions of the above equations can be represented
f.i
;.
4:
,f'
~" I I~
K.px' Ax2 + (K.p.p  Mm CO) A.p2 = My By solving Eqs. (9.197) and (9.198), we get
<I> = A.p2 sin co t ...(9.196) the values of x and <I> from Eqs. (9. 195) and (9.196) in Eqs. (9. 193) and (9.194), we get 2 (Kxx  m CO) Ax2 + Kx.pA.p2 = 0 ...(9.197) 2
...(9.198) Kx.p
Ad (Kumco
and
A.p2=
...(9.199)
(K,X,X
m CO ) (K.p.p  Mm ro )  KcpxKx.p
...(9.200)
If both Fx sin cot and My sin cot are acting simultaneously, then Ax = Axt + Ax2
H:
...(9.201)
A.p = A.pl + A.p2 ...(9.202) Sometimes to screen the vibrations, some .air gap is left between the pit and the foundation block (Fig. 9.34). Figure 9.35 shows the comparison between the response of embedded foundation with air gap and without air gap. From this it can be concluded that if air gap is provided around the foundation the amplitude of vibration increases whereas the natural frequency decreases when compared with corresponding foundation with no air gap around it. The response of embedded foundation with air gap can be obtained by analysis given in sec. 9.4 by using CuD' CtD, C.pDand C",Din place of CII'Ct' CeI> and CIjI respectively.
Machinq
'"
..,\ ..//..
li
III
u
1111
~
III Ill!
!Ill,
~
I!!
,..
Ii
'1111
da
tio
11 s
Foundations
of ReciprocatillgMacltines
0
L.()
399
I
.(9.193) .(9.194) ..(9.195) ..(9.196) ), we get ..(9.197) ..(9.198) I ...(9.199)
,~
~
I i:
L.() .j'
t ,
I
f
0 .j'
QC)
'"
.. ,.,
>
r" 1:1
L.() M
~ ~! I Ill'
11
::
'i '0 c
...(9.200)
1
I
0 M
...(9.201) ...(9.202) lion block ith air gap .dation the vith correir gap can
CQ>and C'v
i
I L.() ('4
j
,I
tf) cV ...
... '" ::
'i "' 
>v c er 01 lLL 0 N
::J
L.() N
. 0
II
cCl C1 L..
L.() N. 0
cCl C7) l
...... 0
"
~ ~ : = u
C ... :::! 0' ... .:: ,/, 'C B
\I
" u
11
L.()
c 0 '
~
> Cl v .....
Cl ...Cl
Cl tf)
> :::
(/)
I
0
0 0
0 r.f)
SUOJ:>!W c apn~!ldwV'
'i ,..'
~
..

.. ~'" ,
I'
~,..
~"'"
~~
400
J! ~I
In both the methods of analysis and design of foundations of reciprocating machines described in sec. 9.4 and 9.5, the effect of soil mass participating in vibrations has not been considered.
I:
;1
'f
i
.
11
11
Pauw (1953) developed equations for the apparent soil mass by equating the kinetic energy of the affected zone to theCkineticenergy of a mass assumed to be concentrated at the base of the foundation. He gave the following expression for apparent soil mass ms for translatory modes of vibration:
If
P
where
m =Lc s ga.
b3
m
...(9.203)
a. = Factor which defines the slope oftnincated pyramid (Fig. 9.36). It is generally taken'unity. Cm = Functionwhich dependson sand r ~= a.he . b
ij
iI
.
I
J~ , .
a r="b he = Equivalent surcharge defined by the ratio of foundation pressure to unit weight of soil. For noncohesive soils, Cm is obtained from Fig. 9.37 (a). No graphical data is suggested by Pauw for cohesive soils. The expression for mass moment of inertia of soil in rotational vibrations is given by 'Yb5 C. M ='ms 12g a. ..(9.204)
'I.
.,
moments of inertia about X, Y and Z axes respectively. These factors can be obtained from Figs. 9.37b to d for cohesionless soils and from Fig. 9.37e for cohesive soils.
"'I
~
.'
~'.
._,,

, ~
"'~
~~'
'Ill IJI
0.2 0.5
0.2
"'   'tb3
gJ
0.5
1.0
'""6. 11
I.a
1 0
     2.0
  .\"'&.a
11 Cl)
    
Cl)
2.0
5.0
S~O
r=12JLr
0
J Cm r
0 Cb)
0:6
. 0~8
0.2
Mm ys
;rh 5 CY .
0.5
~'1.a1.0
I.a 1.0
11 2.0 Cl) 5.0
V) 2.0
CjY ;:3
1.5
rJ+r
M.mx$= 12 gel Cj
b5
Cj
(t)
Fig. 9.37: Apparent mass factors for horizontal contact surfac..> ' :.,' ' ; I';. '
402
Soil Dynamics
& Machine
Foundations
Balkrishna (1961) has developed the following expression for the apparent soil mass in vertical vibrations:
3/2
1t P
...(9.205)
Barkan (1962) has suggested that the apparent soil mass may be taken as 23% of the mass of machine plus foundation. Hsieh (1962) gave the expressions for getting apparent soil mass as given in Table 9.9. Table 9.9 : Effective Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia for Soil below a Vibrating Footing (Hsieh, 1962)
Effective mass or mass moment of inertia of soil
Mode .of vibration
11= 0.5
, 3 2.0 p ro
1.0 pro
0.3 P r5 0
0.3 P r5 0
0.3 pr5 0
The apparent soil mass/mass moment of inertia is added to the mass m/mass moment of inertia Mm or J0 to get the natural frequency and amplitude of vibration. .
9.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR A BLOCK.FOUNDATION The design of a block foundation provided for a reciprocating machine may be carried out in following steps: 9.9.1. Machine Data. The following information shall be obtained from themanufactures of tl:1emachine for guidance in designing: (a) A detailed loading diagram comprising the plan, elevation and section showing details of con
(b) Distance between axis of the main shaft of the machine and the top face of foundation; (c) Capacity or rated.output of machine; (d) Operating speed of machine; and (e) Exciting forces of the machine and short circuit moment of motor, if any. 9.9.2. Soil Data. The following information about the subsurface soil should be ~own : (a) Soil profile and data (including soil properties generally for depth equal to twice the width of ;; the proposed foundation or up to hard stratum). ~ (b) Soil investigation to ascertain allowable soil pressures and to determine the dynamicproperties 4 . 'it
of the sOIL..
,>1
(c) The relative position of the w~ter tablebelo~'g~o~nd ~t differe~t times of the year.
'J
The minimum distance to any important foundation in the vicinity of the machine foundation should,
alsobe accertained.
..
} I
, ~,~
Foundations
of Reciprocating .Machines
'.
403'
Area of BlockThe size of the foundation block (in plan) should be larger than the bed plate of the machine it supports, with a minimum allround clearance of 150 mm. Depth In all cases, the depth of foundation should be such as to rest the foundation on good bearing strata and to ensure stability against rotations in vertical plane. Centre of Gravity":: The combined center of gravity of the machine and the block shall be as much below the top of foundation as.possible, but in no case it shall be above the top of foundation. EccentricityThe eccentricity shall not exceed 5 percent of the least width in any horizontal section. Sharp corners shall be avoided, whenever possible, praticularly in the openings. 9.9.4. Selecting Soil Constants. The values of dynamic elastic constants (Cu' Ccfj1 Ct' C'V'G, E and J.l) are obtained from relevant tests and corresponding strain levels are noted. ,These values are reduced to 10m2 contact area and 10 kN/m2 confining pressure. A plot is then prepared between dynamic elastic constants and strain level. The value of dynamic elastic constants are picked up corresponding to the strain level expected in the actual foundation. These values of dynamic elastic constants are then corrected for the actual area of the foundation (if < 10m2), and confining pressure. The details of this has
,.'
9.9.5. Centering the Foundation area in Contact with Soil. Determine the combined center of gravity (Table 9.4) for the machine and the foundationin X, Y and Z planes and check to see that the eccentricity along X or Y axis is not over 5 percent. This. is the upper limit for this type of analysis. If eccentricity exceeds 5 percent, the additional rocking due to vertical eccentric loading must be considered in the
"
The static pressure should be checked; it should be less than 80 percent of the allowable soil pressure under static conditions. This condition is met in most practical foundations. . Table 9.4 : Determination of CG of the System
Element of system
2 3
Dimensions
a.t ay az Weight of element
Coordinate e.g. Static moments of of the element mass of elements Mass of element
Xj . Yj
Zj mjXj mjYj mj
9.9.6. Design Values of Exciting Loads and Moments. The fmal values of force and resulting moments are now obtained with respect to the combined center of gravity of the system. The relative magnitudes of the unbalanced forces and moments will decide the nature of vibrations in the block foundation. 9.9.7. Determination of Moments of Inertia and mass Moment~' of Jnertia. The moments of inertia and mass moments of in~rtia may be obtained using the formulae given in Tables 9.5 and 9.6.
404
Figure Ix
~
ba3 12
Iz
ffi
"
Y y
X
T
b
Rectangle
f::.G.
X
I
Jl
ab3 12
ab(a2 +b2) 12
10
T ....
Circle
X
X
N 11 '0
.!!:...ct 64
1td4 64
1td4 32
J..
'1;1
Figure
MmT
z
"".
,
Mmy Mm: 1'J'
Rectangular block
m 12 (a2 + h2)
m 12 (i + b2) ~
"t !j " .""1

12 (b + h2)
z
'"
,.~ f'
T
h
Circularblock
1/
1
y,u tdj
!!!
3d2 + h2 12 ( 4 J
!!! 3d2 + h2
12 ( 4
Foundations
of Reciprocating
Machines
405
Mmo:
where
Mmo
Mm + m L2
= Distance of combined
Mm
Mmo
r=
9.9.8. Determination of Natural Frequencies and Amplitudes Linear weightless spring approach (i) Vertical Vibration
(0 nz
= =
W
~
.A
.,.
Az
Fz
2 2 m (OOnz 00 )
Mz
2 2 Mmz,,(OOnw00 )
(iii) Combined Rocking and Sliding Sliding and rocking are coupled modes of vibration. The natural frequencies are determined as follows:
conx ~ ~c, mA
<.oncp 2
Mmo ~C.IWL 1
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
and
OOnx OOn,
The amplitudes of vibration can be computed with the following equations: A x A ~'lihere,
L\o)=mMm
((J)nl(J) )((J)n2~ )
,.
'
ill..
I j
406
Fou1Jdatio"s
The amplitude of the block should be determined at the bearing level of the foundation as a
~~~.,,~~:EC';:,;z::..;~~;_.,,~..,_.
... ..'~."
'.'
Av Ah
= Az+ '2 A. = Ax + h A.
where
Ah = Horizontal amplitude at bearing level h = Height of the bearing above the combined center of gravity of the system
Av = Maximumvertical amplitude
Elastic halfspace approach Equivalent radius, mass ratio, spring constants and damping factors are listed in Table 9.7 Table 9.7 : Values of Equivalent Radius, Mass Ratio, Spring Constants and Damping Factor Modeof vibration
(1) Vertica! Equivalent radius (2) Mass (or inertia) ratio (3)
Bz= (lIl) 4
(7
roz =
Sliding
r ox
f! f!
1t
m
3
pro
 81l)
z = Bz '0.2875
k=z
4Gro 11l
1t
x= a .f
0.15
x
kx =
k =
32(1J.l)Gro 78J.l
3 8G ro
Rocking
,o
r 'V =
31t (ba')'14
= $
= (1+ B).JB;
0.5 'V= 1+2B
\jI
3 (1 J.l)
16 3
.! ,t
Torsional
ba(a2+b2) 6 1t (
r
OOnz
MmB=t Y pro
k'V=3"Gro
~;
.'
A,
00
K'[{l(:JrZ+~,:Jr
,,' '~, )~
~1
n'V
'V
M rn,!,
and
K.[{1_(ro:Jr~(2~.ro:Jr
..
407
0
'
nx
= fKx
V;;
O),,~ =
Damped natural frequencies are obtained as the roots of the following equation:
2
O
~
0
M mo
IDnx"";
To,
00 na  00 nd
00
oo~ 00;,
.0
[
+
}
2
00
]
2 2
 00 lid + 00nx  00 nd =0 r r [ )] Undamped natural frequencies can be obtained by using following Equations: 2r [( OOnx OOn,  OOn, OOnx 4 r oon, oonx ] Damped amplitudes for motion occasioned by the applied moment, can be obtained as below:
0 0
~X 00 nx 00nd
~'
00 nd cOnip
2 OOnl,2 
2 +
)+ ( 2
2 2
.
).
~ . ,
A = My
x Mm"
1/2
]
112 2
A =My [( OOnxOO
$ M 111
+(2~xoonx).. /),,(00 2 )
]
.. '.  00 ~x 00 ~~ 2
(OO~,+OO~)
(
r
0
4 ;.t
~~ 00 nx 00 nljl
~ (ol) =
, [{
,
00 00
r.
.
}
r
}
0...
2 1/2 2 2
00
00
~, 00 n,
00,
+x
":(IDn+ID)+
(IDn,ID)} ]
0' ,
Damped amplitudes for motion occasioned by an applied force Fx acting at the center of gravity of the foundation may be obtained as below:
1/2
..
m~.m
and
 Fx
0
2 L coIIX coIIX+
4 ~xco
'.
2 1/2 .
,",
..
.'
"
,.'~:t'~ffl"
/)".<co2).
6...
408
9.9.9. Check for Adequate Foundation. The natural frequencies computed in.step 8 should be away from the resonance zone i.e.
Cl)
< 0.5 or 
co
< 1.5
Cl)n
con
The amplitudes computed in step 8 should be less than t~e limiting amplitudes of the machine which are usually specially by the manufacturer of the machine.
A reciprocating machine is symmetrically mounted on a block of size 4.0 m x 3.0 m x 3.5 m high. The soil at the site is sandy in nature having cl> = 350and Ysat = kN/m3.The watertable lies at a depth of 3.0 m below the ground surface. The block is embedded in the ground by 2.0 m depth. The machine vibrating at a speed of 250 rpm generates Maximum vertical unbalanced force = 2.5 kN Torque about Zaxis = 4.0 kNm Maximum horizontal unbalanced force = 2:0 kN at a height of 0.2 m above the top of the block. The machine weight is small in comparison to the weight of foundation. Limiting amplitude of the machine is 150 microns. A block resonance test was conducted at the site to evaluate the dynamic elastic constants. The data obtained from the test is the same as given in Example 4.2 (Chapter 4). Determine the natural frequencies and amplitudes by (a) Weightless spring m!=thod,and (b) Elastic halfspace approach. Solution: 1. Machine data (Fig. 9.38) 2.5 Sin G.>t 2.0 Sin CiJt
4.0 Sin c..>t
:.~...
Machincz
Block
h = 3.5 m
e.g. .
.,.
L = 1.75m
2.om
b =3.0m
"
1
J,..~,  I"" 0" f. Y"", Fig. 9.3S':, Details oUoundatlon
11
a =".Om
(a)Section
~
".,. 
a = 4.0 m
(b) Plan
l
} ..,!'
,,(. ~l .~1
..
, , ,I
F oundatitJnsuf
R:ecip,octlting Machines
"
409
'.
Operating speed of machine =500 rpm Weight of machine is small and can be neglected. Fz = 2.5 sin Cl) t kN Mz, = 4.0 sin ro t kN ,m
Fx = 2.Dsin ro t kN acting at a height of 0.2 m above the top of block 21t ro = 250 rpm = 250 x 60 = 26.2 rad/s 2. Dynamic elastic constants Refer example 4.2. The soil data and the size of the actual block are same as in that example. The procedure of determining the values of dynamic elastic constants for analysing the block foundation is illustrated there. Therefore, following values of dynamic elastic constants may be adopted. Cu = 3.62 x 104kN/m3 G = 1.10 x 104 kN/m2
E = 2.98 x 104kN/m2
f.1= 0.35 C 3.62 C = !!.= x 104 = 1 81 x 104 kN/m3
t 2 2
C41
3. Foundationdata.
Let the block is casted in M20 concrete. The unit weight material is taken as 24.0 kN/mJ~
Weight of block = 24.0 x 4.0 m x 3.0 x 3.5
= 1008 kN 1008 2
(Onz
;;;H
u
.
A Fz
102.8
(AZ>max
, '
= m(oo~ 002)
\
,. .
,
.r
~,'
.:
2.5
102~~J~?2
',."".:iI...''::
.2~.22J'
".:'r~.~,l'S"""
=:=6.8 x. 106
m r. = 6.8 microns
.'
.
410 SoU Dynamics & Machinl! Foundatio;
=(a + b ) = = (4 + 3 ) = 25 m 12 . 12
.
ab
.4 x 32
M
(0
mz
M mz iC" J, 

 56 .ras 2 d/
V;;
re;;: =
102.8
(On
<p
Mmo ~C.IWL
(i
+ h2)
103 kgm2
2
(J) 11\,2
 2r
[(
) ((J)ncp+ (J)nx)  4 r
2 2
4~
(462+44.82):t = 2 x 0.366 1 . [
]
,cot I
(  (J) )(Cl)n2  )
Cl)
X
2 (J)nl
..
= =
My
102.8
, "..;~. I
102.8 x 182
456 x.9434
= 8.05
1010 kg2 m2

lundations
of Reciprocating
Machines
411
=
x 
x 26.22) x 2.0
A$ =
2 ) My 4 2
x12102.8x26.2
)3.9
microns
1/
= Ax + h' A$ = 56.6 x 106 + .1.75 x 16:5 x 106 = 85.47 x 106 m = 85.47 microns
V;
fA =
V;
ru. = 1.95m
1008 4
x
B = 1~.m3
Z
pro
= 10.35
2.
W
x 1.953
= 1.47
( 9.81 )
K
Z
4Gro = 4 x 1.10 x 104 x 1.95 = 13.2 x 104 kN/m 1~ 10.35 0.425 ' 0.425
~z. =
'
":= .
= 0.304
t.
412
CO nz .~Kz
m =~
A,
k{ {l( :Jf
+(:~,~:J
2.5
r
r
13.2
x 1o~[{I x 106 m
G::~
= 29.4
(b) Torsional vibration
rr
+ (2 x 0.304  ~~:~
1/4
\14
r =
0
ab(a2+b2)
67t 3
M mz
= 214 p,;
16
x 10 K g m
=
2
4x3(42+32)
67t
= 1.9973 m
15x 1.99735
3 16
.
~
T
X," = co nljf
~
7t
 Ijf M mz
l ~
32(IJl)Gr
x3
7t
0
= 1.95m =
32(10.35)x1.lxl0
4
K =
x
x1.95
7 8Jl
78 x 0.35
x
= 10.62 x 104kN/m
B = 78Jl x 32(IJl)
.m
pr;
= 78xO.35
32(10.35)
1008
15x1.953
= 1.83
~ ~x
..' ~" I
'1 t';
r;'
oundations
of Reciprocating
Ma.clJines
413
mnx  I V;;
102.8
1/4
Rocking
ab
4.0x33
~
ro  \. 3~
]x)
1.84
ID
3(1/l)
3(10.35)
28.1x10kNm/rad
0.15
(l+B<\jB;
1110 JM K,
= (1+3.75).J3.75 = 0.016
496.828.1 x 104 = 23.7 radJ, .
'" n<l>=
9.9.11. Coupled Vibration. Undamped natural frequencies in couples rocking and sliding are given by
2
2
IIX
m111,2 = =
h [(m
) + mn<l>:t
(mnx + m )  4 r m
n<l>
IIX
mmp]
1 2 x 0.366 [ (32.12+23.72):t
( (co;.:co~)
r
+4
{
~ (02)
)}
]
2
= [{
+4
26.24 26.22
( 0.366
.
0.366
}
2 1/2
x 26.2 (23.72 26.22)+ 0.016 x0.366 23.7 x 26.2 (32.12  26.22) } 0.366 { 0.212 x 32.1 ]
:",,'; '. ,;. ..
In
] = 919697
"
l
414
Foundations ~;;
~'
A
xl
~
mMm
{(Mm'"
[ (182
+ 4 x 26.22 (0.016~28.1
x 104 x 496.8+1.752
x 0.212~1O.62
x 104 x 102.8)
= 58 x 106 ID =
<1>1
0
2 2 1/2 ~x CO
~'(
( L COnx COnx+4
111
~(CO2 )
r
= 2.0X1.75
182
")
1/2
l
= 26.9
x 106 fad '
)
1/2
My [ co~'(+(2~xconx)2 
x2  Mm
~ (co2)
2 2 1/2 ]
;'" .;
t11
';::;t
:;;
= 0.81
x 106
ID
;~
2 1/2
'(\"
t~
~;J
A(\I2
 My [ (co~xco2) +(2~xconxco)2 ]
"j
1/2
i~
Mill
~ (co )
2
ft~11 ;"
, ,
'~",.1 iij;';i
+(2xO.212x32.1x26.2)2 919697
= 58 x 106+ 0:81 x 106= 58.81 x 106in A4I= A4II+ A4I2 = 26.9 x 106+ 8.3 X 106= 35.2 X 106fad
..
{}undations .of Reciprocating Machines
4~
III
.
415 .
~..~"
Hence
=A + An. = 29.4 x 2
Z y
6 4.0 6 10 +  x 35.2 x 10
= 99.8
Ah
x 10
6
It may be noted the there are significant differences in the magnitudes of natural frequencies and mplitudes computed by the two approaches. It may be due to the reason that the value of shear modulus J is computed from the block resonance test data using the relation between Cu' E and G. Actually in lastic halfspace theory, it is desirable that the value of G is obtained from wave propagation test. Author's xperience indicates that the value of G obtained from wave propagation test is much higher than com'uted from block resonance test data. Use of appropriate value of G may bring the results of the two pproaches closer. :xample 9.2 )etermine the natural freque~cies and amplitudes of motion of the foundation (Example 9.1) taking into tccount the embedment effect and apparent soil mass. , ,olution :
~
(i) Assume that the values of dynamic elastic constants at a depth of 2.0 m are 20% higher than the values at the surface of ground. Therefore CuD = 1.2 x .3.62 x 104 = 4.35 x 104kN/m3 Ct D = 1.2 x 1.81 x 104 = 2.18 x 104 kN/m3 ,
C<I>D
= 1.2
6.26
104=7.si
104 kN/m3
CIjID
The average values of dynamic elastic constants will be C,./aV = 4.0 x 104 kN/m3
Ctav
 2.0 
104 kN/m3
= CuD x A
24 x 3.5
he
15
= 5.6 m
1.0x5.6 a 4
ah
S = : =
3.0
= 1.867; r=
b = 3" = 1.334
416
"C
'
Therefore
C =
m
15 x 33 1.0x9.81
4"
x 1.93 = 79.7 x 10 Kg
= 75.8 rad/s
2
(O)nzeO)
=
(iil) Coupled vibration
Kxe
= C'tD . A
~ r
=
2
= 0.43
15x3
5
'Y
CX
0.43 x 1.334
m.'Cs 12ga
12x9.81xl
= 17.72 kNms
C K~ = Cd.D 1 WL + ~
~
,av 24
3
xe
m+m s
.b
I=ba
w,~'!!' i."
Foundations of RecfprocGtingMachilies..
6 89 K$e . 04 .
417
x24 I.
2
x 10434.45
x 104
(J)mj> e
+ Mmos
= 79.5 rad/s
Kxx = CtD x A + 2 Cuav bD + 2 Ctav aD = 2.18 x 104 x 12 + 2 x 4 x 104 x 3 x 2 + 2 x 2 x 104 x 4 x 2
= 90.16 x 104kN/m
Kx$
x 104kN
2
I. = D a + a Db y 12 4
~ 12
+ 4 x 2 x 3 = 28.67 m4 4
K$$
= C<j>D I +
= 7.51
~ a2
+ 2 x 104 x 3 x 22x 42 + ~ x 6.89 x 104 [1.753 + (2.0  1.75)3] = (120.16 + 80.11  0.17 + 172.02 + 96 +24.69) x 104
= 512.81
x 104kNm
C"", bD
[2.18
104
12
x 2]
'(.
418
]
4
X 104)
998.18x10
x 108
=
{Kxx (m+ms).0)2}
K
.F
x
= 3.2
Ax2
=
{ Kxx 231.81x104x3.9
2
0) }
Kxcp . K~x
8048.69 x 108
11.23 x 10
c:
,: ;J :,' ""',I 2
,
Acp2 =
{ K,n,(m+ms)O) 4
{Kxx (m+ms)
2
0)2} My
} Kxcp K~x
} { Kcpcp(Mm+Mxs)O) 2
= 3.7
Ax
x 106 fad
+ Ax2
= Axl
",
J;:
419
REFERENCE
Anandakrishnan, M. and Krishnaswamy, N. R. (1973a), "Response of embedded footings to vertical vibrations", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. , Am. Soc. Civ. Engg; 99, pp. 863883. ,
'
Arnold R.N. , Bycroft, G.N. and Warburton, G. B. (1955), "Forced vibrations of a body on an infinite elastic solid", Trans. ASME, 77, pp. 391401. Balkrishna, R. H. A. (1961). "The design of machine foundations related to the bulb of pressure", Proc. Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found.' Eng., 5th, Paris, Vo\. 1, pp. 563568. Baranov, V.A. (1967), "On the calculation of excited vibrations of an embedded foundation (in Russian)". Vopr. Dyn. Prochn. . 14 pp. 195209. darkan. D.D. (1962). "Dynamics of base and foundations", McGrawHill, New York. Bereduge, Y.O. , and Novak, M. (1972). "Coupled horizontal and rocking vibration of embedded footings", Can. Geotech. J. , 9(4), pp. 477497.
, ,
Beredugo, Y.O. (197 I), "Vibrations of embedded symmetric footings", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Westem Ontario, London, Canada. ', Bowles. J. E. 91982), "Foundation analysis and design" , McGrawHill, New York. Bycroft, G.N. 91956), "Forced vibrations ofa rigid circular plate on a semiinfinite elastic space and on an elastic stratum", Phi10s.Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 248, pp. 327268. Chae. Y. S. (1971), "Dynamic behaviour of embedded foundationsoil system", Highw. Res. Rec., 323, pp. 4959. ,.
Fry, Z. B. 91973), "Development and evaluation Sta., Tech. Rep. No. 3632. of soil bearing capacity, /, ' Foundation of Structures", Waterways Exp.
Gupta. B. N. (1972), "Effect of foundation embedment on the dynamic behaviour of the foundationsoil system", Geotechnique, 22 (I), pp. 129137.
'
Hall, J. R. (1967), "Coupled rocking and sliding oscillations of rigid circular footing", Proc. Int Symp. Wave Propag. Dyn. Prop. Earth Mater, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 139148. Hsieh, T. K. 91962), "Foundation vibrations", Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 22, pp. 211226. Lamb.H. (1904), "On the propagation of tremors over the surface of an elastic solid", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, pp. 172. Lysmer,J. and Richart, F. E. , Jr. (1966), "Dynamic response of footing to vertical loading", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 92 (SMI), pp. 6591. Novak, M. (1970), "Prediction of footing vibrations", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. , Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 96 (SM3), pp. 836861.
, ,
'
Novak, M., (1985), "Experimeflts with shallow and deep foundations". Proc. Symp. Vib. Prob\. Geotech. Eng., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., Annu. Conv., pp. 126. Novak, M.. and Beredugo, Y.C. (1971), "Effect of embedment on footing vibration", Proc. Can. Conf. Earthquake Eng. ,1st, Vancouver, pp. 1I 1125.
,
Pauw,A. (1953), "A dynamic analogy for foundation soils system", ASTM Spec. Tech. Pub!., STP, pp. 334. Reissner, E.(1936),"StationareAxialymmeterische duTcheineSchuttelndeMaSseErregteSchwingungeneine Homogenen ,Elastichen Halbraumes", Ing. Arch. 7(6), pp. 38I39?,"" ',', Rc'ssner, E. (1937), "Freie underzwungene Torsionschwingungen des Elastiche~ Halbraumes", Ing. Arch, 8 (4). i~,<,..,.!:;.; ...,C,": "",'" ,.(",.L.I>,..',~' ,
pp. 229245. '.':, , , \.< ! "','.{'
,..FfAoJ'E:<:l!...\ S
".
} '' . .
, ":~
, .
.420
Foundations
Reissner~.E.andSagoci, H. E.(1944),~'Forcedtorsional oscillations.ofan.elastichalfspace", 1. Appl. Phys., 15, pp. 652 662. Richart, F. E. Jr. (1962), "Foundation vibrations", Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 127, Part, I, pp. 863898. Richart, F. E.)r. ,and'Whitman, R. V. ('1967), "Comparison of footing vibrations t~sts with theory", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 93 (SM ~6), pp. 143168. Stokoe,K.H.II (1972). "Dynamicrespo~seofemb'~ddedfoundations",Ph. D. thesis presented,Universityof Michigan, Ann Arbor,  Michigan. . . Stokoe, K. H., 11,and Richart, F. E. Jr. (1974), "Dynamic response of embedded machine foundation",1. Geotech. Eng. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. , 100 (Gt4), pp. 427447 . Sung, T. Y. (1953a), "Vibrations in semiinfinite solids due to periodic sutface loading", Ph. D. Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Vijayvergiya, R. C. (1981). "Response of embedded foundations", Ph. D. Thesis, Univeristy of Roorkee, Roorkee, India. Whitman; R. C. and Richart, F. E., Jr. (1967) , "Design procedures for dynamically loaded foundations", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 93 (SM  6), pp. 169193. .
PRACTICE
PROBLEMS
9.1 (0) List the basic differences in analysing a reciprocating machine foundation by the two clp
proaches namely (i) Linear weightless springmass system, and (ii) Elastic halfspace theot) (b) Derive the expressions of natural frequency and amplitude of a block foundation subjectel to vertical vibration. ,',) 9.2 Starting from fundamentals, derive the expressions of natural frequencies and amplitud~~l'
,
block foundation subjected to a horizontal force Fx sin rot and a moment My sin rot at the COlT bined e.g. of machine and foundation. ,~i 9.3 A concrete block shown in Fig. 9.39 is to be used as a foundation for a reciproc~ting e~fi U operating at 500 rpm and mounted symmetrically with respect to foundation. The weight O'
~
'
.'.
. . .
engine is 10kN. It is ,likely that the operation of machine exerts the following:
. t~
Unbalanced vertical force = 1.8 sin rot kN .;~ Unbalanced torsional moment = 6 sin rotkN I "/~ 1;1't. The values of the dynamic elastic constants for the design of the foundation may be adop'! given below: . )ni.1.
CII
= 4.5
x 104 kN/m3
= 0.34
3
17 kN/m 3 Yconc. = 24 kN/m amplitUdes ~f the biock by (i)Lin~ar elasticispj . Determinethe namralfrequenciesand ' "~..;
Ysoil~
'  . 
.,
.:'~
o"ca; c: ,
Fila1IliItfdils
, , ",,_.
"
"Ol~~i:;ptoCtlii,.g ~ac{,,",a
 .,
, "
421
.
0
"
,'" ,',
0
.0
,,1
8.0 m
.,'
1..'Q.5m T
Elevation
It..Om ,.
1
Plan
Fig. 9..~9: Details of foundation
' /
','
9.4 Design a suitable foundation for a horizontal compressor driven by an electric motor. The following data are available: ,
,
Weight of compressor, = 160 kN Weight of motor = 60 k;N , Speed of compressor = 250 rpm Horizontal unbalanced' force , = 75 kN acting at a height of 1.0 m above top of pedestaL , The following tests were performed at the site of determine the values of dynamic elastic constants :
(a) A verticalvibrationtest was conductedon an MI50 concreteblock 1.5 x 0.75 x 0.7 m high,
using different eccentricities. The data obtained is given in Table 9.8. Table 9.8 SI.No.
I 2 3 4
Angle, Of setting of . .'. eccentric masses
...
5 6
15 30 45 60 120
I
1~9
'
,
422.
FollndtUWns ,., ,
(b) A cyclicplate load test was.done on plate 300 mm ~.300 mm. The elastic settlement corresponding to a load intensity of 250 kN/m2 was 6.00 mm. . (c) A wave "propagation test gave an average value of travel time of compression waves as 0.02 s, corresponding to a distance between geophones of 6 m. The water table at the site is 2.0 m below the proposed depth of the foundation 3.0 m. The soil at the site is sandy in nature.
DD
. ~~ft
1 ::1 '.
"
'
10.1 GENERAL Impact type machines produce transient dynamic loads of short duration. Hammers are most typical of impact machines. A hammerfouridationsoil system consists of a frame, a falling weight known as 'tup', the anvil and the foundation block. Figure 8.6 shows a typical foundation for a hammer with its frame mounted on the anvil. In Fig. 10.1, a foundation for a hammer with its' frame mounted on the foundation is shown.
~,
Fig. 10.1: Typical arrangement ofa hammer foundation with A frame mounted on foundation
< '
,',
..
",'~,'f\"
'
},
;'i~,:;~$~~~4i.~,,'i.t!t:;..!,:~j'.;: ", "',7; ';,'; ~',)' ,c" i':(, ,'" ~,..,' ~ 0'"
~,
',Lo'
re
.\
.. '"
424
Soil
Dy,"""ks &
'Mllc"inif'
F()Il1I~
','
The foundation of a hammer generally consists of a reinforced concrete block. 'Q1efollowing arrangements are used depending upon the size of the hammer: (i) For small hammers, the anvil may be directly mounted on, the foundation block (Fi~. IO.2a). This system can be modeled as single ,degree of freedom system as shW!lin Fig. lO.2b.
',' ,~,',;" ,;:'::~',.:.\,.!','~ ../': ~~",.:"::':\:':',:,..",'~" " '" ",'c ;
. ..
":':"',
,
J'~
'9T::
~
,,
Tz1
ANVIL AND
FOUNDATION
'FOUNDATION, BLOCK.RESTING
ON SOIL
'BLOCK""
'}
'~
(a)
(b)
(ii) In medium capacity hammer, a vibration isolation layer is placed between the anvil and tl foundation block (Fig. lO.3a). Usually the isolation Jayer is an elastic pad consisting of rubbe felt, cork, 01 timber adequately protected against water and oil. In case of high capacity han mers, special elements such as coil springs and dampers may be used in place of elastic pa( (Fig. lO.3b). The systems shown in Fig. lO.3a and lO.3b can be modeled as two degrees I freedom system as shown in Fig. lO.3c.
f.
~I
WI
.
. .
.... t
,:1
~f&4
,"~
~,
"oundations
425
dJ~P
DAMPING 1N ANvrL
l ABSORBER
122
SPRINGk2 ELASTIC PAD
DAMPING IN SOIL
(c)
(Ui) For reducing the transmission of vibrations to the adjoining machines or structures, the foundation block may also be supported on elastic pads (Fig. lOAa) or on spring absorbers (Fig. lO.4b). In such a case, the foundation is placed in a reinfor<;edconcrete trough. The space between the foundation and side of trough is filled up with some soft 'materials or an air gap is left. The systems shown in Fig. lO.4a and lO.4b can be modeled as three degrees freedom system as shown in Fig. lO.4c. The stiffness of trough (Fig. lO.4a) is very high compared to that of the pad below the foundation block, the trough may be assumed to be rigidly supported on the soil (Novak, 1983), and therefore a two degree freedom model (Fig. lO.3c) may give sufficiently, accurate results for all practical purposes. FOUNDA TION BLOCK
BLOCK:: TROUGH
"
.~' i
" (b)
,( ,'r!'
,!1 ' . , Fig. 10.4 : Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers (...Contd.)
,.
..
"
.......
. 426
~TUP
. ANVIL I
I
TZ)
DAMPING IN PAD
SPRINGkJ OF PAD
.
BELOW ANVIL.
FOUNDATION BLOCK
TZ2
DAMPING IN SOIL
(c)
Fig. 10.4 : Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers
In hammer foundations, tup, anvil and foundation are geometrically so aligned that their centres fall on one vertical axis. This will ensure that the loads act on the anvil and foundation without any eccentricity. 10.2 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 10.2.1. Two Degree Freedom System. In general the anvil, pad, foundation, and soil constitute a tWo degree system as shqwn in Fig. 10.5. This model is based on the following assumptions: . .....,;'. (i) The anvil, foundation block, frame, and tup are rigid bodies. (ii) The pad and the soil can be simulated by equivalent weightless, elastic springs. (iii) The damping of the elastic pad and soil is neglected. (iv) The time of impact is short compared to the period of natural vibrations of the system. (v) Embedment effects are neglected.'
The notations used in the model have the following meaning: ml
bO.
,~
:r
ml = Mass of foundation and frame if the latter is mounted on the foundation, as in Fig. 'lO~t
= Mass of anvil (with frame if the latter is mounted on the anvil as in Fig. 8.6. ., ":~1$f
of soil under. consideration
425
dJ~P
DAMPING 1N ANvrL
l ABSORBER
Tz2
SPRING k2 ELASTIC PAD
FOUNDATION PI BLOCK
SOIL SPRING kl
'~ .
DAMPING IN SOIL
(c)
Fig. 10.3 : Anvil resting on elastic pad/spring abs'!)rbers
(iii) For reducing the transmission of vibratIons to the adjoining machines or structures, the foundation block may also be supported on elastic pads (Fig. lO.4a) or on spring absorbers (Fig. 10.4b). In such a case, the foundation is placed in a reinforc;edconcrete trough. The space between the foundation and side of trough is filled up with some soft materials or an air gap is left. The systems shown in Fig. lO.4a and lOAb can be modeled as three degrees freedom system as shown in Fig. 10Ac. The stiffness of trough (Fig. lO.4a) is very high compared to that of the pad below the foundation block, the trough may be assumed to be rigidly supported on the soil (Novak, 1983), and therefore a two degree freedom model (Fig. 1O.3c)may give sufficiently. accurate results for all practical purposes.
FOUNDA. TlON
BLOCK
FOUNDATION BLOCK
. . ,.
'..'
I'
,.
TROUG H
ELASTIc.
.:. ,.'
'8.
B LOCK,:~
""
.,..(a)r', I.. . ,
.,".' ., . .,. . ,. ,,(b) . Fig. 10.4: Foundation block on elastic pad/spring absorbers (...Contd.)
,.
,"" ,.
........
ill
~
427
A Cu = Modified coefficient of elastic uniform compression, to t,,;keinto account impact condition which is different from periodic loading
t.. = Multiplying factor that governs the relationship between Cu and Cu' usually 12, for impact depending upon the soil type
Cu =
Al A2 z\ z2
= Area of foundation in contact with soil = Area of the pad = Displacement of foundation from the equilibrium position = Displacement of anvil from the equilibrium position
TuPcb
BLOCK
:~, SPRING~1 I
IO.l.I.I. Natura/frequencies. The equations of motion in free vibration are mlz\+Klzl+Kz(Ztzz) =0 ...(10.1) ...(10.2) ...(10.3) ...(10.4)
~ 2Z+ Kz (zz zl) = 0 The solution of the above equation can be written as Let, and,. zl = A sin oon t zz=Bsinco"t.
where A and.B are arbitrary constants. Substituting the values ofzl and zz fro~ Eqs. (10.3) and (10.4) in Eqs. (10.1) and (10.2) respectively, we get
...(IO.S)
428
..
and,
 =
A
K2 K2 "'2 con
2
...(10.6)
KI 2 Kl K2 +COn+  0 ml } ml "'2 KI
ffi:
l+~ ml
)( "'2
KZ+
Kl
ml+"'2 )
"'2
ml +"'2
1+"'2 =0 ml)
Let,
ffina= Circularnaturalfrequencyof the foundationof the anvilon the pad ...(IO.S) = Limiting natural frequency of the foundation and anvil on soil
=
.".
"'na
~~
(J)nl
..
OOnl
~
"'2
ml+"'2
...(10.9)
Ilm
= ;;I
2 2 OOnlOOna =
2 2 +Ilm) (OOna+ffinl)
2 COn+(1+llm)
0
2 2 2 2
...(10.10 a)
r
002
= .!.I ,
. 2
...(10.10 b)
nl,2
2l~I+llm)(COna+OOnl)
{(1+llm)(OOna+COnl)}
4(1+llm)OO,IiOOna
,,',I
The two natural frequencies of the hammer foundation may be determined by solving the above equations,
...(10.12)
where, AI' A2' AJ' A4' BI' Bz, B3' B4 are arbitrary constants. If system is vibrating at frequency oonl'then from Eq. (10.6)
~
A
Similarly when con = con2
K2 K2 "'2 CO2 nl
2
(Ona
='
,,1
.
"
..
~t;;J ;"c
...
~ 
A  (02 na _(O2=a2(Say) n2
."i.", IJ',J;~4
rdatioIJsoflmpa.ct Type,Machi~es
429
It may beno~e~,that values ofal andaz are known from Eqs. (10.13 a) and (10.13 b) respectiv.ely.
r.racting az from a I we get .
.
.
a I  az = Cl) na
or
z.
2
.
.
1
2
[ Cl)na 
Cl) nl
Cl) na
 Cl)nZ ]
...(10.14)
al
 az =
( (
2
na
Cl)
Cl)n I
Z
Cl)
nZ Cl)na 2' 2
= al
...(10.1S)
boundary condition:
(i}At t = 0, ZI = Zz = 0
Az + A4 = 0 ...(10.16a) ...(10.l6b) ...(10.17)
, ,
and It gives
a I Az + az A4 = 0 A Z '= A 4 = 0
= AI
AI (Onl + AJ (OnZ =
0
...(10.18)
or
Cl) A J =  A I ni
. Cl) nZ 2'z = al Al Co nl cos ronl t  al Az Cl) nl sin Cl) nl t + az AJ Cl) nZco~ nZt  al A4 Cl) nZsin Cl) nZt or Va
= al
AI (Onl + az AJ (OnZ
A =
Va
...(10.19) ./(10.20) I
v
A = a 3 (al a2) Cl)nZ
I
I (a\az) Cl)nl (al az) Cl)nZ az) from Eq. (10.14) in Eq. (10.21), we get
ZI = (CI)~aCI)~I)(CI)~aCI)~z) ZZ Z
='
. Va
SIn ronl
Va sinCl)nzt
~
. ...(10.21)
Cl)nlCI)n2
Cl)na
...(10.22)
Similarly,
(CI)~aCI)~2)SinCl)nlt
.~
=. . .Cl)nl(J)nZ. 1
)[
.
Cl) nl
v
]
. ...(10.23)
Field observation (Barkan, 1962) of the amplitudes of the anvil and the foundation showed that the ibrations occured at the lower frequency only. Therefore, it may be assumed that the amplitude of moion for sin (Onlt= 0 Onl > (OnZ)'
430
Hence approximate expressions for maximum displacement will be as follows (sin Cl)n2t = I):
(OO;a00;1) (OO;a00;2) . Va 2 2 2 OOnaOOnlOOn2 OOn2
" .. r:
ZI
=
=
...(10.24}
(OO;a00;1) Va
z2
...(1 0.25}
10.2.2. Single Degree Freedom System. Sometimes in the case of light hammers, no pad is used between anvil and foundation. rhe system can then be represented as single degree freedom system (Fig. 10.6). In this case the equation of vertical free vibrations of the foundation will be
.
m i + Kz = 0 where,
...(10.26)
z = Vertical displacement of centre of mass of foundation and anvil, measured from equilibrium position m = Total vibrating mass, K =C' u A 1
TUPm
m1
SPRING K,
..'
Cl) nz
The Eq. (10.26) is the equation of free vibrationsof the foundationwithoutdamping.ThegeJi~' . solutionof this equationis :(~~
z = A sin COn t + B co~ Cl)n t The constants A and B, as usual, are dete~ined from initial conditions of motion. z =0 ., At t = 0 'a and z = V' ...(l~t., 'JH"ir ; ,i2
. .
Foundations of rmpllCt Type Machines
"
431
Therefore,
A =Z
Va
sm 0> t
n
...(10.29)
Q)n
= ID n
Va
...(10.30)
10.2.3. Determination
For a single acting drop hammer, the initial velocity of the tup VTi at the time of impact is given by
VTi
= 1'\ ~2 g h
...(10.31)
where, h = Drop of tuP in meters g = Acceleration due to gravity, mls2 1'\= Efficiency of drop (It lies between 0.45 to 0.80. An average value equal to 0.65 may be
adopted)
For double
= Gross weight of the dropping parts, includ~ngupper half of the die in kN.
= Net area of.cylinder in m2.
.
The initial velocity of anvil just after the tup' s. impact can be detennined by using the law the of
Momentum of tup and anvil before impact = 1 VTi . g and Momentum of tup and anvil after impact =  VTa + Va g g where W2= weight of anvil (plus frame if it mounted on the anvil)
.
...(10.33 a)
Wl
W2
g'g.

432
SoU Dy,,1IIIIics
~ Machine. FoundatiDns
According to Newton's law, the coefficient of elastic restitution, e, is given by Relative velocity after impact e = Relative. velocity before impact or
e=
Va  VTa
VTi
...(10.35)
The value of e depends upon the material of the bodies involved in'iinpact. Theoretically value' of e lies between 0 and 1. In forge hammer, usually the value of e does not exceed 0.5 (Barkan, 1962). Since a larger e gives larger amplitudes of motion, the value of e equal to 0.5 is adopted in designing hammer foundation. On solving Eqs. (10,34) and (10.35) we get. ' l+e 'Y ' V ...(10.36) W TI
a 1+1. WI
10.2.4. Stress in the Pad. Maximum compressive stress in the elastic pad below the anvil depends upon the relative displacements of anvil and the foundation block. The worst case of compression in the pad developes when the anvil moves downward, and at same instant of time, the foundation block moves upward. The maximum compressive stress in the pad is thus expressed by zl + z2
(Jp
.
, (zl' z2 In absolute values)
= K2
A' 2
...(10.3?)
10.2.S. Stresses in the Soil. Stresses transmitted to the soil q through the combined static dynamic loads are expressed by
q = 10.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE Wt +W2 +zl Kt Al
...(10.38)
The design of a hammer foundation may be carried out in following.steps: 10.3.1. Machine Data. The following information about the hammer is required for the design: (a) Type and weight of striking part of hammer; (b) Dimensions of base area of anvil and its weight; (c) Maximum stroke or fall of hammer, mean effective pressure on piston and effective area of piston; . (d) Arrangement and size of anchor bolts; and (e) Permissible amplitudes of the anvil motion and the foundation on block. If this information is not available, the amplitudes of motion given in Table 8.2 may be considered as limiting values.
(a) Soil profile: For drop hammers of up to 10 kN Capacity, soil investigations should generally
be
done to a depth of 6 m. For heavier impact machines, it is preferable to investigate soil con~~. tions to a depth of 12 m or to a hard stratum. If piles are used, the investigation should ~ conducted to a suitable depth, ~
~~
433
(b) Soil investigation to ascertain allowable soil pressure and to determine the dynamic properties of the soil specifically the value of Cu' (c) 'The relative position of the water table below ground at different time of the year. 0.3.3. Trial Size of the Foundation. (a) Weight and area: The weight of the foundation for a hammer and the size of its area in contact with the soil should be selected in such a way that (i) the static pressure on the soil does not exceed the reduced allowable soil pressure, and (ii) the foundation does not bounce on the soiL These conditions may be written as
PsI ~ a qa , and
Nhere,
PSI
...(10.38 a) ...(10.38 b)
a = Reduction'factor
= Amplitudeof motion
..(10.39) 'Considering an average value of Ap as I mm . = (103 m), and assuming the system as single degree freedom system, the Eq. (10.38b) can be written as .
A . ~ a qa
(I +e) W VI
0
' I
~C' u W A .g
< IO
...(IOAO)
where,
Al = Base area of foundation in contact with soil, m2 VIi = Initial velocity of tup, mls g = Acceleration due to gravity, mls2 C' u = Coefficient of elastic uniform compression for hammer foundation, kN/m3 Substituting the value ofW from Eq. (10.39) into Eq. (10.40), we get (1+e)WoVTi A. ~ 32 x 10 m
." ':
g ~Cuaqa '
...(10.41)
',<,'
'""",
'"
434
Foundatio~~ "
't
~,; Q.'i~
~ "C~ g
3
" ...(10.42)
'I,:
x 10 kN
r.;~
l/
= Weight of anvil
WI (l+e) VIi
"Cu
~
g
3 W2 x 10 Vi"
0
...(10.43)
From, Eq. (10.42), total weight of the anvil and foundation can be obtained. Knowing the weight ot anvil, using Eq. (10.43) weight of the foundation can be worked out. On the basis of experience (Barkan, 1962), the weight of the anvil is kept generally 20 times the weight of the tup. Further it is recommended" that the weight of the foundation block should be at least 3 to 5 times that of the anvil. (b) Depth: The depth of the foundation block shall be so designed that the block is safe both in punching shear and bending. For the calculations the inertia forces developed shall also be included. However, the following minimum thickness of foundation block below the anvil sha,If be provided: ~
Mass of Tup kN
Up to 10 10 to 20 20 to 40 40 to 60 Over 60 Thickness (Depth) of foundation Block, Min (m) 1.0 1.25 1.75 2.25 '2.50
..'
10.3.4. Selecting the dynamic elastic Constant C 'u. The procedure of obtaining Cu has already bei4:
discussed in Chapter 4 for relevant strain level. The value of C'U may be taken as A C'u where A vari~ between 1 and 2. The value of Cu may also be obtained from the following relation: if'. 4Gr .~. C = 1 0 ...(10.44,) u ~ G = Shear modulus where,
~.
r = Equivalentradius =
0
nI JA
, I!'
..
'
.<
,I
J.1
= Poisson' s ratio
1& = v;;;;
O>na
435
and
"
oon/
~ V~
E
in w~ich,
K2
= b . A2
, ,
'
E = Yourig's'modulus of pad material b = ThicIaiess of the pad A2 = Area of the pad K 1 =C' u A=A.C u A
" ,0 ..' ,",", '
".,,,
2
(()nl,2
= '2
[ (l+~m)
) (OOna+OOnl:t
[
~
(l+~m)
(OOna+OOnl )]
"
4(1+~m)
(rona,wnl )]
10.3.6. Velocity of Dropping Parts to Anvil. Compute the velocity VTiof the tup before impact
VTi 11 ~2g
(WIW + pA)h
.
in which, W 1 = Gross weight of dropping parts p = Steam or air pressure Ac = Area of the piston h = Drop of the tup 11 = Efficiency of drop, usually 0.65 Compute the velocity of the anvil Vaafter impact by l+e ' Va =. W , VT I
,.
.. "
1+ 1Wl
in which,
10.3.7.Motion Amplitudes of the Foundation and Anvil. Compute the maximum foundation and anvil amplitudes with following equations
(ro~a
Z1
 (O~I) ( (O~a
00~2)
VI)
=
0.,
2
OOna
(Onl
 OOn2 )OOn2
2
2,."(co
na,
CO 'I
'
...
436
= Kz(zJ+zz) Az
Computed values of natural frequencies should satisfy the criteria for the frequency of operation of the hammer. Also, motion amplitudes should be smaller than permissible values, and the stress in the" elastic pad should be smaller than the permissible stress of the pad material. 5
!ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES'
Example 10.1 A 15 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial Complex. The hammer has the following specifications: Weight of tup without die Maximum tup stroke Weight of the upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pressure Weight of anvil block Total weight of hammer = 11 kN
Bearingarea of anvil
Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil Permissible amplitude for foundation
It is proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0.5 m below the anvil. The modulus ,of elastici' of pad"material is 5 x 105 kN/mz, and allowable compressive stress in pad is 3500 kN/mz. 'I'~ A vertical resonance test was conducted on a 1.5 ID x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block at f proposed depth of fo~ndation. The data obtained are given below:
S. No. 8 (Deg) 36 72 108
144
iJ
Amplitude at resonance (mic1'f!'Y 13 24 32'~
40
/"Z (Nz) 41 40 34
31
I. 2. 3.
4.
t .,
.'
'ine soil at the site is sandy in nalnre and water table lies at a depth of 3,0 m below ground Allowable soil pressure is 225 kN/mz. Design a suitable foundation for the hammer.
~
Ji;
.~
437 ,
(i) Trial dimensions of foundation.. Let the weight of the block is kept about 5 times the weight of anvil.' The details of the suggeste~ foundation are shown in Fig. 10.7.
Weight of foundation
= 24
x 7 x 5 x2
= 1680kN
= (1.125
x 0.75) x 24
= 18.9 kN.
L.
438
SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations' Total weight of test block, oscillator and motor = 18.9 + 1.0. = 19.9 kN
2 2 ' ,
CII =
41t2
fn~ kN / m3
. Amplitude at resonance Stram level = 'Width of block Putting the given values of fnz and amplitude at resonance, CIIvalues and corresponding strain levels are computed and listed in cols. 2 and 3 of Table 10..1respectively. Table 10.1 : Values of Cu and strain levels
'
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4.
The mean effective confining pressure croI at a depth oronehalf of the widthof block is givenby
0'01
= cr v(1+2K
)
0
where,
O'v
= crvl + crv2
crvl
crv2 = Increase in vertical pressure due to the weight of block Assuming that the top 2.0. m soil has a moist unit weight of 18 kN/m3, and the next 1.0.m soil i..e upto water table is saturated, then
;4q
0.70.
"
= 43 kN/m2
.m2+n2+2 . } 2mn~m2+n2+1
,'".
2mn~m2+n2+1
m2 +n 2 +1+m 2 n 2
L m = 2
1.5 = 2
0..70.
= 2.14
., ,.! . 'Cl ::..
'
B 
2 0..75 '",'
n
""',"2
= .. L = 1.0.7' z = ,0..70.
"
,,',
. . 0'
. , ",:, '..~
,.!,'..,'"
,~."~
439
Substituting the above values of rn, nand q in the expression of av2, we get al2 = 13.44 kN/m2 Gv = 43 + 13.44 = 56.44 kN/m2
Assuming <1> =
1+2XO.426
= 56.44 [
] = 34.84 kN/m
q = 24 x 2.0 = 48 kN/m3
Substnuting the above values of rn, nand q in the expres~ion of crv2, we get
av2
cry
Cu2 =
CuI
0' 02
~
[ A2 ]
0.5
0'01
= 66.80 [ 34.84 ]
.5
1.5x 0.75
.5 
[ 7.0 x 5.0 ]
 0.248
The values of Cu of the actual foundation for different strain levels are listed in cot 4 of Table 10.1. 1.0 4 Stain level in actual foundation = 5.0 x 1000 = 2 x 10The strain level in actual foundation is higher than the strain level observed in the tests. Seeing the variation of Cu with respect to strain level, the value of Cu equal to 1.3 x 104 kN/m3 may be adopted in design. .
\
. , ',.' "'t~,
440
(iii) Computations of KI' K2' ml and m2
C' = A' C
11
11
= 2.0 x 1.3 x 104 = 2.6 x 104kN/m3(A = 2.0, Assumed) K I = C'!I ,A I = 2.6 x 104x 7 x 5 = 91 x 104kN/m .A = K, = b 2
~
104kN/m
Weight of the foundation block = (7 x 5 x 2 x 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.8) x 24 = 1618 kN 1618 = 165 x 103 K g 9.81
m =I
'
~
1/l\
r&=
(J)/la
= v;;;; =
11
~ = 40.8 = 0 247
165 .
1/2
,
1 =: "2[(l + 0.247) (79411 +4421)]
(J) /11.2
::t
(J.) ~1.2 = ~ [(1 + Ilm) ((J)~a+ (J)~l)J=t~ [(1 + Ilm) (O)~a + (J)~l)] 4 (1 + 11/11) (J)~a.(J)~l } { In
~{[(1 + 0.247)(79411
+ 4421)]2 4 (1 + 0.247)79411
x 4421}
VTi
~ ,{W, ~.A,
)2gh
; W\
11 = 0.70 (assumed)
..;1
\I~
VTi
"
441
l+e
w' VTi 1+1.. W1
Va =
.
(e = 0.5, assumed)
= 0.362 m/s
i) Amplitudes of vibration ZI
.Vu
=  1.695 x 104 m
=  0.1695 mm 1.0 mm, safe) Z2 = (ro:aro:l) ,Va
2 ro\n (ronl
) ro/12
..
=  1.7944 x 105 m
=  0.0179 mm [< 1.5 mm, safe]
.
' (zl' z2 In absolute values) 103
(\
A2
= 187.4 kN/m2
442
Barkan, 0.0. (1962), "Dynamics of bases and foundations", McGrawHiIl, New York. Novak, M. (1983), "foundations for shock producing machines", Can, Geotech. J. 20 (1), pp. 141158.
PRACTICE
PROBLEMS
10.1 Discuss with neat sketches the various possible arrangements ofa hammer foundation to minimist the vibrations. 10.2 Consideringa twodegreefreedommodel, derivethe expressionof amplitudesof anviland foundatio of a hammer. 10.3 A 20 kN forging hammer is proposed to install in an industrial Complex. The hammer has th following specifications: Weight oftup without die Maximum tup stroke Weight of the upper half of the die Area of piston Supply steam pressure Weight of anvil block Total weight of anvil and frame = 12 kN = 900 mm = 50 kN = 0.15 m2 = 700 kN/m = 400 kN = 500 kN = 2.1 m x 2.1 m
Bearingarea of anvil
Permissible vibration amplitude for anvil = 1.0 mm Permissible amplitude for foundation = 0.8 mm It is proposed to use a pine wood pad of thickness 0.5 m below the anvil. The modulus of elasticity pad material is 6 x 10 kN/m2, and allowable compressive stress in pad is 4000 kN/m2.
A vertical resonance test was conducted on a 1.5 m x 0.75 m x 0.70 m high concrete block at : proposed depth of foundation. The data obtained are given below:
S.No.
1. 2. 3. 4.
e (Deg)
36 72 108 144
f nz(Hz)
40 38 35 29
The soil at the site is sandy in nature and water table lies at a depth of 2.0 m below ground surf Allowable soil pressure = 200 kN/m2. Design a suitable foundation.
C]
.~ , i ..Ji.
.1 GENERAL le unprecedented burden cast by the importance of oil can be relieved only by exploiting indigenous lergy resources efficiently. Major power energy resources, in long term power plan, incorporate an ,timal mix of thermal, hydel and nuclear generation. Power intensity is relatively high in our country le to various reasons including the substantial substitution among the forms of energy in the various lportant sectors along with the accelerated programme in rural electrification and assured power supy for agricultural sector etc. Theaim of planning to generate power higher than the demand by at least ) percent, calls for a coordinated development of the power supply inqustry. As per the present ratio, the ermal sector caters 54 percent; hydro sector 43 percent and 3 percent catered by nuclear sector. The 15 :ar National Power Plan from 1980 onwards envisages the installation of additional generating capacity t'almost 100,000 MW in the thermal, hydro and nuclear sectors taken together as against the existing :neration capacity of 31,000 MW. Large capacity thermal power station at coal pit heads called Super hermal Power stations (2000 MW capacity or more) because of their size and sophisticated technology, ill account for as much as 50,000 MW to be commissioned during the next five year plan. The turbogenerator unit is most expensive, vital and important part in a thermal power plant. The perating speeds of trubogenerators may range from 3000 rpm to 10000 rpm. Auxiliary equipments such s condensers, heat exchanger, pipe lines, air vents and ducts for electric wiring are essential features of turbogenerator installation. Frame foundations are commonly used for turbogenerators with four :asons : (i) (ii) (ui) (iv) auxiallary equipment can be arranged more conveniently, the inspection of and access to all parts of the machine become more convenient, less liable to cracking due to settlement and temperature changes, and more economical due to the saving in material and freedom to add more members to stiffen if
needed.
The frame foundation is the assemblage of columns, longitudinal and transverse beams. The trans:erse beams may be often eccentric with respect to the column centre lines and generally have varying :rosssection due to several opening in the top deck and haunches at the junction with columns. The sometric view of a typical frame foundation is shown in Fig. 11.1. "I' . . In a power  plant, the long term satisfactory performance of the turbogenerators is affected by their r'oundations,pence there is vital need to adequately design these foundations for all possible combinations )f static and dynamic loads. Interaction with the mechanical engine~r is also required for any adjustment 10the layout of machinery and auxiliary fittings.
...
~.;;;t.
n!l""cU~
444
""'>'
Longitudinal beam
Top deck
"
Column's
, ;.,.
'~
,,
.. .1 ,'.' 1
11.2 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS For better perfonnance of aT. G. foundation, following points may be kept in view: , (i) The entire foundation should be separated from the main building in order to isolate the tfaIf~re of vibrations from the top deck of the foundation to the building floor of the machine'roo~~). clear gap should be provided all around. . ,(~ impo')cdby adjacent footing. The Pressurebulbs under the adjacent footings should not inie1fi .<
(ii) Other footings placed near to the machine foundation should be checked for nonuniform str~~.
'
\wa:
4ld
<jdi .
445
(iii) All the junctions of beams and columns of the foundation should be provided with adequate haunches in order to increase the general rigidity of the frame foundation. (iv) The crosssectional height of the cantilever elements at the embedment point should not be less than 60 to 75 percent of its span, being susceptible to excessive local vibrations. .
(v) The transverse beams should have their axes vertically below the bearings to avoid torsion. For the same reason the axes of columns and transverse beams should lie in the same vertical plane. (vi) The upper platform should be as rigid as possible in its plane. (vii) Permissible pressure on soil may be reduced by' 20 percent to account for the vibration of the foundation slab. This slab has much smaller amplitudes of vibration than the upper platfom1.
. 
(viii) The lower foundation shib should be sufficiently rigid to resist nonuniform settlement and heavy enough to lower the common centre of gravity of the machine and foundation. It is therefore: made thicker than required by static computations. For 25 MW machine its thickness is 2m and increases with the power of the machine to a maximum of 4m. Its weight should not be less than the weight of the machine plus the weight of the foundation excluding the base slab and condensers. (ix) Special reinforcement detailing as laid down in the code IS2974 Pt III should be followed. (x) Special care in construction is called for to avoid cracking of concrete. The foundation slab should be completed in one continuous pouring. In this case the joint between the two concretes, preferably at onethird column height, is specially treated to ensure 100 percent bond. (xi) Piles may be provided to meet the bearing capacity requirement but then the consideration of sub grade effect is essential. (xii) As far as possible the foundation should be dimensioned such that the centre of gravity of the foundation with the machine should be in vertical alignment with that of the base area in contact with. the soil. . (xiii) The groundwater table should be as low as possible and deeper by at least onefourth of the width of foundation below the.base plane. This limits the vibrations propagation, groundwater being a good conductor to wave transmission.
(xiv) Soilprofile and characteristics of soil upto at least thrice the width of the turbine foundation or . till hard stratum is reached or upto pile depth, if piles are provided, should be investigated. 11.3 DESIGN CRITERIA The design of a T. G. foundation is based on the following design criteria: (i) From the point of view of vibration, the natural frequencies of foundation system should preferably be at a variance of at least 30 percent from the operating speed of the machine as well as critical speeds of the rotor. Thus resommce is avoided. An uncertainty of 10 to 20 percent may be assumed in the computed natural frequencies. However, it may not be necessary to avoid resonance in higher modes, if the resulting resonant amplitude is relatively insignificant. It is preferable to maintain a frequency separation of 50 percent. (ii) The amplitudes of vibration should be within permissible limits. Values of permissible amplitudes are given in Table 8.2.., . ,
(
~r
':}J!
1.1
, .,
>
=:
,,.
. _.._
446
11.4 LOADS ON A T. G. FOUNDATION The loads acting on a turbogenerator are as given below: 11.4.1. Dead Loads (DL). These include the self weight of the foundation and dead 'Yeight of the chine. 11.4.2. Operation Loads (OL). These loads are supplied by the manufacturer of the machine anc elude frictional forces, power torque, thermal elongation forces, vaccum in the condenser, piping fo etc. The load due to vaccum in condenser, ifnot supplied by the manufacturer, can be obtained fron following equation: Pc = A (pa  Pc) where. Pc = Condenser vaccum load A = Crosssectional area of the connecting tie between the condenser and turbine ...(1
Pa = Atmospheric pressure
Pc = Vac cum pressure The value of (p a  Pc) may be taken as 100 kN/m2.
TR
A
TA
8Gcznczrator
t]
H.P.
Tu r bin czs
Fig. 11.2 : Torque due to normal operation oh multistage turbinegenerator unit
Shaf
The magnitude of the torque depends upon the operational speed and power output capacity ( turbines. For a T. G. unit having multistage turbine (Fig. 11.2), the torque may be calculated as be  105 PA kN TA N m ...( 1
TB 
 105(PB  PA) kN
where,
TA
= Torque
447
Tc = Torque due to lowpressure (L. P.) turbine in kNm T g= Torque due to generator in kNm PA' Pa and Pc = Power transferred by couplings A, B and C respectively in KW N = Operating speed in rpm 11.4.3. Normal Machine Unbalanced Load (NUL). As mentioned in sec. 8.2, rotary machines are balanced before erection. However, in actual operation some unbalance always exists. The unbalance is specified as the distance between the axis of the shaft and mass centre of gravity of rotor, and is known as effective eccentricity. The magnitude of unbalanced forces can be obtained using Eqs. (8.8) and (8.9).
_l
(0)
(b)
Fig. 11.3: Unbalanced forces due to rotary machines
For the case of rotors shown in Fig. 11.3a, the resultant unbalanced forces due to the two masses at any time cancel out, but there is a resulting moment M given by 2 M=mero./ ...(11.3) e where, / = Distance between the mass centre of gravities of rotors The components of the moment M in vertical and horizontal directions are given by Mv=meero2/sinrot 2 MH =meero /cosrot ...(11.4 a) ...(11.4 b)
When masses have an orientation as shown in Fig. 11.4b, the machine operation will give rise to both an unbalanced force and a moment. The unbalanced force is given by
2 F = 2 me e ro
...(11.5)
The unbalanced moment can be computedusing Eq. (11.3), For more than two rotors on a common shaft, combined unbalanced forces and moments can be computed in similar manner.
448
11.4.4. Temperature loads in the foundation (TLF). The effect of differential thermal expansion a! shrinkage should be considered in the design of frame foundations. In the absence of the exact data. differential temperature of 200 may be assumed between the upper and lower slabs. Besides, a different: temperature of 200 may be: assu\TIedbetween the inner and outer faces of the upper slab. The upper s1;. should be treated as a horizontal closed frame and analysed for the induced moments due to differenti temperature. To account for the shrinkage of the upper slab relative to thebase slab, a temperature fall of 100C 150C may be assumed.. . . 11.4.5. Short circuit forces (SCF). Short circuit condition imposes moment on the turbogenerat foundation. A fault of this type occur when any two of the three generator phase terminals are shorte The shock, which is in the form of couple known as "shortcircuit moment", tends to break the stator ( the foundation, and this imposes vertical loads on the longitudinal beam supporting the generator state If accurate information is not available from the manufacturer, the short circuit moment (Msc) m. be taken emipiricallyas four times the rated capacity (in MW) of turbogenerator unit. Major (1980) has suggested the following fomlula for estimating the short circuit moment: Msc = 10 r Wr kNm Where, W,. = Capacity ofT. G. Unit in MW r = Radius of the rotor in m ...( 11.
11.4.6. Loss of blade unbalance (LBL) or bearing failure load (BFL). One of the buckets or blades the turbine rotor may break during the operation of turbogenerator unit. It will increase the unbalanc force. This additional unbalanced forced wi1l depend on the weight of the bucket,. the distance of centre of gravity from the axis of rotation and operational speed.. .. . 11.4.7. Seismic load (EQL). The horizontal seismic force is considered both in logitudinal and transve: directions separately. It may be computed from the following equation (IS 18931984) :
Fs
= ah
~C
S W ...(11.7)
where,
Fs
~ = Soil
foundation
factor
= Verticalload
When earthquake forces are considered in design, the permissible stresses in materials and the lowable soil pressure may be increased as per IS 18931984.
11.4.8. Construction loads (CL). Constructionloads occur only when the machineis being erected. such they are not to be consider~das acting simultaneouslywith dynamic loadswhich occur only dur the operation of the machine. The construction loads are generally taken as uniformly distributed l( varying from 10 kN/m2 to 30 kN/m2depending on the size ofT. G. unit. . .
449
The design of a T. G. unit should be checked for the following load combinations: (a) Operati?n,: ~~ndition DL+OL+N1J:r..:+JL[ (b) Short circuit condition
..:
. .
(c) Loss of blade conditionlbearing failure'doridition DL + OL + TLF + LBLIBFL (d) Seismic condition DL + OL + NUL + TLF + EQL 11.5 METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
In the case of a frame foundation, it is necessary to check the frequencies and amplitudes of vibration and also to design the members of frame from structural considerations. The methods for carrying out dynamic analysis may be divided into two categories: (a) Two.dimentional analysis (b) Threedimensional analysis The twodimensional analysis is based on the following assumptions: (i) The difference between the deformations of individual frame coluinns is insignificalll. (ii) The deformation of the longitudinal and transverse beams is almost identical. (iii) The torsional resistance of the longitudinal beams is insignificant in relation to the deformation
. ..
..
(iv) The vertical vibrations of the frames can be determined for each frame individually. (v) The weight transmitted from the longitudinal beam can be considered as a load supported by the column head, even in case where the transverse beam is eccentrically placed with respect to the centre line of the column. (vi) Both the columns and beams can be replaced by weightless elements with the masses lumped at a few points by equating the kinetic energies of the actual and the idealised systems. (vii) The effect of elasticity .of subsoil is neglected, it being relatively much flexible. . (viii) When considering horizontal displacement the upper slab is regarded as a rigid plate in its own
plane.
The two dimensional analysis may be carried out by the following methods: 1. Resonance method (Rausch, 1959) 2. Amplitude method (Barkan, 1962) 3. Combined method (Major, 1980) In subsequent sections, salient features of the above methods are given.
"''..
"
.
450
METHOD
In this method, the frame foundation is idealized as a singledegree freedom system, and consideration is given only to natural frequencies of the system in relation to the operating speed of the machine. The amplitudes of vibration are not computed in this method. 11.6.1. Vertical Frequency. For obtaining vertical frequency, each transverse frame that consists of two columns and a beam perpendicular to main shaft of the machine, is considered separately (Fig. IlAa). Fz sin cut Fz sin c..>t
Wz
Wz
t
Wl
ID
I.I ILl
2a lo
~
I
I
~
lr
I
m= ql jW,+2' 9
h, ho
I
Zb
Column
<znds
assumed fixed
Y          _J
Base slab L (a)
,
.>71
1  7
/"
Gekrmns
J~
 1I
I
(b)
The loads acting on this frame are (I) Dead load of the machine and bearing, W I (ii) Load transferred (iii) Uniformly (Iv) Unbalanced to the columns by longitudinal beams, W 2
distributed
load due to self weight of cross beam, q per unit length Fz sin w t
451
The frame is modelled as massspring system as shown in Fig. II.4b. The stiffness of equivalent spring (K) is computed as the combined stiffness of the beam and columns acting together. It is given by W K =...( 11.8)
:: 851
where,
or
= W\
1 = Effective
51
= Total vertical deflection at the centre of the beam due to bending action of beam and
axial compression
o
where,
51
= 1
+ 2 + 3 +4
...(11.10)
1 = Vertical deflection of beam due to load WI 2 = Vertical deflection of beam due to the distributed load q 3 = Vertical deflection of the beam due to shear 84 = Axial compression in column
The magnitudes of 81' 82, 3 and 84 can be obtained using following expressions: Wj ,3 2 K + 1 81 = 96 E Ib K + 2 q 14 5K + 2 2 = 384 Elb' K+2 3 1 ql 83 ="5 E Ab ( WI+2 84 where,
...(11.11)
...(11.12)
) )
...(11.13) ...(11.14)
EA e
W + WI +ql 2 2
...(11.15)
le = Moment of inertia of column E = Young's modulus of concrete K = Relative stiffness factor 1 = Effective span of frame h = Effective height of frame Values of 1 and h are obtained as below: '=1
0
2ab
...(11.16) ...(11.17)
h =h 0 2aa
452 where,
10
ho = Height of the column from the top of the base slab to the centre of the frame beam (Fig. 11.4 a) a = Onehalf of the depth of the beam for a frame without haunches (Fig. 11.4 a) or the distance as shown in Fig. 11.5 for a frame with haunches b = Onehalf of the column width for a frame without haunches (Fig. 11.4 a) or ~he distance as shown in Fig. 11.5 for a frame with haunches. Knowing the values of ho' 10and b, excan be obtained from Fig. 11.6.
0.40
0.30
0<
I I
0
0.20
I I
1
b~
0.10
00
0.04
0.08
0.12 b/ lo
The natural frequency of a transverse frame in vertical vibrations is given by nz = ~Kz W .g ...(11.18)
(j)
...(11.19)
.. ..
!.~
453
The average value of vertical amplitude of T. G. foundation may be computed as A:a IF:
...(11.20)
oo:Jf +( ~:o:)'
~ = Damping
For undertuned
ratio
i.e. (() < (() lI~a ~, (() ~a should be used in Eq. (11.20). Then nn = (()
foundation,
A za
...(11.20 a)
11.6.2. Horizontal Vibrations. In a T. G. frame formulation, the deck slab undergoes horizontal vibration in the direction perpendicular to the main shaft of the machine. The spring stiffness is provided by the columns due to their bending action, and for any transverse frame it is given by K = 12E le
x where,
6K+l )
...(11.21)
113 ( 3K+2
If
L Kt
WT = Total weight of deck slab and machine Then the natural frequency of the T. G. frame foundation is given by
"'"xa
p:~~)g
L~t
...(11.22)
The average horizontal amplitude of the foundation may be computed as follows: A = ...( 11.23)
2 2
'"
For undertuned foundation,
LFt
...(11.23
(l)
454
FoUIldatiolls
As mentioned earlier, in this method only the possibility of resonance is checked i.e. the natural frequencies computed from Eqs. (11.19) and ( 11.22) should differ by atleast 30 percent from the ope rati:1g speed of the machine. The Eqs. (11.20), (11.20a) and (11.23) for determining amplitudes are gi\'en to be used further in combined method. Resonance method based on idealising each transverse frame to single massspring system is an oversimplification of a complex problem. Therefore the values of natural frequencies computed by this method are very approximate. 11.7 AMPLITUDE METHOD
In this method also, the vibration analysis is carried out for each transverse frame independently. However, the frame has been idealised as a twodegreefreedom system (Fig. 11.7). The main criterion for design is that the amplitudes due to forced vibrations are within permissible limits (Barkan, 1962).
Z2
1
t Fz sin
wt
ctzz
TI
K,
12
\
"::::::;mz
m,
mz
m, /1 \
KZ
\ K, 1I I
I
Z1
\
\ \
I
of
m,
columns
:.r::
:"l
(a)
Section
cross
frame
(b)
Mathemetical
model
Fig. 11.7: (a) Vertical vibration ora cross frame as a twodegreeoffreec.lom system; (b) !\Iassspring model
11.7.1. Vertical Vibration. For the vertical frequency a twodegrcespringmass Fig. 11.7 b is adopted. Mass m I lumped over the columns is given by m
I
system shown in
= WI + W2+0.33W3 +0.25W4
g
...( 11.24)
,\ ,ii
IIIJ
455
W 1 = Dead load of the machine and bearing W 2 = Load transferred to be columns by longitudinal beams W 3 = Weight of two columns constituting the transverse frame W4 = Weight of the transverse beam
The stiffness Kl of both the columns of a transverse frame is given by 2EAc KI = h The stiffness Kz of the frame beam is given by 1 K =
...(11.26)
...(11.27)
SI
re,
/ (1+2K)
OS!
3/
...(11.28)
Ac
= Crosssectional
rb = Moment of inertia of the beam K is defined by Eq. 11.15. The system shown in Fig. 11.7 b is identical to the system shown in Fig 1 18, and therefore can be alysed by the procedure explained in Art. 2.8. The equations of motion in free vibration will be: ml ZI + KI ZI  Kz (Zz  ZI) = 0 mz Zz + Kz (Zz  ZI) = 0 The solution of above equations are: Z \ = A I sin 0)III Zz =A z sinO) III
4 (I)/I(I+~l)
...( 11.31 )
...(11.32)
Substituting Eqs. (11.31) and (11.32) into eqs. (11.29) and (11.30), on simplification. we get
.z
(1)/1110)12
)+(I+P)(J)IlIIO)IlIZ
zz
=0
...( 11.3 3) Kl
here,
0) III 1 
...( 11.34)
/Ill + /Il2
~
0) Il 1Z
...( 11.35)
= V;;;;
nlz ml
...( 11.36)
Ilm =
.u_.'
~56
The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained by solving Eq. (11.33). In forced vibration. the equations of motion will be:
/1/] ZI+KI ZIK2(Z2ZI)=0 1112 Z2 + K2 (Z2  ZI) The solution of the above equations ...(11.37)
= F;
sin OO{
...(11.38) as ...( 11.39) .. .(11.40) and (11.38), 2 00,,12. F; and then solving them we get
can be presented
sin OOt
and (11.40)
=
1111
...(11.41)
004
 (1 + ~ ,J
00 ~ 1 I + CO~ 12
) CO2 +
(1 + ~ Ill) 00 ~ I 1 CO ~ I 2
and
AZ2
+
...(11.42)
11.7.2. Horizontal vibration. For analysing the frame foundation in horizontal vibration as t\VOdegreefreedom problem, the upper and lower foundation slabs are assumed to be infinitely rigid. The columns are taken to act as leafsprings. The stiffness of a leaf spring is considered equal to the lateral stiffness of the individual transverse frame. dl<Z
d k1
d k3
r
A1
IQ
dm1
11
I I
I
I t
.
m2
/. .
dm3~
T
X
G2 m1
01
m2
81 m3
\ 1
L A3~AZ
 
horizontal
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