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Cette cration est mise disposition selon le Contrat Paternit-Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale-Partage des Conditions Initiales l'Identique 2.0 France disponible en ligne http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/fr/ ou par courrier postal CreativeCommons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California94105, USA

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Cette cration est mise disposition selon le Contrat Paternit-Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale-Partage des Conditions Initiales l'Identique 2.0 France disponible en ligne http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/fr/ ou par courrier postal CreativeCommons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California94105, USA. This work is licensed under Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 available online at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or by regular mail at CreativeCommons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California94105, USA.

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Jean-Pierre Bourey, Ecole Centrale de Lille October 2012
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UML modelling
Class diagram Activity diagram competencies will be appreciated

Petri Nets notions

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Introduction to Business Process Modelling BPMN for beginners/managers BPMN tools BPMN for advanced modeller BPMN for experts References

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Terminology Standards Notations Tools Permanent evolution

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Welcome in a complex world!!
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Business Process

is a set of one or more linked procedures or activities which collectively realize a business objective or policy goal, normally within the context of an organizational structure defining functional roles and relationships.

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is the representation of a business process in a form which supports automated manipulation, such as modeling or enactment The process model definition consists of
a network of activities and their relationships, criteria to indicate the start and termination of the process information about the individual activities, such as participants, associated data, etc.

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[Kvtoov 2006]
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[Kvtoov 2006]

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is the automation of a business process, in whole or part, during which documents, information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules

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[VISP 2007]

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ACTIVITIES
PROCESS MODELLING PROCESS CHOREOGRAPHY PROCESS ORCHESTRATION WORKFLOW ADMINISTRATION WORKFLOW EXTENSIONS INFORMATION MODELS SERVICE DESCRIPTIONS

UMM BPSS WSBPEL


EXECUTABLE

UML WSBPEL
abstract

MDA/BPDM WS-CDL BPML

BPMN WSCI XPDL

BPSM WSCL

ebXML CPPA WfXML BTP

BPXL UBL

WSDL

COMMUNICATIONS

SOAP

STANDARD BODIES

OASIS ebXML

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OAGIS RosettaNet PIP ASAP OMG BPMI W3C WfMC OAGi RosettaNet

BPQL

[VISP 2007]

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Business Process Maturity Model


Standard BPMM BPMN BPDM UML BPEL XPDL UMM Type Model Language Meta-Model Language Language Language Method

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Business Process Definition Metamodel Unified Modelling Language Business Process Execution Language XML Process Definition Language UN/CEFACT's Modeling Methodology
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Business Model and Notation Version DateProcess Impl. Organisatio n 1.0 06/2008 No 2.0 01/2011 Yes OMG 1.0 11/2008 No 2.4.1 08/2011 Yes 2.0 04/2007 Yes Oasis 2.2 08/2012 Yes WfMC 2.0 04/2011 Few UN/CEFACT

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By defining
The scope of what you have to do The roles of involved people

By using a limited set of standards

By encouraging the dialog between Business and IT people By following (or trying to follow) evolutions By relativizing

there is no such thing as perfection!!!

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Business

Level 1 Strategic Process Model

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IT

Level 2 Operational Process Model Level 3a Technical Process Model Level 3b IT Specification Level 4b IT Implementation
Without Process Engine

With Process Engine

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Notations Techniques

Content : High Level Overview Goal : Quick Understanding Semantic : logical-abstract Content : Operational Flows Goal : Clarifying Details Semantic : physical-concrete Content : Technical Details Goal : Execution Semantic : physical-concrete

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Process OWNER
Chairman, Head of Division

Process Landscape Process Overview Parts of the Process Everything

Process MANAGER
Head of Department

Process PARTICIPANT
Clerk, etc.

Process ANALYST
(In-house) Consultant

Process ENGINEER
Software Developer

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1) Design [designer] 6) monitor [BAM, SAM]
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Everything
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2) Simulate [simulator]

3) Deploy [repository]

4) execute [server]

5) operate [portal]

[BPMI.org]
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Initially developed by Business Process Management Institute (now part of l'OMG) Objective:

to build a bridge between the description and the execution of processes

Initially BPMI developed BPML (replaced by BPEL as execution language) Origin

August 2001: BPMN 1.0 : Business Process Modeling Notation Notation Working Group created. (35 companies, organisations, or individuals). May, 2004: BPMN 1.0 specification released to the public February, 2006: BPMN 1.0 adopted as an OMG standard January, 2008: BPMN 1.1 adopted as an OMG standard January, 2009: BPMN 1.2 adopted as an OMG standard becomes Business Process Model and Notation September 2009 :BPMN 2.0 Beta 1 June 2010: BPMN 2.0 Beta 2 January 2011 :BPMN 2.0

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"The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a notation that is


readily understandable by all business users, from the business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes, to the technical developers responsible for implementing the technology that will perform those processes, and finally, to the business people who will manage and monitor those processes.

Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge for the gap between the business process design and process implementation."

[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 , OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]

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Descriptive Process Models

Suitable for high level modeling should be comfortable for analysts that have used flowcharts Process Map: simple flow charts of the activities Contains the concepts most commonly used and covered in BPMN training Process Description : Process Map + description (not enough to fully define actual performance) Focuses on the elements required for executable process models Process Models with enough information so that the process can be analyzed, simulated, and/or executed

Analytic Process Models

Common Executable Process Models

BPMN

Supports each of these levels Provides a mechanism to generate an executable Business Process (BPEL) from the business level notation Is independent from methodologies

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BPMN is constrained to support only the concepts of modeling that are applicable to Business Processes The following are aspects that are out of the scope of BPMN
Definition of organizational models and resources Modeling of functional breakdowns Data and information models Modeling of strategy Business rules models

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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:
A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work. a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of Activities Events Gateways Sequence Flows that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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BPMN aims to cover 3 basic models of Processes:


Processes Collaborations Choreographies

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BPMNDiagram is a kind of diagram that depicts all or part of a BPMN model

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Private process

Internal to a specific organization Called workflow or BPM Processes Called Orchestration of services in the Web services area Can be executable or not (i.e. for documenting purpose)

[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]

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Public process
represents the interactions between a private Business Process and another Process or Participant Only those Activities that are used to communicate to the other Participant(s) are included in the public Process

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contains two or more Pools, representing the Participants

[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]

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[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]

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provides a birds eye perspective

[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]

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Process OWNER
Chairman, Head of Division

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Jean-Pierre Bourey, Introduction to BPMN 2.0

Process MANAGER
Head of Department

Process PARTICIPANT
Clerk, etc.

Process ANALYST
(In-house) Consultant

Process ENGINEER
Software Developer

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Process Landscape Process Overview Parts of the Process Everything

Everything

[inspired from camunda services Gmbh]

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Communication Conversation Link LMO
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Sub-conversation
[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]
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[Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03]
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Process OWNER
Chairman, Head of Division

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LMO
Jean-Pierre Bourey, Introduction to BPMN 2.0

Process MANAGER
Head of Department

Process PARTICIPANT
Clerk, etc.

Process ANALYST
(In-house) Consultant

Process ENGINEER
Software Developer

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BPMN for beginners/managers
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Process Landscape Process Overview Parts of the Process Everything

Everything

[inspired from camunda services Gmbh]

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Collaboration and Process diagrams ~13 concepts = 10% of the total number of concepts Petri Nets based execution

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Pool Task Message Flow Start Event Sequence Flow Intermediate Event Lane Gateway Subprocess

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Collapsed Pool Data Object

Association

End Event

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Pools and lanes

Events

Activities Tasks

Gateways

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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:
A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of

Activities

Events Gateways Sequence Flows that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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Pools and lanes Events Artefacts Gateways

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Activities Tasks

Sub-processes

Flows

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An Activity is work that is performed within a business process. An Activity can be atomic or nonatomic (compound).

Sub-Process, and Task

Activities are rounded rectangles

They can be performed once or can have internally defined loops

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A Task is an atomic activity that is included within a Process. A Task is used when the work in the Process is not broken down to a finer level of Process Model detail There are specialized types of Tasks for sending and receiving, or user-based Tasks, etc. Markers or icons can be added to Tasks to help identify the type of Task
Markers must not change the footprint of the Task or conflict with any other standard BPMN element

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[OMG BPMN Tutorial]

The types of activities that are a part of a Process Model are:

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For the descriptive level, 3 task types are enough Abstract Task ("None Task" in BPMN 1.2)
A Task which is not further specified

A User Task is a typical workflow Task where a human performer performs the Task with the assistance of a software application and is scheduled through a task list manager of some sort.

Service Task

A Service Task is a Task that uses some sort of service, which could be a Web service or an automated application.

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Sub-Processes enable hierarchical Process development

A Sub-Process is a compound activity that is included within a Process. It is compound in that it can be broken down into a finer level of detail (a Process) through a set of sub-activities For a collapsed version of a Sub-Process, the details of the Sub-Process are not visible in the Diagram A plus sign in the lower-centre of the shape indicates that the activity is a SubProcess and has a lower-level of detail For an expanded version of a Sub-Process, the details (a Process) are visible within its boundary A Call Activity identifies a point where a global Process or a Global Task is used.

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[OMG BPMN Tutorial]

User Task

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Jean-Pierre Bourey, Introduction to BPMN 2.0

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Jean-Pierre Bourey, Introduction to BPMN 2.0

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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:

A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of Activities Events Gateways

Sequence Flows

that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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Pools and lanes

Events

Activities Tasks

Gateways

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They connect a source Flow Object to a target Flow Object: Three types

A Sequence Flow is used to show the order that activities will be performed in a Process A Message Flow is used to show the flow of messages between two entities that are prepared to send and receive them An Association is used to associate data, information and artifacts with flow objects

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A Sequence Flow is used to show the order that activities will be performed in a Process The source and target must be one of the following objects:
Events Activities Gateways

A Sequence Flow cannot cross a Sub-Process boundary or a Pool boundary

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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:
A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of Activities

Events

Gateways Sequence Flows that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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Pools and lanes Events Artefacts Gateways

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An Event is something that happens during the course of a business process. BPMN has restricted the use of events to include only those types of events that will affect the sequence or timing of activities of a process. These Events affect the flow of the process and usually have a trigger or a result. They can start, interrupt, or end the flow

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A Start Event

is a circle that MUST be drawn with a single thin line indicates where a particular Process will start starts the flow of the Process, and thus, will not have any incoming Sequence Flows

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[BPMN2.0 Specifications]
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An End Event

is a circle that MUST be drawn with a single thick line indicates where a Process will end

All the tokens that were generated within the Process MUST be consumed by an End Event before the Process has been completed If there is a Start Event, then there MUST be at least one End Event If the End Event is not used, then all Flow Objects that do not have any outgoing Sequence Flow (i.e., are not a source of a Sequence Flow) mark the end of a path in the Process. However, the Process MUST NOT end until all parallel paths have completed.

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[BPMN2.0 Specifications]
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Indicates where something happens (an Event) somewhere between the start and end of a Process Is drawn with a double thin line

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Delay between tasks

Time out (on the border)

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Events
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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:

A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of Activities

Gateways

Sequence Flows that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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Pools and lanes

Events

Activities Tasks

Gateways

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A Sequence Flow MAY have a defined condition if it exits an Activity Such an activity MUST have at least two Sequence Flows The condition has to be True to allow the flow to continue down the Sequence Flow A mini-diamond shows that the Sequence Flow has a condition At least one of the outgoing Sequence Flow MUST be chosen during Process performance
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A Sequence Flow that exits an Exclusive or Inclusive Gateway may be defined as being the default path A hatch mark at the line beginning shows the default Sequence Flow

The default path is chosen only if all the other conditions of the Gateway are False

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Used to control how Sequence Flows interact as they converge and diverge within a Process All types of Gateways are diamonds
Different internal markers indicate different types of behaviour All Gateways both split and merge the flow

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Exclusive Gateways (Decisions) are locations within a business process where the Sequence Flow can take two or more alternative paths. This is basically the fork in the road for a process Only one of the possible outgoing paths can be taken when the Process is performed

They are also used to merge Sequence Flow

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These are the most commonly used type of Gateways. They can be shown with or without an internal X marker. Without is the most common use. The Gateway (Decision) creates alternative paths based on defined conditions

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A converging Exclusive Gateway is used to merge alternative paths Each incoming Sequence Flow token is routed to the outgoing Sequence Flow without synchronization

Be careful (see later)

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Inclusive Gateways are Decisions where there is more than one possible outcome If none of the Inclusive Decision Gate Condition Expressions are evaluated as TRUE, then the Process is considered to have an invalid model The O marker is used to identify this Gateway

They are usually followed by a corresponding merging Inclusive Gateway


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The source object MUST NOT be an Event. The source object MAY be a Gateway, but the mini-diamond MUST NOT be displayed in this case. The source object MAY be an activity (Task or Sub-Process) and the mini-diamond SHALL be displayed in this case. A source Gateway MUST NOT be of type AND (Parallel).
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When the Inclusive Gateway is used as a Merge, it will wait for (synchronize) all Tokens that have been produced upstream It does not require that all incoming Sequence Flow produce a Token (as the Parallel Gateway does) It requires that all Sequence Flow that were actually produced by an upstream (by an Inclusive OR situation, for example) If an upstream Inclusive OR produces two out of a possible three Tokens, then a downstream Inclusive OR will synchronize those two Tokens and not wait for another Token, even though there are three incoming Sequence Flow
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Interrupting timer

This task is stopped after 2 hours

These flows are exclusive

Non interrupting events

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Parallel Gateways are places in the Process where multiple parallel paths are defined

They are not required for forking in most situations. They can be used for methodological purposes

The + marker is used to identify this Gateway The Gateway is also used to synchronize (wait for) parallel paths

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Implicit Merge

Version2,

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Multiple Merge,

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each token arriving at activity D will cause a new instance of that activity.

[OMG Final Adopted BPMN 1.2 Spec formal/2009-01-03]


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Multiple Merge,
each token arriving at activity D will cause a new instance of that activity.

Discriminator

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Synchronizing Join

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BPMN 1.x: When the second token arrives, it will be excluded from the remainder of the flow. This means that the token will not be passed on to the activity, but will be consumed. BPMN 2.0: each token will be passed on to activity D
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[OMG Final Adopted BPMN 1.2 Spec formal/2009-01-03]


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Be careful and avoid

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Prefer

If necessary

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A Process is an activity performed within a company or organization. BPMN defines the term Process as:

A sequence or flow of Activities in an organization with the objective of carrying out work a Process is depicted as a graph of Flow Elements, which are a set of Activities Events Gateways Sequence Flows that adhere to a finite execution semantics [BPMN2.0 Glossary]

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Pools and lanes

Events

Activities Tasks

Gateways

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A Pool typically represents an organization A Lane typically represents a department within that organization

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[OMG Final Adopted BPMN 1.2 Spec formal/2009-01-03]


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Pools and lanes Events Artefacts Gateways

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Activities Tasks

Sub-processes

Flows

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A Message Flow is used to show the flow of messages between two Entities that are prepared to send or Received them

Message Flow are not allowed between objects within a single Pool

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A Message Flow can connect two different Pools or Flow Objects within the Pools

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Pools and lanes

Events

Activities Tasks

Gateways

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Artifacts provide the capability to show information beyond the basic flow-chart structure of the Process There are currently three standard Artifacts in BPMN: Data Objects, Groups, and Annotations Additional Artifacts may be standardized in later version Sets of vertical market Artifacts may also be developed A modeller or tool can extend BPMN by defining new Artifacts

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Data Objects are Artifacts that are used to show how data and documents are used within a Process

Data object can be a collection

A Data Store provides a mechanism for Activities to retrieve or update stored information that will persist beyond the scope of the Process.

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An Association is used to associate objects to one another (such as Artifacts and Activities) Associations are used to show how data is input to and output from Activities Text Annotations can be Associated with objects (see later)

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Data Objects can be used to define inputs and outputs of activities Data Objects can be given a state that shows how a document may be changed or updated within the Process
Data association

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Text Annotations are a mechanism for a modeller to provide additional information about a Process Text Annotations can be connected to a specific object on the Diagram with an Association

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A majority of tools "conforms" to BPMN 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 Some claim to conform to BPMN2.0
Reality and/or disinformation

See http://www.bpmn.org/

Free or not

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There are 76 current implementations (updated September 12, 2012)

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web-based BPMN editor http://bpt.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/Oryx http://academic.signavio.com/p/login (academics) BPMN2.0 and earlier versions Also: Petri Nets, UML class diagram, EPC (ARIS)

Zero-installation BPMN2 (including Choreography, Conversations) More than BPMN (Petri nets, EPC, ) Ergonomic Import/export facilities

But

On line tool Only drawing


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Advantages

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http://www.bonitasoft.com/ Version 5.7.3 (tested on 2012-09-30) Modelling , deployment, execution, monitoring Easy to use Very evolutive Connectivity Simulation

Free almost for operational use Some concepts are missing: event_based gateways, user tasks,
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One of the leaders Not completely conformant with BPMN and very (too) tolerant!!

Business, functional, organisational, application

Integration with others aspects of entreprises


Organisation IT Risks

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4 process views

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ARIS (Software AG)


The leader A free version for academics Free version for all ARIS Express (http://www.ariscommunity.com/arisexpress)

A free version: Community edition (http://www.adoniscommunity.com/download.html)

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What one can read about this subject !!!!

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Adonis

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["Use of UML and Model Transformations for Workflow Process Definitions ", Audris Kalnins, Valdis Vitolins12006]

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BPMN2.0 is better than BPMN1.x

The metamodel is more formalised Some concepts are very interesting (non interrupting events,)

But BPMN 2.0 is more complex than BPMN1.x

Clarification of what is useful at each level is needed

The extensibility mechanism is poorer than UML Profiles Some tools are interesting

Signavio for modelling Bonita for modelling and deployment

In any case, this notation must be learnt before used !!!!!!


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Process for managing travel orders of RS-Company employees Before travelling, an employee has to fill a form (destination, departure and return dates) His/her manager has to validate or not The top manager validates his/her own travel order

A customised notification is sent to the employee to inform about the decision the manager has made The company organisation is described in a database table The process could be instanciated by any employee
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Employee Employee's Manager
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Workflow Portal (UserXP) Workflow Portal (UserXP)

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Workflow Engine

Database containing the Organisational Chart and a log table

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RS-Company organisation chart

Mick

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Build (Table, sequence, constraints, triggers)


an organisation table: BONITA_USER_ORG_CHART

a result table BONITA_USER_TRAVEL_RESULT containing validation information (who, when , what, )

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BPMN 2.0

Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0 , OMG Document Number: formal/2011-01-03 http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/ (Accessed 2011-03-16) 538 pages

BPDM

Business Process Definition MetaModel Volume I and II http://www.omg.org/spec/BPDM/1.0/ (Accessed 2009-10-28)

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http://www.processmodeling.info/posts/highlights-from-bpmn2-0-new-event-types/ http://www.afis.fr
Association Franaise pour l'ingnierie systme

Business process management service


http://www.bpmbasics.com http://www.hb-conseil.com/
Approche processus

http://www.diveintobpm.org/
Animated explanations
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Workflow patterns

http://workflowpatterns.com/patterns/index.php (Accessed 2012-1015)

BPMN2.0 Poster

http://www.bpmb.de/images/BPMN2_0_Poster_FR.pdf http://www.bpmn.org/Documents/OMG_BPMN_Tutorial.pdf http://www.fit.vutbr.cz/research/pubs/TR/2006/sem_uifs/s060410slid y1.pdf

"OMG BPMN Tutorial" [Kvtoov 2006] Basic concepts of Business Process Modeling,

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http://www.omg.org/ http://www.bpmn.org/ http://www.bpmi.org/ http://www.bpms.info/

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[Eloudrhiri, 08] Sad Eloudrhiri, Pierre Halin, Vivien Monti, rapport de veille technologique Urbanisation et SOA Vers une Entreprise Agile version 1, Centre de comptences TIC, Rgion wallone, BE, Vivansa, 16/09/2008, www.vivansa.com. [Fournier-Morel et al., 08] Xavier Fournier-Morel, Pascal Grojean, Guillaume Plouin, Cyril Rognon, SOA le guide de l'architecture SI, 2me dition, Collection InfoPro - 368 pages - 2008 - 2e dition, Dunod. [Gartner 09] Gartner's 2009 Hype Cycle Special Report Evaluates Maturity of 1,650 Technologies, 2009, http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1124212. [Vendeville, 09] Eric Vendeville Les 5 piliers fondamentaux dun Socle de Gouvernance SOA, le 27/03/09, http://www.soablog.fr/2009/03/27/les-5-piliers-fondamentauxdun-socle-de-gouvernance-soa/
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