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CHAPTERI
TheOverview
THELANDOFTHEBLACKSWASAVASTLAND,ABIGWORLD
untoitselfcovering12,000,000squaremiles .Fromitsnorthernmost
pointinwhatisnowTunisiatoCapeAqulhasisapproximately5,000
miles,andinitswidestextentfromeasttowestitis4,600miles .The
wholeofthissecondlargestcontinentwasonce BiladasSudan, "The
LandoftheBlacks,"andnotjustthesouthernregiontowhichtheyhad
beensteadilypushedfromthenorth.AfterAsian,GreekandRoman
occupations,theterm"Sudan"cametoindicatetheareasnotyettaken
fromtheBlacksandwasco-extensivewiththeEthiopianempire.
FortheEthiopianempireonceextendedfromtheMediterranean
northandsouthwardtothesourceoftheNileinthecountry(Abyssinia)
whichrecentlyrevertedtotheancientnameoftheEthiopianempireof
whichinearliertimesitformeditssoutheasternprovinces .Evenaslate
asthetimesofMenes,3,100 B.C., Ethiopiastillincludedthree-fourths
ofEgypt,oruptotwenty-ninedegreesNorthparallel .TheAsiansheld
theDeltaregion,hence"TheTwoLands"-well-knowntoallhistorians
butneverfullyexplained .(Toexplainthe"TwoLands,"ofcourse,
wouldblastthemythaboutthebuildersofEgyptianCivilization .)
ItwaspointedoutthatthestudyoftheBlacksmustbegininEgypt
becausemostoftheirindestructiblemonumentsarethere;and,further,
becausemanyoftheartifactsarchaeologistshavebeenuncovering
duringthepastseventy-fiveyearsas"Egyptian"areinfact"African ."
Yetthevery"HeartlandoftheRace"andthecradleofcivilizationwere
actuallyfurthersouthbelowtheFirstCataract,centeredaroundthe
44
TheOverview

45
capitalcitiesofNapataandMeroe.Fromthereblackcivilizationspread
north,reachingitsmostspectacularachievementsinwhatbecame
knownas"EgyptianCivilization ."
Thegeneralconditionofvaststretchesofuninhabitedanduninhabita-
blelandoverthecontinentseemedtosupporttheWesternthesisthat
Africansneverdevelopedanyworthwhilecivilizationwithanotable
historicpast.Themorecharitablemightaddthatintheverynatureof
theirsituationitcouldnothavebeenotherwise.SamuelBakerwentfar
inpromotingtheideaofAfricaninnateinferiorityevenifhehadtouse
themostforbiddingareainAfricatodoit-theterribleswamplandsof
theSudd,anareasouthofKhartoum,that,initsfullextent,isasbigas
England .Noonewouldclaimthatanykindofsociety,civilizedor
savage,couldexistintheSuddSwamplands,probablythelargestinthe
world .Foritwasneitheralllandnorwater,butaseeminglyendless
massofrottingvegetation,interwoventree-likevines,steamingheat,
swarmingman-killingmosquitoes,crocodiles,hipposandotherunknown
formsoftropicallife.TheconclusionofBakeranddotherswasthatthey
wereinalandwheretimehadstoodstillsinceitsbeginning,wherelife
neveradvancedandthehumanspecieshadsimplyrotatedinaimless
cyclesliketheanimallifeintheSudd .
Aslateasthe1840sand50stheseexplorers,eventhemostignorant,
shouldhaveknownthatinthesamevastcontinentofwastelands,
tropicalrainforestsandswamplands,therewerealsoareasofarable
landandcivilizedstates .Buttheywroteaboutwhattheysawthemost
of:vaststretchesofwastelandandsecludedgroupsof"strange"people .
But,asweshallsee,someofthegreatkingdomsandempire-builders
inAfricaseemnottohaveknownthemeaningoffailureortohaveany
ideasaboutsurrenderingtofate.Ejectedhere,theyledthepeople
there-andbegantobuildagain .
Whereverthesplintered-offrefugeegroupsfoundaplacewherethe
soilseemedfavorableforcultivation,andthelandunoccupiedbypre-
cedingmigrants,theysettledandbegantobuildvillagesagain .Asense
ofrelativesecuritywasanecessaryfactorindecidingwheretobegina
newsettlement .Acrucialquestionwashowmanymileshadtheyput
betweentheslavehuntersandthemselves?Forthekindofhousesand
communitybuildingstheywoulderectdependeddirectlyonthe
probability of permanentsettlementorsuddenflightagain .Inshort,
theycouldbuildlarge,sturdyandattractivecompoundhomesand
templesofworshiporeasilydemolishedhuts .
46

TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


Itwasforreasonsofsecuritythatsomanyofthesegroups,latercalled
tribesorsocieties,soughtthemosthiddenandisolatedareastheycould
find .Thispermanentseparationfromtheirkinsmeninothergroups
wasgenerallyquitecontrarytotheirhearts'desires .Theoriginal
splinteringoffandpartingwasoftendoneintears .Butbreakingupinto
smallerunitsseemedtobetheonlyroutetosurvivalinapermanent
crisissituation-apparentlypermanent,sincethemovementofpeople
overthecontinenthadbeengoingonsofarbeyondthememoryofeach
generationthatmigrationsandtemporarysettlementswereamongthe
mostsignificantfactsintheoraltraditionofeachsociety .
Fragmentationandisolationhadtwomomentousconsequences .The
firstwasthattheisolationofvariousgroupsledtothedevelopmentof
overtwothousanddifferentdialectsandlanguages .Thesecondfateful
outcomewasthattheriseofallthesetongueswidenedthegulfbetween
theBlacksthatterritorialdistanceshadalreadyachieved .Oneshould
pausehereforreflectionifthereisanyseriousattempttoreally
understandwhathappenedtotheAfricanpeopleandwhy .Foreven
withouttheaidofWesternwritersinemphasizingthelanguage
differencesandtheeculturalvariationsandattemptingtoshowhow
unrelatedtheBlackswere,they,intime,cametoconsiderthemselves
uniquewitheachsocietynotonlyindependentoftheotherbut
independentofitsenemy,ifonlypotentially .Disunityandmutual
suspicionbecameanAfricanwayoflife.Smallchiefdomssprangup
everywhere,oftennomorethanavillageofoneortwohundredpeople.
Africa,therefore,presenteditselftoAsiaandEuropeastheidealland
forexploitation,enslavementandconquest .
Thehistoryiscomplexandmany-sided,andwouldbesoifwewere
discussingjustonenationandnotanentirecontinent .Thsiswhyour
focusmustbeonthemainlinesofdevelopment,theAfrican-wide
aspects,andtheunmistakablecommonoriginandcontinent-wide
samenessofbasicinstitutionswhichtheseuniversalaspectsreflect .
Therewere,then,differentoutcomesfordifferentsocieties .Some
perishedeventothelastmemberfromdisease,starvationorwarfare.
Others,despairingofeveragainbeingabletohaveafixedabode,
becamenomads .Some,althoughisolatedsolongthat .theyhad
developeddifferentlanguagesandcustoms,hadneverthelessdecided
thatsalvationrequiredaunionwithothergroups.Thesewerethetribes
thatmergedwithothertribes,losttheirseparateidentityandlanguages ;
andwhoevolvedfromthisprocessasinglecommonlanguage,larger
TheOverview

47
andlargerchiefdoms,kingdoms,andfinallyempiresthatbeganthe
rebirthoftheirlonglostcivilization .
ThefiercestwarsbetweentheBlacksoccurredinthefoundingand
expansionofnewkingdomsandempires .Forwhilethecoregroups
werevoluntaryconfederations,expansionofanempirerequiredthe
conquestofneighboringstates,usuallysmall,independentchiefdoms,
thatpreferredtomaintaintheirabsolutesovereignty .Therepercussions
fromthisforcedunitybyconquestweretoshakethecontinentfrom
endtoendcenturieslaterwhenEuropeanpoliticalruleended .
ModernAfricansandstudentsofAfricahavetendedtoemphasize
thedestructiveimpactofEuropeanimperialisminAfricawhileignoring
themostdamagingdevelopmentsfromtheArabimpact before the
generalEuropeantakeoverinthelastquarterofthenineteenthcentury,
arelativelyrecentperiod .Thispointisimportant.Foroneofthemost
remarkablechaptersinthehistoryoftheBlacksisthatdealingwith
thosedauntlessleadersandpeoplewho,havinglostonestateafter
anotheralongwiththree-fourthsoftheirkinsmen,neverthelessoverrode
alltheforcesofdestructionanddeathandbegantobuild,alwaysonce
again,stillanotherstate.Fromtheearliesttimestheeliminationofthese
statesasindependentAfricansovereigntieshadbeenanAsianobjective,
steppedupbyMuslimonslaughtsaftertheseventhcenturyA.D.Sothe
reestablishedblackstateswerestillbeingconqueredandIslamized
whenEuropeansbegantoarriveingreatnumberstoimposetheirrule
overbothAsiansandAfricans.Thebigthingthathappenedhere,to
repeat,isgenerallyglossedover,ignoredorforgotten .Thelastbeinga
pretension,sinceahistoricaldevelopmentofthismagnitudecould
hardlybeforgottenbyseriouswritersonAfrica .Forwhathappened,
verysimply,wasthatEuropeanimperialisminAfricacheckedand
replacedArabimperialism .TheArabscreamsagainstWesternimperi-
alismarethescreamsofoutrageagainstWesternimperialistsforchecking
andsubduingEasternimperialistsintheverymidstoftheBlacksthey
hadconquered .TherearestillcountlessthousandsofBlackswhoare
naiveenoughtobelievethattheArabs'bitterattackonWestern
.colonialismshowtheircommongcausewithBlackAfrica .
4 8

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Insofarasthosewhowerefortunateenoughtofindpromisingareas
forsettlementareconcerned,thepicturewasgenerallyoneofstate-
buildingandtherevivalofbasicAfricaninstitutionswhich,thoughnot
forgotten,couldneitherbemaintainednordevelopedbyanypeople
foreveronthemove.
Butwhataboutthecountlesssocieties,fleeingbeforetheconquering
hordesandtheenslavers,aswellasfamineandthedeathswhichwere
theirdailycompanion ;whataboutthosewhofoundnoPromisedLand
anywhere?ForquiteunlikethesocietiesImentionedthatcouldsettle
downandhadtheopportunitytostartanddevelopcivilizations
comparabletoanyelsewhereintheworldatthetime,thesepeople
couldneithersettledownnor,therefore,developacivilization .What
theysufferedfromyeartoyearastheywanderedoverthecontinentis
almostbeyondbothdescriptionandbelief .Infact,whilethestoryis
well-known,fewwriterswouldwanttogointoitsawfuldetails .Suffice
tosayatthispointthat,here,then,werenumeroussocietiesofAfricans
thatwerevirtuallysentencedeithertodeathfromstarvationor
enslavementbyArabs(Iamstillinthepre-Europeanperiod)or
barbarismandsavageryand,inmanycases,evencannibalism .
UndersuchconditionsIwoulddefendnotonlytheretrogressionof
thesepeopletobarbarism,buttocannibalismitself .Thedefenseofthe
latteriseasy,sinceithasbeenwell-establishedthatothersupposedly
highlycivilizedmenwillreverttosavageryandcannibalismunderpro-
longedconditionsofextremehungerandthirst,whensurvivalitselfwas
theonlyquestionthatdominatesthehumanmind .Thisphenomenon
ofrevertingtoastateofsavageryandevencannibalismunderextreme
conditionsofstarvationisknowntooccuruniversallyamongvarious
peoples-white,black,brown,red,oryellow .
Thefactswehave,then,showthataftertheylostEgyptandthe
EasternSudan,someAfricans,overridingalladverseconditions,grouped
themselvestoformnationsanddevelopedahighorderofcivilization
independentofanyexternalinfluences .Othersneversettledanywhere
longenoughtodevelopanythingnotable,butseemedtoremainina
stateoflethargyorsuspendedanimation .Theyhadsurrenderedtofate
andbecametooweaktofighthack .Theydescendedtoastateofsemi-
barbarism ."Descended,"becausemostofthesesocietieshadknown
bettertimesandahigherorderoflife .Someinmorefavorablecircum-
stances,nevertheless,failedtoadvance .Stillotherswereintheclass
discussedinconnectionwithcannibalism-hunger-crazedpeoplewho
TheyOverview 49
hadsunktothelowestlevelsofdog-eat-dogexistence.Theselastarethe
peopleaboutwhomEuropeanandAmericanauthorsdelighttowrite .
Nocartoonsarebetterknownthanthoseshowingasweatingwhiteman
(usuallyanexplorerormissionary)beingcookedinahugeblackpot,
whileblacksavagesdancearoundwithhumanbonesdecoratingtheir
headsorstuckthroughpiercednoses .Theideathese"experts"on
Africahavebeenplanting,andstillactivelyplant,inthemindsofthe
peoplesoftheworldisthat"ThisisAfrica,andthesearethesavages
whoarenowclamoringforindependence!"
NATUREJOINSTHEATTACK
Thequestionofphysiology,vegetation,climate,water,andsoilareall
morecrucialinthehistoryoftheBlacksthantheyareinthecaseofany
otherpeople.Forhereawholecontinentisinvolved,andonthat
continentapeoplewho,inoneperiodoftime,wereamongthe
foremostpeopleonearth,andinalaterperiod,thefarthestbehind .
Natureitselfsetanenvironmentalstageinamannerandunder
conditionswhichappeartohavebeendesignedtotesttotheutmost
onerace'smoral,intellectualandphysicalpowerstooverrideallobstacles
tosurvival .
Theslowbutrelentlesslysteadywithdrawalofinhabitablelandover
thecenturieseventuallyleftAfricaalandofdesolation,awasteland,the
greaterpartofwhichwasdesertandtreelessgrasslandwithonlya
fractionalpart,abouttenpercent,withthemuchneededforestsand
thickets .Eventhecontinentallandconfigurationwasagainstitsnative
inhabitants .Likeavastinclinedplane,thehighlands,beginningin
CentralAfricaat3,000featabovesealevel,rosesouthwardtohigher
andhigherlevels,reachingthehighestlevelof15,000feetinthesouth-
easternprovincesoftheancientEthiopianempire.ThiscausedAfricato
slopenorthwardanditsprinciple,theNileinparticular,toflowinthe
samedirection .ThissinglecircumstancecausetheBlackstolosethe
veryearliestcentersoftheircivilizationandtheheartlandoftherace-
EgyptandthesouthernareathatwaslatercalledtheSudan(orLandof
theBlacks,just as thoughEgyptitselfwasnotalsoformerlythe"Landof
theBlacks") .Forthegreatestoftheirrivers,theNile,playedstillanother
tragicjokeonitspeople.Thisriver,thelongestintheworld,flows 4,127
milesacrossAfricafromLakeNyanzatotheMediterranean .Yetnot
untilitreachesAssuan(Aswan)andbeginsitslaststretchof 750 milesto
50

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
theseadoesitoverflowtofurtherenrich 13,500 squaremilesofalready
fertilesoilinEgypt!Forits 3,377 milesthroughtheheartofBlackAfrica,
theNilesankasitcutdeepcanyonsinitssoftlimestonefloor,leaving
cliffsatplacesfromafewhundredtoathousandfeethigh .Whatthis
meansisthatforover 3,000 milesthroughtheeasternsideofthe
continenttheNilewascollectingtherichsoilcarriedtoitbytheheavy
rainsandathousandtributarystreams .Theseflowintothe"Motherof
Rivers"andaddtotheenrichmentofitswatersflowingnorthward,
"guarded"allthewaybyherdeepchannelsuntilitreachesthehard
sandstonebottomaboveAssuanandthenbeginsitsperiodicoverflow
therestofthewaytothesea!Here,anaturalphenomenoncheatedthe
Africansinabigwaythatwastohavedireconsequences .Therecould
benoblack"DaughteroftheNile,"observedParsonsinhis Streamsof
History . FortheNile,inmakingUpperEthiopia(Egypt)sorichinfood
productionthatitbecameworldfamousnotonlyasthe"BreadBasket
oftheWorld,"butalsoforitshighlyadvancedcivilization,stirredthe
envyofAsiaandEurope-fromwhichcontinentsmigrantsbeganto
settle.
Eveninthis,thephysicalgeographyofAfricawasfavorabletothe
"peaceful"settlerswholaterweretobecomeitsconquerorsandrulers ;
fortheseacostislowlandeverywhere,notmorethan 500 feetabovesea
level,andremainslowland 500 milesinland .AsianandEuropean
occupationoftheseacoastsofNorthAfricaandEastAfricawas,
therefore,relativelyeasy,andprobablyevenwelcomedatfirstbythe
Blacksasco-partnersinworldtrade.Butthepoorandhungrynomads
fromthevastdesertareasoftheMiddleEastpouredintothemost
fertileandeasilyaccessibleareasofthisotherlandofdesertsthatis
NorthAfrica .
Therewereseveralconsequencesofthegreatesthistoricalimportance
whicharegenerallynotsufficientlystressed .Thefirstwasthatboththe
SaharantransformationandthesteadyincursionofAsianspressured
moreandmoreBlacksbackintotheinteriortoconcentrateinthe
alreadylimitedsurvivalareaswherejusttosubsistwasadailystruggle .
Thesecondimportantresultwasthewide-spreadamalgamationofthe
races .Fortheweaker,moresubmissiveBlacksremainedinAsian-
occupiedterritorytobecomeslavelaborersandslavesoldiers,.andto
witnessaruthlesssexualtrafficinBlackwomenthatgaverisetoanew
breedofAfro-Asians .ThesewereclassedasCaucasiansorAsians .
Theythemselvesbitterlyobjectedtobeingidentifiedwiththeraceof
TheOverview

51
theirmothers-African .WhentheselaterbecameknownasEgyptians
inEgypt,MoorsinMoroccoandMauretaniansorCarthaginiansin
Carthage(Tunis),greatcarewastakentodistinguishthemfromAfricans
indailyintercourse,inpaintingsandindocumentaryliterature.This
"NewBreed,"half-African,wastojoinwiththeirAsianfathersand
forefathersinthewarsandenslavingraidsagainsttheBlacksthatwent
oncenturyaftercenturyuntilallNorthAfricawaseventuallytaken .
Stillanotherfatefulgeographicalfactorthatfavoredtheinvadershas
beenimpliedorpartlystatedintheforegoingobservations .Asidefrom
theeasyoccupationofthelowlandsoftheseacoastandthegradual
taking-overoftherichlandsoftheNilevalleyanditsancientcivilization,
bothAsiansandEuropeansfoundthehighlandsofsouthernand
easternAfrica"morepleasantandhealthyforCaucasiansettlement ."
Thismeantthatevenafternaturehaddamnedthree-fourthsofthe
continent'slandmassasimpossibletosupporthumanlife,theAsians
andEuropeanscameintoseizeandholdthebestoftheone-fourththat
wasleft .TheBlacksfoundthemselvescutofffromallseacoaststhat
thenmattered,hemmedinfromalldirections,andconfinedwithin
narrowerandnarrowerlimits .Thustheybecameawanderingpeople,
forevermigratingintheirownvasthomeland,fragmentingfromgreat
unitednationsintocountlesslittlesplintersocieties,becomingsoisolated
fromeachotherthateachformedanewlanguageofitsown,considering
themselvesquitedifferentfromtheiroriginalbrotherswhowerethen
regardedasstrangersandenemiesintheendlesstribalwarsthatensued
overtheinhabitableland .Thelandoverwhichthesestrugglestook
placevariedindifferentregions .Sodidtheclimatethatsogreatly
affectedit ;thepeople,andevensomeoftheirinstitutions,variedunder
environmentalinfluences .Thelandmassintheeasternregions,for
example,hasbeenundergoingaverticalmovementofelevation,a
sinkingandlevelingprocessoccasionedbytheatmosphereand
weatheringsinceMiocenetimes .Geologiststracetheelevationofthe
mountainsinthearea,includingKilimanjaro,andthefaultingand
fracturingthatcreatedtheGreatRift,toearlyvolcanicactivity .
Inthearidandsemi-aridregionstherearevaststretchesofdesolate
landwhichwerenotmadesobynaturealone.For,liketheSaharaitself,
muchofitwasoncewoodlandwhereanimallifeflourishedandstreams
flowed .Manplayedtheleadingroleinthisdestructionbytheuseoffire
inhisshiftingfarmmethods.Animalsalsohelpedintheprocess .The
relationofgreengrassandforesttoclimateandclimatetorainfallseems
52

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
nottohavebeenknownorfullyappreciated .Intreelessandgrassless
areastheperiodicrainsevaporateintonon-water-holdingearth.One
maytravelhundredsofmilesoverregionsofthiskindwithoutfindinga
singlestream
.Allriversandstreamshavedisappearedliketherain-
dropsinthesand .Becauseofthesamephysicalcharacteristicsofthe
landpreviouslydiscussed,irrigationwasextremelydifficult,andinmost
placesimpossible,outsideofEgypt .
WehavespokensomuchaboutAfricandesertsofsandandrocks
thatonemightbemisledintothinkingthatitwasthiskindoflandalone
thatcouldnotsupportapopulation
.Buttherewerevastnon-desert
areasofhardredandred-brownsoilthathadbeenleachedbyheavy
rainfall,robbedofitsessentialelementsforvegetation(suchascalcium
andphosphorus),and,ofcourse,itsoncerichhumusoftop-soil .this
continuousweatheringwasobviouslydestructive .Thesoilproblemwas
furtheraggravatedbyhavingunderneathfloorsofhardlateriteelements,
justasthoughtherewasamasterplantoguaranteethatthissoilwould
notholdanywater.Therefore,theprobleminvolvedfarmorethan
restoringtop-soilandalandconservationprogramtopreventerosion,
becausethehardfloorunderneathdrainedawaytherainfallasfastasit
reachedthatlevel ."NocornerorscrapoflandinAfricahasescaped
hunger,"saysJosuedeCastroinhis GeographyofHunger. "Thisisa
continentofthestarving,allofit
.Andinhungerandchronic
malnutritionmayhefoundoneofthemostdecisivereasonsforthe
backwardnessofAfrica,fortherelativestagnationandlassitudeofthe
greaterpartofitspeople."
Butthe"GardenofEden"areasmustnotbeoverlookedwhenweare
consideringthegeneral,overallconditions .Theseareareaswhich,
whilenotcomparabletotherichfloodplainsoftheNilevalleyand
Delta,haveunfertilizedsoilthatneverthelessproduceasurprisingly
rapidgrowthofabundantvegetationandaheavyconcentrationof
animalandbirdlife.Thesearetheareaswherefruitsandnutsofmany
varietiesgrowinabundancewithouttheaidofman
.Withoutthese
areasofsalvationhereandthereoverthecontinent,alongwithpastoral
grazingland,theBlacksasaracewouldhavedoubtlesslyperishedfrom
theearth.
Theyalmostdid .Thetrendonceseemedtobedefinitelyinthe
directionofextinction .Evenifwedismissaccountsofplannedmass
exterminationbytheirenemiesas"unreliable,"toomanyotherthreats
tosurvivalremainedtodarkeneveryrayofhope.Diseasewas
TheOverview 53
everywheretheoffspringofdistress,privation,hungerandmalnutrition .
Itspreadoverthelandasadvancescoutsfordeath.OverhalfofAfrica's
babieswereeitherborndeadordiedsoonafterbirth.Oldagewas
betweenfortyandfiftyyears .Three-fourthsofthepeople,aseven
today,arestillweakenedbymalnutritionandmalarialwater,anda
numberofdiseasesthatarelargelytraceabletothesetwocauses :
beriberi,pellagra,scurvyandevenleprosy .Thescourgeofchildhoodis
Kwaskiokor,ormalignantmalnutrition .
Thisaccelerateddepopulationoftheblackman'scountriesresulting
fromthenatureofsoilandclimate,massenslavement,deathsin
resistingslavery,warsofconquest,intertribalconflicts,exhaustions
fromendlessflightsandmigrationsandever-presentdisease-allthis
reducedtheBlackpopulationbythree-fourths!Underreasonable,
favorableconditions,theAfricanpopulationtodaywouldhefourtimes
itspresentnumber.Andwhenitispointedoutthatthree-fourthsofthe
peopletodayarestillweakenedbymalariaandmalnutrition,reference
ismadetotheone-fourthofthepeoplewhosurvivedinspiteofitall .
How,then,weretheBlacksabletobattleinvadingenemiesfromone
endofthecontinenttotheotherforseveralthousandyears?True,they
wereovercomeintheend,butwhatsustainedthemthroughallthose
centuriesofstruggleonsomanydifferentfrontsandagainstsomany
differentkindsofenemies?Weakenedsogenerallybybothdiseaseand
whatbecameperpetualhunger,whencecametheirstrengthandcourage
tocarryon?Itmaywellhethattheanswerslieinthedeath-defying
pyramidstheybuiltinEgyptwhenthelandwastheirs .
PRE-CONDITIONSFORPROGRESS
THEREMUSTBEANUMBEROFPRE-CONDITIONSWITHOUT
whichthegeniusofanypeopleforthinking,inventing,discoveringand
buildingwillbeinhibitedoreventuallydieunderextremecircum-
stances .
Afewofthesepre-conditionsforprogressare :(1)Thepeoplemust
becomefamine-freeandabletosettledownandendtheirperennial
roamingfromplacetoplaceinsearchoffoodandwater.(2)Finding
suitableterritory,theleadersmustproceed,throughnegotiationswith
otherneighboringsocietiesandfragmentedgroups,to nation-building .
(3)Acrucialpre-condition :Theremustbedevelopedasenseof
54

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
nationalcommunityamongthevariouslanguagegroupsthatmakeup
thecountry.Thisissoimportantthatitcannotbelefttowishful
thinkingorchance.Itmustbeprogrammed insuchawaythatasenseof
loyaltyandofbeinganimportantpartofagreatunitedbrother-
sisterhood,whichisthenationitself,willdevelopnaturallyandallow(4)
astrongarmyfordefense,and(5)thereignoflawandjusticetoapply
equallytoallclassesinthesociety .Thepeoplemustfeelabsolutely
secureasindividuals,thatin their countrythereisequaljusticeforall .
Inshort,certainconditionsinacountrycanbringaboutthatinternal
peace,stability,andconfidencewhichunshacklethemind .Thereis
nowtimetothink . Nomoretrekkingwithbleedingfeetforhundredsof
milesacrossrockydeserts .Nomoreseeingyourkinsmenfalloutto
welcomedeathalongtheway .Ahomeatlast,betterfarms,plentyof
food .Andnow. . . timetothink .
Thereisnothingmysticalaboutthereasonswhyonegroupofpeople
caneasilybecomephysicallyandmentallystrongwhileanotherbecomes
physicallyweakandlessmentallyalert .Anabundanceofnutritious
foodandpuredrinkingwatermayspellthedifferencebetweenadvance
anddecay .Thenumberofdeath-dealingdiseasesdevelopingfrommal-
nutritionaloneisalarming .Butwhatshouldbestressedaboveeverything
elseisthatmillionsofbabiesmaybecomebothphysicallyandmentally
retardedbydiseasewhileintheirmother'swombs-whichisanother
wayofsayingthatapeoplewhollyignorantorindifferenttobasichealth
canthemselvesbecomeinferiorinfact .Buteventhiscentralfact,when
fullyrealized,willstillremaininthefieldofmerediscussionuntilBlacks
everywherebeginmassorganizationformasseducationforthemasses .
Thesystemissostructured,worldwide,thatBlacksareforcedinto
conditionsthatcanevenleadtogeneticinferiority .Theremustbea
breakthroughortherewillbegradualextinction .Thisisthefinalpre-
conditionforsurvivalandadvancement.
YourattentioniscalledagaintothemapofAfrica,foritisvery
significantwheretheearliestinvadersenteredandpermanentlysettled .
Theytookovertheareasoftradethatallowedeasycontactwiththeir
homelandandtheothernationsoftrheworld .Thisisapointthat
simplycannotbeoverstressedinconsideringtheplightoftheAfrican
people.InthenorththeysettledaroundtheMeditteranean,thereby
maintainingcontactwithEuropeandAsia .Inthenortheast,east,and
south,theysettledalongtheRedSeaandtheIndianOcean,thereby
TheOverview

55
keepingintouchwiththeirhomelandandthetradecountriesfarther
away.BlackAfricawasthushemmedinandeffectivelycutoff,
commerciallyandotherwise,fromtherestoftheworld .
Thetechniquesofpenetrationanddominancewerevaried .Some
cameaspeacefultradersand,doubtless,tradewasallthatwasintended
bymany.Africanswerealwayseagertraders .Themainattractionof
foreigntraderswasthattheybroughtinmanynewkindsofcommodi-
ties .Thesetradershadlittleornotroubleingainingcoastalfootholdsas
tradingposts .Thelandwasnotsold,butleased .However,theBlacks
hadwhattheworldwantedmost :gold,diamonds,ivory,copper,iron
oreand,themselves.
The"tradingposts"soonbecamestrongfortificationsaroundwhich
villagesandtownssprangupassettlersfromAsiapouredinandarmed
forcesbecameorganized .TheAfricanswatchedthesedevelopments
withincreasingapprehension,forthe"traders"wereoftenarmedwith
superioranddifferenttypesofweaponsofwarandspentmuchtimein
trainingrecruits,includingAfricans .Indeed,insomeareasadefinite
patternemerged :anall-AfricanarmyunderAsianofficers(apatternto
befollowedlaterbytheEuropeans) .
ThiswaseasyenoughfortheArabs .Theyownedthecaptured
Africanswhomadeuptheirfightingforces .TheAfricanscouldblame
onlythemselvesforthis .Here,asincertainotherthings,theywerestill
engagedinpracticeswhich,whileonceuniversal,hadlongsincebeen
dyingoutorgenerallyabandonedbytherestoftheworld .Thisonewas
theenslavementofcapturedprisonersofwar .WhenAfricanchiefsand
kingsbegantosellthesetoslave-hungryArabs,theysetinmotiona
chainofeventsthatwastounderminethecivilizationsofthemost
advancedsocietiesonthecontinent,furthercheckingtheirprogressand
degradingtheirwholeraceforanothertwothousandyears .Whenthe
saleoftheirfellowsbecamethechiefsourceofwealth,Africanleaders
becameincreasinglyestrangedfromthefinestthinginAfricanlife,the
senseofcommunityandofkinshipwithallwhowouldbefriends .When
Freedseveredthetraditionaltiesofbrotherhood,thegradualmovement
of
theinvadersfromthecoastalareasinlandbecamerelativelyeasy .
BlacksagainstBlackswithincreasingsuspicionandhatredmaybe
tracedtotheAfricans'ownslaveraids .Theinlandraidsforslaveswere
resistedbysomechiefsandtheraiderswereattacked .Butthisopposition
5 6

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
wasnotalwaysduetoanyoppositiontoslavery,buttothiskindof
directactionwhichbypassedthechiefsandtherebyeliminatedtheir
profits .'
THECONQUESTOF
THEBLACKSBYRELIGION
Otherinvadersfoundpenetrationeasyunderthebannersofreligion .
FulladvantagewastakenofthefactthatAfricansareaveryreligious
people.FirstcametheCrescentflagoftheProphet .TheIslamicadvance
wasthree-pronged :proselytizingmissionsclaimingonebrotherhood ;
widespreadintermarriagesandconcubinagewithAfricanwomen,due
totheMuslimsystemofpolygamy ;andforcefulconversionsatsword
point .TheCrossofJesusChristfollowedtheMuslimCrescent .The
cloakofChristianitywasamostconvenienthidingplaceforthosewho
hadotherdesigns .Hence,thedrivetoconvert .Conversionheremeant
farmorethanconversiontoChristianity .AsinthecaseofIslam,it
meantchangeintothewhiteman'simage,hisideasandvaluesystem .
TherealobjectofworshipturnedouttobeneitherJesusChristnorHis
Father,God,butWesternmanandWesterncivilization .Christian
brotherhood?Well,eh,yes! Inprinciple. Or,tobepractical,youBlacks
canhavealltheChristianbrotherhoodyoudesire-amongyourselves .
Apartheid wasAfrica-wideundercolonialism,andnotapeculiarityof
theSouthAfricansystemassomanyareledtothink .'
ButwhathappenedintheprocessofconvertingtheBlackstoIslam
andChristianitywasthesupremetriumphofthewhiteworldoverthe
black .MillionsofAfricansbecamenon-Africans .Africanswhowere
neitherMuslimsnorChristianswereclassedas"pagans"andtherefore
requiredtodisavowtheirwholecultureandtoregardpracticallyall
Africaninstitutionsas"backward"orsavage.TheBlacksintheirown
rightbecamenon-persons,membersofaraceofnobodies,sohopeless
thatself-realizationaspersonalities,eveninasubordinatestatus,could
onlybeachievedbybecomingMuslimsorChristians .Indeed,inorder
todestroycompletelynotonlytheirAfricanheritage,butalsotheirvery
1
.Therewere,however,numerouschiefswhonotonlyopposed
slavery,butfoughtagainstittothedeath=literally .Somewereencircled
andwiththeirwholepeoplediedfightingtheenslavertotheend .
2
.Thepatternofcontinent-widesegregatedcommunitiescanbeseen
eventodayinindependentAfricanstates .
TheOverview

57
Africanidentitypsychologically,theywereforcedtochangetheirnames
toArabicandChristiannames .Henceforth,iftheseBlackEmils,Johns,
Muhammads,Samuels,andAbdullahshappenedtoachievegreatness
insomefield,theassumptionwouldbethatitwasCaucasianachieve-
ment,unlessaspecialeffortwasmadetoidentifytheraceofthepersons
inquestion.BlacksathomeinAfricaandBlacksscatteredoverthe
worldborethenamesoftheirenslaversandoppressors,theultimatein
self-effacementthatpromotedaself-hatredwhichmadeprideinthe
racedifficult .Thatthesepsychologicalshacklesstillhandicapnotonly
therebirthofmodernAfricanstates,butalsoBlackseverywhere,
shouldheobvioustoall .
Finally,thereweretheinvaderswhoapparentlydisdainedthecloak
ofdeceptionandcameinfighting .Theyhadnoproblems .Theyknew
inadvancethattheywouldfindtheAfricans,almosteverywhere,
unpreparedtodefendthemselvesagainstawell-organized,well-trained
bodyofmen,nomatterhowsmall .Thissituationdevelopedassplinter,
independentlittlestatesbecamemoreandmorenumerous.Theuseof
secretagentsseemstobeasoldasorganizedstates ;forthepracticeof
sendingspiesasgoodwillambassadors,traders,etc .,wellinadvance
intoacountrytobeinvaded,goesfarbackintoantiquity .Thosesent
intoAfricafromvariouslandscouldreportbackthat :
1 .TheAfricanswerelargelyapeacefulpeopleengagedinagriculture,
miningtrades,fishing,thearts,craftsofvariouskindsandmanufacturing
suchthingsaspottery,furniture,buildingmaterials,boats,weaponsof
war,etc .
2.Thesesettledstatesandtheirgenerallyhighlydevelopedsocial
andpoliticalsystemsindicatetheiradvancedcivilization .
3 .Buttheywereill-preparedforwar,exceptagainsttheirneighbors,
whoalsousethekindofspears,bowsandarrowswhichwehad
abandonedlongsince.
4 .Ingeneral,theyhavenoswiftlymoving,mountedsoldiers .One
hundredofourdashingcalvarymenwithfire-powercouldput10,000of
themtoflight.
5. Theyare a secretivepeople.Forwhiletheyarefullyawareofthe
greatmineralwealthofthecontinent,theyuseitinaverylimitedway,
mainlyforpersonaladornment,andhavenodesiretoopenupto
foreignersforworldcommercethatwouldgreatlybenefitthem .
Accordingly,theyrigidlylimittheirtradingactivities,butmainlybecause
58

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Asiansholdalloftheirseacoastsandhavethemcutofffromtheworld
anditstrade.
6 .Finally,thewholeofAfricacould,withafewexceptions,be
progressivelytakenoversimplybypickingoffonesmallstateafter
another.Fortheoverallpatternofthecontinentisoneofcountless
smallindependentgroups,eachforitselfanditselfalone.Thereisno
unityamongthem,evenforacommondefense.Sinceitisthefirstduty
ofeachchieftoprotecthispeople,allseemtobetooproudtoseekunity
withotherchiefs,thinkingthismightindicateasignofweaknessand
itselfinviteattack .
Therefore,itcouldhavebeentruthfullyreportedtoeitherAsiaor
Europeanytimeduringthelastthousandyearsthatthewidespread
segmentationandattendingdisunityamongtheAfricansmadethem
easytoconqueranddominate.
Someofthesesixhypotheticalitemswouldhevalidasconclusions
regardingageneralsituationonlyafterthewidespreadcollapseof
strongAfricanstates,whensmallsplinterstatesspreadoverthecontinent
likeanepidemic .But,asweshallsee,theunitedresistanceoftheBlacks
towhiteAsianinvasionshadbeengoingonbeforerecordedhistory
began ;and,despiteallthesegmentationsandendlessinvasionsfrom
thenorth,south,eastandwest,therewereblacknationsthatkeptup
theresistanceoffivethousandyearsrightdownintothe20thcentury .
Weshallreviewsomeoftheseinthechapterswhichfollow .
CHAPTERII
Ethiopia's
OldestDaughter:Egypt
THEGREATDECEPTION
EGYPT,ASPOINTEDOUTBEFORE,WASTHENORTH-EASTERN
regionofancientEthiopia .ThesixcataractsoftheNilewerethegreat
watermarksintheheartlandoftheBlacksfromwhenceAfricanculture
spreadoverthecontinent,butnowherewasitpronouncedasinEgypt .
ThisnorthernsectoroftheEthiopianempirehadbeentheobjectof
worldattentionfromtheearliesttimes .Thefactwasthatitwasinthe
centerofthecrossroadsfromalldirectionsleadingintoAfricafromAsia
andEurope.ThisalsoexplainshowtheAsianscametooccupyand
controlafourthofEgypt(LowerEgypt)beforetheunificationofthe
"TwoLands"inthethirdmilleniumB.C.Withtherelentlessspreadof
thedesertandtheattendingscarcityofarableland,therewasaheavier
concentrationofAfricansintheNiledeltaandvalley,theareaswiththe
- richestsoilintheempire.Thegreatagriculturalsystemthatwas
developedalongtheoverflowingNilewasoneofthesourcesofthe
wealthtosupportthegreatculturaladvances .Theotherwasthegold
minesbelowtheFirstCataract.Thiswasalsothemagnetthatdrew
Caucasianpeoplesfrommanylands .Astheseincreasedinnumberand
variety,theunderminingofblackpowerwasaccelerated .
Themeltingpotoftheracesbeganaroundthenorthernperimeter.
Theendresultwasalwaysthesame:TheBlackswerepushedtothe
bottomofthesocial,economicandpoliticalladderwheneverand
wherevertheAsiansandtheirmulattooffspringsgainedcontrol .This
59
NorthernChem
(LowerEgypt)
-After3100B.C.

Memphis

CHEM
(NorthernEthiopia)
-UpperEgyptAfter3100B.C.
Thebes .
Nekheb
THEETHIOPIANEMPIRE
BeforetheUnificationofthe"TwoLands"
LEGEND:
.

-Ethiopia'sBorders
circ.3500B.C.
NewEthiopianBorder
afterthelossofEgypt
WhitePowerCenters
inLowerEgypt
CapitalCitiesofthe
Blacks
CitiesafterChem
becameEgypt
30
20'
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

61
schemeofweakeningtheBlacksbyturningtheirhalf-whitebrothers
againstthemcannotbeoveremphasizedbecauseitbeganintheearly
timesanditbecametheuniversalpracticeofwhites,andisstilloneof
thecornerstonesintheedificeofwhitepower.ThewhiteAsianswere
generallyveryproudoftheirsonsbyblackwomen .Buttheseblack
mothersremainedslaves,whiletheirmulattosonsanddaughterswere
bornfreeand,moreover,classifiedas"white."'Assuch,theyformeda
socialclassthat,whileneverrecognizedasequalwiththe"realwhites,"
hadjustaboutalltheotherprivilegesoffreemen .
Thepicturewasgenerallythesamefromabout4,000B.C.onward .'
IntheAsian-heldareasinthenorth,theBlackshadhardchoicesto
make.Aselsewhereonthecontinent,theyhadthechoiceofremaining
intheirhomelandandbeingreducedtothestatusofservantsand
slaves;oriftheywerewell-to-domembersoftheprofessionalclasses,
architects,engineersorskilledcraftsmen,theycouldremain,become
integratedinAsiansociety,beclassifiedas"white"andevenholdhigh
positions ;or,finally,theycouldrejectintegrationintoAsiancultureand
migratesouthwards .Thisthegreatmajoritydid .Itisthereforenot
withoutsignificancethateventodayanumberofAfricantribesfour
thousandmilessouthfromEgyptstillclaimitastheirancestralhome-
land .
TherewereBlackswhoneitherfledbeforetheAsianadvancenor
submittedtoenslavement .These,alsorejectingamalgamationasthe
processoftransformingtherace,stoodtheirgroundfightingbackand
weregenerallywipedout .Inshort,theAfricansheldUpperEgypt
(South)whiletheAsiaticsheldLowerEgypt(North) .
KurtSethe,inattemptingtoreconstructtheprehistoryofEgypt,
concludedthatthedivisionofthecountrybetweenAfricansinthe
southandAsiaticsinthenorthwasduemostlytoasplitoverreligion .
Accordingtothisview,theAfricansrefusedtoacceptthecultofHorus
thatdominatedtheNiledelta .They,therefore,formeda"second
nation"inUpperEgyptandestablishedtheirnationalreligiousshrines
at'Omnos,Thebes,ThinesandNapata .Otherscholarsinsistedthatthe
"TwoLands"meantthattheAfricanshadsimplyseparatedthemselves
fromtheAsians.These,unlikeSethe,donotinquireaboutthereasons .
1
.NotethatthroughoutthisworkIrefertotimespansof
6,000 years,
5,000years,4,000years,3,000etc .Thevariationsdependonthetime
spanofthedevelopmentsunderdiscussion .
0
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter: Egypt

63
Whatactuallyhappenedinprehistorictimes,however,wasonsucha
grandscaleoverlongperiodsoftimethatevenpatternsofunwritten
historybecameclearandunderstandable:TheAsiansandEuropeans
wereenteringinincreasingnumbersandpushingtheAfricansfarther
andfartherawayfromtheMediterranean,pushingthemfartherand
farthertowardswhatbecame"AfricaSouthoftheSahara" ;butthe
AfricanshadtakentheirfirstfirmstandwithintheirEgypt,makingit
"TwoLands,"exactlyastheSudanis"TwoLands"todaywiththe
ArabsandColoredArabsintheNorthandAfricansintheSouth.And
3
alsoforexactlythesamereason :toescapewhiteoppression .Andthe
SudaneseBlacksconcentratedintheSouthforthesameancientreason :
Toescapewhiteandcoloredoppression .
zU

Weareintheperiodofancienthistory .Therecordsofthetimesare
I
o

unmistakableandtheevidenceisclearonlywhenthearchaeologists
>- M

havedonetheirworkwell .Innoareaoftheworldhavetheybeenmore
successfulthaninEgypt.Itwasthescienceofarchaeology,alongwith
~a
U
C,

ancienthistoricalrecords,thatsupportedmyviewpointthattheAfricans,
G

whilebeingeithersubjugatedorpushedsouthwards,foughtbackina
Q

_longseriesofwarstoregaintheirancienthomelandalongthe
N
Mediterranean .Asearlyastheendofthefourthmillenium B.C., and
>r

evenbeforetheFirstDynastyinEgypt,therearerecordsofagreat
o
wG

AfricanvictoryovertheAsiansinthenorth. 3 TheBlackshadestablished
U'o

theirEgyptiancapitalatNekheb .Theroyalpalacewasjustacrossthe
x :aw

riveratNekheb .Thebes_andNapatacontinuedtobethecultural
.~
z

centersoftheblackworld .
ax
Y

AsthehistoricperiodopenedinEgypt,itappearedthattheAfricans
w0 m

wereretakingthewholeoftheircountry .ThePalermoStonerecords .
G W

victoryaftervictoryovertheAsians.Finally,thegreattriumphcame
whenAfricankingMenesdefeatedtheAsiansdecisivelyandunitedall
~,

.
EgyptunderAfricanruleagain,beginningthehistoricFirstDynasty . 3
HistoriansofancientEgyptwoulddowelltopauseandponderlonger
overthequestionofthe"TwoLands ."Thosewhoareinterestedinthe
truthabouttheblackman'shistorywouldbecompelledtodc;so .Forthe
mostsignificantpartoftheblackAfrican'shistorydevelopedinEgypt,
2
.ReferenceismadetothepalettesandmaceheadsfoundatHiera-
konopolis .
3
.Therewasinfactno"Egypt"beforeMenes_builtMemphis .
6 4

TheDestructionofBlack Civilization
andthedivisionofthecountryinto"TwoLands"-onepredominantly
AsianandtheotherAfrican-markedthefirstgreatstageofthe
unendingpressuresthatsteadilyforcedtheBlacksfromthenorthern
areas .Butforcountlesscenturiesthegreaterregionwasheldbythe
Blacks .Thiswasthesouthernregioncalled"UpperEgypt ."
Itseemsquiteclearthatthissee-sawconflictbetweenAfricansand
Asianscoveredcenturiesbackintoprehistory,justasitwastocontinue
intermittentlyfornearlyfivethousandyearsafterMenes.Indeed,the
ZanzibarRevolutionandthepurelyracialconflictintheSudanare
simplyapresent-daycontinuityoftheancientstrugglebetweenthe
invadersandtheinvaded .
AftertheAsianNorthwassubdued,theAfricancapitalcitywas
movedfromNekhebintheSouthtotheNorthwherethe"TwoLands"
met.Hereastridewhathadbeentheboundary,the"EternalCity"of
Memphiswasbuilt,namedfortheking,and,likeThebes,becamethe
focalpointofblackpowerandoneofthechiefcentersofAfrican
civilization .IncompletingthebuildingofMemphis,Menes'snephew
apparentlybelievedthathewasmakingthefinalsettlementofthe
Asianproblem,andthatthiscapitalcitywouldstandforever .The
massivefortificationsystembuilttocontroltheAsiansstoodforcenturies .
TheAfricans'literalbeliefinimmortalitywasreflectedintheirbuilding
andburialarrangements .Theearlythree-chambered,brickmastabas
foreshadowedthelaterpyramidsthatweretosurroundthecitylike
watchmenandformalineofmarchfromthereintotheGizadesert .
Duringoneofthelongestreignsinhistory,Menesbroughtaboutthe
kindofstabilityandinnovationsinadministrationthatnotonlyprovided
asolidfoundationforafirstdynasty,butalsotheeconomicandsocial
conditionsnecessaryforthemoreuniformexpansionofreligion,the
arts,craftsandthemathematicalsciences .Here,too,iswhereMesopo-
tamia,PalestineandGreece,althoughnotasadvanced,mayhavemade
culturalcontributionstotheAfricansandreceivedmuchfromthemin
return .
THE"EXTERNALINFLUENCE"MYTH
TheGreekcontributionwasthegreatest .Itwasaccidental,oneof
thoseaccidentsofhistorythatturnsouttobehighlyimportant .Inthis
casetheGreeksunwittinglyappliedthesecondnameoftheCityof
Menes(Memphis),"Aigyptos"tothewholecountry
.ForMemphiswas
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

65
alsocalledHikuptah,orthe"MansionoftheSoulofPtah,"thegod-
protectorofthecity .FromtheGreek"Aigyptos"Memphisbecame
Egypt,andEgyptbecamethenameofthe"TwoLands,"extendingfrom
theMediterraneantotheFirstCataract .
Therewasno"Egypt"beforetheblackkingfromwhosenameitwas
indirectlyderived .BeforethatthecountrywascalledChemorChemi,
anothernameindicatingitsblackinhabitants,andnotthecolorofthe
soil,assomewritershaveneedlesslystrainedthemselvesinasserting .
Indeed,thestrongpredilectionofbothEuropeansandwhiteAsians
toreplacethenamesofotherpeoplesandplaceswiththeirown
terminologieswasatonceablessingandacurseinthehistoryofthe
Blacks .Notknowingtheracisttwistthatmodernhistorywastotake,
theseearlyhistorians,geographersandtravelersreportedwhatthey
foundanddescribedpeoplesintheirowntermsofspeech.Indoingso,
theyestablishedbeyondquestionthattheBlackswerethefirstEgyptians
andthebuildersofthatancientcivilization .Foritwastheseearlywriters,
andnottheBlacks,whomadeitclearthatalthoughtheinvadingEuro-
Asknnshadfirmlyestablishedthemselvesinaboutone-fourthof
NorthernEthiopia(LowerEgypt)asearlyasthefourthmilleniumB.C.,
theBlackswithequalfirmnessheldalltherestfromthetwenty-ninth
NorthparalleltothetenthSouth .Itwasthewhites,nottheBlacks,who
calledAfricathe"LandoftheBlacks"untilAsianandEuropean
invasionsmadeitexpedienttochangethistomean"Africancountries
notyettakenoverbyCaucasians" ;andlaterto"AfricaSouthofthe
Sahara ."Eventhishastobequalifiednowasthewhitesdominate
SouthAfrica .Theearlywhites-again,nottheBlacks-notonlydefined
allUpperEgyptasblacktodistinguish it frompredominantlywhite
LowerEgypt,buttheysettledthematterforposteritybycallingEgypt
theThehaldandtheBlacksThebansbecauseThebes(Nowe)wasthe
oldestandgreatestcenterofblackcivilization .
The"curse"referredtoaboveconcernstheamazingsuccessof
modernwritersinsoblottingout,obscuringorreinterpretingtheearlier
writersonAfricasothattheactualroleoftheBlacksintheirownland
waspracticallyerasedfrommemory .Theirstrategyofsilenceworked,
anditmusthaveworkedmoresuccessfullythantheycouldhave
dreamed .TheGreatSilenceevenfelloverthemonumentalfactthat
theBlacksthemselvesstartedthewholedynasticsysteminEgyptabout
3100 B.(,: ., andthatthegreatcivilizationofworldacclaimdeveloped
aftertheseblackregimesbegan .GreekandArabicnamesandthe
6 6

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
accepted"Caucasoid"featuresintheconventionalstyleofroyalportraits
allfurtheredthegreatdeception .
TherewasalsotheexternalinfluenceonearlyAfricanspeechand
writinginEgypt .AsmoreandmoreAsiansmovedintoUpperEgypt
aftertheunificationofthe"TwoLands,"theminglingofthetwo
peoplesnotonlyproducedanewbreedofEgyptians,butalsoan
increasinglyAfro-Asianlanguageandwritingsystemthatdiffered
markedlyfromtheoriginalAfricanwritingasitwasdevelopedbelow
theFirstCataract .
DevelopmentsinAsiaandEuropeoneandtwothousandyearsafter
the"goldenage"ofblackcivilizationhelpedtoobscurethatcivilization
orpaintitoverasanentirelyEuroasianachievement .Ourtaskisto
begintheremovalofthisfalseencrustation,hardenedasitisbytwo
thousandyearsofunchallengedgrowth.Thetimecontinuuminthe
historyoftheBlacksishighlyimportantinreference'tothestateof
civilizationinthelandsfromwhichtheinvadinggroupscameduringthe
firstthousandyearsofblackascendencyinEgyptandSouthernEthiopia
(theSudan) .Therecordisquiteclearthattheineursivegroupswere
largelytent-dwellingnomads .Theyhadnotraditionofgreatcitieswith
imposingtemples,obelisks,pyramidsor,indeed,stonemasonryatall .
Inparticular,oneshouldnotethenumberofcenturiesafterThebesand
Memphisbeforetheirancientcitieswerefounded :
Nowe(Thebes)Prehistory
Memphis 3100 B.C.
Rome(Village)1000B.C.
Rome(Town)250B.C.
Athens(Village)1200B.C.
Athens(City) 360 B.C.
Antioch400B.C.
Jerusalem1400B.C.
Babylon2100B.C.
Inshort,whatgreatcontributionsdidtheseroamingnomadshaveto
maketoanalreadyhighlydevelopedblackcivilization?Sinceeven
Jerusalemwasnotinexistence,whatpeopleinLowerEgyptcamefrom
acountrywithacityasgreatasThebesorMemphis?
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

67
Itwasthebeginningof anewerainthehistoryoftheBlackswhenan
EthiopiankingturnedthecourseoftheNileriverbybuildingagreat
damattheborderbetweenUpperandLowerEgyptforthesiteofthe
newcapitalthatwastobearhisname.
ForgenerationsMemphiswasalmostentirelyanall-Africancity,with
whiteAsianvillagesslowlygrowinguparoundtheoutskirts .Forthe
Asianswereaverysmartandverycunningpeople.Onceconquered,
theyfeignedcompleteandhumbleacceptanceofAfricanrule .Farfrom
showingtheslightestsignsofanyfeelingofracialsuperiority,theywere
suchmastersoftheartofdissemblingthattheycouldhoodwinkthe
Africans,oftenundertheguiseofbrotherhood,bycapitalizingontheir
oftendarkcomplexions,similarinstitutions,intermarriages,andmixing
withtheblackpopulation,generally,asfaraspossible.Thatallthiswas
thedirectroutetorepeatedAsianascendencyonthecontinentfew
Africansseemedtosee.Fortheywere,asarace,tooreadytoforgiveand
forgetpastevilscommittedbyforeigners ;whereas,ontheotherhand,a
fellowAfricantribecouldeasilybecomea"traditionalenemy"and
continueassuchforsomanygenerationsthatnoonecouldremember
whattheoriginalquarrelwasallabout!
TheBlacks,then,wereapparentlyunconcernedabouttheAsian
villagesspringingupjustoutsideofMemphis,thelargestonerapidly
developingacrosstheriverontherightbank .Thiscommunitywasto
becometheAsiancityofFostatthatwouldchallengethesupremacyof
thecapitalcityandeventuallyhelptochangeitsAfricancharacterand
causeitsfinaldestruction .YetwhatIhavejuststatedsobrieflyoccurred
onlyafternearlythreethousandyearsofglorioushistory .Itremained
thecapitalandoneofthegreatestcitiesofEgyptandtheworld,from
theFirsttotheTwentiethDynastywhenityieldedtoThebesagain .But
itwasstillagreatcitywhenAlexandertheGreatarrivedin332B .C.Its
death-knellwassoundedonlywhenArabtribesoverranthelandand
Cairorosetoovershadowit .
TheSecondandThirdDynastieswerealsoAfrican ;mostwriterswill
notflatlystatethis .Theygenerallydesignatethesedynastiesas"Thinite,"
"Memphite" or "FollowersofSeth."OnehastoknowthattheFirst
DynastywasAfricanand"Memphite"or"Thinite,"socalledafterthe
nameoftheirsacredcityThinis,andthecultsofSethandAmonwere,
African.ThaitheFourthDynastywasindigenousisequallyclear.These
werethechiefpyramidbuilders,theGreatPyramidbeingthelargest
TheArabssettledinatinyvillagecalledFostatontheoutskirtsofthegreatcityof
Memphis,theprideoftheBlackworld .FromlittleFostatnowbeholdtheArab
cityofCairowhereancientcityofMemphisoncestood!
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

69
andtallestbuildingonearthuntilmoderntimes .Itwasbuiltduringthe
reignofKhufu,2590-67B.C.
Khufu'snephew,Khafre,carriedonandbuiltthesecondGreat
Pyramid .Buthewentfarther.HebuilttheGreatSphinxand,asthough
heintendedtosettlethequestionofhisracialidentityforallagesto
come,hehadhisAfricanfeaturessoboldlyandclearlycarvedintoa
portraitstatuethatnotevenafoolcouldseriouslydoubtthathismighty
monarchwasa"Negro ."Hewasthereforeamongthefirsttobreakwith
theclassicalCaucasoidstereotypesinEgyptianportraits .
HavingdeterminedwhatperiodsAfricanswerereferredtoas
"Thinites,""Memphites,""Thebans,""Cushites,""Libyans,""Ethiopi-
ans,""Nubians,"etc .,amajorprobleminAfricanhistorywasnear
solution .Someofthedisguisingmaskswerethusremoved .Butmuch
stillremainedtobedoneindevelopingguidelinestoidentification
becausetheworkofeffacingtheblackman'sroleinworldhistorywasso
thoroughlydoneoverforsomanycenturiesthatitisamazinghowso
universalaconcensuswasreachedbyCaucasianwriters in almostevery
age.
Yetitshouldhaveoccurredtosomeofthesewritersthatpainstaking
researchwouldlaterrevealallthattheyhadtriedtoconcealaboutblack
civilizationbuilders .Imustrepeatedlypointoutthatsomeofthebiasis .
notdeliberate,butoftensodeeplyrootedthatthewhitescholaris
totallyunawareofit .Oneofthese,forexample,wasSirFlindersW .M.
Petrie,oneofthegreatestarchaeologist-historiansofEgypt .Hetriedso
hardtobescientifically"objective."Yetwhenheunearthed a famous
kingorqueenwhowasunmistakably"Negro,"heseemedtobequite
puzzled .But,likemostofhisfellowinvestigators,someofhisbest
thinkingwassetinmotionfora"rational"explanation .Thusthefindof
Sneferu'sblackqueen,Mertitefs,indicatedthatthe"royalwifemightbe
ofaninferiorraceandnotofthe`hightype.'"
ButtheguildelinesIfoundusefulinidentifying"whowaswho"are :
(1)KnowingthetermsusedwhenreferringtoearlyAfricans ;(2)noting
rulerswhomthewritersconcedetobeAfricansor"personswith
marked`Negroid'features"andtracingthislinetosucceedingdynasties,
i.e ., the2nd,3rd,4th,etc . ;(3)notingwhatkingsorqueensinlater
dynastiesclaimedanAfricanrulerofanearlierperiodastheirancestor,
and,accordingly,veneratedand"worshipped" ;(4)similarly,whatkings
andqueenst :)okthenameofancientblackrulersandbuilttemplesand
monumentstoperpetuatetheirmemory ;(5)notingtheevidencein
THEPYRAMIDSOFGIZA
BytheFourthDynastytheBlacks,whowerethefirstbrickandstonemasonson
earth,hadbeguntobuildatGizathesamestyleofpyramidbuildingthathad
beencharacteristicofSouthernEthiopiafromtheearliesttimes .TheGreat
Pyramidremainedthetallestbuildingintheworldforoverfourthousandyears .
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter.Egypt

71
stone,inscriptionsonmonumentsand steel ofvariouskinds;(6)noting
towhatracedidtheinvadingrulers"fromtheSouth"belong,andover
whatkindofpeopledidtheyrulebelowtheFirstCataract ;(7)and,
finally,notingtheunearthedstatuesandportraitsofkingsandqueens
ofEgyptwhowere"pure"Africans(unlessphysicalanthropologistsnow
wishtochangetheircriteriafordetermining"race") .Theseareafew
guidelinestotraceearlyEgyptiansasBlackAfricans .
Thefactofblackrulers,however,isnotasimportantasthefactofan
indigenousblackpopulationfromwhichtheysprang.Fortheseearly
Blackswerethemselvesagreatpeople,excellingonmanyfrontsfroma
lineofbuilderssodistantinthepastthatitseemstohaveextendedinto
thestoneages.Itwasasocietyofscientists,scholars,organizedreligions
withorganizedpriesthoods,mathematicians,scribes,architects,engi-
neers,standingarmiesandgenerals,stoneandbrickmasons,carpenters,
artists,sculptors,clothmakers,slaves,farmers,teachers,goldand
silversmiths,blacksmiths,andsoon,throughthewidestspectrumofan
advancedsociety .
Africaasthe"CradleofCivilization"meantexactlythat .TheseBlacks
developedoneoftheoldestwrittenlanguages .TheEgyptianlanguage
wasanAfricanlanguagewithlaterAsiaticinfluencesimilartothatof
ArabicortheAfricanlanguageknownasSwahili.Anditwasastotally
destroyedandreplacedbyanon-indigenoustongueaswereother
Africancreations
.Nothingbettermarkedtheincreasingcleavage
betweentheBlacksandtheir"half-brothers"beyondthecataractsthan
thislinguisticnationalism,therefusaloftheretreatingBlackstousethe
AsianizedEgyptiantongue.
THEMULATTOPROBLEM
Therecentrevivalof"Blackisbeautiful"isnomorethanthat,a
revival .ThegreatmajorityofancientBlackstookgreatprideintheir
color;andtheirresistancetoamalgamationmaybesointerpreted .For
onethingtheyhadobservedinEgyptwasthatadynasty,beginningas
all-black,couldremainunbrokenovergenerationsandstillintheend
becomenear-whiteincolorwithnot a blackfaceintheroyallineage.
Thistwo-wayprocessofinterminglinganddirectaggressionmeant
victoryfo`rthewhiteAsiansintheend .Theywerealreadywithinthe
countryas"Egyptians"whentheconqueringhordesfromtheirvarious
Y
TheGreatSphinx,theportraitstatueoftheBlackPharaohKhafre(African
identitygenerallydisguisedbyhistorianswiththename"Cephren") .Hewasthe
firstrulertobreakfromtheclassicaltraditionofportrayingallimportantBlacks
withpronounced"Caucasoid"features .Actingasthoughheforesawwhatthe
trendofhistorywouldbe,Khafrehadhisracialidentitycarvedinthissolidrock
fortheages .Note,however,thelongandarduouslaborthatwasrequiredfor
themtochipawaythatmassiveflatnose!
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

73
homelandssweptin .ManywerenationalisticEgyptiansand,assuch,
foughttheinvadersalongwiththeAfricans ;others,thoughbornin
Egyptalso,wereloyaltotheirfathers'nativecountriesandsidedwith
theirarmies .
SincethefirsttobecalledEgyptiansexclusivelywerehalf-African
andhalf-Asian,theirgeneralhostilitytotheirmothers'racewasasocial
phenomenonthatshouldnotbepassedoverlightly,eventhoughthat
developmentfollowedauniversalpatternand,therefore,wasnot
peculiartotheEgyptians .Itsnatureisessentiallyopportunist,aquest
forsecurity,recognitionandadvancementbyidentifyingwithand
becomingapartofthenewpowereliteoftheconquerors.Theinvading
conquerorsnotonlycaptureandcontrolallpoliticalandeconomic
powerbymilitarymight,but,eventhoughtheymightbenomadic
barbarians,theygenerallyclaimtobefromahighercivilizationand,
therefore,reinforcethemythofbeingsuperiorinfact,andnotjust
becauseofmilitaryconquests .
Evenifnosuchclaimismade,thenewrulingclassesandallmembers
oftheirracearesuperiorvis-a-vistheindigenousorconqueredpeople .
Expediencyandsurvivalitselfdictatesloyaltyandfaithfulservicetothe
Asianmastersintheregionsoverwhichtheyhadgainedcontrol,firstin
NorthernEgypt .Thismeantthateveninthebeginning,"sidingwiththe
Asians"wasnotsolelydeterminedbywhetheronewasahalf-breedora
full-bloodedAfrican .Blackswhodidnotchoosetofleesouthbut
remainedunderAsianrule,evenifenslaved,workedhardertogain
recognitionandacceptancethananyothergroup .Indeed,soanxious
weresomeoftheseearlyBlacksfor"integration"withtheAsiansthat
theythemselvesdidmostincreatingthenewbreedofEgyptianswho
weretobecometheirmortalenemies .Forinanall-outefforttoappease
theinvaders,theyfreelygavetheirdaughtersandotherdesirable
femalesasgiftstobecomeconcubines,thusspeedingupthereproduction
processesonanever-wideningscale.Nordidthislessenthewholesale
captureofwomeninraidsonAfricanvillagesforthesamepurposeand
forexporttoAsia .
Referencewasmadetotheraceofthe"Egyptians'mothers ."Forin
Egypt,aselsewhere,itwasaone-waysexualprocess .The"masterrace"
alwayskeptitsownwomen"sacred"andsecludedbehindthewallsof
theirhomes .Theywerenotallowedtogooutsideexceptunderguard .
Africanwonenhadnosuchrestrictionsorprotection .Theywerefair
gameforthemenofallraces,andforthemitwasalwaysopenseason .
74

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Manyblackwomenpreferreddeathbysuicide.Ofthese,too,history
doesnotsing.The"masterrace,"then,whileloudlyproclaiminga
strangedoctrineof"racialpurity"foritself,hasbeentheworld'sleader
inbastardizingotherpeoples .Andithasbeendoneonagrandscalein
theUnitedStates,inSouthAmerica,inEastandSouthAfrica .Andso
itwasinEgypt .
TheevolutionoftheEgyptiansasanationalitygroupisasinteresting
astheiranti-Africanattitude,althoughthelatterdiffersnotatallfrom
thatofmanymixedbreedswithAfricanbloodelsewhere.Ithasbeen
statedthattheoriginalEgyptianswereblack,half-Africanandhalf
Asian.Thisgeneralracialpatternchanged,however,asthecenturies
passedalongandmoreandmorewhiteconquerors,theirfollowersand
theotherwhiteswereattractedtothe"BreadBasketontheNile"-Jews,
Syrians,Hittites,Persians,Babylonians,Assyrians,.Greeks,Turks,Arabs,
Romans,etal . Intermarriagesbetweenconquerorsandconqueredcon-
tinuedalongwithconcubinageasanationalinstitution .Thedirect
resultwasthatmoreandmoreEgyptiansbecamelighterandnear-white
incomplexion .Inshort,theydid,infact,becomemoreAsianinblood
thanAfrican .Yetthisupperrulingclassofnear-whiteswasatnotime
morethanafourthofthepopulation .ForuntiltheIslamic"flood"
whichbeganinthemiddleoftheseventhcentury A.D., thevast
majorityoftheEgyptianswerewhatmodernscholarsliketocharacterize
as"Negroid ."4
Butwhathasbeenreferredtoasa"socialphenomenon"wasinfacta
developmentamongthehalf-breedseverywherethatrancounterto
whatwouldbenormallyexpected,ifnotcontrarytonatureitself .This
wastheoutrightrejectionofone'smotherandherpeopleandacleaving
tothefatherandhispeople.WhileIdonotknowwhethertheover-
whelminglovewhichAfricansgenerallyhavefortheirmothersisany
greaterthanthatamongotherpeoples,itiscertainlysomarkedthatit
hasbeenamatterofcommentbymanywriters .Someoftheprincipal
reasonswhythehalf-breedsturnedagainsttheBlacksandsought
integrationwiththeAsianshavebeenpointedout .Theseappliedtothe
Blacksaswell as tothenewbreed .Allsoughtsecurity,advancement
4 . TheunmixedBlacksinEgyptIamstilldesignatingasAfrican .The
Mulattoes,thenasnow,generallyobjectedtobeingcalledAfricans
.
Ethiopia'sOldest Daughter: Egypt

75
andsocialprestigebyingratiatingthemselveswiththecurrentruling
classes
.Butthehalf-breedshadtheinsidetrackandalloftheadvan-
tages .
Firstofall,theyweremainlythesonsanddaughtersofwhiteand
European-Asianfathers .Thesefathersrecognizedthemassuchand,in
general,proudly
.AndsincetheyclaimedsuperiorityovertheAfricans,
theirhalf-Africanoffspringsconsideredthemselvestobeasuperior
breedalso
.TheseAfro-Asianoffspringsweregivenpreferentialtreat-
ment,positionsofauthority,wealthaccordingtothestatusoftheir
patrilinealfamily,andaneducationthatcoulddrawonAsiancultureas
wellasthehighlyadvancedAfricancivilizationinUpperEgyptand
southwardstothe"LandoftheGods ."
Anothersituationthatwasamostpotentfactorinthehalf-breeds'
attitudetowardstheirmothers'racewasthat,moreoftenthannot,their
motherswereconcubinaryslaves .
Thismeantthatthehalf-breedwasintroducedintothelowestlevelof
Africanlifeevenfrombirth
.Concubinagewassogeneralthatit
overshadowedthesmallernumberofAfricanwomenwhowerethe
legitimatewivesofAsians .TheseAfrican wives weretheexception,
generallycomingastheydidfrompowerfulupperclasses,thenobleor
royalfamilies .Insuchcasesitdidnotseemtomatteratallhowblack
theywere
.Butsincemostofthe"newEgyptians"wereoriginallysons
anddaughtersofslavemothersand"upperclass"fathers,theytended
to .beashamedoftheirmothersandsoughtself-realizationontheir
fathers'side.Furtherniore,theslavemotherhadnoclaimonthe
childrenshebore.TheybelongedtotheAsianfatherwhocouldand
generallydidconsiderthemasfree-bornduetotheirAsianblood .
ToprovehowtrulyAsiantheywere,themixedEgyptiansmade
hatredofAfricansaritual,andtriedtosurpassthewhitesinraidingfor
theslavesinall-Africanareas .VariousAfro-Eurasianswhobecame
Egyptiankingsdeclared"eternalwarfare"againsttheBlacksandvowed
toenslavetheentirerace
.Hopeinthisconnectioncouldhavedeveloped
fromthefactthatwhilemanyraceswererepresentedamongcaptured
slaves,theAfricansconstitutedthelargestnumber.
Relyingwhollyontheemergingconceptofinnatesuperiorityof
EuropeansandAsians,thesepeopleeverywherecreatedaclasssystem
thatmadetheirbastardoffspringssuperiortoallBlacks,andinstatus
nextbelowthemselves.
76

TheDestructionofBlack Civilization
Thesystemoperatedinthetwentiethcenturythesameasitdidin
earliertimes
.TheAfro-Dutch"Coloureds"ofSouthAfricafullyillustrate
mostofthepointsmadeaboutEgyptians
.TheColoureds'hatredof
Africansseemstobeevenmorethoroughgoingthanthatofthewhites
inSouthAfrica
.BecauseoftheirDutchblood,theytoohadbeengiven
specialprivileges,ahighersocialandeconomicstatusthantheBlacks,
andacompletelyseparatesociety
.Educationandcivilrightsdeniedthe
Blacksweretheirs
;thebestavailablejobsfornon-whitesweretheirs
.
Butaboveall,theyhadthemagicofthehalf-whiteskinthat,initself,
automaticallyputthemabovetheBlacks
.Someofthese"Coloureds"
becomehystericalifremindedoftheirBantuof"Kaffir"blood
.The
lightestonessimplydenyhavinganyAfricanblood
.
Yetsometimesnatureitself,asthoughdisgustedwiththeseridiculous
pretensions,playsajokeonsomeoftheverylightesthusbandsand
wivesbypresentingthemwithablackbaby,athrowbackfromblack
ancestors .
Themostcharitablethingthatcanbesaidabouttheracismofthe
DutchBoersandtheirCapeColouredoffspringsisthattheywere
ignorantofeventhenamesofgreatAfricanleaders,nottomentionthe
greatcivilizationtheyhadbuiltjustnorthofwheretheDutchfirst
landed .
ButtheAssyrians,Hebrews,GreeksandRomanscouldmakenosuch
claimtosupportthemythofCaucasiansuperiority
.Fornothingseems
clearerfromancientrecordsthanthatthewholeancientworldknewof
nothingmoreancientthantheblackman'scivilization .
Therealchallengewasstandingthereinmonumentsofstonewhich
theBlackshadbuiltonascalethathadwithstoodallpassingages
.
Tomeetthischallenge,theAsiansandtheirAfro-Asianoffspringsset
abouttodothreemainthings :(1)Theydestroyedeverythingleftbythe
AfricansthatindicatedAfricansuperiority
.(2)Wherethetemples,
monuments,etc
.,wereofsuchbeautyanddurabilitythatdestruction
waslessdesirablethanclaimingtheachievementsastheirown,African
inscriptionsweresystematicallyerasedandreplacedwithAsianand
newEgyptianinscriptionsthatgavetothemselvesthecreditforwhatever
achievementstherewere.Sometimestheinscriptionsweresodeeply
engravedthateffacementwasimpossible
;sotheworkmenwouldhave
toconcealthesebybuildingstonecasingsaroundthem .
TheearlyAfricanbuildershadbeenmostexasperating,leavingtheir
statueseverywhere-flatnoses,thicklipsandall
.Hundredsofstatuettes
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter
:Egypt

77
werecarvedinvariousdynasties .Thesecouldbethrownaway .But
whattodowiththehuge,monumentalstatuesthatwerelinedup
outsideofthemostfamoustemples?Theproblemwassolvedby
"passing"thoseEgyptianrulerswhomerelyhad"Negroid"features .
Manyofthosewithall-Africanfacessimplyhadtheirheadsknockedoff .
Alltonolastingavail .Thefactsofhistorycouldnotbecompletely
changed .
Onetroublesomefactwasthatmostofthegreatestkingsandqueens
ofEgyptwereBlackAfricans ;sogreat,indeed,thattheirnameswere
richlyspreadoverpagesthatglorifiedtheEgyptianpast-theirnames,
butnottheirAfricanidentity .InhistorytheseBlacksaresimply
Egyptians,andnotCushites,Ethiopians,orNubians .Thisisstillanother
techniquefordeliberately"losingtrack"ofAfricanhistory
.Butthe
archaeologists'spadesjustkeptturningupstatuettesandsome
remarkableportraitsthatfrustratedsomescholarswhile'othersfelt
challengedandrepliedwithaheavyartilleryofmisleadingwordsand
phrases .Regardlessofwhatthefieldinvestigatorsfound,themainwork
ofreconstructingAfricanhistoryinthetwentiethcenturyisstillinthe
handsofthosewhodegradedit,whitehandswhostillhavethepower
toshapeitastheywill.(3)Finally,thegreatrevoltofwhiteslaves
(Mamelukes)in1250 A.D., andtheirmurderousonslaughtsagainst
theirTurkandArabmastersendedforeverthegeneralenslavementof
whites,andthereafterledtoaconcentrationontheenslavementof
onlyBlacks .Thischangedthecourseofhistoryandcametomakethe
mythofracialsuperiority-inferiority,masterandslave,appeartobea
visiblereality .Couldtherebeanyquestionaboutit?Eventheslaves
wouldrealizethattheiractualsituationwasoneofinferiority .Andafter
centuriesofbondage,theslavesgenerallycametobelievethatthey
were,infact,inferiorbeings,andthattheirmasters,bythevery
arrangementsoflife,weresuperior.ForwhetherinAsia,Europe,South
America,theUnitedStatesortheWestIndies,thestorywasthesame:
Theessentiallinkswiththeirpastwerebroken
.Allknowledgeof
formergreatnesswaslost .Eventheirkinshipandfamilyrelationships
weredestroyedalongwiththeirtruenames
.Theywerenotregardedas
humanbeings .Theybecamearaceofoutcastshatingthemselvesfor
beingalive.TheCaucasiantriumphwascomplete.
Inthecourseoftime,theEgyptiansbecamemoreandmoreconscious
oftheirseparatenationalandnon-AsianidentityasEgyptians .Theterm
"Asian,"ofcourse,coverednumerouswhitenationalityand ethnic
78

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
groups ."Asianblood"hadnospecificmeaning .ItmightbeHebrew,
Mongolian,Arabic,Persian,Indianandsoon .Egyptiannationalism
withitssenseofindependencecouldevolveallthemoreeasilybecause
ofthislackofexclusiveidentitywithanyoneoftheirkindrednationali-
ties .
AnotherimportantfactorwastherelativelyunmixedAsians(anda
sprinklingofEuropeans)whohadbeenlivinginthecountryforso
manygenerationsthattheyregardedthemselvesasEgyptians,owingno
loyaltytotheirnativelands,butreadytofightasEgyptianswhenEgypt
wasattackedorherselfwenttowar.Hereagainweseeadditional
reasonswhytheEgyptiansfeltmoreAsianthanAfrican .Theybecome
evenclearerifwekeepinmindthatduringallthecenturiesofEgyptian
evolutiontoaseparateidentityandnationhood,relentlesswarfarewith
theAfricanscontinued .AslongastheAfricansseemedresolvedto
retakeEgypt,nopharaohcouldresteasily .Fromtherecord,extending
overseveralthousandyears,itseemsthattheBlacksintendedto
reconquerEgyptasMeneshaddoneorfightonforever.Theyseemed
totaketheirmostdevastatingdefeatsasmeretemporarysetbacks,and
alwaysinvadedorattemptedtoinvadeEgyptagainandagain(and
again,notetheverydifferentWesternversion) .
IsthisoneoftheprincipalreasonstheEgyptianshatedthemsomuch?
WasthemassenslavementofAfricansapartofaschemetobreakthe
powerandendtheeternalthreatfromthenowsouthern"Landofthe
Blacks?"
Iam,ofcourse,fullyawarethatthesameancientrecordsmayberead
andinterpretedinsuchawaythatonewouldthinkthatmostofthe
invasionswereone-wayfromEgyptintotheall-blackcountriesbelow
theFirstCataract,andthat,indeed,theAfricanswerenomatchforthe
mightyEgyptianarmies,butgenerallyturnedtailandfled .Inthisanda
hundredotherinstancesIsimplyreadtherecorddifferently .Thegreat
chainofdefensefortificationstheEgyptiansbuiltfacingsouthatthe
FirstCataractwerehardlybuilttopreventthemselvesfrominvading
theblackempire.
AslateastheTwelfthDynasty,recordsstillrefertowarsagainstthe
"Asianinvaders"andtodefensemeasuressuchasbuildingwallsonthe
easternfrontier.Theyhadbeen"expelled enmasse" fromtherichdelta
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

79
regionin2040B.C. 5 Buttheyalwaysreturned,ifnotasconquering
warriors,thenaspeacefultradersorfriendlymigrantsseekingahome .
ItshouldalsoberememberedthatEgyptwasnotalwaystheinnocent
objectofaggression,butwasherselfoftentheinvadingaggressorin
Asia
.ShealsoenslavedmanyAsiansandmarchedthembackto
Egypt-men,womenandchildren .Itcanbesaidwith certainty,
therefore,thatsomeofthemanyinvasionsofEgyptwereinvitedor
provokedbyEgypt'sownimperialisticadventures .Yettheymaywell
havebeencounter-movestochecktheconstantinvasionsfromthese
regions .
TheAfricanmassescaughtitfromalldirectionsastheirownleaders
progressivelybecame"Caucasian"HamitesandSemites,andasmany
whowereunmistakablyfull-bloodedAfricansbecameaspredatoryas
weretheirknownenemies6Itappearsthatfromtimeimmemorial,stark
greed,thedesireforwealth,hasoverriddenallhumaneconsiderations .
Greedhasservedasakindofanesthesia,deadeninghumanesentiments
andbreakingthebondsofaffectionthatrelatesmantoman .Greedwas
triumphantinEgyptfromancienttimesdownintoourowncentury .
EgyptwasthemajorslaveexchangecenterinAfrica .Nubia(the
NorthernSudan)wasnotonlythechiefsourceofsupplyforslaves,who
weremarcheduptheSecondCataract,butitwasalsothemainsource
ofgold,ivory,ostrichfeathers,preciousstonesofmanykinds,ebony
andanimalskins.ThesegoodsenrichedEgyptinherexpanding
internationaltrade.AhostileEgyptnowstoodbetweentheblackworld
andinternationalcommerce.
Butallhadnotbeengoingwellintheland .Therehadbeencivilwars,
redivisionofthecountry,reunificationagain,decentralization,abreakup
intoautonomousmonarchiesandbacktounificationoncemore .These
upsanddownsseemtobeaccordingtothestrengthorweaknessofthe
leadershipinanygivenperiod,ortheroleplayedbytheconquerorsin
unifyingorfailingtounifythecountry .
5.Thisthethegenerallyacceptedview..Inoteelsewherethatitwas
notamassexpulsionofAsians .
6 .Onelessonofhistoryisquiteclear:One'sownleadersmaybeas
unjust,inhumanandasbrutalasstrangers,oftenmoreso .
80

TheDestructionofBlack Civilization
BLACKEGYPTTURNING
BROWNANDWHITE
Thelong,longstretchofthecenturiesintomilleniumsmadeiteasyto
deletesomeofthemostsignificantdevelopmentsinthoseearlyagesin
Egypt.Theemergenceofgreatleadersandlongperiodsofremarkable
achievementswerefollowedbyweakleadersandlongperiodsof
nationaldisorganizationandchaosinsuchamazingcyclesthatitseems
thatsomerelentlesssocio-politicallawwasoperatingintheland .
Centralizedgovernment,firstinstitutedbyMenes,alwayscollapsedas
civilwarspreadovertheprovincesandconstituentkingdoms .Oneof
theworstandmostfatefulperiodsofcrisiswasduringtheSeventh,
Eighth,NinthandTenthdynasties,2181-2040B.C.
Whathappenedduringthisperiodofpoliticalanarchyistypicalofthe
unproclaimedprocessesthatslowlybutsteadilychangedboththe
politicalandethniccharacterofEgyptand,intheend,thatoftheall-
blackSudanaswell .Duringthisperiod,asinmanyothers,theBlacks
playedaleadingroleinexpeditingtheirowndownfall-afactas
importantintheirhistoryasanythingelse.InEgyptitwasanalmost
endlesspowerstrugglebothwithintheroyallineagesonthenational
andprovinciallevelsandbetweenthevariousprovinces .Thecivilstrife
becamemoreintenseandbitterasthelargestandstrongestprovinces,
suchasThebes,triedtoforcetheothersbackintoastateofnational
unity
.Thetroublewasthattoomanynomarchs(chiefs)weretryingtodo
thesamething,eachambitioustobecomethePharaohofallEgyptat
theveryleast,andallEthiopiaifpossible(EgyptandtheSudan) .
Hellreignedinthecenteroftheempire(UpperEgypt)for141
years-onehundredandforty-oneyearsofretrogressionanddestruc-
tion .Bothendsoftheempirebrokeawayfromthecenter.Thenorthern
end,whiteLowerEgypt,becameindependentagainandmoreand
morewhitesspreadoverUpperEgypt,takingfulladvantageofthe
generalupheaval,andpromotingitbyformingallianceswithvarious
provincialchiefsinthewarfareagainstothers .SinceLowerEgyptalso
hadinternalstrifeamongitsnowindependentprovinces,deltachiefs
didnothesitateinacceptingtheinvitationsofblackprincestoform
alliancesandleadtroopsintoUpperEgypt .Asiansalsomarchedacross
thedesertfromLibyawheretheyhadalsoreplacedtheindigenous
Blacksandwerenowthedominantpopulation .
Thesteadytransformationfromblacktobrowntowhitebecomes
evenclearerifitisrememberedthataftertheunificationoftheTwo
Ethiopia's OldestDaughter:Egypt 81
Lands,thewhitesofLowerEgypthadeverylegalrighttotraveland
settleinblackUpperEgypt .Andwhiletherewasalwaysageneral
opposition,therehadbeenasteadyinfiltrationfromthebeginning .
They,liketheirLibyankinsmen,alwayscameinamannerthatnever
causedimmediatealarm :smallnumbersspreadingout,andthen
graduallyformingseparatecommunitiesnexttoanAfricanvillage,
townorcity .Theybecameanintegralpartoflifeintheprovinces,
activelysupportingthelocalchiefs(nomarchs),marryingintotheir
familiesand,bysodoing,intimebecominglegitimatechiefsthemselves .
TheAsianpowerbasewasthusfirmlyestablishedinprovinces,and
establishedsoslowlyandwithoutfanfarethatitappearedtobean
imperceptibledevelopment .Thesamechangeshadbeentakingplace
onthenationallevelinsomeoftheroyalfamilies .
ButthebiggestchangesintheracialcharacterofEgyptalways
occurredduringthecrisisperiodsofpoliticaldecentralizationandcivil
disorderwhenthewhitescameinhordesandspreadoverthecountry .
ThealreadyestablishedAsiancommunitiesservedasmagnets,butthe
overflowofsettlerscausedthebuildingofnumerousnewcommunities .
Theycouldnowmoveinunchallenged .Theycameinnotonlyfromthe
DeltaandLibya,butfromAsiaalso .Thesewerenotmilitaryinvasions,
butinvadingsettlers .TheywerelikeJohntheBaptist,theforerunners .
Theypreparedthewayandmadeiteasyforalltheinvadingarmiesthat
camelaterfromAsiaandEurope.Thesecouldnowcountoncooperation
andwelcomefromthewhitepopulationalreadyinEgypt .
Acenturyandahalfofthisfollowed .Apauseandreflectionare
requiredhereifthefullsignificanceofwhathasbeensetforthaboveis
tobegrasped .Yetthepictureneednotbeasconfusingasmanywriters
havemadeitbythesimpleexpedientofomittingsalientfacts .Among
thesearethefollowing :(1)Thecollapseofcentralizedauthorityfrom
MemphisnotonlyenabledLowerEgypttobecomeindependentagain,
butitalsomeantthatthispredominantlyAsianregionwasinthesame
stateofdisruptionastherestofthecountry .(2)KingsinLowerEgypt,
rulingfromAvarisorSais,oftenclaimedtobekingsorpharaohsofall
Egyptwithouthavinggainedcontrolofthewholecountry,justaskings
inUpperEgypt,rulingfromThebesorMemphis,madesimilarclaims
duringthesameperiodwithouthavinggainedcontroloverthewhole
countryorevenallofUpperEgypt .Thispointishighlyimportant ;for
whatit .,meansisthattherewereperiodswhenbothwhiteandblack
aspirantsclaimedtobepharaohsofEgyptatthesametimewhennone
8 2

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
actuallyhadeffectivecontroloverthenation . (3) Writers,knowingthis
wellenough,haveneverthelessgenerallypresentedthewhitesand
Afro-Asians(classifiedas"white")as the Egyptianpharaohs,while
ignoringtheAfricanpharaohsaltogether.Theirdefense,whenpressed,
isthattheAfricanpharaohsareindicatedasThebans,Memphites,etc .,
satisfied,aspreviouslypointedout,thattheuseofthesetermsisapart
ofthe"blackout"ofblackhistory . (4) Theperiodsduringwhichthe
Asianincursionsweregreatest,suchas 2181-2040 B.C., shouldbe
stressedbecausethesepopulationpressurescausedasteadywithdrawal
ofnon-integratingBlackssouthwardbelowtheFirstCataract .(5)To
overlookthisearlyseparatistmovementamongtheBlacksistoneglect
oneofthemostimportantkeystothefullerunderstandingofblack
Egyptianhistory .
ButjustastheBlackshadwithdrawninlargenumbersfromLower
Egyptasitbecamemoreandmorewhiteandbegantosettlebeyond
whatbecametheborderbetweenLowerandUpperEgypt,sonowthey
hadbeenmovingfromplacetoplaceinUpperEgyptinafutileeffortto
escapefromtheeverpressingwhites .TheseweretheBlackswhofinally
joinedothersintheSouth(Nubia) .
Nubia,therefore,revoltedandbecameindependentduringthesame
periodofgeneralcollapseatthecenter .Butthecompellingreasons,as
statedelsewhere,appeartohavebeenresistancenotonlytothe
increasingAsianpowerinUpperEgyptbutalsototheAfricanand
Afro-Asianpharaohswhoseintegrationpoliciespromotedthespreadof
thisforeignpowerinwhathadbeenanimportantregionoftheir
homeland .Itwasblackseparatismandracismwithoutapology .Itwas
evensomethingmorethanaresistancemovementagainstthepolitical
dominationofforeignersandthesocialdegradationoftheBlacksthat
alwaysfollowed,butitwasastubbornresistancetotheextinctionofthe
raceitselfthroughamalgamation .Thesewerethefirstoftheracefor
whomBlackwasinfactbeautiful,andnotjustacatchingsloganofthe
day .
Theexpansionof"whitepower"fromthedeltaintoUpperEgypthad
beengoingonslowlylongbeforethe"ageofweakkings ."Theyhad
beenappointedasministers,courtofficialsofvariouskinds,trade
commissioners,armyofficersandsoldiers .Theninety-yearreignofPepi
11,thelongestinhistory,wasintheirfavor.ForwhilePepihadbeena
strongleaderandamightykingduringthefirstfiftyyearsofhisreign,
thegeneralupheavalbeganwhenhehadbecometoooldtogovernor
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt 83
evenknowwhatwasgoingoninthecountry .Thisuncommonlylong
reignmadetheSixthDynastytheintroductiontotheeraofchaos .This
wastheperiodofsimultaneousdynastiesofAsian,Libyan,andTheban
"pharaohs"andseveraldifferentcapitals .Thereweresomanykings
duringtheEighth,NinthandTenthdynastieswithveryshort"reigns"
thatmanyoftheirnamesareunknown .
Finally,thelineofAfricankingsrulingfromThebesfirstovercame
theotherpowerfulAsiandynastyinUpperEgyptthatwascenteredat
Heracleopolisandproceededwiththeawfultaskofunitingtheempire
again .Strongrulershadbeguntoemergeagainin 2133 B.C.Sothe
EleventhDynastyofthegreatMentuhotepsbegan 93 yearsbeforethe
TenthDynastyended,afurtherillustrationofpointspreviouslymade .
MentuhotepIIwasprobablythegreatestofEleventhDynastykings.
ItwashewhoundertooktosettlethewhiteAsianproblemforeverby
reversingthepolicyofintegrationandexpellingthemfromLower
Egypt .Historiansoftheperiodwritethathedid"expeltheAsians"from
theDeltain 2040B.C. This,too,ismisleading .Whilehedidindeed
conquerLowerEgyptagain,andprobablybelievedthatreunification
withtheblackSouthwouldbeeasierifhefirstdrovetheAsiansout,he
wasnow1000yearstoolateforsuchatask .TheAsianscouldnotbe
expelled enmasseinanyevent,forallLowerEgyptwasoverwhelmingly
anAsianpopulationandhadbeensoforcenturiesbeyondrecord .
Nobodyknowsatwhatpointintimetheybecamethedominantpeople
there.WhatMentuhotepdidwastoputthegovernmenttoflight,along
withitsarmyandotherknownsupporters .Besides,theAsianswere
nowdispersedallthroughtheprovincesofUpperEgypt .
ThecompellingreasonforthereconquestoftheDeltawasalways
economic.Infact"race"itselfwasaneconomicfactor.WhenAsians
controlled,acommercialblockadekeptBlacksfromdirectworldtrade
andinternationalrelationsingeneral .Therefore,thesecondreunification
in 2040 B.C.usheredinanother"goldenage"inblackhistory .African
shipsofcommercesailedtheseasagain,nation-widereconstructionwas
pushedandtherevivaloflearning,science,theartsandcraftsmarked
theEleventhandTwelfthdynasties.Themostimportantlessonthe
blackworldcouldlearnfromitshistoryisthattherewasaneconomic
developmentbaseforeachandeveryadvance .
Meanwhile,theBlacksconcentratedintheSouthhadfirmlyfixedthe
dividinglinebetweenthemselvesandtheirbrothersinUpperEgyptat
theFirstCataract .This,too,meantwar,becausetheSouthwasthe
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
richestregion in mineralresources .ThelongwaragainstNubiabegan
duringtheEleventhDynastyandwentonyearafteryearwithout
success.Averyrealproblemnowwastheattitudeoftheblacktroops
fromThebestowardawaragainsttheirbrothersintheSouth .Inany
event,noprogressinovercomingtheSouthwasmadeatalluntilthe
powercenteratThebeswasmovedtoAlFayyumintheTwelfth
Dynasty .Eventhenthewardraggedonforanotherfiftyyearsbefore
theregionborderingonEgypt(calledLowerNubia)wasbroughtunder
control.
Henceforth,thecountryfromtheFirstCataracttotheMediterranean
wasdefinitelycalledEgyptandthecountryfromtheFirstCataract
southwardwasdefinitelycalledEthiopia,Nubia,Cushetc .
TheendoftheTwelfthDynastyin1786B.C.endednearlythreeand
onehalfcenturiesofgreatleadersand,therefore,greatprogress .Yet,
onceagain,thecycleofdisasterreturnedwiththeThirteenthDynasty .
Mentalpygmiessatonthethronesonceoccupiedbygiants .Nearlytwo
centuriesofinternalstrifeanddecayfollowed .LowerEgypt,ofcourse,
hadquicklybecomeindependentagainforthethirdtime .Thismeant
anincreasedandunrestrictedflowofAsiansintothecountry .Aperiod
ofturmoilwasalsotheopportunetimeforgreatarmedinvasions .
AmongtheseinvadersweretheHyksos,the"ChildrenofIsreal,"
accordingtothehistorianJosephus .ThisinvasionofEgyptin1720B.C.
wasruthlessandaimedatnothinglessthantheexterminationofthe
EgyptianpeopleandtheirreplacementbytheIsrealites .Theydidnot
succeedinthis,butsettleddowntorulethecountryastheThirteenth
andSixteenthDynastiesandstayedonasapowerfulinfluenceforover
400years .?TheimportantpointhereisthatSemitespouredintoEgypt
followingitsconquestbyfellowtribesmen,andthatthisstillfurther
advancedtheAsiaticcharacteroftheEgyptians .Hyksospowerwas
brokenduringtheEighteenthDynastyandmanywereexpelled en
masse.TheyreturnedtoPalestineandfoundedJerusalem .Meanwhile,
7 .SomewriterssaythattheywereArabsandthattheirrulelasted
about250years.
Ethiopia'sOldest Daughter: Egypt
Egyptwasdevelopinginto"TheNewEmpire"and,duringthesame
dynastyinwhichtheHyksoshadbeenexpelled,shestruckbackby
conqueringboththeHyksoshomelandandSyriaandextendingthose
conqueststotheEuphrates .ItshouldbenotedthatthegreatestHebrew
invasionofEgyptoccurredabout600yearsbeforeMosesandthe
Captivity .
OnereasonwhythegreatissuesinAfricanhistorymustbeboth
reviewedandexpandedisthatanyonewhodarestochallengethepre-
vailingandwidelyheldviewpointsisinapositionfarmoreprecarious
thanthatoflittleDavidfacingthetoweringandmightilyarmedGoliath.
Hereanalmostuniversalarmyofgiants,standingsteadfastlyindefense
ofthe"Africanist"ideologiestheyhavedeveloped,mustbecombatted .
Tothisend,Ireviewpositionsalreadystatedinordertobecrystalclear,
andIexpandbyintroducingadditionalfactsonthesamesubject .
Indeed,Imightbeproperlyaccusedofoveremphasizingonepointon
whichmostscholarsarealreadyagreed :thegreatantiquityofAfrican
civilization .Butthegreatestofallissueslieshereinthegeneralagreement
thatattheveryearliestperiodknowntomankind,anAfricancivilization
intheareaslatercalledtheSudanandEgyptwasfullydeveloped,with
"alltheartsofcivilizedlifealreadymatured,"itsbeginningbeingplaced
sofarintotheearlyhistoryoftheworldthatitisbeyondthereachof
man.Sincethemostcompellingevidenceforcedscholarstothese
conclusionsinrecenttimes,theprevailingracisttheoriesofhistory
createdaveryrealdilemma :How,inviewofcivilization'sbeginningin
theLandoftheBlacks,canoneexplaintheirroleinworld history?
Havingsuccessfullydegradedtheblackracethroughouttheworldand
supportedthedegradationwiththeir"science"andreligion,howmay
oneexplainthatthissameblackracewasthefirstbuilderofthevery
civilizationofwhichtheCaucasiansthemselvesareheirs?
Whitescholarshipsolvessuchproblemsveryneatly,andwithouta
blinkofaneye.InthiscasetheyverysimplyputthewhitemaninAfrica
before theblackman!And,apparentlynotfeelingsecureenoughwith
this,theyoverrodegeographyitselfand"tookEgyptoutofAfrica,"
makingitapartoftheAsianMiddleEast!Laughterandtragedy .For,of
course,aracismsoextremethatitbecomesridiculousalsobecomes
85
8 6

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
amusing,eventhoughitisatthesametimethetragedyofanunabated
twentiethcenturyassaultontheBlacks .
Thediscoverythattheearliestcivilizationand,therefore,themost
advancednationwasinAfricaledwhitescholarstodoaquickturnabout .
Goingfarbeyondtransformingtheindigenouspeopleintowhites,they
madeAfricathebirthplaceoftheentirehumanraceand,topleaseGod,
rushedbacktoNoah'ssonsagainforatheoryofracialoriginsand
dispersions-butnowfromAfrica-overtheearth.Westernscholars,in
theabsenceofsolidfacts,donothesitatetousemythsandlegendsif
theseservetheirpurposes .Soinadditiontothelegendofhowthe
differentracescametobeandthenmigrated,wealsohavequotedthe
EgyptianlegendofhowthegodTurnassignedcolorstothevarious
groups .
SirGardner,inhisthreevolumesonancientEgypt,followsthesame
well-knownlineaboutEgyptiansasCaucasians .Inthisheisquitein
stepwithmostWesternandAsianwritersonthesubject .Indeed,in
additiontothe"evidence"citedabove,hereliesalsoonCaucasian
featuresincertainEgyptianmonuments,portraits,etc .Thehead
carvings,picturesandotherrepresentationsofpeoplearequitetrue,
dependingontheperiodinwhichtheworkwasdone .Wasitdone
duringthelongeraofclassicalrepresentationswhenallportraitswereof
standardizedform?Thesubjectwasidealizedinanartisticattemptto
makehimlookquitedifferentthanheactuallywas .Infact,atrue
representationoftheindividualwasconsideredvulgar .Thecomple-
mentaryquestionis,werethewallpaintingsandsimilardepictionsdone
duringtheperiodsofCaucasianascendency(AsianandAfro-Asian)?
ForduringtheseperiodsbothAfricanandAfro-Asianrulingandupper
classeswereclassedasAsiansorCaucasiansandasharpdistinctionwas
madebetweenthemselvesandthenon-integratingBlacks .Thestylized
paintingsalsoshowtheBlacksinthesameunvaryingpatterns .Thefirst
knownrevoltagainstthisancientsystemofclassicalartcameduring
Ikhnaton'sreligiousreformsinthefifteenthcenturyB.C. 8
AnyoneexaminingtheseearlypaintingswillreadilyseewhyAfrican
historyissoconfusedandsooftenmisleading .Oneexampleisawall
8 . Khafreactuallybrokethetraditioninthe4thdynasty .Butthe
"Negroid"featuresintheSphinxdidnotchangetheclassicalstyle.
Ethiopia's OldestDaughter: Egypt 87
paintinginatombatThebes,theoldestcityoftheBlacks .Thepicture
shows"Negroespresentingtribute . . ." tothechiefministerofThutmose
III.IfonedidnotknowthatalltheThutmoseswereofanAfrican
lineage,hewouldnaturallyconcludethatEgyptiancivilizationwasin
factaCaucasiancivilization,andtheBlacks,wheretheyappearonthe
sceneatall,wereinadistinctlyinferiorrole .Werenotthepaintings
conclusiveevidenceofthis?Lookattheirscanty,almostbarbarous
attire!
THECITYOFAHUNDREDGATES
ReferenceshavebeenmadetoThebes,andtheymayhaveseemedto
bealmostpassingreferences .YetThebeswasthemostimportantsingle
cityintheentirehistoryoftheblackpeople .Thewholeseriesoflectures
couldbeproperlybasedonThebes .ThehistoryofBlackAfricamight
wellbeginatThebes .Forthiswastrulythe"EternalCityoftheBlacks"
thatpresentedthemostcompellingevidencethattheywerethebuilders
oftheearliestcivilizationinChem,latercalledEgypt,aswellasthegreat
civilizationintheSouth .ThefoundationofThebes,liketheblackstate
ofwhichitwasthecenter,goesbacksofarinprehistorythatnotevena
generalstoneageperiodcanbesuggested .
ThiscityisanotherexampleofwhatwasmeantwhenIsuggested
earlierthatresearchworkersshouldnotshunthe"enemy"authorities
becausetheythemselvesinevitablypresentfactualdatathatcontravene
positionspreviouslytaken .Iamnotspeakingaboutthosescholarswho
presentthevariousconflictingtheoriesandviewpointsofthedifferent
schoolsofthought .Itshouldbeneedlesstosaythatthisisdesirable,or
thatreferenceisnotmadetosuchwriters .Butreferencewasmadeto
thosehistorianswhoespousedsuchdoctrinesasthatofanindigenous
whiteAfricansocietybeforethearrivaloftheBlacksinAfricawhile,
lateron,unwittinglyshowingthatsuchcouldnothavebeenthecase.
So,almostallareforcedbytheevidencetoconcedeinoneplaceor
another,,andofteninveryguardedorambiguouslanguage,that :(1)
TheBlackswerealsocalledThebansbecause(2)allUpperEgyptwas
forcenturiescalledtheThebaldafteritsgreatestcity,Thebes,andits
people,theblackThebans ;(3)thatthe"Thebald"alsoreferredtothe
cityitselfastheintellectualcenterofBlackAfrica,thechiefseatof
learning,ofscience,religion,engineeringandthearts ."Thebald,"
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TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
therefore,couldmeanthewholeofblackEgyptorthe"University
City,"dependingontheinflectionofthevoice ;(4)thattheAsianwhites
wereheldratherfirmlyintheDeltaregiontheyoccupiedinLower
EgyptuntiltheunificationoftheTwoLandsunderMenes ;and(5)that
themuchheralded"Egyptiandynasties"wereAfrican-foundedand
werenothingmorenorlessthantheAfricantraditionallineagesystem,
matrilinealincharacterexceptwhenitwasmadepatrilinealafterAsian
conquestsorthegreatEgyptiantransformation .
IhavesaidthattheconfusioninAfricanhistorydidnotdevelop
accidentallyorbecauseofalongseriesofunfortunatecircumstances .
Theconfusionseemstohavebeendeliberatelycontrived .Allspecialists
onancientEgyptwhoseworkswehaveexaminedwerequitefamiliar
withallthefactspresentedhere.Ipresentnothingherethatwouldbe
newtothem,forsomuchofit istheirownfindings .
Considerhowmuchconfusionandmisinterpretationswouldhave
beenavoidediftheyhadstatedthewell-establishedfactthatthe
EthiopianempirestillincludedmostofEgyptevenaftertheAsian
occupationoftheDelta,thatitextendedsouthwardovernorthern
Abyssinia(present-dayEthiopia),andthatstatessuchasWawat,Nubia,
Cush,etc .were,likeEgypt,lesserdivisionsofthatvastempire .Evenin
theworkswherethisispresentedinvariousandsundryways,youwill
notfindasinglemapshowingtheextentoftheEthiopianempire .
TopresentmapsofancientEthiopia,ofcourse,wouldhavedefeated
allmajoreffortstodestroyordisguisethemostsignificantaspectsof
Africanhistory .AllhonorsmustgototheancientGreekandRoman
historianswhodidnotseemtoknowwhatracismis,certainlynotasit
developedinmodernwhitecivilization.They,indealingwithAfrica,
simply"tolditlikeitwas ."Pliny,Herodotus,Diodorus,Erastosthenes,
Plutarch, etal ., alongwiththeBible,allrefutetheinterpretationsof
AfricanhistorybymodernCaucasians .Theyeagerlyquotetheancient
historiansasfirst-lineauthorities,butattackthemwheneverand
wherevertheirrecordsupsetthepremisesuponwhichmodernracismis
built .InsuchcasestheWesternscholarfeelssoabsoluteandinfalliblein
hiswealth-centeredpowerandcontroloverscienceandeducationthat
onthosepointshedoesnotchoosetoaccept,hewilldismissthe"Father
ofHistory"with"HereHerodotusmustbereadwithcaution .Heis
knowntohavemadeerrors .HedidnottravelverymuchinAfrica;
or " . . .It isverylikelythatDiodoruswasrelyingonoraltradition
here; or" . . .TheymayhaveconfusedtheGreek`Ethiopia'which
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter:Egypt

89
means`TheBlackLand'with'Chem'(Egypt)whichalsomeans`The
BlackLand,'forPlinysuggeststhatinthecaseofEgypt`black'refersto
thesoilratherthanthepeopleAndsoitgoes .
Throughoutthestudyoftheblackman'shistorywemayfind
ourselvesconstantlymisledorpuzzledifweforgetthatpracticallyallthe
namesandtermsinusearenotAfricannamesandterms,butGreek,
Roman,Arabic,Anglo-Saxon,etc .Someofthemorerecentpre-
Europeanandpre-Asian-Africannames,however,havebeenredis-
covered .OneoftheseearliernamesforThebeswastheNo,theNa-
AmunoftheBibleandancientHebrewwriters .ButtheAfricanname
wasWo'seand,liketheGreekThebald,referredtoallUpperEthiopia
orUpperEgypt .TheBlacksalsomadethedistinctionbetweenWo'se,
theThebaldandNowe(Thebes),theUniversityCity .Anotherpointof
thehighestimportancehereisthattheAfricannameforThebesnot
onlycomesfromtheSouth,asNimspointsout,butthenameitselfis
thenameoftheimperialscepterofEthiopia,agoldenstaffribboned
withostrichfeathersatthetop .Here,then,isasinglenamethat,allby
itself,givesfar-reachinginsightsintothehistoryoftheBlacks .Andthis
iswhyIhaveurgedthat,highuponthelistofresearchfieldsyettobe
explored,thereshouldbeonedevotedtotherediscoveryofAfrican
namesandtheirmeaning .For,obviously,muchoftheAfricanpastwas
rathereffectivelyblottedoutbyblottingoutAfricannamesalongwith
otherindexestoblackachievements .
ThedeterminationofancientAfricannamesandtheirmeaningwill
spearheadarealBlackRevolutionbecauseitwillleaddirectlytothe
emancipationofourstillenslavedminds .Itwillbethegreatintellectual
reawakeningofapeoplewhoseworldoutlookthroughCaucasianeyes
hasbeendimmed .Icannotnow,forexample,switchtotheuseofthe
AfricannamesIknowinthisdiscussion .ImustcontinuetosayThebes,
notWo'seorNowe.Thereasonsareobvious .Butifthekindof
suggestedresearchisdone,thenextgenerationofblackwriterswillbe
usingAfricantermsfreelyandunderstandably,andwithmapsredrawn
toshowplaceswiththeirownoriginalnames .
ButletusneverforgetthecentralfactaboutThebes,notevenfora
moment.ForiftheBlackshadneverleftasinglewrittenrecordoftheir
pastgreatness,thatrecordwouldstillstand,defyingtime,inthe
deathlessstonesofThebes,ofherfallencolumnsfromtemples,
monuments,andherpyramids ;acitymoreeternalthanRomebecause
itsfoundationwaslaidbeforethedawnofhistory,anditsplanwasthat
II
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
copiedbyothercitiesoftheworld .IftheBlacksoftodaywantto
measurethedistancetotheheightsfromwhichtheyhavefallen,they
needgonofartherthanNowe(Thebes) .
THEBESANDTHE
ROLEOFRELIGION
The"MotherofCities,"asitwascalled,wasoneofthechiefcentersof
religioninAfrica .TheBlackswereaveryreligiouspeopleandhadquite
anumberofreligiouscities,eachoneunderthespecialpatronageofa
god,goddessoranynumberofdeities .Thegodsandgoddessesof
Thebeswereamongthemostimportantbecausetheircitywasso
important.BecausereligiontotheAfricanswasfarmorethanritual
reflectingbeliefs,butarealityreflectedintheiractualwayoflife,
religionfromtheearliesttimesbecamethedynamicforceinthe
developmentofallthemajoraspectsofblackcivilization .
Thebeliefinimmortalitywasasimplematterofcourse,andbeyond
therealmofdebate.
Thisbeliefinlifeafterdeathwasthegreatinspirationforbuildingon
sograndascale,attemptingtoerectstructuresthatwouldstandforever.
Necessity,therefore,gavebirthtothemathematicalsciencesrequired
forbuildingtheamazingpyramidsandthearchitecturaldesignsforthe
mostelaboratesystemoftemple-buildingtheworldhaseverknown .As
theCityofAmon,theKingoftheGods,andofhiswife,thegreat
goddessMut,thetemplesandmonumentstothemalonehadtobeona
massivescale.TherewasalsothewargodofThebes,thesourceofthe
powerofthemightiestarmies,theproudestandmostfearlesswarriors .
Fromthiscenteroftheempirealone,20,000warchariotscouldbeput
intothefield .Thehierarchyofdeitiesnotonlyincludednumerous
lessergodsandgoddesses,butalsoalonglineofveneratedformer
kings,queensandancestors .Allofthisnotonlyinspiredendlesstemple
buildingatThebesbutalsoaconcentrationonattainingthehighest
standardsofexcellence.Thisinturncalledforreflectivethinking,
inventionanddiscovery .Manyofthetempleswerewhatwewouldcall
colleges,asthedifferentfieldsofstudyweretemple-centered .Here
scholarsfromforeignlandscametostudy,andfromhere,religiousideas
andarchitecturaldesignsspreadabroad .TheearlyGreeksandRomans
eagerlycopiedfromboth,reshapedthemandmadethemintegralparts
ofan"original"Westernculture.Duringperiodsofdeclineorconquests,
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

91
EuropeandAsiaseizedandtransportedfromAfricaasmuchofthe
artifactsofitscivilizationastheycould .Cambyses,forexample,asearly
asthesixthcentury B.C., hauledawayover$100,000,000ofprecious
historicalmaterialsfromThebesalone.Cambyseswasonlyoneof
countlessthousandswhoinvadedthetombrepositoriesofblackhistory
duringeachofthemanyperiodsofforeigninvasionsandforeignrule.
Forthesetombsnotonlycontainedvaluablehistoricalrecordsin
differentforms,butalsogreattreasuresingoldandpreciousstones .In
thesecases,thehistoricalrecordsweregenerallydestroyedincidentally,
andnotdeliberately .Theraidsongravesandthegreattombswerefor
thegreattreasurestobefoundthere.Butthestolengoldandother
treasureswereofnoimportancewhencomparedwiththemassof
pricelesshistoricalmaterialsthatarescatteredoverEuropeandAsia,
someinmuseums,somedestroyedorthrownaway,allfromfromthe
heartlandofblackcivilization .Todaythedescendantsoftherobbers
stillsmuglydeclare,"TheBlacksneverhadanyworthwhilehistory ;ifso,
wherearetheirrecords?"
ThestillinterestingfactaboutThebesisthatmanyofitsformerly
greattempleswereprehistoricruinsevenfivethousandyearsago .The
mostancienttempleatKarnak,forexample,inwhatwasthecenterof
Nowe,goesbackbeyondthereachofman'srecords .Noothercityon
eartheverhadsomanytemples,andeventodaytherearemoreruinsof
templestherethananywhereintheworld .Becauseofthesplendorof
theirarchitecturaldesignsandthecolossalsizeofthestructures,they,
likethepyramids,becamewondersoftheworld .Religionwasnot-only
theimmediateoccasionforthedevelopmentofartandarchitecture,but
italsoinspiredthedriveforbigness,thegranddesignonascaleashuge
ashumanskillandeffortcouldachieve .Nothinglesswasbefittingofthe
gods .
ThekeepersofthetemplesofThebesandelsewherebecamea
powerfulpriesthood,thusindirectlyreducingthepowerandinfluence
ofchiefsandkingswho,intraditionalAfrica,derivedtheirrealpowers
astheofficialintermediariesbetweenthegods,saintedancestorsand
thepeople.IfanAfricankingorchiefhadanyrealpoliticalpower,it
wasacquiredeitherbyvirtueofhisreligiousfunctionsorbecauseofthe
prestigeofbeingagreatgeneralandvictoriouswarrior.Otherwise,the
Councilwastheconstitutionalcenterofpower.
Moreover,religionbecamethebasisofpoliticalpowerinasubtleand
muchmorefar-reachingsense.Forbackbehindtheimpenetrable
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TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
curtainsoftime,shrewdleaderssawtheoverridingmysteryofreligion
asacontrollingforceinthelivesofmen .Itappearsthatinalmostall
societiesreligionwasrecognizednotonlyastheprincipalmeansofsocial
control,buttheequallycertainsourceofeconomicwealthandpolitical
authority .Fromthechieftain'sroleofofferingprayersandsacrificesto
thegods,thestepstohisownclaimofkinshipwiththedeitieswereeasy
enough.Forwhocangainsayonewhoisinexclusivecommunication
withtheAlmighty?Althoughdivinekinshipwasneverwidespread
overthecontinent,itseemstobetruethattheideasandpracticesofthe
divinedespotsoftheOrientdidpenetrateandinfluenceanumberof
Africankingdoms .
Thepointofallthisisthatreligionmadethepeoplesubmissiveand
obedient,allthemoresoiftheirrulerwasgivenasuperhumanrolesuch
askinshipwiththegodsandtheprotectingancestors .Fordidthisnot
meanthenthatrulersheldallthekeystoHeaven?Indeed,thechiefs
andkingshadevolvedintotheveryinstrumentsofthepeoples'
salvation.
Thestate'sincomefromreligionstemmedfromtherequirementof
sacrificialofferingsfromthepeople .Thismightbefromtentofifty
percentofwhateachindividualproducedorearned .Butwherethe
traditionalconstitutionallawoftheBlacksprevailed,thepeople
willinglycontributedfromtheirmeansforaquitenon-religiousreason :
Thecentraltreasurybelongedtothepeopleandwasmaintainedforthe
people'swelfare,notonlyforpublicprojectsbutforthereliefofeach
andeveryindividualindistresswhoseneedscouldnotbemetbyhis
familyorclan .However,Africanconstitutionallawreceiveditsfirst
blowinEgyptinthewakeofnumerousinvasionsandforeignrule,
followedlaterbyitsalmostcompletedestructionbyMuslimand
Europeanconquests .
Theancientreligionthatgavebirthtoscienceandlearning,art,
engineering,architecture-theresourcesforanationaleconomyand
politicalcontrol-thatsamereligionwarsthemotherofhistory,writing,
music,thehealingart,thesongandthedance .
Thefirsthistoriansweretheprofessionalstory-tellersandtraveling
singers .Bothrecountedthedeedsofleaders,importanteventssuchas
warsandmigrations,andhowandbywhomthesocietyorstatewas
founded .Poetryandmusicwerethecireationsofthepeopleingeneral
and,likethedance,camesoeasilythattheyseemedtobeanatural
heritageofeveryone
.Asthevariousmusicalinstrumentsandsinging
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

93
toldastory,thedancealsorecordedamessage,appealedforspiritual
aidfromGodandancestors,expressedjoyforsuccessfulharvest,
hunting,victoriesinwarorformsofprayertowardofftheevilspirits
thatalwayssoughttoovercomethegood
.Sicknessisoneoftheseevils,
hence,theassociationofmedicinewiththespiritualforcesforgood
.
TheritualforappealingtoaPowerbeyondmaniscalled"magic"by
Westerners,thatis,iftheyarediscussingAfrica
.Exactlythesamebelief
andpracticearecalled"divinehealing"inChristiandom .
ThegreatcivilizationoftheBlackswhichforcountlessageswas
centeredaroundNowe(Thebes)didnotjusthappen .Progressdoesnot
happenautomatically
.EveryforwardstepmadebytheseearlyBlacks
wasmade,youmightevensay forced,, bytheimperativesofwhathad
tobedonetosurvive.Bearinmindthatspiritualsurvivalwasmore
importantthanphysical,aconceptthemodernworldisnotexpectedto
understandatall .
Thedevelopmentofwritingisnotexplainedbythesimplestatement
ofa"needtocommunicate."Theideaofpermanenceseemedto
motivatethedrawingofpicturesandsymbolswhichwereman'sfirst
steptowardtheartofwriting .Significantly,thescribesaroseintheholy
temples .Andthisiswhysomanyinscriptionsofhistoricalimportance
havebeenfoundthere,onwalls,altarsandoncolonnades.Theworld's
oldestcity,withthegreatestnumberoftemplesthatwerealsothe
oldest,musthavebeentheplacewherethelargestmassofhistorical
datawouldhavebeenfound,hadnottheplunderersfromdifferent
countriesdestroyed,stolen,andcarriedawaysomuchofit
.Herewe
neednotbeasmuchconcernedwithfurthertestimonysuchasthatof
DiodorusaffirmingthattheThebansweretheoldest(first)menon
earth,accordingtotheirtradition,andthattheyalsooriginatedthe
systemsofphilosophyandastrology .Weneednotbeasmuchconcerned
abouttheirantiquity,whichwasalreadywell-established,asweare
aboutthelossofsomuchoftheadditionalevidenceconcerningthe
developmentofphilosophyandthebeginningofthespacescienceof
astrology .
AncientGreekscholars,throughHerodotus,referredtothecom-
pletionoftheireducationinEthiopiawithprideand,itappears,asa
matterofcourse.Somuchhasbeenbuiltupagainsttheblackracesince
thosefarawaytimesthatitwillbedifficultformanypeopleoftodayto
realizethatwhitesoftheancientworlddidnotseemtoregardthe
question of Ethiopiaastheprincipalcenteroflearningasevendebatable .
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TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
But,wehavetoremindourselvesconstantly,racismasweknowittoday
waspracticallynon-existent .Whenanancientpeopleboastedoftheir
superiorityoveranothernationalitygroup,thetermsofreferencewere
conquest,politicalrule,andsomekindofmythtolegitimizethatrule.
Whenthefortunesofwarenabledonewhitenationtoenslavethe
entirepopulationofanotherwhitestate,noonebelievedthatthe
conqueredpeoplewereactually,thatis,innatelyinferiortothe
conquerors .NeitherdidtherelativelybackwardAsianwhiteswho
invadedEgyptconsiderthemselvessuperiortotheblackbuildersofthe
civilizationtheyfoundthere .
TheemphasishasbeenontheThebaldasallUpperEgypt,Upper
EgyptasUpperEthiopia,andThebes(Nowe)asitsmostancientcity
andoneoftheveryearliestcentersofblackcivilization .Wehavesaid
thattheancientwhitessoregardedit .TheGreekhistorian,Erathos-
thenes,referstoMenesas"TheTheban"andfirstkingofThebes
(meaningtheThebaldorUpperEgyptwhenitwasunitedwithLower
Egypt,andthebeginningoftheFirstDynasty (3100B.C.) . Thesame
historiannotedthatMenes'reignofsixty-twoyearswasoneofthe
longestinhistory,andthatofhisnephew,Atothones,ranaclose
second,fifty-nineyears .
Duringthisearlyperiod,beforeMemphiswasfounded,"TheCityof
aHundredGates"spreadsixsquaremilesoverbothsidesofthe
Nile.Itwasalsothe"CityBeautiful,"beingcalledbymoredifferent
glorifyingnamesthananycityknowntotheancientworld .Itswidest
avenues,linedwithsphinxes,temples,palacesandmonuments,could
accommodateanarrayofcolorfulchariots,twentyabreast .Itwasalso
"TheTwoCities,"or"TheCityoftheLiving"and"TheCityofthe
Dead ."Onewasontheeastsideoftheriverandtheotherwasonthe
westside.Eachviedwiththeotherinaraceformagnificence .Palaces
andmansionswerelargelyconcentratedontheEastBank .Temples,
beingeverywhere,wereaboutasnumerousinthe"CityoftheLiving"
asinthe"CityoftheDead"ontheWestBankwherethemortuary
templesofkingsandqueenswerelocated,alongwiththevarious
religiouscults,andhousesofpriests,craftsmen,soldiersandthemasses .
TheWestBankwassuchabeehiveofindustrial,commercialand
religiousactivitiesthat"CityoftheDead,"eventhoughitreferstoits
famousburialplaces,isneverthelessaverymisleadingname .Thebes'
statusasthecapitalcityandcenterofimperialactivitiesroseand
declined,withfewexceptions,accordingtotheraceornationalityofthe
Ethiopia'sOldestDaughter:Egypt

95
rulingdynastyatthattime.Beingthecenterofblackpower,itwasa
mainobjectfordestructionbynon-Africaninvadersand,aftertheyhad
achievedcontrol,theyestablishednewcapitalselsewhere .Theimpor-
tanceofthecitythathadbeentheenvyoftheworldwasignored,and
manyofitsculturalactivitiesweretransferredelsewhere.Nowhite
pharaohcouldfeeleithercomfortableorsafeinthecenterofoneofthe
mostheavilypopulatedareasofBlacksintheempire .Thecolored
Egyptiansgenerallyfeltthesameway .Thebeswasalsoeclipsedattimes
bythebuldingprogramsofBlackkingsintheirdrivetoadvancefrom
theveryoldtotheverynew,andalsoforthepurposeofsecuringamore
effectivecentralizedadministration .ThebuildingofMemphiswasfor
thispurpose.Ontheotherhand,Piankhiandhissuccessorsinthe
Twenty-FifthDynastyapparentlypreferredthecapitalcityofNapatain
thedeepSouthoverbothThebesandMemphis .Wasthisbecausethe
HolyCityofNapatawaslikeMeroe,theonegreatall-blackcitythathad
neverbeendefiledbytheconquerors'hands?Wemaysospeculate.Itis
clear,however,thatThebesreflectedtheshiftsinpowermoredirectly,
whetherornottheshiftswereoccasionedbyinternalorexternalforces .
ItdeclinedasMemphisroseduringtheDynastiesI,II,III,IVandV
(3100-2345 B.C.) . ThesewerethefirstfiveAfricanlineagestoruleafter
thereunification .TherewasafurtherdeclineofThebesaftertheFifth
Dynasty,andagainforinternalreasonsofaquitedifferentnature.
Sufficeittosaythataftertheperiodduringwhichtherewasanactive
policyofintegratingAfricansandAsiansthroughtheMemphiscapital
ontheirdividingline(theborderbetweenUpperandLowerEgypt),
nativekingsgenerallysoughttorestoretoitsancientglorythecityso
deartotheheartsoftheBlacks .
CHAPTERIII
Egypt:TheRise
andFallofBlackCivilization
WEMAYNOWREVIEWANDSUMUPTHISLONGPERIOD,
beginningwithanoutlineofsomeimportantdevelopmentsthat
highlightfactorsintheriseandfalloftheBlacksandafurtherdiscussion
ofthosefactors .Letusthereforebeginatthebeginningwheresomeof
thosemisterpretationsweresimplyduetoignorance.
Thistakesusbacktbthepredynasticperiodofabout4500 B.C.,
certainlynotthebeginning,butquitefarenough .Manywritersreferto
the"kingless"periodsbeforecentralizedstatesastheruleofnobles,
oligarchiesorhierarchies,etc .Fromthebeginning,therefore,the
WesternersappliedWesternconceptstoquitedifferentAfrican
institutions .Latertheydescribedthesamekindofsocietiesas"chiefless"
or,worse,"stateless ."TheydidnotunderstandtheAfricanconstitutional
systemofrealself-governmentbythepeoplethroughtheirrepresenta-
tives,theCouncilofElders .Nordidtheyseemtounderstandthatthe
ChiefElder,orChief,wasalsotheChiefPriestorthattheotherelders
alsohadreligiousfunctionsinconnectionwiththeirrespectiveclans .
Duringthepredynasticperiodunderdiscussion,theywereneither
oligarchiesnorhierarchiesasthesetermsareunderstoodintheWest .In
fact,theWesternconceptionofkingshipwasforeigntotraditional
Africa .WhattheWestcalled"king"was,inAfrica,thesameseniorelder
whohadtobeelectedandpresidedattheCouncilofElders ;and,then,
onlyifhehadhadthehonorofbelongingtoafamilywhoseancestors
hadeitherfoundedthestateorhadbeenthemostoutstandingin
96
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
promotingthewelfareofthewholepeople
.Tosuchafamilythe
Africansgavepermanentleadershipstatusaslongasdescendent
candidatesqualifiedforit
.Westernerscalledthisthe"royalfamily ."But,
again,the"royalfamily"conceptwasunknowntotraditionalAfrica
wherethechiefor"king"wasthechiefrepresentativeofthepeople
beforeGodandman,andatoncethepersonificationsofthepeople's
dignityandtheinstrumentforcarryingouttheirwill
.Muchconfusion
andtroubledeveloped(andstillexist)alloverthecontinentbecause
AfricansgenerallyacceptedWesternandAsianexpressionswithout
acceptingtheirunderlyingideas
.Hence,anAfricankingwhoattempted
tobeanabsolutemonarchor"orientaldictator"generallyfoundhimself
introubleratherquickly .
THE"BLACKOUT"INREVIEW
TheconversionofnamesinEgyptwasonsuchauniversalscalethat
itsAfricanoriginandcharacterwerechangedasmuchasitwas
humanlypossibletodo
.Smallpoliticalunitsorstates,whichEuropeans
styledaschiefdomsinotherpartsofAfrica,becamenomarchiesin
Egypt.
SinceAsiansandsomeEuropeanswereheavilyconcentratedin
LowerEgypt,itbecamerelativelyeasyforthemtoappropriateexclusive-
lyforthemselvesnotonlythename"Egyptian,"butalsoallachieve-
mentsbytheBlacksinUpperEgyptandtherestoftheEthiopian
empire
.Holdingtheseacoastsandthusblocking'Africancontactwith
therestoftheworld,these"WhiteEgyptians"wereabletoperpetuate
themythsosuccessfullythateventodaymanyremarkableachievements
byBlackselsewhereoverthecontinentareattributedto"Egyptianinflu-
ence."Thereissomethingamusingheretoo
.Forwhentheyreferto
"Egyptianinfluence"onAfricaninstitutionstheyareinfactpointingout
blackinfluenceonblackinstitutionsthroughoutAfrica
.Noonebuta
foolwoulddenyAsianandEuropeaninfluenceinEgyptandelsewhere
inAfrica
.Thisisafactthatisobvious,butnotmoreobviousthanthe
natureofthatinfluenceasitwasdiscussedinpartbefore.Itcanbe
singledoutandseparatedfromthebasicinstitutionsoftheBlacksas
easilyaswecanseparateIslamandChristianityformthetraditional
Africanreligion .
Anotherpredynasticsituationtokeepinmindconcernsgovernment
intheTwoLands
.AllAsianshadtheirkingsinLowerEgyptandthe
BlackshadtheirkingsinUpperEgypt
.Thelongdrawn-outwars
Egypt:TheRiseandFall

99
betweenthetworaceswereovertheunificationandcontroloftheTwo
Lands .ThesestrugglesapparentlyhadbeengoingonsincetheAsian
incursionsbeganinprehistorictimes .Anditwasnotjustthecontrolof
allEgypttotheFirstCataractthatwasinvolved,butunificationandrule
ofthewholeEthiopianempirefromtheMediterraneanSeatothevery
sourceoftheNile.Thisgreatdesignandall-consumingobjective
throughoutthehistoryofAfricamustbeunderstoodif,forexample,
oneistounderstandwhyevenblackpharaohsofEgyptcarriedthewars
intotheheartlandoftheirownrace,tryingtosubduearebellious
Nubia,WawatorCush.Southernseparatistmovementsandrebellions
spreadasAsianinfluenceandintegrationspreadintheNorth .
Viewingtheoutcomefromthelongperspectiveofhistory,Menes'
greatvictoryovertheAsians,theunionofthewhiteandblacklands,
andthesubsequentpolicyoftryingtopromotebrotherhoodthrough
integration,allthisturnedouttobenotavictoryfortheBlacks,butthe
beginningoftheirultimatedownfallandalmostpermanentdegradation
asapeople.IthasbeenpointedoutthatuptothetimeofMenes'victory
overthem,theAsianswereratherfirmlyheldbehindaborderline
alongthe29thparallel .Fewwereallowedintheall-blackregionsof
UpperEgypt.Withunificationthesituationradicallychangedinthat
thegatestotheSouthwerenowopentopeoplewhoalreadyhelda
fourthofthecountry .Theblackmasseswerethereforeapprehensive
aboutthenewunificationpolicies,andthegeneralhostilitytothe
Asianscheckedanyimmediateandwidespreadinfiltrationssouthward .
Buttimewasonthesideofthewhiteswhosemostcommendable
attributesaretactfulpersistencewhenovert,aggressiveactionisforthe
momentinexpedient,andtheircarefulplanningfortheirfuture
generationswithwhatappearstobemoreinterestinthefuturewelfare
oftheirdescendantsthantheyareintheliving .InLowerEgyptthey
couldbidetheirtimeandovercomethetriumphantBlacksinmany
ways.AsiankingsinLowerEgypt,nowdethroned,stillhadadirect
powerovertheBlacksthroughthe"NewBrotherhoodofintegration
andamalgamation.TheAfricanmatrilinealsystemmadetheAsian
routetotheAfricanthroneeasywhencomparedwiththegenerally
patrilinealsystemofthewhites .AlltheAsiankingshadtodo,whether
inLowerEgyptorontheAsiancontinent,wastopromotethemarriage
ofroyalmalestotheoldestsistersofAfricankings .Thefirst-bornmale
insuchacarriage,thoughAfro-Asian,wouldbethenumberone
candidatefarthethrone.
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Theothereventtobeawaitedwithpatiencewasthepassingofso
manygreatAfricanleadersandthecomingofweakerones .Thiswasan
historiccertaintyunlesscyclesofpastdevelopmentsweretobenomore.
Buttimeseemedslowerandlongerduringthefirstfivedynasties,
eachofwhichwascharacterizedbygreatleaders,aperiodofseven
hundredandfifty-fiveyears .Therollcallbringsforthnamesthatstill
resoundthroughthecorridorsoftime :Menes,Athothes,Peribsen,
Khasekhem,Imhotep,Zoser,Sneferu,Khufu,Khafre,Userkaf,
Neferefre,andotherswhoreestablishedEthiopianpowerasaunited
empireandheld it withoutaseriouschallengeforalmostathousand
years .
Duringthisperiod,activeforeigntradeandexpandedcontactswith
othercountrieswerenowpossible.Internalstabilitywasachieved
throughaprocessofincreasedcentralizationofpoweratMemphisand
theperfectionofthebureaucracyofthevastimperialadministration .
Thestatebecamethechiefpromoterandinspirerofprogressonall
fronts :agriculture,industrialdevelopment,science,thearts,engineering,
massivebuildingprograms,miningandshipbulding .Therapidriseand
expansionofnumerouscrafts,eachanorganizedsecretsociety,
stimulatedtheremarkableindustrialandbuildingdevelopments .
Internalpeaceandstabilityprovidedtheopportunityfortheoutpouring
ofmuchdormantnativegenius,andreligionwasthechiefmotivating
source.Everycraftsocietyhaditsownpatronsub-god(nottobe
confusedwiththeSupremeGod) .Itwasduringthissameperiodthat
stonewasfirstusedinbuilding,hieroglyphicwritingwasfirstinvented,
thegreatpyramidswerebuilt,stonequarryingperfectedandexpanded
andImhotepbecametheworld'sgreatestarchitectandthe"Fatherof
ScientificMedicine."Itwassevenandahalfcenturiesofthemost
gloriouspagesinthehistoryoftheblackworld .
Therewasaconcentrationofsomeofthegreatestleadersinthe
FourthDynasty,2613-2494B.C.Thereafter,fewerandfewerofthe
greatkingsappearedtostemthedisorganizationthatwasclearly
developingnearthecloseoftheSixthDynasty .Themostnotable
achievementwasdoubtlessthecompilationofthePalermoStone
Annals,aworkofgreathistoricalimportance .
TheOldKingdomendedwiththisdynasty.Thegreatwealthofthe
nation,continuedinternationalcommerceandinternalprogressover-
shadowedtheacceleratingdisintegrationinthecountry .Conflicts
betweenthereligiouscultsbattlingformoreandmorepoliticalpower
Egypt:TheRiseandFall
101
expanded
.Rebellionsofvariouschiefdoms,seekingindependence
fromweakandweakerrulersatMemphis,alsospread .Decentralization
becametheorderoftheday-thedayforwhichtheAsianshadbeen
patientlywaitingsolong
.UnderweakrulersatMemphisandthe
breakingupofthecountryintosmallindependentareas(nomarchies),
Asianpenetrationandexpansioninthe"BlackLand"becamethe
norm.
Earlier,IreferredtotheAfricanfailuretoemploytheessentialsofreal
nation-building,andproposedcertaincriteriatheygenerallyfailtouse.
Whenthisisdoneourblackstudentsoftenprotestthatthe"sameisalso
trueofmanynon-Africanpeoples
."Theywouldliketotakecomfortin
thisfact(foritisafact)andforgetthewholething
.ButIamnotnow
dealingwiththese"otherpeoples ."Iamconcernedhereonlywith
African lifeandhistory .Thefailuresofonepeopleshouldserveasa
warningofwhattoavoid,andnotasajustificationforsimilarfailuresby
another
.TheglaringweaknessintheunificationoftheEthiopian
empirewastheabsenceofanynationalprogramforthedevelopmentof
anationalsolidarityandasenseofnationalcommunityandbelonging
thataimedatovercomingthegreaterlocalortriballoyalties .
Tobeginwith,thereweretoomanytributarystateswithinthe
empire
.Theirveryreasonforbeingapartoftheempirewasmainly
fortribute,theirregularcontributionstotheimperialtreasury
.Such
statesdidnot,andindeed,couldnotfeelthemselvestobeintegralparts
oftheempire
.Blindedbythewealththatwaspouringintothenational
treasury,theempirebuilderswereunabletoseeorunderstandthe
requirementsofthehumanheartandspiritfortheformationof
attitudesofloveanddevotiontowardanationalcitizenship .Weshallbe
discussingthetraditionalAfricanconstitutionlaterbecauseevery
expandingAfricankingdomandempirealreadyhadtheguidelines
whichtheleadersthoughtappliedonlytosmallstatesortheyfelt
themselvestobesorichandpowerfulthatthetraditionalconstitutional
safeguardscouldbesafelyignored
.Inthesmallerstatesortribal
societiestheAfricanconstitutionalsystemoperatedtopromoteand
supportequaljustice,individualandgroupwelfareorsocialsecurity,
andanundyingloyaltytothegroup
.Theveryschemeofsocial
organizationassuredallthis
.Groupsolidaritybecameanatural
development
.Analmostfiercespiritofbrotherhoodandsisterhood
prevailedinalltribalstates
.Theworkofexpandingthisspiritasthe
nationexpandedwasrarelyundertaken .
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Sincetherewasnosuchprograminthebestoftimes,the"every-(
province-for-itself"spiritwaschaffbeforethestormsofinvasions .The
invadershadfounditeasytoestablishanotherAsiancapital,evenat
Heracleopolis .Thismove,inviewofthegeneraltrendthroughout
Ethiopia,wasthoughttobetakenatthemostpropitioustime,whenthe
empirewasfallingapartandnoonewasincommand .ButAsian
assumptionofimperialpowerandtheestablishmentoftheircapitalin
thecenteroftheblackworldarousedthedisorganizedandleaderless
peopletofury.AndtheAsiansapparentlyhadnottakeintoaccount
Thebes,theseatoftheblacks'wargodandtheplacefromwherethe
mightiestAfricanarmiesalwayscame.Ofcourse,evenwiththis
knowledgeneithertheAsiansoranyoneelsewouldexpectanythreat
fromThebesinthepresentstateofnationalchaos .ButtheBlackshad
alwayslookedtoThebesintimesofcrisis,leadersornoleaders .They
didsonow.Thebenleadersemerged,andwiththemfightingmenarose
tobattletheAsiansagain .HeracleopolisfelltotheBlacks ;butAsian
kingswereabletoholdLowerEgyptagainandreestablishdynasties
thereunderKhetiIandhissuccessors .Westernhistoriansrefertothis
periodastheFirstIntermediatePeriod, 2181-2040 B.C., andfurther
confusedanalreadytooconfusedsituationbymixingtheAsianrulers
ofLowerEgyptwiththeAfricanrulersofUpperEgypt,andthenlisting
allthedynastiessequentiallysothatfromsuchanarrangementone
couldnotdistinguishthewhiteAsiandynasties,kingsorpharaohsfrom
theBlack .SotheelevenAsiankingsofLowerEgyptwhofollowedKheti
Iappearedas"KingsofEgypt ."
WeshouldpauseatthebeginningoftheMiddleKingdom, 2133 B.C.,
becauseduringthelong1,500yearscoveredbymybriefsummaryone
ofthemostunusualsocio-politicalphenomenaoccurred .Ithasbeen
referredtonumeroustimesbeforeintermsofitsdevelopment,butnow
theunexpectedhadhappened .Atthispointwehavepassedfifteen
centuriesofAfrican-Asianamalgamation,atfirstlargelyinLowerEgypt,
butafterwardmoreandmoreinblackUpperEgypt .TheAfro-Asian
offspringswerecalledthe"newbreed,"thedistinguishingcharacter-
isticsofwhichweredevotiontoAsiansandhatredofAfricans .Unless
thispointisgrasped,wemayaswelldropthestudyofAfricanhistory
insofarasunderstandingfullytheinternaltroublesofthisrace .
First,theAfro-Asians,or"Coloureds,"hadfaroutnumberedthe
Asiansinthenorthernpopulationduringthepast1,500years .Second,
theColouredshadbecomesensitivelyawarethattheyweresuspended
Egypt:TheRiseandFall

103
betweentwoworlds,theblackandthewhite,andthattheywerenot
fullyacceptedineither.NowheredidtheirAsianfathersandother
whitekinsmenregardoracceptthemasequals,whiletheBlackshad
cometohatethemasmuchastheyhatedtheBlacks .Third, outofthis
situationdevelopedapassionateanddefiantnationalismthatrestricted
theterm"Egyptian"toMulattoesalone. Henceforth,neitherAsiansor
AfricansweretobecalledEgyptians .Indeed,thenewbreedbeganto
treatAsiansasstrangersandnolongerwelcomedthemenmasseeven
inLowerEgypt.TheAfro-Asianshadapparentlyresolvedthatsince
theycouldnotbelongtoeithertheblackorwhiterace,theywouldbea
racebythemselves,andintheirownright-theEgyptianrace.It
worked .Asians,ifunmixed,werenowcalledAsians,andAfricans,if
unmixed,werecalledAfricansorEthiopians.Theyalone(thenew
breed)wouldbecalledEgyptians,andthewritersoftheworldwould
followthisclassificationfromHomer'stimetothisday .Ishallusethe
termsinthesamewayinallsubsequentreferences .Intheearliest
period"Egyptian"wouldhavemeanttheBlacks ;lateronitwouldhave
meantBlacksandAfro-Asians .ThewhiteAsianswerenevercalled
EgyptiansevenwhentheyruledallEgypt .(Eventhepresentdayrulers
ofthelandareunhappywiththetermandmuchprefertobecalled
whattheyare:Arabs ;hence,thechangeoftheofficialnameofthe
countryfromEgypttotheUnitedArabRepublic .)
However,theincreasinghostilitytothe.Asianswasduetotheir
offsprings'resentmentoverbeingrejectedasequalsandhavingalower
statusinthesocietywheneverwhiteAsianswereincontrol .Their
hostilitytotheAfricanshadbeennurturedfrombirthandremainedthe
same.YettheyneverfailedtoseekallianceswiththeBlackswhenit
suitedtheirpurposes(justastheydotodaythruOAU),ortomarryinto
rulingAfricanfamiliestoenhanceandperpetuatetheirrule.
TheEleventhDynastywasstartedwithstrongerblackrulers,
beginningwithMentuhotepandfollowedbythreekingsofthesame
name.TheirrulewasagainlimitedtoUpperEgypt,sincetheAsians
hadreestablishedtheirruleinLowerEgyptduringtheperiodof
nationwideturmoilandrebellions .MentuhotepII,afterrestoringorder
inUpperEgyptandpromotingarapideconomicprogram,hadturned
northtorepeatMenes'greatfearofconqueringLowerEgyptagain .
1 04

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
ETHIOPIASOUTH
ButEthiopiabelowtheFirstCataractdidnotreturntothereunited
imperialfoldintheNorth.Aswehaveseen,thesouthernkingdomsdid
notintendtoreturn,Theirdefectionshadbeengoingon,onerightafter
another,longbeforethegeneraldisorganizationandrebellionsduring
theSixthandSeventhDynasties .HostilitytotheAsianinvasionswas
alwaysgreatestinthesouthernregions .Manyofthepeopleclaimedthe
Asian-heldareasastheirancestralhome.TheywantedLowerEgypt
conqueredandtheAsiansdrivenout .Meneshadachievedthegreat
victory,buttheintegrationpoliciesthatfollowedwereregardedasa
betrayaloftheBlacks .Theyhadlostfaithintheblackkingsrulingfrom
Memphis,whonotonlyfavoredintegration,butpromotedit .The
steadymovementofthewhitesfromtheDeltaintoUpperEgyptitself
wasproofenoughforsouthernBlacksthattheAsianaimwasnothing
lessthanultimatecontrolofallEthiopia .AstheAsianpresenceand
influencespreadinUpperEgypt,thewithdrawaltothesouthernking-
domsappearedtokeeppace.
ButwhyweretheBlacksfarthestawayfromtheAsianthreatsomuch
moreconcerned(orappearedtobe)thanthosewhostilllivednextdoor
totheenemyinUpperEgypt?Eventhelargernumberofrefugeesfrom
LowerEgyptmusthavesettledinUpperEgyptbecausethebiggest
concentrationofBlackswasthere.Thiswouldhavebeenthesituation
around2400B.C.TheanswermaybethatsinceNapatawasregarded
astheunchangingcapitalandcenteroftheblackworld,andnotNowe
(Thebes)ofgloriousmemory,anythreattothissacredarea(Landofthe
Gods)wasathreattothesurvivaloftheraceitself.
ThefirstgreatsoutherndivisionoftheEthiopianempirewasthe
kingdomofWawat,andbelowthatwasthefargreaterkingdomof
Nubiawhich,likemanyothervastareas,whilenominallyapartofthe
empire,wasatvarioustimesindependent .Theage-olddreamofallthe
greatkings,black,white,ormixed,wastheconsolidationofthe
NorthernandSouthernregions;hence,theconstantwarsagainstLower
Egyptand,now,again,Mentuhotep'swaragainstNubia .Inbothcases,
thatoftheAsiansinthefarNorthandtheBlacksinthefarSouth,
economicswasthedrivingforce.Theholdontheseacoastsnotonly
blockedtheAfricansfromworldtrade,butthatfactenabledtheAsians
andColouredstocontrolthedomesticeconomyindirectlyaswell .The
recordshowsthateverytimethisAsianstrangleholdwasbroken,
Africanforeigntradeagainflourishedandnationalprosperitybeganto
Egypt:TheRiseandFall

105
rise
.Onetheotherhand,nomatterhowblackthepharaohswere,if
onlyforeconomicreasonsSouthernEthiopia(NubiaorCushor
Abyssinia)hadtobemorefirmlyintegratedwiththeNorth .TheSouth
wastherealsourceofEgypt'swealthasithadbeenforEgypt's
civilization .TheSouthactuallyhadallEgyptatitsmercy .Thegold
mineswerethereanditwaswherethevaststonequarrying,copper,
andtinminingwereconducted .FromtheSouthcamemostofthe
papyrusplantsfromwhichtheBlacksinventedpaperandbuiltthefirst
andfinestboatsfromthesametoughleaves .TheSouthhadallthe
ivoryand,atthattime,wastheonlysourceofthehighly-prizedostrich
feathers,etc .Inshort,Egyptianforeigntradedependedalmostentirely
onSouthernEthiopia .Addedtotheseeconomicimperatives,therewas
anevengreaterdangerfeltintheNorth.Thiswasthecontrolofthe
Nile,almostallofwhich,over3,000miles,flowedthroughSouthern
Ethiopia .
BlackUpperEgypt,beinginthemiddle,wasforcedbycircumstances
toplaytheleadingroleinthewarsforunificationinbothdirectionsand,
consideringthemanycenturiesoverwhichtheywereintermittently
waged,theyseemeddestinedtogoonforever.Itisnoteworthythatall
theselongdrawn-outeffortsatunificationofanempireundera
centralizedgovernmentwereconfinedtothe-directlyindispensable
economicregionswhichwerecontiguoustoeachother.
Other"members"oftheempire,eventhosewhohadlongsince
stoppedpayingtribute,werenotdisturbed .Infact,asIhavebeen
indicating,"EthiopianEmpire"wasoftenmerelyageographical
expressioninsofaraseffectiveruleoverallofitssupposedpartswas
concerned .Tokeepthepictureasclearaspossible,wehavetokeepon
rememberingthatatvariousperiodsinancienttimes,the"Landofthe
Blacks"meantallEthiopia,allEthiopiameantallAfrica,andallBlacks
wereAfricansorEthiopiansorThebans,etc .Therewerenumerous
independentstatesintheWesternLandoftheBlacks(WesternSudan)
thatmayhaveclaimedamembershipalliancewiththeEthiopian
Empireasanexpressionofpride-nothingmorethanasymbolic
gesturetothegreatstatethatwasthe"MotheroftheRace"andwhich
boretherace'sname,Ethiopian .' Inanyevent,theextentofthe
1 .Itiswellknown,ofcourse,that"Ethiopian"istheGreekrendering
ofBlackorthe"sun-burntpeople."
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TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


territoryclaimedattimesfortheEmpirewassovastthatevenifthere
hadbeeneffortstoconsolidatestatesotherthanthosedirectlynorth
andsouth,itwouldhavebeenimpossibleintheabsenceofadministra-
tiveandcommunicationsystemsforthetask .
ThewartobringNubiaundercontrolstartedneartheendofthe
EleventhDynastyandwentonforoverfourhundredyears,endingin
defeatforsouthernblacksinthenextdynasty, 1991-1786 B.C.This
periodwasnotableforthefurtherexpansionofforeigntrade,especially
inPalestine,Syria,andPunt,the"GoldenAge"oftheartsandcrafts,a
vastprogram of landreclamationandmarkedimprovementsin
irrigation .
Byrepetition,oneofthegreatestofthe"GreatIssues"standsout .
Witheachandeverymassinvasionofthewhitesthephysicalcharacter-
isticsoftheEgyptianpeoplechangemoreandmore,becomingmore
andmore"caucasoid"asmoreandmoreBlackstendedtomove
southward .Whenthewhitedynastiescontinuedforseveralcenturies,
asinthecaseofthe"ChildrenofIsrael,"Semiticcaucasianizationwas
acceleratedonanever-wideningscale.Oneofthesignifiantethnic
changeswasthattheonlypeoplethenrecognizedasEgyptians(the
Afro-Asians)becamemoreAsian-whiteincolor,languageandculture .
UpperEgyptwasbecomingless"black"Egypt .Thebesunderwhiterule
wasbecomingamuseumcenterforEuropeanandAsiancollectors .So
bythetimeHerodotusandotherGreekhistoriansarrived,Ethiopia,as
anempire,extendedonlyuptotheFirstCataract.
THETHIRDPERIOD
OFGREATRULERS
ButthattimewasstillfarawaywhenKamose,thelastThebankingin
theSeventeenthDynasty (1645-1567 B.C.), openedafull-scaleWarof
LiberationagainsttheHebrewsandthegreatestofthedynastiessince
theFourthhadnowarrived .ThiswastheremarkableEighteenth
Dynastywithaline.ofkingsandqueenswhobecameimmortal:
AhmoseI,Nefertari,Amenhotep11,Thutmose1,Thutmose11,Queen
HatshepsuttheGreat,Amenhotep111,Ikhnaton,the"GreatReformer,"
andTutankhamen .Itwascalledthe"NewEmpire,"andsoitwasin
fact .TheHyksosrulewasbrokenandtheywere"expelled ."This,
however,couldonlyapplytotherulersandtheirimmediatefollowers .
TheHyksosmasseswerescatteredoverthecountryandpermanently
settledas"Egyptians."TheyhadbecomeintegratedintoEgyptian
Egypt:TheRise and Fall

107
society .Contributingtoitsdevelopmentonallfronts,theywerenot
disturbedwhentheirleaderswereexpelled .Therewastheusualrevival
ofdomesticindustry,agricultureandforeigntrade,alongwiththe
expansionsofimperialruleinPalestineandSyriatotheEuphratesin
Mesopotamia .Thisexpansionofempireanditspromiseofgreatwealth
fromtheaccompanyingexpansionoftrademeantrenewalofthewars
againsttheirblackbrothersholdingtheeconomicallyindispensable
South.Thistimethenewandmostpowerfulcentralgovernmentwas
abletoextenditsrulefarthersouththanever;thatis,totheFourth
cataract,almosttotheHolyCityofNapataitself.
ForWesternwriterstostatethatobvioustruththattheblackrulersof
EgyptdidnothesitatetowagewarsagainsttheblackrulersofSouthern
Ethiopia,tostatethiswouldhavedestroyedtheirbiggestmyththatthe
Egyptians(whiteAsiansorColoureds)werealwaystheconquering
heroesovertheBlacksintheSouth.Inshort,aspreviouslystated,these
warsdidnotalwaysfollowaracialpattern .
Aswouldbeexpectedunderblackrulers,Thebeswasagain
reorganizedundertheEighteenthDynastyandmuchofitsancient
grandeurrestored .Templebuildinginthegrandstylewasresumed .
TheEighteenth,likesomeofthepreviousAfricandynasties,waswell
integratedwith"loyalAsians ."Fortherewere,itshouldbeneedlessto
say,countlessthousandsofAsianswhowerewholeheartedlydevotedto
theBlacks,justastherewerethousandsofAfro-Asians(Egyptians)as
loyaltotheblackraceasanyBlackcouldpossiblybe.Therefore,when
anoverallpictureispresented,suchasinmydiscussionoftheattitudes
ofAsians,Afro-AsiansandAfricanstowardeachother,oneshould
keepthealwaysbigexceptionsinmind .Nothingiseverall-white,all-
blackor,inthiscase,allhalf-white.Inthecaseofthehalf-whites,the
recordoverflowswiththosewho,contrarytotherule,hatedthefactof
theirwhitebloodandstucktotheBlacksandtheircauseallthemore
tenaciously.Thesearethekindsofoutcomesthatreflectthecomplexities
andvariationsofthehumanmind,andthatmakegeneralizationsabout
awholepeople,ifanything,ridiculous .
The"GreatEighteenth"hadbegununderthemostfavorable
circumstances,foroneofthegreatblackqueensofEgypt,Nefertari,and
herequallyfamoushusband,Ahmose1,headedthedynasty.Aswasthe
custom,shehadbeennamedaftersomeofthedistinguishedqueensof
similarnamewhohadprecededher.Noneofthem,however,ranked
nearNefertarioftheEighteenthinactiveparticipationandleadersipin
QUEENHATSHEPSUT,
thegreatestwomanPharaoh
ofBlackEgypt .18thDynasty .
Egypt:TheRise and Fall

109
nationalaffairs .Shehelpedherson,Amenhotep,inthegreatworkof
nationalreconstruction .Ifshedidnotreachtheheightsofthegreatest
blackqueenofEgypt,Hatshepsut,itwasonlybecausethelatterwasa
queenabsolute,rulingalongasaking(toemphasizethepointsheoften
dressedinroyalmaleattire,includingthefalsebeardandwig) .Butthe
comparisonishardlyfairbecauseeachwasgreatinherfieldofwork,
andthatworkwaslargelypredetermined,andtheroletobeplayedby
eachwasclear.Andthatwaswhy,intheend,bothNefertariand
AmenhotepIweredeifiedasthefoundersofoneoftheworld'sgreatest
lineofrulersandsomeofthefinestmonumentswereerectedtotheir
memory.HadthepeopleforgottenAhmose,herhusband,whowasthe
truefounder?
QueenHatsheput,daughterofThutmose1,wasindeeda"man"in
manyofheraggressiveandunyieldingcharacteristicsasa ruler.As
regentforThutmose111,shetendedtobeanabsoluterulerand,by
expertlyrelyingonherfemininecharms,shewasabletohaveherown
waywithoutarealcheckbytheCouncil,somethingfewAfricankings
coulddosuccessfully .Butitwasnotalldueto"femininecharms,"
perhapsnotatall .ForHatshepsutwas,infact,oneofthemostbrilliant
mindsthateverascendedthethroneofanation .Herreignwasintwo
parts,oneasregentandtheotherasreigningqueeninherownright .
Therewasactuallynodifference,forThutmoseIIIwastooyoungto
count.Evenbeforebecominglegalruler,therefore,shewasactively
pushingthethingsdearesttotheheartsofallgreatAfricanleaders :the
expansionofforeigntrade,internationaldiplomaticrelations, perfec-
tionofnationaldefenses,vastpublicbuildingprograms,securingthe
SouthandtheNorththrougheitherpeaceorwarand,oneofher"pet
projects,"buildingagreatnavyforbothcommerceandwar .Hersuccess
onmostofthesefrontsmadeheroneofthegiantsoftherace .
Meanwhile,thenextThutmosewaswaitingwithincreasingimpatience
andfrustrationtosucceedawomanwho,tohimatleast, seemed
destinedtoliveforever.ThefactthathiswifewastheQueen'sdaughter
onlyincreasedthereallymorbidhatredofhisroyalmother-in-law.
Consequently,whenhefinallybecameKingThutmoseIIIatlast,he
himselfdidwhatAsiansandEuropeansweretodoonascalesogrand
thatthehistoryofancientEgypt,asessentiallyblackhistory,wasalmost
completelyobliterated .Heundertooktoerasehernamefromallthe
monumentsandtemplesshehadbuilt,destroyingalldocumentsbearing
hername,andsmashingallsculpturedlikenesses,paintingsand,indeed,
1 1 0

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
anythingthatmightindicatethatHatshepsuteverlived .Also,aslater
EuropeansandAsiansweretodotoallinscriptionsreflectingtheBlacks,
ThutmoseIIIhadhisownnameandthatofhisbrotherengravedwhere
Hatshepsut'shadbeenchiselledout,thustakingcreditforallofher
achievementsinadditiontohisownoutstandingworks .Thesewere
many,andneednotbedetailedsincesomuchofitrepeatstheworksof
greatleadersalreadydiscussed .
QueenTiywasalsooneofEgypt'sremarkablequeens .Amenhotep
IIIandQueenTiygaveasontoEgyptwhowasdestinedtobeoneofthe
greatsinintheblackworld .ThiswasAmenhotepIV,knowntofameas
Ikhnaton.Hewasdifferentfromallofhispredecessors .Hewasmore
preacherthanking,andthegreatestsinglespiritualforcetoappearin
thehistoryoftheBlacks .Hisgreatreligiousreformmovementaimedat
agreaterfocusontheOneandOnlyAlmightyGod,Createrofthe
Universe.ThenumerouslessergodshadovershadowedtheAlmighty
ininvolvingpeoplebycausingthemtoworshipthegodsthroughthe
endlessnumberofcompetingcults,allservedbyatooself-serving
priesthood .Suchanunheard-ofstandbytheleaderofthenationmeant
revolutionandcertainrebellionbythepowerfulpriesthoodsallover
theland .Yetthenewdoctrinedidnotreachthemassesandthenon-
spiritualdemandsforleadershiponpressingearthlyfrontsputtheking
inanunhappysituation .OnewasthecontinuedAsianharassmentson
theeasternborders .Ikhnatongrewmoreindifferentashisreligious
movementdeclined .After17yearsofheroicefforts,hepassedin1362
B.C., leavingthereinstoTutankhamen .Thisstepson'seffortstocarry
ontheworkofhisfatherhadonlylimitedsuccess .Theold-time
religionsstillprevailed .Ikhnaton'5impactonthenation,however,was
everlasting .Hisproposedreformshadmoretodowithashiftin
emphasisthaninfaith.Buteventhisseemstohavebeenregardedasa
directthreattothepowerfulpriesthoodthat,nomatterhowmuch
dividedintonumerouscults,coulduniteinacommoncause.
ThepowerofthepriesthoodroseasthekingsofEgyptbecamemore
preoccupiedwithsecularaffairsthanwiththeirreligiousroleashigh
priestofTheMostHigh.Ithasbeenpointedoutthattheruler'spolitical
influencestemmednotfromtheconstitutionbutfromhisclose
relationshipwiththegods .Theprieststhemselveshadpromotedthe
evolutionofanideaoftheruler'sroleaschiefpriestandintermediary
withtheancestraldeadandthegods,totheideaoftheruler'skinship
withthegods,therebybecomingdivinehimself,thesonordaughterof
agod,and,finally,agodhimself
.
Egypt:TheRiseandFall

111
Ascustodiansofthetemples,thepriestswerepromotingandmaking
theirownpositionsmorepowerfulandsecurebypromotingthedivine
kingshipidea .Itmeantthateachkingwouldtrytooutdohispredecessors
inbuildingmorebiggerandfinertemplesandcolossalburialstructures
(thepyramids)fortheroyalsaintsandthesonsanddaughtersofAmon,
Horus,Set,etc .etc .
Thepriestswereinthemoststrategicpositionstoacquiregreat
economicandpoliticalpowerforthemselvesquitenaturallyandwithout
anyparticulareffortstodoso .Theywerethefirstmenoflearning :
scribes,historians,scientists,architects,physicians,artists,mathema-
ticians,astrologers,andespeciallychemists .Manytemples,therefore,
werecollegesaswellasplacesofworship .Thetempleswerealsoplaces
throughwhichflowedmuchofthenationalrevenue .Wecouldgoon
andon,indicatinghowandwhypriestsbecamesopoliticallypowerful
inEgyptianlifethatevenagreatkinglikeIkhnatoncouldnotovercome
theiropposition .Itwastoolateforhimtoescapefromthenow
traditionalstatusofbeing"divine ."Onemightsayitwasthepriceagod
hastopayforgod-makers .
In1320 B.C., theAgeoftheRamsesbegan .Thistime,alineofgreat
leaderswasnotfollowedbyalineofweaklings .ThiswastheNineteenth
Dynasty,1320-1200B.C.Andwhileitdidnotequalthe"Glorious
Eighteenth,"theRamseskingsstampedtheirperiodsasoneofthemost
outstandinginthelonghistoryofthecountry .Itwasonlynearitsend
thattheusualphenomenonofweaknessanddeclineinthecyclebegan
tosetinasgeneralsocial,economicandpoliticaldisorganization .The
RamsesrulecontinuedthroughtheTwentiethDynasty,1200-1085B.C.
TheTwenty-First,Twenty-SecondandTwenty-Thirdperiods,1085-
730 B.C.,againillustrated,asIhadstatedbefore,thefallacyoftryingto
chronicleAfricanhistoryinEgyptbydynasties .Ihadpointedoutthatat
varioustimesduringthelong,longstrugglesforpowerwefindseveral
different"dynasties"rulingatthesametimefromtheirrespective
capitalsinvariouspartsofthecountry .Everyperiodofweakkingsat
MemphisorThebeswasageneralbreakdownduringwhichexactlythe
samehappenedoverandoveragain :TheAsianLowerEgyptbecame
independentagain,andfromitscapitalatAvarisorSaispushedthe
expansionofAsianpowerinUpperEgypt .By1085 B.C., theAsian
populationwassovasttherethatnewAsiandynastieswererelatively
easytoestablishalmostanywherenorthoftheFirstCataract .During
oneoftheseperiods,70kingsin70dayswasreported .
1 1 2

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Thepicturenowwasoneofthoseconfusedscenesofblackdynasties,
Asiandynasties,Egyptiandynasties(Afro-Asian),combinationdynas-
ties,(thoseformedbyalliancesbetweentwooftheabovegroups),all
rulingsimultaneouslyinEgyptfromvariouscapitals .Manyhistorians
werefurthermisledbythefactthatwhilesomeoftheseso-called
dynastiesclaimedtobetheimperialgovernmentofallEgypt,others
madenosuchclaimandconfinedthemselvestotheirlocalchiefdomsor
nomarchies .Significantly,manyofthelatterwereheadedbypriests .
Ourreferencestodynastiesformedbyalliancesbetweentwogroups
againstathirdcouldmisleadingtothosewhofailedtograspwhathad
beensaidaboutthechangingethniccharacterofthedynastiesover
manycenturies.Fromthe.FifthandSixthDynastieson,wehave
pointedout,Asianpenetrationthroughthe"royalmarriageroute"
causedthesucceedingdynasties,withfewexceptionstobecome
increasinglymixed .Oftentheywereonlypredominantlyblack,half-
black,lessthanhalf-black,orpredominantly'AsianorEgyptian(Afro-
Asian) .ThefoundersoftheEighteenthDynasty,likemanysimilar
instances,illustratetherealityoftheprocess .Foritiswellknownthat
thefamousQueenNefertariwas"all-black,"whileherequallygreat
husband,AhmoseI,wasmulatto(Egyptian) .SothattheEighteenth,
likethegreatNineteenthDynastyoftheRamses,waspredominantly
black,notall-black .Ontheotherhand,thelongperiodsofall-white
AsianandEuropeandynastieswereemphasized,andhadtobe
emphasized,tosettherecordstraight .
Therewerealso,forstillanotherexample,"Libyandynasties,"
indicatedbytheLibyannamesoftherulers .Butwho,now,werethe
Libyans?Theywere,firstofall,WesternEthiopians,thenheavily
Berber,Mongolian,Arab,asprinklingofHebrewsandotherAsiatic
peoples,andthen,ofcourse,theresultingAfro-Asians .Theethnic
compositionofLibyawasaboutthesameasthatofearlyEgypt,withthe
exceptionthattherewerefewerEuropeansandmoreMongolians .
Libyawasoncesonearlyall-blackthattobecalledaLibyanmeant
thatonewasBlack .SotheLibyandynastiesduringthisperiodcould
havebeenpredominantlywhite,black,Afro-Asianoracombinationof
allthree,dependinguponwhatfactionwasintheascendencyatthe
time.
ItisalsoworthnotingthatnotonlythewhitesofLowerEgypttook
advantageofeverybreakdowninthecenter(UpperEgypt),declaring
itsindependenceandattemptingtoextendtheirruleoverthewhole
Egypt
:TheRiseandFall

113
land,SouthernEthiopiatriedtodoexactlythesamething .Thetruthis
thatthemilleniumsofcontestsoverEgyptwereneverreallyover
unificationperse,butratherwhoshouldruletheland afterunification
wascompleted-thewhitesoftheDeltaortheBlacksofSouthern
Ethiopia,particularlythosesouthoftheFirstCataract?Indeed,asthe
AsianizationofUpperEgyptincreased,migrationsoftheBlackssouth-
wardincreased,hostilitytowardtheNorthincreased,andtheresolveof
theBlackstoreconqueralloftheirlandallthewaytotheMediterranean
wasrenewedoncemore.
Thesouthernregion,therefore,generallybecameindependentas
soonasLowerEgyptbecameindependent
.ItbegantothreatenUpper
EgyptatthesametimetheAsianthreatwasspreading
.TheSouthern
Ethiopianswereevenmorebitterbecausetheyhadtofightthe
"integrationistBlacks"ofEgyptjustashardastheyhadtofightthe
whitesfromLowerEgyptandLibya
.TheSouthwasnomoreprepared
toacceptall-whiterule.'Ifanything,theytrustedthemixedbreedsless
becauseoftheirabilitytoplayeitherthewhiteorblackroleasitsuited
theirpurposes
.Thismayalsobethereasonsomanyblacksopposed
large-scaleamalgamation
.Itappearedasoneofthewhiteman'smost
effectiveweaponsforthedominationofthe- racewhileatthesametime
slowlyremovingitfromthefaceoftheearth
.Asproof,theEthiopians
couldask,"Fromwhencecameourworstenemies,theEgyptians?Are
theynothalfEthiopian?AnddotheynotnowscorntheveryEthiopian
nameitself,proclaimingthemselvestobe`white'?"
TheEthiopians,therefore,followedalldevelopmentstothenorth,
northeastandwestwiththeclosestattention
.Theactivitiesofthe
probablyLibyankingoftheTwenty-SecondDynasty,SheshonkI,did
notescapetheirnoticeandappraisal
.FromhiscapitalatBubastisin
LowerEgypt,hepushedaffairsonanumberoffronts,includingthe
usualstrageyofmarriagealliancesofblackrulingfamilieswithwhite
males
.Thesealliances,afterwormingtheirwaytopowerthroughthe
Africaninheritance-through-female-linesystem(matrilineal),couldthen
changetotheAsianandWesternpatrilinealsystem
.Thisinvidious
schemeforachievingpowerovertheBlacks
throughtheBlacks didnot
escapethoseonalert
.ThemoveofSheshonkItonegotiateamarriage
withthedaughterofakingandgainlegitimatecontrolofThebes,fitted
thewell-knownpatternofexpandingCaucasianpower,neverfailedto
createanothtrstirinthestillall-blackareas
.Tomakemattersworse
fromtheviewpointoftheBlacks,SheshonkhadanothersonmadeHigh
1 1 4

TheDestructionof BlackCivilization
PriestoftheAfricangod,Amon .Thesignificanceofthisshouldbe
obvious :ThewhitesweresystematicallypreemptingthewholeofEgypt,
evenadopting,astheirown,blackinstitutionstheycouldnoteasily
destroy.AndtheywerewiseenoughtogaincontroloftheAfrican
religion .Sonow,asthewhitesbecamepriestsandworshipersofthe
SupremeGodandlessergodsoftheBlacksinEgypt,thesuccessof
erasingeveryvestigeofearlyAfricancivilizationwasmovingtowardthe
absolute.Asthewhitepriesthoodsbecamestrongerandmorewide-
spread,theywerenotonlyabletosecurecontrolofThebes,themost
powerfulstrongholdoftheBlacksinEgypt,butofequalimportance,
theyweretheninapositiontogainfollowersintherebellingnomarchies
andpersuadedissidentchiefstoacknowledgetheoverlordshipofAsian
kingsinvariouspartsofthecountry .Inshort,theytookoverAfrica's
godsastheirownasameansoftakingoverAfricaastheirown .
Therewasnothingsuddenornewaboutthis .Theprocesswasaslong
andleisurelyasEgyptianhistoryitself,gainingrapidmomentumonly
duringtheoften-repeateddecadesofinternalstrife .LowerEgyptwas
alwaystheareafromwhichinternalstrifeinblackUpperEgyptwas
plannedandpromoted .Secretagents,asmentionedearlier,arenotnew
inventionsofmodernstates .TheonlythingnewaboutTefnakhte's
penetrationsofUpperEgyptbetween730and715B.C.wasthatthis
time,anAsianking(Libyan)fromhisDeltacapital,nowatSais,hadso
inflamedSouthernEthiopiathatall-outwarwasdeclaredagainstboth
AsiansandEgyptians(Afro-Asians)andthetwenty-oneyearoldking,
Piankhi,wasgivensupremecommandoftheblackarmies .
ETHIOPIARECAPTURESEGYPT
InviewoftheextentoftheexpansionofAsianpowerinUpper
Egypt,theEthiopians'age-olddreamofrecoveringtheirnorthern
homelandsnowseemedtobe,intheverytruth,animpossibledream .
In715 B.C., thestrongsituationoftheAsianswassuchthattheideaof
theBlacksrepeatingMenes'featoftwenty-threecenturiesbefore,that
ofonceagainexpandingtheEthiopianempirenorthwardtothe
Mediterranean,nowseemedfantastic .BothAsiankings,Tefnakhteand
Bocchoria,werethemselvesgreatleadersandfieldcommanders .And,
ofallthings,theyhadalreadytakenThebesandpracticallyhadall
EgyptunderAsiancontrol .(Somewritersputittheotherwayandsay
Egypt:TheRise and Fall

115
theyhadcontroloftheThebald-anothernameforUpperEgypt
.)The
greatcityofHeracleopolisaloneheldoutuntilthearrivalofEthiopian
forces
.TheimmediateobjectiveofPiankhiandtheEthiopiangenerals
wastherecaptureofThebes
.Supportedbyhisnavalforcesmoving
downtheNileandthethousandsofblackfighterswhoflockedtohis
standardashemovednorthwardthroughUpperEgypt,Piankhi's
armiesdrovetheAsiansoutofThebes,reestablisheditasthecapital
cityoftheNorth,putTefnakhteandhiscourttoflightand,apparently
usingtacticsofMenes,pressedontocapturetheonceall-blackcapital
cityofMemphis
."Therightfulrulersofourlandhavereturned!"the
oppressedBlackscriedastheyflockedtohisstandard
.Piankhireturned
tothecapitalcityofNapatainthe"Heartland"beforeLowerEgyptwas
broughtundercontrolagain
.Thetaskofreunitingthecountryunder
Ethiopianrulewasleftforhisgreatsuccessor,Shabaka .
ShabakafirmlyestablishedtheTwenty-FifthDynasty,the
onlyone
WesternwritersgenerallyrecognizedasBlack!Thisdynasty,however,
shouldbeofspecialsignificancefortheblackworld,notbecauseitwas
Africanfromthebeginning,butbecausetheendofthisperiod,730-656
B.C., markedtheendofall-outeffortsbytheBlackstoretakeEgypt
.
TheAfricanvictoryovertheAsiansdidnotlessenthedangerfrom
them,fortheyalwayshadtheadvantageofstrikingeitherfromwithin
orfromAsiaitself
.NowthenewthreatcamefromAsia .Assyriawas
fightingitswaytowardEgypt
.Thepathwayshadbeenmadeeasy
becausethepreviousEgyptianconquestofPalestineandSyriahad
madethesecountriesbastionsofdefenseaslongastheywereproperly
governed .ThelaterEgypthadbeenunabletodothis
.SoPalestineand
Syria,likeEgyptitself,hadbecomeweakfrominternaldisorganization
.
AtfirsttheAssyrianadvanceseemedtobeconcernedonlywithSyria
andPalestine,notEgypt
.UneasinessspreadastheAssyrianhosts
approachedthebordersofEgypt .
However,Shabakafirstfollowedthepatternofmoderndiplomacyby
loudlyprofessingonethingwhileactivelydoingtheveryopposite
.In
thiscase,Shabaka,whileactivelycultivatingthefriendshipofthe
Assyrianking,Sargon11,wasjustasactiveinsupportingthearmiesof
theSyriansandPalestinians
."Modern,"Isay,becauseitwasexactlythe
samekindof"commitment"and"specialinterests"policythatthe
UnitedStatesmaintainsinEastAsiaandotherplacesaroundtheworld
.
In671 B.C.,
Es'arhaddonledhisAssyrianforcestovictorynearthe
EgyptianborderandmovedontocapturethecityofMemphis,retaken
WarCouncilatNapata:Piankhi,Shabakaandgeneralsplanforthirdgreatwar
againstAsianinvadersandthereconquestofallEgypt
.Theybeganthe25th
Dynasty,andwerethelastoftheall-blackPharaohstoruletheUnitedempire
fromtheMediterraneantothehighlandsofAbyssinia .
Egypt:TheRiseandFall

117
fromonearmyofAsiansonlytobelosttoanother.Esarhaddonseemed
tohavethoughtthathehadconqueredEgyptwhenhetooktheancient
capital .Heretiredafterappointinglocalprincestocollecttheusual
tribute.Shabaka'snephew,Tarharqa,promptlymarchedupfromthe
southagainandmassacredalloftheAssyriangarrisons .Esarhaddon
diedleadingasecondexpeditionofvengeancein699B .C.Hisson,
Ashurbanipa,assumedtheleadership,invadedEgyptandputTaharqa
toflight .TheEgyptiangovernorswerereinstatedunderagovernor-
generalnamedNecho,alsoEgyptian .Aswastobeexpected,theBlacks
ofUpperEgyptremainedloyaltotheAfricanline .Theyshoutedloud
enoughforposteritytohearthattheBlackswerethe"rightfulrulersof
Egypt."Taharqawassucceededbyhisnephew,Tanutamon .Herenewed
thewaragainsttheAssyriansandtheEgyptians,thelatterpreferring,as
usual,tosupporttheAsiansagainstnativeAfricans .Tanutamon
recapturedMemphisagain,duringwhichbattletheEgyptiangovernor-
generalNechowasslain.ThisplacedtheAfricansinadominant
positioninNorthernEgyptonceagain .Butin661 B.C., theoutraged
AshurbanipaldrovetheAfricanarmedforcesoutofNorthernEgypt .
HepursuedthemuptheNileandburnedtheirancientcityofThebes,
thestrongholdofblackpowerfromtimesimmemorial .
TheAfricans,eventuallybarredfromfurtherruleinEgypt,continued
Piankhi'slinefirstfromthecapitalatNapataandthenatMeroewhere
theypromotedabroadreconstructionprogram .Theretheremarkable
Twenty-FifthDynastyendedin656B.C.Thelineofkingsfrom
PiankhitoTanutamonwereallburiedinthegreatPyramidstheyand
theirancestorshadbuiltatNapata .LetusfollowtheBlacksfromEgypt
tothere.
CHAPTERIV
TheFirstCataract:
TheBlackWorld'sNewBorderline
HAVINGLOSTBOTHUPPERANDLOWEREGYPT,ETHIOPIA'S
northernborderhadbeenpushedtotheFirstCataractatAssuan,and
NechoIIeventuallybecamekingofEgypt,beginningtheTwenty-Sixth
Dynasty,665-525B.C.TheEgyptianarmieswereincreasinglymadeup
offoreignersandenslavedBlacks .Itwasduringthisdynastythatthe
Assyrianswereexpelledagain,thistimebynationalisticEgyptians .The
Blacks'lossoftheirbelovedMemphis,Thebes,andeventheirEgyptian
namenowseemedtobefinal.
Otherinvasionscame .ThePersiansunderDariustheGreattook
over,andtheirdominationofEgyptlastedfrom525to404 B.C., with
theassistanceofGreekmercenaries .Theyreturnedin343B.C.to
reestablishtheirrule,butagainforonlyarelativelyshortduration .
AlexanderreachedEgyptin332 B.C., onhisworldconqueringrampage.
Butoneofthegreatestgeneralsintheancientworldwasalsothe
EmpressofEthiopia .ThiswastheformidableblackQueenCandace,
worldfamousasamilitarytacticianandfieldcommander .Legendhasit
thatAlexandercouldnotentertaineventhepossibilityofhavinghis
worldfameandunbrokenchainofvictoriesmarredbyriskingadefeat,
atlast,byawoman.HehaltedhisarmiesatthebordersofEthiopiaand
didnotinvadetomeetthewaitingblackarmieswiththeirQueenin
personalcommand.Uponhisdeath,oneofhismostoutstanding
generalsbecamePharaohasPtolemyI,thusbeginning300yearsof
Macedonian-Greekrule.TowardtheendofGreekdomination,the
118
QueenCandace,EmpressofEthiopiaandGeneral-in-Chiefofitsarmies,waiting
forAlexandertheGreattocrossthenewborderlineattheFirstCataract
.
Alexander,havingconqueredEgypteasily,decidedagainsttheinvasionofthe
ancientcenterofBlackPowerandhaltedhisarmyattheFirstCataract,332B
.C.
120

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
expansionoftheRomanEmpirehadtransferredtherealcenterof
powertoRome .Assyria,Persia,Greece,Rome-thecontinuingprocess
oftransformingablackcivilizationintoanear-whitecivilizationlong
beforetheChristianera .
ThePtolemaicperiodhadbeenlargelyoneofconfusion.Thedivision
ofpoweramongtheGreeks,MacedoniansandEgyptians,andinter-
marriageswiththelatter,jointrule,etc.,madethePtolemies,attimes,
merelynominalrulers .ThereweretimeswhenanativeAfro-Asian
rulergainedthecenterofthestageasthestarattraction,asinthecaseof
Cleopatra .Uponherdeath,in30B .C,Romansassumeddirectcontrol,
rulingthecountryforsevencenturies,beginningtheirreignthirtyyears
beforeJesusChristwouldbeborninthesamePalestinewhereBlacks
hadlivedandruledsolong.
Afterthislongperiodofdomination,theArabgeneralAmr-ibn-al-
As,enteredAlexandriain 642A.D.withonly4,000men.Theconquest
ofEgyptbytheMuslimarmies,whichhadreachedPelusiumtwoyears
earlier,wasnotonlytochangethecharacterofEgyptiancivilization
radically,butitwastohavea`disastrousimpactonthedignityand
destinyofAfricansasapeople .TheArabconquesthadopenedthe
floodgateswiderandArabspouredin .ColonizationandIslamization
progressed
.AsEgyptbecameamaincenterofArabpower,thisfact
foundconcreteexpressioninArab-IslamicexpansionoverNorthAfrica
intoSpain,andsouthwardintowhatremainedas"TheLandofthe
Blacks."
THENEWBORDERLINE
OFTHEBLACKS
WehavetracedtheancientstrugglesbetweenAfricans,Mulattoes
andAsians,wheretheAfricanssoughtnotonlytoresistconquest,but
toretakethewholeofEgypt.Theysucceededattimes,butfinallylostall
ofEgypt,aswehaveseen .
EthiopianowbeganattheFirstCataractinthenorthandextended
southintopresent-dayEthiopia .ItwasnowboundedbyUpperEgypt,
theRedSeaandtheLibyandesert .Thesearerathergeneralgeographical
designationswithoutanyprecisemeaning,forancientEthiopiahadno
precisesouthernboundaries .AncientEthiopianswouldsaythattheir
landincludedEgyptandwasinfactwithoutboundaries in Africa
insofarasnon-Africanswereconcerned .AlloftheEuropeanandAsian
Egypt: TheRiseandFall
121
doctrinesabout"unoccupied"regionsofAfricaatanygivenperiodin
historyarequitemeaninglessandunacceptabletoAfricans .Forto
them,itisjustassenselessasitwouldbetosaytoafarmeranywhere,
"Seeherenow!Therearelargesectionsofyourlandunoccupiedand
untended.Sowe'lljustcomeinandtakeit!"
TheAfricans'areaofgreatconcentrationwasancientNubiabetween
theFirstandtheSixthCataracts .Itwasthelandwheretheyhad
developedthegreatcivilizationwhichtheyhadextendedoverEgypt
.
Theirworkhadbeenappropriatedbytheinvadersastheirown
.
ThegeographyofNubiaisthegeographyofmuchofpresent-day
Sudanandbeyond.TheNileflowsthroughitssandandrockdeserts
withaseriesoffallsandanumberofrapids .Thecountryisalmost
rainless.ItisthelandofthegreatNubiandesert .WestoftheNile
towardstheRedSeawastheminingarea,richingold .Itwas,even
withintheconceptofthesegeographicalboundaries,theheartlandof
theblackworld.
AlreadypushedbytheinvadersfromtheMediterraneanareasinthe
north,northeastandnorthwest,theAfricansweretobefurtherhedged
infromtheeastandsoutheastastheAsianhordescontinuedtostream
acrosstheRedSeaandtheIndianOceanand,muchlater,astheDutch
Boerspouredinfromthesouthernmosttipofthecontinent .
SCRAPSFROMPREHISTORY
ThestoneageAfricanslivedaboutthesameasstoneagepeoplesall
overtheworld.Theywerehunters,fishermenandcraftsmen .Archae-
ologistshavedugupsomeoftheirtoolsandotherartifactsatWadi
Haifa,Wawa,SaiIsland,WadiHudi,theSelimaoasis,Tangasi,Tagiya
andotherplaces .TheseareasarebetweentheSecondandFourth
Cataracts.Ourdiscussionofspecific,concreteevidenceofearlyblack
civilizationuptothispointhasbeenconfinedtotheEgyptiannorth .
MostnotableamongtheNeolithicfindsinthesouthwerethebeautiful,
highlyburnished,black-toppedandredpotterlybowls,jars,etc .The
potterywasartisticallydecoratedinwavyripplesorsquares .Their
earliestwritingwasinpictures .Somanyhundredsoftheserock
"messages"werefoundalongtheNilethroughNubialandthatonemay
wellwonderiftheseprehistoric"historians"hadposterityinmind .
Whilemanyofthepicturesportrayedwildlifeandotherobjectsof
interestintheenvironment,otherswentbeyondthisroleoftheartist
122

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
andrecordedsuchhistoricfactsastheconquestofNorthernNubiaby
theNubianPharaohoftheOldKingdom,Sneferu,in 2730 B.C.' This
warleftavastwastelandandpracticallywipedoutacivilizationthathad
beendevelopingbeforeNeolithictimes .
THE"CHILDRENOFTHESUN"
Foronething,thelandtothesouthofEgypthaddevelopedastrong
economythatwascontinuouslyenrichedbyathrivingexporttradein
paper(frompapyrus),ivory,gold,ebony,emeralds,copper,incense,
ostrichfeathers(alwaysgreatlyindemand),anditsfamousdecorated
earthenware
.AstrongeconomyalsomeantastrongEthiopianarmy,
posingathreateventoanAfrican-ruledEgypt
.FromtheEgyptian
viewpoint,the"LandoftheBlacks"wasathreefoldthreat
.Historically,
theBlackswhohadfledbelowtheFirstCataracttoescapethevarious,
conquestsneverseemedtoacceptthoseconquestsasfinal,and
attemptedtoretakeEgyptfromtimetotime
.(Theserepetitionsare
deliberatebecausenowhereinhistoryisthisveryimportantfactclearly
stated.)
Butitisclearthat,havingreconqueredtheAsian-dominatedLower
Egypt,theblackpharaohssoughtintegrationwiththeAsiansinsteadof
drivingthemoutofthecountry.Thispolicyofmoderationand
accommodationwasapparentlyanathematothe"extremist"Ethiopians,
proudBlacksforwhomtheprospectsofhavingtheirchildrencomeinto
theworldwithacolordistinctlydifferentfromtheirownwasatoncean
insulttotheirwatchingancestors,andanoffensetotheGodsthem-
selves.
ThisattitudemightalsoexplainthehostilityoftheSouthernBlacks
towardtheAfro-Asian.Thelatterwerenot"true"Africansbecause
theywerebecomingEgyptians,amixedbreedofmanyraces
.They
were,therefore,traitorsintheeyesof"true"Africanswhosebadgeof
eternalhonorwastheblacknessoftheirskin
.Thiswascolorracism,
deeplyrooted,foritsprangfromreligion: Theywere"Childrenofthe
Sun"blessedwithblacknessbytheSunGodhimselfandthusprotected
1
.TherewasapreviousreferencetoSneferu's"scorchedearth"war
inhisownhometofurtherillustratetheextremeSouthernopposition
tointegrationwiththeAsiansevenunderblackkings
.
TheFirstCataract
123
fromhisfieryrays
.Theywerehischildren
.Theirveryblackness,there-
fore,wasreligious,ablessingandanhonor
.
Thesecondalreadystatedthreatwaseconomic
.Egypt'sownflour-
ishingexporttrade,bothbyseaandcaravans,dependedheavilyonher
importsfromthesouth
.Tocuttheseoffwouldmeaneconomicpanicin
anotherwiseprosperousland .
ThethirdgreatfearconcernedthemightyNileriver
.Supposethe
EthiopiansdecidedtobringEgypttoherkneesandstarvehertodeath
bydivertingthewatersoftheNile?Beliefinthispossibilitywasancient
andrandeep.
TheEgyptianconquestofNubia,therefore,mightremovethemilitary
andeconomicthreats,but,insofarastheNilewasconcerned,itwould
settlenothing
.Besides,theseBlacksseemedtobeunconquerable
.A
Sneferumightattempttotalexterminationofthepopulation,burning
everytownandvillage,destroyingfarmsandcattle,leavingthelandin
utterruin
.Yet,assoonasthearmiesofdestructionwithdrew,the
survivingAfricanswouldcomeoutfromtheirhidingplacesandbegan
torebuildonceagain .
LikeUpperEgypt,thiswasalandofcitiesandtowns,oftemplesand
pyramids
.Africanswerethegreatpyramidbuilders,thetemplebuilders
.
TheyhadbuiltthegreatpyramidsofEgyptduringtheirrule
.Renewed
activityintemple-buildingcameafterNubiawasreoccupiedbythe
EighteenthDynastyrulers
.Allthisrenewedzealinbuildingnewtowns
andtemplesinthesouthwasreconstruction
.TheOldKingdomraiders
couldnotdestroyallofthetemplesandothermonuments
.
ThereturningEgyptians,therefore,hadfoundmanyfinetemplesstill
inuse,othersinruins
.AllEthiopianinscriptionsonthetemplesand
monumentswereerasedandEgyptianinscriptionssubstituted
.All
outstandingAfricancreationsthatcouldnotbeconvertedandclaimed
astheworkofEgyptiansweredestroyed,fornow"Egyptian"meant
"white"-AsianorEuropean
.Thiswasdone"topromotenational
unity
."Ethiopianinscriptions,ofcourse,recordedvictoriesoverEgypt
.
TheArabsweretocarryouttheworkoferadicationinafarmore
thoroughgoingmanneratalatertime
.AlloftheSouthwasnever
completelyconquered
.Thereconquestwearenowdiscussingextended
fortyorfiftymilesbelowAbuHamed
.Historycontinuedtorepeatitself
.
BelowtheareaofconquesttheAfricanscontinuedtorebuild,reor-
ganizingtheirfightingforces,andwatchinganoverextendedEgypt
becomeweakerandweakerunderweakpharaohswhowereunableto
Meroe,oneof25MajorCitiesintheHeartlandofBlackCivilizationwherethefirst
pyramidswerebuilt.Stillstandingafterover6,000years .TheBlackscarriedtheseand
otheradvancedideasastheyspreadoverEgypt,thenNorthernEthiopia .
TheFirstCataract

125
copewiththeinterminablestruggleforpoweramongtheAsians,
Egyptiansandotherincursivegroups.Inthesecyclesofconsolidation
followedbyfragmentationintonumerouschiefdomsandprincipalities,
EgyptmirroredtheresultsofthehumanpowercrazenotonlyinAfrica
butgenerallythroughouttheworld .Yetinthelongviewofherhistory,
Egypt'soverallrecordwasoneofconsolidationandunitythat,attimes,
wasnotseriouslybrokenforathousandyears.
Napatawasabeautifulcitythatwasfavoredbysurroundingsthat
helpedtomakeitso.ItwaslocatedbelowtheFourthCataractabovethe
greatcurvewheretheNilehadturnedsouthwardand,asthough
changingitsmind,turnednorthagain.Animposinghill,the"Throneof
theSunGod,"wasthesiteoftemples.Thecityitselfwasregardedasthe
"HolyofHolies,";thecapitalofwhattheEgyptianscalled"TheLandof
theGods."But"Napata"referrednotonlytothiscentralcity,but
includedwhattodaywewouldcallametropolitanareathatcovered
townsandvillagesformilesinalldirectionsfromthepresent-daytown
ofKarima.ItwastothisareathatAfricanleaders,includingpriestsof
thevariouscults,retreatedwhenthingsgottoohotinEgypt.Herealso,
certainAfricankingspreferredtostayevenwhentheirpositionand
powerinEgyptwereunchallenged .Mostoftheroyalburialsinpyramids
wereatKurru.ThelargestpyramidinEthiopiaisthatofKingTaharqa
atNuri.
AftertheAssyrian-Greekinvasionin590 B.C., thecitywasagain
almostcompletelydestroyed .Thecapitalwasmovedtotheothersideof
therivertoMeroe,thehistoricindustrialcenter.
TheBlacksapparentlyhadbeenmoreconcernedwiththedevelop-
mentoftheircopperindustrythanwithiron.Ironorewasinabundance .
Theearlierfailuretoexploitit,especiallyformilitaryweapons,wasthe
reasonAssyrians,withtheirsuperiorironweapons,wereabletosweep
theBlacksoutofEgypt,invadingtheHeartlandanddestroyingthe
HolyCityofNapata .TheAfricanshadlongsincelearnedtheuseof
iron.Theyknewallaboutthesmeltingprocess .Whydidtheyallowthe
Assyrianstogetaheadofthem?Grantingthattheancientskepttheir
militarydevelopmentssecret,asnationstrytodotoday,itwasalsotrue
thatspies,includingAfricans,wereactiveeverywhere .Thequestionis
interestingbecausewearenotdiscussingtheperiodwhentheAfrican
126

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
hadultimatelysurrenderedtodespairandretrogression,butaperiodof
Africanpower,highcivilizationandagreatnessrespectedandfearedby
theancientworld
.EvenaftertheonslaughtbytheAssyriansandtheir
allies,theAfricansweretorebuild,fromthenewcapitalcityofMeroe,a
civilizationgreaterthantheonejustdestroyed
.
Thereweremanylesserstatesandcountlesssmallchiefdomsinthe
vastlandmassthatbeganwheretheeffectivecontrolbyEthiopia
ended.
Throughallthesemilleniumsofupsanddowns,oftrialsanderrors,
ofgreatvictoriesanddisastrousdefeats,throughitallthecentraldrive
ofthisonce-blacklandwasinthedirectionofconsolidationand
progress
.Tribeswereunitedintoonenationeithervoluntarilyor,that
failing,byforce
.Strongarmiesweremaintainedtoprotectandexpand
theircivilization
.Theretakingofthatpartofthehomelandthat
extendednorthalonetheNiletotheMediterraneanwasatoncethe
deathlessdream,theimpassionedgoal,andthecornerstoneoftheir
foreignpolicy
.TheseAfricansbattledtheinvadingAsiansdecadeafter
decadeandcenturyaftercenturyuntiltheirresistancetoconquestand
enslavementextendedoverfourthousandyears .
Fromancientdays,therefore,theAfricanshadhad,intheverycenter
oftheheartlandonthecontinent,ahistoryfromwhichtheirposterity
couldlearnhowunityaloneprovidedtheconditionforstrengthand
progress,andthateachoneofathousandlittle"independent"chief-
domswerebutastandinginvitationtotheaggressorsandtheultimate
dominationofall.WhydidtheAfricansfailtotakethismessageof
salvationasarevealedtruthfromtheirownhistory?Whatdimmed
civilization'slightonBarkalHillandcausedanultimatewithdrawalto
thebushandthescatteringofpeoplehitherandyonlikehuntedbeasts?
WhydidAfricansbegintoretirefromtheracewithotheradvancing
peoplesandfallsofarbehindthateventhememoryofformergreatness
couldnotinspirearevivalbecausethatmemoryhadbeenalmost
completelyblottedout?Ihavebeendetailingsomeoftheanswers
throughout,andinlaterchaptersweshallexplorefurtheranswersto
questionsraised.
WenowcrosstothewestbankoftheNileandjourneyfarthersouth
~tothecityofMeroe.Itistheeighthcentury B.C., andthemoveto
Meroewassimplyamovetowhatwasalreadythesoutherncapital,only
now,insteadofhavingtwocapitalcitiesintheSouth,therewouldbe
onlyone .
TheFirstCataract 127
THEDEVELOPMENTOFWRITING
AdistinguishedlineofleadersfollowedTanutamontothethronein
653B.C., Atlanersa,Senkamanseken,Anlaman,Aspalta,Amtalkaand
Malenakan-palace,temple,andpyramidbuildersall.Twoofthe
greatesttempleswerebuiltbyKingAspaltaatMeroe : theSunTemple
andtheTempleofAmon. 2 Theimposingpyramidsandrowsofhuge
royalstatuesaddedtothemajestyandmagnificenceofMeroe .The
royaltombs,asinEgypt,weretherepositoriesofthenation'shistory.
Fromthemarchaeologistswereabletodeterminealineofforty-one
rulersaftertheconquestofLowerNubia .Thesemonumentswerenot
onlysourcesofearlyAfricanhistoryfromwithinbut,ofthehighest
impottance,theywereelaboratelydecoratedoutsidewithboththefirst
formofwriting,hieroglyphics,andthemoreadvancedAfrican
inscriptionsintheirowninventedwriting .
FortheAfricansthemselveshadinventedwriting,andallattemptsto
connectthisancientachievementwithEgyptianorAsiaticinfluence
havefailed.Herethe"externalinfluence"schoolhassufferedamajor
defeat,becausethewrittenrecordsfoundonstatues,altars,tombstones,
graffiti,etc .,weresodistinctlyAfricanthattheirnativeorigincouldnot
besuccessfullydisputed .Moreover,theAfricansystemofwritingwas
verydifferentfromtheEgyptian.Itwassimplerandhadvowels,
whereasEgyptianhadnone.Thereweretwenty-threecharactersor
lettersintheAfricanalphabet,fourvowelsigns,seventeenconsonants,
andtwosignsofthesyllable .Newconceptsandneworspecialwords
couldbeeasilyintroducedbytheoldpicturesystem .Clarityandeasy
readingwasassuredbymeasuredspacingbetweenwords .Asystemof
numericalsymbolsformathematicswasdeveloped .TheAfricaninscrip-
tionsonmonumentsandsuchrecordsasthosefoundinroyaltombs
wereinaspecialcategory.Generalwritingwasdoneontabletsofwood
andskinspreparedforthatpurpose .Suchthingsasrocks,walls,vases
andbrokenbitsandpiecesofearthenwarecomprisedotherartifacts
whereancientAfricanwritingwasfound .
Again,howandwhydidallthisdisappear?Howandwhywasit
blottedoutorhiddensocompletelyfortwothousandyearsthatan
ignorantworld,withunprecedentedresearchfacilitiesinitsuniversities,
2.ItisbelievedthatthetempletoAmonwasnotcompletedduring
Aspalta'slifetimebutbyhissuccessors .
Sketch,basedondetailofthestatueofAspalta,
kingofKush(593-568 B.C.),foundinthe
templeatJebelBarkalinKush .Museumof
FineArts,Boston .
TheFirstCataract 129
stillbelieves,teachesandproclaimsthattheblackmanhadnever
developedacivilizationofhisown?
IthasbeennotedthattheattractionsofEthiopia,"TheLandofthe
Gods,"weregreatnotonlybecausetheEgyptiansregardeditasthe
mainsourceoftheirreligion,butalsobecauseofitssocio-political,
economicandstrategicimportance .WhenAfricankingsreconquered
Egyptandbecame"Egyptian"pharaohs,theystilllongedforthe
motherlandtothesouth,desiringtounitethewholeofitwithEgypt
intoonevastempire .Theywouldoftenretirethere,some wanting their
finalrestingplacetobeinapyramidbelowtheFirstCataract .Tothe
southrestedtheirancestorswhosecompanytheyweretojoin .Herewas
thecapitalcityofboththeblackman'sworldandthatofhisheavenas
well,theHolyCityofNapata .
DuringthedifferentperiodsinwhichNapatacameunderaforeign
yoke,thecapitalcityofMeroehadtobecomesomewhatholyinitsown
right,andmanyofthekings,queens,andotherleaderswereburiedin
pyramidsthere .Thesewereconstructedofstoneoutsideofthecity
proper,sometimesatavisibledistanceoftwoormoremiles .Theywere
builttostandforever,anattemptthatstemmedfromtheAfrican's
actual beliefinimmortality .Thisiswhytheirfaithincludedthenatural
assumptionthatthosewhohadpassedon,theirancestors,werelivingin
the"GreatBeyond,"andwere,therefore,inthemostfavorableposition
torepresenttheinterestsoftheirkinsmenbelow ;or,inshort,toserveas
mediatorsbetweenGodandman.
Thepyramidsringingthecitynotonlyaddedtothephysicalbeauty
ofthesurroundings,buttheywerealsothesilentsentinels,theever
watchfulancestralpresencefromwhichmightcomeeitherabenediction
oracurse .
Earlier,youmayrecall,Iwasunsparinginmycriticismofthose
Africansocietieswhichseemedtobegovernedbyfatalismandfailedto
counterattackagainsttheirnaturalandhumanenemies.AsIreadthe
record,it'seemedtomethatthesegroupsdidnottrytomeettheawful
challengeswhichconfrontedthem.Theygaveuptooreadilyand
refusedtoignoretriballinesortouniteforcommonsurvivalstrategies .
Theyremainedscatteredhereandthere,likehuntedanimals,moving
intobarbarismandsavagery.Suchweremystricturesand,obviously,I
didnotgivethewholestory,evenaboutthesegroups .
Now,however,andbyagloriouscontrast,weareinthemidstof
Blacks,thecoregroupofallAfrica,whometthechallengeonallfronts
II
TheQueenofEthiopiaat

Piankhi,followingKashtain720 B.C.,beganwhatwasquicklyto
becomeagainoneofthegreatestworldpowersofthetime .Ethiopiawas
unitedwithAfro-AsianEgyptunderasingleimperialrulethatextended
fromtheMediterraneaninthenorthtoanundefinedboundaryinthe
south.Alsounknownwashowfaritseasternboundaryextended
southwardalongtheIndianOceancoastland,howmuchofUganda
Meroe,c .4thcenturyB .C.
andfromeverydirection;andwhofoughtonandonthroughthe
centuries,againsttheforcesofmanandnatureuntilthey,themselves,
werecompletelyoverwhelmed.
Threethousandyearsagothedesert,whileslowlymovinginon
Africa,hadnotadvancedtowhereitistoday .Therewasmorearable
landinEthiopia,althoughitsagriculturedidnotmatchthatoftherich
deltaregionofEgypt.TheBlackswere,however,mainlyagriculturists
likeotherAfricans .Evenwiththeirremarkableindustrialdevelopment,
farmingwentononbothsideswherethe"twoNiles"metintheirland
beforecontinuingasonegreatriverthroughEgypttotheMediterranean
Sea
.NorshouldtheimportanceoftheAtbarariverbeoverlooked.
Eventhoughthesurroundingdesertswereaprobleminsofaras
agriculturalexpansionwasdesired,themoreimmediateproblemwas
faminefromdrought.Therewereyearsduringwhichnorainfellatall
andnotahopefulcloudappearedinthesky .
TheAfriansmetthechallengebyconstructinganationalsystemof
reservoirs.Thesewerestrategicallylocatedaroundthecapital,at
Musawarat,Naga,Hordan,Umm,Usuda,intheGeziraregion,at
Duanib,Basa,anddoubtlesslyatothersitesnotyetexcavated .
Thismasterplantodefeatdroughtandfaminebyasystemof
reservoirswasmoreimportantthanallofthearchitecturalartthat
foundexpressionintheirbeautifulstatues,temples,palaces,columns
andpyramids .Thereservoirsweremoresignificantthanthemonuments,
importantasthesewereinhidingtheblackman'sintellectualachieve-
mentsintheinventionofwritingdeepunderthesands .
Iratethereservoirsasthesupremeachievementbecausetheyreflect
therealmeasureofAfricanmanashemetthechallengetosurvival
head-on,withaconstructivecounter-attackagainsttheadverseforcesof
earth,sunandsky.Theirrigationsystem,madereasonablyeffective
withtheiroxen-poweredwheels,wasapartofthischallengetoadverse
circumstances .
II
132

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
andAbyssiniawasincluded,orhowfarwestwardtheempireextended
.3
Allthisisnotsoimportantasthepointthatduringthisperiodof
triumph,worldfame,fear,andanunprecedentedprosperityfroma
flourishingtradewithaboutone-halfoftheworld,Africanrulers
continuedtoneglecttheupdatingoftheirmilitaryandnavaldefenses
.
Ironwasthebasisofthetechnologicalrevolutioninwarfare
.Thatthe
Assyrians,Hittites,PersiansandotherAsiaticnationswereequipping
theirarmieswithnewtypesofironweapons,andthatthesewere
devastatinglymoreeffectivethanstoneandcopperweaponshadtobe
well-knowntotheAfricans .Itwasnotnews .Aswasmentionedbefore,
theynotonlyknewabouttheuseofironbuttheyhadlongsince
developedtheironsmeltingprocesses .Thetroublewasthehighly
secretiveroyalmonopoly.Nosecretwasmorezealouslyguardedthan
thesmeltingofiron.Thismeantrigidlylimitedproduction
.Here.was
fearout-matchingbothreasonandthemostelementarycommonsense
.
Thisover-secretivenesswhichinhibitedtheexpansionofironproduction
wastocontributemightilytothesuccessofAssyrianarmsoverthem
.
Prosperity,too,mayhaveblurredtheAfrican'svision
.Toomuch
successcanbedangerous.Inthiscasesomuchwealthwaspiledupfrom
foreigntrade,especiallyingold,ivoryandcopper,thatthequestionof
iron,ifraised,mayhavebeendismissedas"economicallyunsound
."
Whateverthereasonswere,thefactisthatthegreatironindustries
whichhaddevelopedinthiscenter,spreadingoverAfrica,couldhave
startedcenturiesbefore .
Evenasearlyas 300B.C., whenironsmeltingwasemployedformore
usefulpurposesthanornaments,theroyalmonopolystillprevented
widespreaduse .Thattheyknewoftheimportanceofironisshownby
thefactthatkingsandhighpriestswereoftenheadsoftheguild,and
thechiefironmasterwouldoftengainthestatusofwhataPrime
Ministeristoday .Regardlessofthedelay,ironsmeltingandtool-making
gotunderwayonavastscaleinEthiopiaatamostcrucialperiodfor
Africa .ItscenterwasMeroe,anditappearsthatthebiggestironworks
wereinandaroundthiscapitalcity.Thisdevelopmentwasatacrucial
periodbecauseitwastheperiodofincreasingmigrationsfromthe
3. Thiswholeperiodofblackachievementisminimizedbywriters
whosubstituteMeroe,thecity,forEthiopia,theempire
.Ethiopian
writingthenbecomes"someMeroeticinscriptions,"etc
.
TheFirstCataract
133
heartlandandthescatteringofgroupsalloverAfrica.Theycarriedtheir
knowledgeofthisgreattechnologicalrevolutionwherevertheywent,
andtheybegantheuseofironandthedevelopmentofironindustries
wherevertheyhadhadtheopportunitytosettleinironoreareasand
remainsettledlongenoughtocreateastablesociety.
Thisspreadofironworkingfromthecradleofblackcivilizationisjust
anotherexampleofhowotherfundamentalAfricaninstitutionsspread
overthecontinent,northaswellassouth,andremainedbasically
.
unchangeddownthroughthecenturies,nomatterhownumerouswere
thegroupsintowhichtheoriginalsocietybecamefragmentedorhow
countlesswerethevariouslanguagesanddialectsthatresultedfrom
thatsegmentation
.Therewere,asamatterofcourse,manyvariations
andmodificationsbydifferentsurvivalgroups .Themostremarkableof
thefactswasthateventhosegroupsthatwerepushedbackintoastate
ofbarbarismstillheldon(Godonlyknowshow)tosomeofthebasic
institutionsofthesocietyfromwhichtheydescendedfromonetotwo
thousandyearsbefore
.NeitherChristianEuropeorMuslimAsiawere
abletocompletelydestroythoseinstitutions,eveninthevastregions
overwhichbothhadsupremecontrol
.Andthisiswhy,inaprevious
discussion,Ihadsuggestedasmileofcompassionwhenyoureadorhear
about"Egyptianinfluence"onthisorthatblacksocietybecause,in
general,allthatcouldpossiblybemeantisthe"influenceofearlyblack
civilizationonsubsequentblacksocieties ._ "
Theexpansionoftheironculture,however,wasarevolutionin
technologythatusheredinanewageandgavenewhopetoadespairing
people.Itmeanttheuseofnewinstrumentsofproductioninagriculture,
andtheindustrialcrafts,and,ofgreatimportanceforarefugeepeople,
foranewkindofmilitaryorganizationanddefense .Itcanbeseen,then,
thatthe"MotherlandoftheBlacks,"centeredontheNilearoundthe
cataracts,providedherwanderingsonsanddaughterswiththe
instrumentsofsurvival,aknowledgethatstillservedthemwellcenturies
aftertheArabsandTurkshadoverranthatMotherland .
Thememoryofmanythingshadbeenlost,however .Whoremem-
beredThebes,Napata,Memphis,Elephantine,Heracleopolisor
Nekheb?Indeed,whorememberedevenMeroe,themostadvanced
centernotonlyoftheAfricanage,butalsoofwriting?Andwhatofthe
otherimportanttownsandcitiesinSouthernEthiopia(Nubia-Cush),
Musawarat,Nuri,Panopolis,Kerma,Assuan,Soleb,AbuSimbel,
Kurusku,Samnah,Philae,Kawa,Dongola,etc?Ourconstantreferences
134

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
toNapataandMeroemightleadthosewhodonotlookatthemapto
thinkthattherewereonlytwoimportantcitiesintheland .
Forgettingthenamesofancientcentersofimportancewasnothing
comparedtothetragedyoftheBlacksinalmostcompletelyforgetting
theveryartofwritingwhichtheythemselvesinvented!Thiswasoneof
themosttragiclosses,torepeat,thatwaseversufferedbyawhole
people
.Andinviewoftheanti-blackcourseofsubsequenthistory,the
Blacksneededtheirwrittenlanguageandrecordsmorethananyother
people
.Justhowandwhythispeoplediscontinuedtheuseofwriting
hasbeensetforthratherclearlyandinsomedetailintheforegoing
pages
.However,thematterisofsuchtranscendentimportancethatI
hopesomeblackscholarwilldevoteanentirebookdetailingthisone
episodeinthelonghistoryofAfricans
.Thestorywouldcoverthe
periodsofmigrationsanddispersionswhenwritingwasneedlessifnot
impossible,tothegenerallossoftheartitself
.Isay"generalloss"again
because,ofcourse,someAfricansocietiesdidnotcompletelylosethe
artofwritingevenunderconditionswhereitsuseseemedutterlyfutile .
Themostimportantfacttokeepinmind,however,isthatweare
consideringtheearlyagewhenrelativelyfewpeoplecouldwrite,asmall
professionalclass,thescribes .Allbooks,scrolls,inscriptions,letters,etc
.,
werewrittenbythem.Therefore,inanysocietywherethescribeswere
eithercapturedor,forwhateverreason,disappeared,theartofwriting
inthatsocietydied .InviewofthedevelopmentsinBlackAfrica,the
disappearanceofwritingisnotamysteryatall.
Conquestanddominationtendedtocheckmigrationsandbringa
largermeasureofiron-ruledstabilitytotheinvadedregion .Anintegral
partofthatironrulewastheintroductionoftheconquerors'speechand
writing,thefirststepintheprocessofconqueringthesoulandminds-of
theBlacksalongwiththeirbodies
.Thiswaseasybecausetheknowledge-
starved"keypeople"amongtheBlackseagerlygraspedArabic,French,
Portuguese,English,orGermanasthebestroutetostatusinanew
civilization.Mostofthisdevelopedlaterthantheperiodwehavebeen
summarizing,thethousandyearsinEthiopiaafteritslastsuccessin
retakingEgyptanditsdefeatandwithdrawalwiththefallofthe
Twenty-FifthDynasty.Herewespeakoftheperiodfromsixthcentury
B.C.tothefourthcenturyoftheChristianchurchinEthiopia .
TheFirstCataract
135
CHRISTIANAFRICA
AfricawasnaturallyamongthefirstareastowhichChristianity
spread.ItwasnextdoortoPalestine,andfromtheearliesttimesthere
hadbeentheclosestrelationsbetweentheJewsandtheBlacks,both
friendlyandhostile .Theexchangeofpre-Christianreligiousconcepts
tookplaceeasilyand,duetotheresidenceofsomanyancientJewish
leadersinEthiopia -Abraham,Josephandhisbrothers,MaryandJesus .
ThegreatLawgiver,Moses,wasnotonlyborninAfricabuthewas
alsomarriedtothedaughterofanAfricanpriest. 4 Thepathwayforthe
earlyChristianchurchintheLandoftheBlackshadbeenmadesmooth
manycenturiesbefore.
InadifferentworkIsuggestedthatamajorreasonwhysomanylater
ChristianmissionariesfailedinAfricawasbecausetheywerebringing
refurbishedreligiousdoctrinesthatcamefromAfricainthefirstplace
.
ThereligiousbeliefinsacrificefortheremissionofsinswasanAfrican
beliefandpracticeatleast2,000yearsbeforeAbraham
.Theresultsofa
comparativestudyoftheAfrican,JewishandChristianreligionshave
amazedmanywhohaveundertakenthetask .PracticallyalloftheTen
CommandmentswereembeddedintheAfricanConstitutionages
beforeMoseswentupMt .SinaiinAfricain 1491 B.C., aratherlatedate
inAfricanhistory .
Wedonotknowhowmuchsignificanceshouldbereadintothefact
thatChristianitybegantospreadinEthiopia(NubiaorCush)onlyafter
thedestructionofthecentralEmpirewiththefallofMeroe
.However,
themostimportantdevelopmentaftertheEmpirepassedwasnotthe
riseofChristianity,buttheriseofthetwoBlackstatesthatpickedup
themantleandstaffofEthiopiatocarryon
.Thesetwostateswere
MakuriaandAlwa .
4.
Manyaccountsreferonlytohismarriagetothedaughterofa
Midianitepriest
.However,AaronandhiswiferebukedMosesfor
marryingablackwoman .
CHAPTERV
TheTwoThatCarriedOn
FROMTHEEARLYAFRICANVIEWPOINTTHEREWASNOTHING
earth-shakingorextraordinaryabouttheestablishmentofstillanother
cult,thecultofChristianchurches
.Theonlyunusualthingaboutthe
newcultsofChristianswasthatwhiletheydisclaimedbeingofthe
Jewishfaith,theyworshippedtheJewishtribalgod,theGodofIsrael
.
TheChristiansseemedtobeexpandingtheroleofagodwhohadbeen
concernedonlywiththeJewsashis"ChosenPeople"toaGodofthe
Universe,theSunGod
.TheChristianswerenotreallydifferentevenin
thecentralreligiousbeliefsoftheAfricansandJewsoftheperiod
insacrificingsheep,goats,bulls,(andsometimeshumans)forthe
remissionofsins
.For,whiletheChristianshadgivenuptheslaughter-
ingofanimalsforofferings,theverycornerstoneoftheirfaithwasthat
JesusChrist,theSonofGod,wassacrificedforthesinsofmanandthat
Hisbloodwasshedforthispurposealone
.Drinkingoftheblood(wine)
andeatingofthebody(bread)areallfundamentalaspectsofman's
mostancientreligion .
ThespreadofChristianityinthelandbelowtheFirstCataractgained
momentumafterthedestructionofEthiopiaasanempire,andits
world-famouscapital,thecityofMeroe
.Suchadeclineandfallofa
nation,empireorcivilizationisneverasshortorsuddenasthedate
given for theeventsuggested,inthiscase,.350 (A.D.) . Manyfactorsand
forcesoperatedoveralongperiodoftimebeforewhatcanbecalledthe
"GreatAgeofBlackCivilization"cametoaclose .
HowtheblackworldwasbeingadverselyaffectedbybothAsiaand
Europemaybebetterunderstoodbyaflashbacktoeventsfollowingthe
136
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
137
endofblackruleoverEgyptwiththecloseoftheTwenty-FifthDynasty
in 656 BC
.ThevictoriousAssyrians,youmayrecall,madeNecho,a
kingfromSaisinLowerEgypt,thegovernor-general,supportedby
Assyriangarrisons
.ThisNechowasanAsian,butbythistimetheprac-
ticeofcallingallnon-AfricanresidentsEgyptianshadbeensofirmly
establishedthatithadtheweightofcustomarylaw
.TheAfro-Asians
hadfailedtowinrecognitionastheonlyEgyptians
.Whitesofallnation-
alities,thoughaminority,wereoftenthedominantgroups,rulingfrom
theirpowerbaseinLowerEgypt
.Hencethecontinuingcrisesbetween
thewhiteEgyptiansandthenowmorepopulous"coloured"Egyptians
.'
TheBlackEgyptiansnolongercountedasapowergroupnorthofthe
FirstCataract.
WhentheAssyrianswerefinallyexpelledduringtheTwenty-Six
Dynasty (664-525 B.C.),
thefoundationsforpermanentwhiteAsian
ruleinEgypthadbeenfirmlylaid
.Fromthisperiodon,thewarsforthe
controlofEgyptwereprimarilywarsofwhitesagainstwhites
.The
internalcorruption,jockeyingforpositioncompoundedbythevarious
partisangroups,reflectedtheweaknessofthecountryinemploying
moreandmoreforeignmercenarytroops,especiallyGreeks
.These
largeincursionsofGreeksandtheiralliesformedthesamekindof
advancebaseforafutureGreekhegemonyasdidpreviousAsiatic
peoples.Thetimewasnotyet
.Butitwastheopportunetimeforthe
Persianstoinvadethismuch-invadedlandandbeginarulein525B
.C.
thatwastolast21years
.Sincetheadministrationofaconquered
countrybyabsenteekingsisgenerallyweakandopentorevolt,thevery
longPersianruleinEgyptwasdoubtlessduetoanextraordinarylineof
strongkingsandimperialadministrators-Cambyses,DariustheGreat
andDarius11.
TheendofPersianrulecamein 404B.C
.whentheEgyptianGreeks
joinedwiththeEgyptiannationalistsina"WarofLiberation
."The
victorywasshort-lived
.TheEgyptianswereinpoweronlyfiveyears
beforetherebellionandindependencewerebrokenandPersianrule
reestablishedforanother 64years.
1
.ThesamedevelopmentisnowtakingplaceinSouthAfricawhere
the"Coloureds,"oncefanaticallydevotedtothewhites,arenowbitterly
resentfulbecausetheirprivilegedstatusvis-a-vistheBlacksisbeing
steadilyreduced.
lI
III
138

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
In 332,
AlexandertheGreatarrivedand,havingbrokentheimperial
powerofPersiaelsewhere,hadnotroubletakingoverEgypt
.AGreek
wascrownedPharaohin 334 B.C., asPtolemyI.
TheGreeksruledEgyptforalmost
31)0 yearsbeforetheexpansionof
theRomanEmpireintoEgyptendedtheirdominionin
30 B.C.This,
wasour"flashback"pointofdeparture,butbeforereturningtothe
Ethiopianchurches,thesignificanceofwhatwehavebeenreviewingas
flashbacksshouldagainbeemphasizedasagreatissue
.Forwehave
beenreviewingthelastphaseoftheprocessesofCaucasianizationin
EgyptthatweresothoroughgoingthatboththeBlacksandtheirhistory
wereerasedfrommemory
: theJewishrule,500years;theAssyrian
interludes;thePersians,185years
;theGreeks, 274 years;theRomans,
700 years;theArabs, 1,327
years-thelong,longstruggletotakefrom
theBlackswhatevertheyhadofhumanworth,theirlandandalltheir
wealththerein
;theirbodies,theirsouls,andtheirminds,wasaprocess
ofsteadydepersonalization,dehumanization
.
YetGreeceandRome,havingmade
: heexclusionoftheBlacksfrom
Egyptpermanent,appearedtohavenoconquestambitionsintheblack
countrytothesouth .And PaxRomany checkedtheconstantwarfare
betweenthetworegions
.Thegreatwealth-producingtradewithEthiopia
waspromotedandwhatappearedtobeageneral
detente prevailed.
Indeed,whoeverheldthesea-coasts,whetherAsian,Europeanor
Egyptian,controlledworldtradeandputEthiopiainastateofeconomic
dependence,nomatterhowvasttheflewofgoodswasfromthesouth
.
Egyptwasthemiddlemanwiththegreatercontroloverbothvolume
andprices
.BoththeGreekandRomanrulersofEgyptleftEthiopiato
playitsownrole
.Andwehaveseenwhatthatrolewasduringa
thousandyearsofunbrokenprogressdirectedfromMeroe
.
THESEMITIC
STORMFROMAXUM
YetastormcloudwasthreateningfarthersouthastheRoman
LegionswithdrewfromEgypttohelpchecktheerosionofanover-
extendedworldempire
.WehavenotedthattheEthiopianEmpireat
theheightofitsgreatnessextendedsouthwardintoAbyssinia(present-
dayEthiopia)andfurther,thatastimepassed,theBlackswerebeing
hemmedinfromalmostalldirectionsessentialforsurvival
.Now,for
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
139
somecenturiesArabsandJews(thelattercalled"Solomonids"bymost
historians)hadbeenswarmingintothissoutheasternregion,pushing
throughthemiddleinsuchawaythateveninAbyssiniatheBlacks
werepressedsouthward,alwayssouthward!Egyptianhistorywas
repeatingitself
: TheAsiansandMulattoesheldNorthernAbyssinia,
withthecenterofpowerinthestrategickingdomofAxum
.FromAxum
theArabspreparedtheirforcesforthedestructionofanowweakening
Ethiopianempire
.Theweakness,asusual,camefromseparatistmove-
mentsstrugglingforpower
.Itwastheold-timefactionalfightsamong
leaderswhofelttheymust"ruleorruin"-adrivesowellknownthatis
needlesstorecount
.ButitwasthesituationforwhichtheAxumite
ArabsandtheirColouredandJewishallieswerewaiting .In 350 A.D.,
theirarmiesdestroyedMeroe,andanepochinhistoryended .
Ethiopiawasnowsplitintothreemajorstates : Nobadae,bordering
EgyptattheFirstCataract
;Makuria,themorepowerfulkingdominthe
middlewithitscapitalatDongola
;andAlwa,anotherstrongstatesouth
ofMakuriaorbetweenMakuriaandAxum
.Afterthecollapseofthe
centralblackempireinthefourthcentury,theChristianchurches
spreadmorerapidlythroughthenowindependentkingdoms .Evenin
thedivisionofEthiopiaintosmallerstates,theprocessofethnictrans-
formationwasobviousasitpressedsouthwardfromEgypt.Greekand
RomanpresencehadbeenheavyandmarkedinNobadae .Sinceno
onenowquestionedthatNobadae(Nubia)wasEthiopian,themixed
breedcouldnotbecalledEgyptianaswasthepreviouscaseofFirst
Cataract
.ThepopulationinthiskingdomborderingCaucasianized
EgyptwasnowpredominantlyAfro-EuropeanandAfro-Asian .The
problemwassolvedveryneatlybycallingthemthe"RedNoba"andthe
Africanswerecalled"BlackNoba
."Theothertwokingdomswereall-
blackandpresentednoclassificationproblems.
ThechurchesseemedtobefirmlyrootedinAlwaandMakuria
.
Churchesseemedtobeeverywhere
.Therewereseveralineverylarge
town,oneinjustabouteverysmallvillage,someinruralareasaway
fromvillages,andchurchesscatteredoverlargeurbancenters,along
withthoseofgreatersplendorinthe"CathedralCities,'theseatsof
bishops
.WhiteadministrationandcontrolofAfricanChristianitywas
assuredbyestablishingtheheadoftheChurchinLowerEgypt(the
PatriarchofAlexandria)withpowertoappointallbishopsinAfrica.
Thebishopsappointedwerealwayswhiteornear-whiteuntiltoken
appointmentsofBlackstolesserposts,suchasdeacons,hadtobemade
140

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
followingprotestsbyblackchurchleaders,supportedbytheirkings
.
Andwhilethe"RedMen"ofNobadae,caughtinthemiddle,tendedto
identifywiththeBlacksofMakuriaandAlwa,thesplitbetweenthe
WesternandEasternchurchesoverdoctrinewasreflectedinthethree
Ethiopiankingdoms .Thismeantthatthereligiousstrifetendedto
alienateMonophysiteNobadaefromOrthodoxMakuria
.Thiscompeti-
tionforascendencymayhavehadagreatdealtodowiththeexpansion
ofchurchesinEgyptandtheformerEthiopianempireintheSouth .
THEGROWTHOFSTATES
ThesesouthernkingdomsalsocarriedonmuchoftheoldEthiopian
traditionofrapidreconstructionafterdestruction .Theycontinuedthe
expansionofcaravanroutesforexternaltradeacrosstheSaharatothe
westernblackworldtooffsettheEgyptianseacoastmonopoly .They
replacedthevasttemple-buildingprogramswithequallyvastchurch-
buildingprograms,andtheycontinuedthedevelopmentoftheiron
industriesandbetterequippedarmies
.Egyptian,Asian,Greekand
RomaninfluencewasasmarkedonAfricaninstitutionsinNobadaeasit
wasonthecomplexionofmostofthepeoplelivinginthisfringe
kingdom.Nobadae,then,isaclassicexampleofexternalinfluenceon
AfricaninstitutionsjustasithadbeenonEgypt
.Itisaninfluencethat
couldbepraisedtohighheavenastheeclecticprocessofcivilization
itselfhadnottheCaucasiansresortedtotheftsandliesintheirvainand
ignobleattemptstopreemptthewholefieldofhumanprogressasbeing
theirsandtheirsalone .
Inthefourthcentury A.D., theareasofblackpowerhadbeenpushed
outofEgyptdowntowherethekingdomofMakuriaformeditsborders
withNobadae .HeretheconcentrationofBlacksbegan,justasthougha
southwardmovementoftheracewasadecreeofprovidence.Here,
onceagain,theytooktheirstand ;hereagain,eveninthelandswhich
wereofficiallyChristian,blackbattlelineshadtobeformedagainfor
defense.TheAxumiteColoured"Solomonids"andArabshadretired
afterthedestructionoftheblackempire
.Themoreimmediatedanger
wasstillEgypt.ThiswastruealsofromtheviewpointofChristiandom,
for"white"Egyptiancontroloverthechurchesreflectedthesame
policiesthatweretofollowthroughthecenturiesintoourowntimes:
NochurchsponsoredtheologicalschoolsforthetrainingofAfrican
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn

141
clergy
.Bythuspreventingeducationalopportunities,theycouldalways
maintainthattheBlacksweresimply"notqualified"forthisorthathigh
post
.Inreligion,asineveryotherfield,thesystemdeliberatelyprevented
qualificationinordertodeclarethelackofqualificationonthepartof
Blacksinallregionsunderwhitecontrolorinallinstitutions,inthiscase
theChurch,overwhichwhitepowerprevailed
.Thereweresituations,
however,inwhichsomeBlacksoverrodetheobstaclestobecome
bishopsineitherall-blackorpredominantlyblackcountries .
IndiscussingmassmigrationfromEgypt,Ihopenoonehasforgotten
thecountlessthousandsofBlacksleftbehind,inbothUpperandLower
Egypt
;notonlythen,theyarepresenttheretoday,butasasubmerged
group
.Thattherewereexceptionstothisgeneralstatushasalsobeen
emphasized.Thepeoplewhoacceptedaslaveorinferiorstatusastheir
lotinthesocietywerethekindAristotlehadinmindwhenhereferred
tomenwhowereborntobeslaves
.Ontheotherhand,thoseBlacks
whomigratedorfoughttothedeathratherthanacceptslaverywere
thosewhowereborntobefree-themostimportantpointmissedby
manyquotingthismost-quotedpassagefromAristotle
.
Itwastheseborn-to-be-freeBlackswho,aswehaveseen,notonly
beatbacktheenslavinginvadersoverandoveragain,butjustasmany
timeseitherconqueredtheirwould-be-enslaversordrovethemback
intoAsia
.ThefalloftheblackempiredidnotmeanthattheBlackshad
surrendered
.Thefragmentedkingdomswerestilltocarrythefightto
theenemy,andtheywerestilltofighttheirwayagainacrossEgyptasfar
astowheretheirancientcityofMemphisoncestood
.Stillothers
remainedintheconqueredregionssimplybecausetheyrefusedtoleave
theirancestralhomes,comewhatmay.
Bytheseventhcentury,theBlackshadachievedamajorgoalby
incorporatingNobadaewithMakuriaandthusreestablishingwhathad
becometherecognizedboundarybetweenEthiopiaandEgyptatthe
FirstCataract .Theprecisemannerofthisamazingachievementis
unknown
: Didthe"BlackNoba"ofMakuriaoverrunthe"RedNoba"of
Nobadae,orwasitaunionofkingdomsbyagreement?Wedonot
know.WhatwedoknowisthattheblackkingdomsofAlwaand
MakuriawerestrongerthaneversincethefallofNapataandMeroe .
142

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
ADECISIVE
BATTLEOFHISTORY
Egypt,ontheotherhand,wasundergoingoneofherperiodicconvul-
sionsfromaninvasion,themostfatefulonetowhichwehavealready
referredastheMusliminvasionof 639-42A.D.Thisconquest,aswas
usuallythecase,hadbeenmadeeasierbystillapreviousPersian
invasion (619-629 A.D.) . Somesourcessuggestthatthenewwaveof
Persianinvasionsthatbeganin 619 A.D.determinedthecourseofthe
BlacksinconqueringNobadaeandreestablishingtheirfrontieratthe
greatsystemoffortificationsattheFirstCataract .FromtheretheBlacks
hadbeenraidingvariousareasinEgyptandattackinggarrisonsthrough-
outthetenyearsofthelastPersianoccupation .Inthisandothersimilar
instances,thepicturethatemergesclearlyisthattheBlacks,evenafter
beingpushedoutofEgypt,weremoreupsetbyforeigninvasionsand
resistedthemmorecourageouslythanthe"new"Egyptianswho,by
comparison,appearedtobeaneasilyconqueredandrathercowardly
lot.Otherwise,howcouldAmr-ibn-al-As,theMuslimgeneral,conquer
allEgyptsoeasilywithonly 4,000 men?TheconqueringArabgeneral
apparentlyknewthedifferencebetweenthefightingqualitiesofthe
BlacksinthesouthandthoseoftheEgyptiansandtheirmercenary
troops;fordespitethecontinuedraidsbytheBlacks,hechosenotto
extendhisoperationsintotheirland .
ButnotsodisposedwasAbdullah,thenewArabgovernor-general
(viceroy)ofEgypt .Theyearfollowingthecompletetakeoverbythe
Muslims, 643 A.D., hedecidedtobringthewholeHeartlandofthe
BlacksunderMuslimcontrolatonce .Heknew,however,thatthis
wouldreallybeawar,notliketheeasyconquestofEgyptwithanarmy
ofonly 4,000 men.Withalargerandbetterequippedarmy,theArab
expeditioninvadedtheblackcountrywithaconfidencethatwas
heightenedbywhatappearedtobehastyandconfusedretreatsby
frightenedwarriors.ThisEthiopianstrategyofpretendedfrightand
wildretreatwassowell-knowninEgyptthatitisdifficulttounderstand
howitcouldhavebeenunknowntoAbdullahandhisgenerals .Orhad
thistoo,likeeverythingelsethatwasAfrican,beenblottedfrom
memory?Ifso,foroncetheyweregoingtopaydearlyforignoringan
Africaninvention.
Theywereallowedtoadvancedeeplyintoblackterritorybefore
100,000"retreating"and"frightened"Blacksturnedinfrontaland
flankingonslaughtsthatalmostcompletelywipedouttheentireArab
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144

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
army
.AnArabhistorianoftheperiodfeltcompelledtoadmitthatit
wasthemostdevastatingdefeateversufferedbyanArabarmy .There
wereothereye-witnessreportsfromthesceneofbattledealingwiththe
remarkabletraininganddashingcourageoftheBlackforceswiththe
KingofMakuriainpersonalcommand
.(Thosewerethedayswhen
"king"meantleader.Theleaderledfromthefront,andnotfromsome
hillmilesawayfromthefighting
.)Thisimmediatepresenceoftheir
leaderinthemidstofdangerwiththemmayhavehadmuchtodowith
thecourageandexpertiseoftheAfricansoldiers .Theunitsthatamazed
theancientworldthatmemorabledaybetweentheFirstandSecond
Cataractswerethebowandarrowcorps .Theseweresoskillfully
trainedthattheycouldaimtheirarrowsattheeyesoftheenemyand
shootwithunbelievableaccuracy.
Forreasonswhichbynowmustbeobvious,thisbattlenotonlydoes
notappearas"oneofthedecisivebattlesofhistory"inanyofyour
historybooks,butitisnotevenmentioned .Yetitwasinfactoneofthe
decisivebattlesoftheworld : Thedefeatofthehithertoundefeated
Arabforceswassodisastrousthatittookthemeightyearstorecover,
reorganize,andregainthenecessarycouragetoattacktheBlacksagain
andtherebyavengethatawfuldefeatandnear-annihilationonthe
plainsofMakuriain 643 A.D.ThisAfricanvictory,furthermore,
delayedtheArabconquestsintheblackSouthandspurredthe
developmentofsubsequenteventsinbothofthesouthernkingdoms
.
In651 A.D., theArabViceroyofEgyptdecidedthathehadthe
unbeatablearmedmightandwasreadytoavengethedisastereight
yearsbeforeandbringtheBlackstotheirkneesintheprocess .The
Arabgeneralsproceededboldlybutcautiouslyinordertoavoidthe
trapsandsurprisetacticsoftheblackgenerals,whicharroganceprobably
causedthemtoignorebefore .YetthesameAfricanstrategywasused :
TheywereallowedtoinvadetheNobadaenstateindepthwithonly
"token"opposition .Hellbrokelooseonlywhentheycrossedtheformer
Makurianborder(beforetheunionofthetwokingdoms)andheaded
forthecapitalofDongola .However,theArabscapturedit,and
destroyedalloftheprincipalpublicbuildings,includingthegreat
cathedral.Theyhadbroughtalonghugecatapultsfortheexpresspur-
poseofrazingallbrickandstoneedificesthatweretheprideandgloryof
blackcivilization .Withthefalloftheircapitalcity,theseatofgovern-
ment,theBlackswereexpectedtosurrender .ButKingKalydosos,the
Africanleader,andhisgeneralshadnothoughtaboutsurrenderingor
TheTwo WhoCarried On
145
anydoubtthattheycoulddefeattheArabsagain
.Thespiritoftheir
decisivevictoryovertheArabsin 643A.D.stillfiredtheblackarmies.
TheKingwithdrewfromhisburningcapitalonlytoregroupandplan
strategiesfora"no-surrender"war
.Asthefightingcontinuedwith
increasedfuryonbothsides,itbecamecleartotheArabgeneralsthat
victoryovertheBlackscouldneverbewononthefieldofbattle
.Again,
theirpreviousdefeatbytheBlackswasstillplayingadeterminingrolein
Arab-Africanrelations .
Anarmisticewasdeclared,andatreatyofpeacewassignedbythe
nowundefeatedequals,AbdullahforMuslimEgyptandKalydososfor
theChristiankingdomsofEthiopia-MakuriaandKalydososforthe
ChristiankingdomsofEthiopia -MakuriaandAlwa .TheArabshadin
factlostthewar
.Forwithcarefullytrainedandoverwhelmingforces
filledwithvengeanceforthepreviousdisaster,theywerestillunableto
defeattheBlacksandbringtheircountryunderMuslimcontrol
.The
historicsignificanceistwofold
: (1)Thepsychologicaleffectsofbeing
defeatedbytheBlackstwiceonbroadnationalfrontscausedtheArabs
toadoptapeacefulrelationshipwiththesecountriesthatlasted600
years . (2)
Thetreatyincludedprovisionsthatwerethebasisforthe
expansionofslaveryandthe"peaceful"conquestoftheSudan
.Goals
whichcouldnotbeachieveddirectlyonthebattlefieldweretobe
achievedindirectlybyArabtradersandMuslimmissionarybrother-
hoods.
Inapreviousdiscussion,Iwonderedoutloudwhethertheblackrace
islackinginonequalitythatseemstodistinguishCaucasiansand
explainthereasonfortheirlongdominationoftheearth : Theirdeep
concernabout their posterity,thefutureroleandwelfareoftheirwhite
offspringstothefarthestgeneration
.Theirplansandpoliciesfortoday's
worldareoftenbasedonexpectedoutcomescenturieshence
.The
Blacksasarace,ontheotherhand,havebeensosplitupand
preoccupiedwithcurrentproblemsthattheyseemtohavelostthisdeep
concernaboutthefutureoftheirdescendents
.Thismattercallsfor
seriousreflectionparticularlyonthepartofBlacksintheirrelationswith
long-rangeplanningwhites
.Forfromtheearliesttimesandinalmost
everyperiodofhistory,wefindthewhitescarefullydevelopingplans
forfutureresultswhichnoneexpecttoseerealizedintheirlifetime .
AndsoitwashereintheSudanin 652A.D., whenthepeacetreaty
betweenArabsandBlackswassigned
.FirsttheArabshadtomaketheir
failureappeartotheworldasavictoryofsomesort .Anannualtribute,
146

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
theconquerors' Baqt,becameanimportantprovisioninthetreaty .The
termscalledfortheannualdeliveryof360slavesnearthefrontierand
fortyextraslavesasagifttotheEgyptianviceroy.'Inordertoinducethe
Ethiopianstoacceptwhatatfirstappearedtobeatributeinfact,the
Arableaderspresenteditasatreatyoftradeandcommerce,agreeingto
payinexchangewheat,barleyandwineatavalueinexcessofthegifts
bytheAfricans .
Moreimportantthanthis,however,wastheprovisionforbuildinga
greatmosqueintherestoredDongolaandallowingArabtradersinonly
astraders,notsettlers.Sinceitwasatreaty"betweenequals,"the
provisionsofthetreatywerereciprocal : blacktraderscouldoperatein
Egyptandhaveachurchonthesameterms.EveniftheAfricanshad
notknownthattheArabsinEgyptwerebusilyconvertingchurchesand
templesintoMuslimmosques,therewouldstillbenooccasionfor
buildingachurchfortheirtradersinEgypt .Theyhadnolong-range
plansfortheeventualcontrolofEgyptthroughthetradeandreligion
routes.ButtheArabsdidhavesuchaplanfortheeventualconquestof
theSudanthroughmosquesandtraders .TheCaucasians,unableto
conquertheBlacksdirectly,werecontentedwhentheyhadsetin
motiontheprocessofgradualinfiltrationandexpansionthatwould
eventuateinvictoryeventhoughitwastotake 600 years.
IamsayingthattheBlacksseemnotonlytohavelostthegrandvision
ofthefuture,butalso(whatshouldhavebeen)theunforgettable
lessonsoftheirpast .ThepatternofCaucasianconquesthadbeencut
outandmadeclearthroughthirty-sevencenturiesoftheirhistory .After
theyhadallowedtheAsiansfirsttoinfiltrateandthentooverrunall
LowerEgypt,theBlacksdrewafirmboundarylinebetweentheTwo
Landsbeyondwhichthewhiteswerenotallowedtosettle .Thosewere
thedayswhentheAfricanswerenotsotrustingthattheywereunable
toperceivethattheCaucasianswereeternallyrestlessunlesstheywere
themastersineverysituationwhatsoever .Theywerethereforebarred
fromsettlement in BlackUpperEgyptuntilNarmerandMenesunited
theLowerandUpperEgypts .IftherewaseveraPyrrhicvictoryin
history,itcouldnothavebeenmoredisastrousthanthatofMenesover
2.A"slave"wasacapturedprisonerofwar,andinearlyhistorythe
termwasnomoredegradingthanthatofprisonerofwartoday .
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn

147
theAsiansin3100 B.C., forthedeclineofblackcivilization,notonlyin
EgyptbutthroughoutAfrica,canbetracedtothatperioddespiteallof
itsmonumentalachievementsafterwards .Thetermitesofitsdestruction,
slowbutsteady,hadbeenletinunderthelaudabledreamofblack-
whitebrotherhood.Thelong,drawn-outprocessofpenetrationand
eventualdominationwasbothvisibleandinvisible .Yetfromthesetiny
footholds,theAsianpopulationgrewandgrewuntiltheBlackswere
notonlyoutnumberedbyAsiansbutoverwhelmed.Substantiallythe
sameschemewasfollowedineveryblackcity,townandvillagethrough-
outEgypt.
Therecordofthe5,000yearsthatendedwiththeEuropeanconquest
ofthewholecontinentinthenineteenthcenturyshowsthatevery
Africanstateremainedrelativelysecureandindependentaslongasit
maintainedastrictpolicyofexcludingforeignersfromsettlementwithin
itsborders .Thatsamerecordmakesclearthatwhereverthispolicywas
abandonedandwhiteswereadmittedunderanypretextwhatsoever,
theeventualdoomofthatstatewascertain .Thesinglepointthatis
beingmadehereisthatKingKalydososandtheotherBlackleaders
alreadyhad,asearlyas652 A.D.,thirty-sevencenturiesofthisrecord
beforethemwhentheyallowedtheArabstoestablishapermanent
baseofoperationsintheirland.Theyignoredtherecord,asotherblack
leadersweretocontinuetodountilMuslimAsiaandChristianEurope
sweptthecontinentandleftthewholeblackworldprostrateattheir
feet .
Intheseventhcenturythistragicoutcomewasstillfaraway.Thefall
ofMeroeandthebreak-upoftheEthiopianempireintokingdomsdid
notcheckthefloweringofblackcivilizationinthesestates .Indeed,
MakuriaandAlwaseemeddeterminednotonlytomaintaintheancient
traditionofprogress,buttoovercometheimperialbreakdownby
pushingforwardmoreaggressivelythaneveronallfronts .The600-year
detente withtheArabsinEgyptwasaperiodofsuchreconstructionand
progressthatthecriticismmaderegardingtheleadershipabovewould
seemtobeunjustifiedunlessviewedfromthelongbackwardperspective
ofhistory.Evenchurchandcathedralbuildingexpandedfromthis
centerofblackcultureovertheWesternregionsofChadandadjoining
states.Thelimitedexcavationshaverevealedthismuch .Future
archaeologicalworkmayrevealwhethertheEthiopianempireinits
heydayextendedwestwardtotheAtlanticOceanandtheGulfof
148

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Guinea .Itwasagreatsurpriserecentlytofindburiedstructuresinthe
ChadregionsimilartothoseintheheartoftheEmpirealongtheNile .
BLACKMAKURIA
Between700and1200 A.D., Makuriawasmoreempirethankingdom.
Itwasorganizedintothirteenmajorstateswithasubkingovereachand
the"KingofKings"overall.ThetraditionalAfricanCouncilwasthe
finalauthoritynomatterhowpowerfulthekingmightseemtobe .The
greatandcolorfulparasolofthe"KingofKings"hadtobewiderthan
thoseofthedivisionalkingsandtheirswaslargerthananylesser
officials .
Cyriacuswas"KingofKings"in745whenOmar,thegovernorof
Egypt,steppedupthepersecutionofChristiansinEgyptinwhat
amountedtoaMuslimHolyWar,destroyingchurchesorconverting
themintomosquesandevenputtingthePatriarchinprison .Sincethe
PatriarchinEgyptwastheheadofallChristianchurchesinAfrica,the
Africansregardedthislatestonslaughtagainstthechurchesasaninsult
aswellasabreachofthepeacetreaty,nowalmostahundredyearsold.
Strangely,theMuslimsmadeLowerEgypttheareaofgreatestchurch
destruction.WhenthearrogantOmarignoredallprotestsandpleas,the
Africankingheadedanarmyof100,000menandmarchedontheArab
centerofpowerinLowerEgypt .ThegovernorofEgyptquicklyfreed
thePatriarchandpromisedtoleavetheChristiansandtheirchurches
alone .Cyriacusacceptedtheseassurancesandwithdrewhisarmyfrom
Egpyt.
Itwasduringthisperiodthatanextensivebodyofchurchliterature
developedintheAfricanlanguageandtheremarkablepotteryindustries
wereexpanded;painting,likewriting,wasstimulatedbytheChurch,
justashadbeenthecaseintempleart .Miningwasaprincipalsourceof
wealth,butagriculturewasthebasicnationalactivityandthereis
evidenceofthepeople'sbattleswiththeencroachingdeserts .They
followedthesystemofthe"MotherEmpire"andovercamecertainarid
areasbydevelopingthesystemofterracefarmingthatwasirrigatedby
waterwheelsconstructedforhighplaces .Theyweresuccessfulenough
toproduce-asurplusofagriculturalcommoditiesforexporttrade .
Cottonhadbeenproducedfromancienttimes,andclothmakingand
otherweavingartswereamongtheoldestcrafts .Thatglasswasmadeis
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn

149
certain,buttheextentofthisenterpriseisnotindicatedbythearchaeo-
logicalfindings .
ThereportsofArabscholarsonthecitiesoftheBlacksduringthese
earlycenturiesaresignificantfortwoimportantreasons .Thefirstisthat,
liketheEuropeanexplorers,"geographers"andothersreferredto
earlier,theywerenotconcernedwithwritingAfricanhistoryand
nothingcouldhavebeenfartherfromtheirintentionsthanglorifying
theachievementsoftheBlacks .Buttheirmissionwastomakefactual
reportsontheconditionsandexploitablepossibilitiesofAfricatotheir
homecountries .Suchreportswouldbethebasisforfuturepenetration,
exploitationandconquest .
ThesecondhighlysignificantfactabouttheaccountsofAbuSalih,
IbnSalimandotherscholarsbetweentheseventhandfifteenthcenturies
A.D
.isthat,unlikethecaseofEgypt,nonequestionedeitherthe
greatnessortheoriginofthisblackcivilization
.Itwassoclearlyall-
AfricanthatitdidnotseemtooccurtotheseArabwritersthatanyother
positionwastenable .ThosefamiliarwiththetraditionalAfricanreligion
mightquestionwhetherChristianitywasinfactexternaltoAfrica .In
anycase,thebeautifulchurchestheysawspreadoverthe"Landofthe
BlackGods"hadbecomealmostcompletelyAfricanizedforthosegods .
TheprosperitytheArabvisitorsreported-themagnificentstoneand
brickpalaces,temples,churches,cathedrals,wideavenueslinedwith
palmtrees,governmentbuildings,publicbaths,watersupplysystems,
beautifulgardens,countlesscraftindustries,hugefarmswithextensive
pastureswherecamels,horses,oxen,cows,sheep,goatsandpigscould
beseengrazinglazily-allthiswasreportedasmessageswithan
unwrittenmessage: SuchisthisBlackParadise,BrothersofIslam .
Come!
Theprosperityinthiscenteroftheblackworldrepresentedoneof
thelastgreatepochsinthehistoryoftheBlacks .Ifnearthefinal,itwas
alsooneoftheirfinesthoursonthestageofhumanprogress .Herethe
measureofapeople'sgeniuscouldbetakenwithoutspeculation .Here
themessageofwhoBlackswerewaswroughtinstoneandironforthe
succeedinggenerationsofBlackswhoweretolosetheirveryidentityin
thebloodandtearsofunbrokenoppression.
TheArabscholarswereproperlyamazedatawayoflifesosuperiorto
thatoftheirownhomeland .Itwassomethingtobeamazedabout .For
therewerenotonlypublicbathsbutpubliclatrines,drainageand
centralwatersystems,butthemostremarkableevidenceofprosperity
150

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
andprogresswasreflectedintheadvancedstandardoflivingamongthe
masses
.Themassivebrickmakingindustryhadledtohomesofbrick
andstoneincities,townsandvillages-brickhouses,andlargerhouses
forthegreatcommonpeople
.Intheeighthcenturythiswassomething
forthevisitingArabscholarstowritehomeabout
.(Itwouldbesome-
thingtowriteaboutanywhereinthislastpartofthetwentiethcentury
.)
THEARABHORDES
However,theyreallydidnotneedtoreportallthis,sowellwasit
alreadygenerallyknown.ThetreatybarringArabsettlementintheall-
blackcountrieshadbeenignoredalmostfromthebeginning,and
certainlytreatedasnon-existingafterthedeathofKalydosos .The
Arabscameinsteadystreamsyearafteryear,butinaninch-by-inch
systemoverwidelyscatteredareasthatappearednottocauseimmediate
concern.Buttheycameinuncheckedandalarmingwaveswhenthe
greatschismsinIslamledtobloodywarsintheArabworld .The
characteroftherefugeemovementsoutofArabiaandotherArab
centersofpowerdependeduponwhatsecthadcapturedtheCaliphate .
Lettherecordshow,therefore,thatalltheArabsthatswarmedinto
AfricaacrosstheRedSeaandIndianOceanwerenotbentoneither
conquestordomination.Countlessthousandswerefleeingtherefor
refuge,fleeingfortheirverylives .Oncesettledthere,however,they
formedtheever-increasingpopulationbasefortheMuslimleaders
whoseaimwastoestablishIslamicruleoverthewholeblackworld .
TheyweretofollowtheChristianstrategyofconcentratingonthe
conversionofAfricankingsandleadersinthebeliefthatastheking
goes,sogoesthenation,atheorythatdidnotworkinAfrica,exceptina
superficialwayforexpediency.However,theblackkingswerealready
droppingtheirAfricannamesfor"Christian"names,thefirststep
towardsself-effacement .
Soasearlyastheninthcentury,(831 A.D.), KingZakaria,alarmedat
greatincursionsofArabsintotheSudan,sentadelegationheadedby
hisnephew(heirtothethrone)totheCaliphatBagdad,askingthatthe
Treatyof652berespectedandArabmigrationshalted.Thismeantthat
aweakblackkingnowheldthedestinyoftheraceinhishands .Thathe
wassonaiveastosupposethattheCaliphcouldstoptheArabhordes
evenifhedesiredtodosowasitselfasignofincompetence .
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
151
Thehighestrankingofthethirteenkingsunderthe"KingofKings"
wastheEparchofFaris,LordoftheMountain
.Hewasthecommander
ofthefrontierforcesattheEgyptianborderandhisspecialmissionwas
tobarArabmigrationandsettlementintheLandoftheBlacks
.Only
thelimitednumberoftraderswerepermittedtopassandthetimelimit
fortheirstaywasfixed
.TheEparch,therefore,hadindeedbeenthe
mostimportantofficialnexttothe"KingofKings,"forhewasdirectly
responsibleforthesecurityandindependenceofthenation
.Under
strongkingsandstrongeparchsthemissionwascarriedoutandArab
incursionssouthwardwerechecked
.'Thatwasnowlongago.The
ArabshadbeenpassingtheLordoftheMountainandhisgarrisonsfor
somanydecadesthatbytheninthcenturyArabicwasgenerallyspoken
belowtheFirstCataract .
HOWSLAVERYCAMETOBE
CONFINEDTOBLACKSALONE
InthelatterpartofthethirteenthcenturyDavid,KingofMakuria,
seeingnootherwaytoforestallAraboccupationofhiscountry,stepped
uphisraidsinUpperEgypt.Theraidswereeasiertocarryoutbecause
ofthechaosthatfollowedthetriumphsoftheMamelukesinEgypt
.But
in1272theBlacks,inwhatIhaveattackedasthepatternoftheirown
self-destruction,madethefirstmajorsteptothatend
.Theusual
impatienceofheirstothethronesoonenoughfoundfullexpressionin
Shakandu,theKing'snephew.HehastenedtotheSultanofEgyptto
secureanallianceandplananinvasionofhiscountrythatwouldassure
hisascendancytothethrone .TheSultanhadeveryreasontograspthis
wonderfulopportunityhandedtohimthroughtheBlacksthemselves
.
Notonlywouldhebeabletoevenscoreswiththem,buthewouldalso
beabletocreateconditionsforMamelukehegemonyovertheirland
.
Moreover,theAfricankinghadnotonlybeenraidingEgyptwith
impunity,buthehaddenouncedtheTreatyof652andrefusedtopay
the Baqt. SultanBaibars,therefore,didnothesitate .Heorganizeda
stronginvadingexpeditionwithShakanduatitsheadandenteredthe
3.Becauseoftherepeatedemphasisonthefact,itshouldbequite
clearnowthatreferencetoEgyptian,AsianorArabinvasionsalways
includeblackslavearmiesaswellasMulattoesclassifiedas"white ."
152

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
BlackLand .Thestrugglewaslongandbitter,astheSultan'sstrategyin
usinghisblackarmy,alongwithShakandu'sownfollowers,madeit
appeartobecivilwarbetweenBlacks .IntheendtheSultanwon
throughtheblackheirtothethrone,andallowedhimtobecrowned
kingashisprotege .
ThedismembermentoftheblackkingdomsintheSudanhadbegun .
Nowarivaltributewasexactedandalmostdoubledwithoutany
pretenseofbeinganagreementofmutualexchange .Thetribute
exactedwasharshandtheBlackswerepromisednothing .Thekingdom
wasthendividedintotwoparts,theSultantakingthenorthernregion
ashispersonalfief.MuslimrulenowextendedoverEgyptandintothe
Sudan.Thepatternwassetthatwastocontinueintoourtimesand
probablybeyond: TheArabsintheNorthernSudan,whiletheBlacks
werepressuredintosmallerandsmallerareasintheSouthernSudan .
Onceagain,learningnothingfromevenjustyesterday,theblack
leadershippavedthewayforfurtherArabadvancesintotheircountry.
Theblackleadership'sstruggleforpersonalpowerand,aboveall,their
ownpersonalsecurityandwelfare,precludedtheirconcernforthe
welfareandfutureoftheirpeople.Theywerequitewillingandreadyto
welcometheArabsaridtosurrendertheirpeopletotheminexchangefor
"high"officeandlimitedconsideration.Thedaysoftheblackimmortals
seemedtohavepassedforever.Mentalpygmiesagainoccupiedthe
throneonceheldbyMenes,Piankhi,Shabaka,andKalydosos .
In 1304,stillanotherself-seekingblackleaderjourneyedtoCairoto
havehimselfcrownedastheservant-kingoftheBlacksbytheSultanal
Nasir.TheSultansentanexpeditiontoDongola-atasknoweasier
thanbefore-andhisnewservantwascrownedasKingAmai .
ItshouldbenotedherethattheMamelukerulers'effectivepower
wasconfinedtoLowerEgyptandthatindependentArabtribes,of
whichtheBaniKanzwerethemostpowerful,heldallUpperEgypt .
Theywereonlynominallythesultans.Inordertoputanendtothe
endlesscoupsandcounter-coupsamongtheBlacks,thedecisionwas
reachedtooverwhelmtheSouthwithunitedarmiesfrombothUpper
andLowerEgyptandstepuptheIslamizationoftheBlacks,putting
Muslimkingsonthethrone .
In 1316 A.D., theobjectiveswererealizedwhenDongolawasagain
razedforthefifthtimeandKerembes,thelastblackChristianking,was
puttoflight.AblackMuslim,Abdullah,wasmadekingtemporarily
whileawaitingthepleasure,notoftheSultan,butofthepowerfulChief
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn

153
Kanzad-DawlahoftheBaniKanzArabtribe .Hispleasurewastoput
theBlackMuslimkingtodeathandassumethekingshipoverthe
Blackshimself.OvertheBlacks?Thisstatementismisleading.Thiswas
nolongerthe"LandoftheBlacks."WhiteandcolouredArabsnow
constitutedthemajority.Withoutthispopulationbase,thetriumphof
theArabsintheSudancouldnothavehappened .
YettheArabchieftain'sruleaskingwasshort-livedbecausethe
Mamelukerulersplayedonegroupoffagainsttheotherinaneffortto
defeatArabobjectivesinonewayoranother .Foronething,theyhad
beenunabletobreaktheautonomyoftheArabtribesinUpperEgypt,
andthesetribeswerespreadingovertheSudanandsettinguptheir
ownkings.ThiswasafurtherchallengetoMamelukeruleinEgypt.
Who,then,weretheMamelukes?
TheMamelukeswerethewhiteswhohadbeenenslavedbythe
Arabsintheirwildandamazingsweepoutoftheirdeserthomelandto
conqueralladjacentcountriesandestablishaworldempirewitha
speedthatshockedtheworld.Theirswastheoriginalblitz .The
enslavementofprisonersofwar,whichwasthewaygeneralslavery
began,wastheorderoftheday.Racehadnobearingonthematter
then.Whites,blacks,brownsoryellows,allweremadeslavesifcaptured .
TheArabsalsomadeapracticeofcreatingstrongslavearmies .The
whiteslavearmiesweretheMamelukes .These,whenstationedin
Egypt,revolted,overthrewthegovernment,andestablishedtheirown
lineofrulingsultans.ForthistheywerehatedbytheArabsandlooked
uponwithscorn,eventhoughtheyhadbeenconvertedtoIslam .The
whiteex-slaveshatedtheirformermastersevenmore .
Thiswhiteslaverevoltanditshistoricalsignificanceareunderplayed.
Yetitsimpactwassuchthatitinfluencedthecourseofmodernhistory
inblack-whiterelations.Theeffectofthatrevoltontheblackworldwas
tragic.Forthemurderousonslaughtsofthewhiteslavesagainsttheir
erstwhilemasterssoshockedthewhiteworldthatthegeneralenslave-
mentofwhitesendedforever .Onthistherecordisclear: Whiteslavery
endedaftertheMamelukerebellion.ThereafterBlackAfricabecame
theexclusivehuntinggroundforslaves,asituationmadeeasybythe
developmentsoutlinedinthiswork .Allthetheoriesofinherentblack
inferioritystemmedfromtheurgentlyfeltneedtojustifythesuccessin
confiningslaverytotheAfricanrace .
Theanswertotheriddleofthecenturiescanbetracedrighthere,for
thatgreatchangeinhumanhistorywhenonlyBlackswereenslavedled
154

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
tothegeneraldegradationofawholepeople
.Thewaywasnowopen
andeasyforalltherelevantbranchesofscienceandscholarshipto
proclaimtheoriesontheinherentinferiorityofBlacks
.Farworsethan
this,sinceblackpopulationswereeverywhereunderwhitecontrol,they
couldactuallybe forcedintoinferiority
byadehumanizingprogram
"silently"structuredinallinstitutionsandphasesofwhitenationallife
.
TheBlacksweretheimmediatevictimsofthosediseasesbornof
povertyandplanneddeprivation
.Undernourishedanddiseasedmothers
carriedandbroughtbabiesintotheworldwhowerebothphysicallyand'
mentallyhandicappedevenbeforebirth .
TheMamelukeSultansentanotherexpeditionin1323toputthe
Africanking,Kerembes,onthethrone,again,afterhisbrother,himself,
haddeposedtheArabkingonlytodieafewdayslater
.Thecoupsand
counter-coupsstillseemedtobeendlessandnotatallthepresupposed
politicalphenomenacharacteristicallyconfinedtotheBlacks
.Therefore,
assoonastheMamelukeforceswithdrewfromtheSouth,Kanzal-
Dawlahreturned,overthrewKerembesasecondtime,andbecameking
again
.Meanwhile,anotherstrongArabtribe,theGuhayna,hadbeen
pouringintotheSudaninsuchgreatwavesthattheyrapidlybecame
thedominantArabgroupbelowtheSecondCataract
.Thekingdom
knowntohistoryasMakuriawasnomore
.Itwasthekingdomthat,
togetherwithitsmoresouthernneighbor,battledtomaintainand
expandthegloriouscivilizationoftheMotherlandforanotherthousand
yearsafterthefalloftheimperialcityofMeroe
.Thatwaswhyitwas
closetothefifteenthcenturybeforeanIbnKhaldunoranyoneelse
couldreportthattheGuhaynaArabswerethecompletemastersofthe
LandoftheBlacksfromtheFirstCataracttothehighlandsofAbyssinia .
ThehistoryofBlackEgypthadbeenrepeatedintheBlackSouth
: The
comingoftheCaucasian,whetherfromAsiaorEurope,orwhetherin
thenameofpeace,trade,an"integratedsociety,"orinthenameofthe
AllahoftheArabsortheGodandJesusChristoftheJewsand
Christians,nomatterunderwhatpretexttheycameitmeantthe
destructionofthehighlyadvancedcivilizationoftheBlacksandtheir
totaldegradationasapeople
.Andthesameethnicphenomenonthat
acceleratedtheprocessofracialdisintegrationinEgyptalsooperatedin
theSudan
.Thiswas,simplystated,thewidespreadsexualactivitieson
thepartofArabmenandblackslavegirls,theoutcomeofwhichwasa
newbreedofAfro-Arabs,thesamesexualprocessthatproduced
"Egyptians"asanationalitygroupneitherAsiannorAfrican
.Inthe
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
155
SudanArabizationandIslamizationhadanotheroutcome : Notonlydid
theAfro-ArabsconsiderthemselvesArabsandbitterlyresentedbeing
calledSudanese(Black),butthousandsofthejet-black,unmixed
AfricansinsistedonbeingclassedasArabs .Theystilldo(thisfactwas
settledbeyondquestionduringmyfieldstudiesintheSudanin
1964).
Thisfactalsoconfusesandfrustratestheblackworldbothinand
outsideofAfrica
.Forwho,nowareour"Africanbrothers?"
ANDNOW-ALWA
Withthecaptureandcontrolofthebiggestremainingkingdomofthe
Ethiopianempirecompletedthroughpeacefulinfiltrationofwavesof
Arabrefugeesovercenturies,thetriumphantArabswerenotdisposed
tofollowthesame
.longdrawn-outprocedureintakingoverthelastkeyi
kingdomoftheformerlyblackempire .ThiswasAlwa.TheArabs
decidedonafull-scalewaragainstthislastcitadelofblackpowerinthe
SouthernSudan
.AlthoughMakuriawasmostinthespotlightofthe
warsagainsttheArabincursions,shewasablysupportedbyAlwa
.
Makuriahadto
.carrythebruntoftheburdenbecauseitwasrightnext
doortotheenemyanditalonehadtheawesomeresponsibilityof
holdingthefloodgatesabovetheFirstCataractthroughwhichtheArab
tidesebbedandflowed
.MeanwhileAlwa,withruinsoftheimperial
citiesofNapataandMeroeinitsverymidst,hadamoredirect
responsibilityforrestoringandmaintainingthegloriesofablack
civilizationthathadrefusedtodiewiththefalloftheEthiopianEmpire
athousandyearsbefore
.AlwahadreplacedMeroewithitsbeautiful
capitalcityofSoba,andhaddevelopeditsothertownsandcitiesalong
suchadvancedlinesthatforeignwriterscouldneverfailtocommenton
thearchitecturaldesigns,thewidestreetslinedwithpalmtrees,the
spacioushomesand,infact,allofthethingstheyhadobservedin
Makuria: thethrivingindustrialcrafts,largescalecattleraising,a
surplus-producingagriculturethatkeptaliveanexporttradeindates,
wheatandgarri,cottonfabricsandotherproducenoteasilyperishable,
andanefficientadministration,astrongarmyheadedbyformidable
cavalryregiments
.Alwahadmadeitsdefensesystemmoresecureby
maintainingmorewalledtownsandcitiesthanMakuria
.Thesewalled
placeswererebuiltprimarilyascentersofrefugeagainsttheconstant
Arabslaveraids
.Nowtheyweretoserveasfreedom'sfinalbastionsof
defenseagainstlocalenslavement
.Alwawasreadyforwhateveryone
knewwasitslastwarasanation .
156

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
FortheArabshadformedagreatconfederationofitsfeudingtribes
.
These,whileperpetuallyatwaramongthemselves,couldalwaysbe
countedontounitequicklyagainstnon-Arabandnon-Muslimpeoples
.
BeforetheUnitedArabarmiesenteredAlwa,theblackleadershiphad
orderedageneralevacuationofthecountrybyallwomenandchildren
andtheaged
.Themen,warriorsall,remainedtofacethefoe
.Itisnot
knownwhetherthetraditionalBlackWomen'sArmyCorpsexistedin
Alwa
.Inanyevent,theArabsdidnotfind,andindeed,didnotexpect
theconquesttobeeasy
.TheyknewwellthecourageoftheBlacksin
battleandtheirunwillingnesstosurrenderevenwhendefeated
.They
hadtotakeAlwacitybycity,townbytown,hillbyhillandbushby
bush
.TheBlacksweredyingandfightingforthehighorderoflifethey
hadbuilt.TheyfoughtnoblyontheplainsofAlwain
1504,whiletheir
people,somenevertobeseenagain,joinedothercountlessthousands
inthegreatmigrationstowardEast,West,Central,andSouthernAfrica
.
THESURPRISEKINGDOM
Duringthesameperiodthesetwoblackstateswerebeingdestroyed,
thehistoryoftherebirthofdestroyedAfricanstateswasbeingrepeated
justbeyondtheirbordersbymigratingAfricanswhohaddecidedto
makeanotherstandinthemidstofdeathanddanger
.TheseBlacks
werecalledtheFunjpeople
.Theygatheredinstrengthand,with
consummatedaring,quicklyformedanewnationtheveryyearAlwa
passedfromthesceneasastate
.Undertheleadershipofthestrong
king,generalandstatesman,AmaraDunqas,theyestablishedtheir
capitalatSennarontheBlueNileandattheveryoutsettheyassumed
anaggressivestancethatputtheworldonnoticethatblackpowerin
Africahadnotyetbeencompletelydestroyed,thatanotherfighting
statehademergedfromtheashesofthosewhichhadbeendestroyed
.
Indeed,theFunjstatearosewithsuchsuddennessandwithpoliciesand
programssodaringthatitshockedboththeArabsandthenow-
encroachingOttomanTurks .Thelatter,afteroverthrowingMameluke
ruleandtaking~overEgypt,quicklybuiltandexpandeddefensiveforti-
ficationsagainstpossibleFunjinvasions
.FortheseBlackshadturned
thetablesofhistorybyannexingandbringingundercontroltheArab
tribalstatesintheLowerGeziraregionandtheareasaroundthepresent
Khartoum
.TheFunjkingappointedanArabashisgovernoroverArab
provinces,emphasizingtheArabs'statusoftributaryvassalsbygiving
theofficeofgovernoranAfricantitle
.Allthisprovedtobejusttoo
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
157
muchforourWesternhistorians .Characteristically,andeventoday,they
refertotheFunjasa"mysteriouspeople,"andwonderfromwhence
theycame
.Theydebate,withtheusualairofdeepscholarship,whether
ornottheseBlacksoftheFunjKingdomwerereallyBlacks!Whenitis
suggestedthatthey"probablycamefromtheeast,"itisarepeatofthe
overworkedcanardthatplantstheideathatallsuchpeoplemusthave
comefromAsia.Inhisrecent Modern History oftheSudan,P.M.Holt
concludesthat"ArigorousinvestigationoftheproblemofFunjorigins
hasyettobemade." Whyis thereaproblem?And what is theproblem,
ifthereisone?Bothquestionsareintegralpartsofthegreatissuesinthis
work
.Theyhavebeenratherfullyansweredindifferentcontexts
.Asto
thisparticularcase,therefore,the "problem ofFunjorigins"isaproblem
forCaucasiansonly,withthepossibleexceptionofthoseNegroscholars
whoseskewedvisionofrealityisthrougheyesofblue .Peoplenot
concernedwiththedistortionsofhistory,butdesiringthetruthabout
thepastashonestlyasitcanbedetermined,willhavenodifficultyin
understandingthatthepeoplewhowerecalledFunjwereoneofthe
uprootedandcountlessgroupswehavebeendescribing,drivenfrom
oneplaceandreorganizingtosettleinanotheruntiluprootedagainand
again,andresettlingandrebuildingagainandagain,onandon,until
theEuropeanssweptthewholecontinentand,then,afterwards
.Some
wanderedtotheutmostparts,asstatedbefore
;andsome,likethe
ShillukswhobulttheFunjKingdom,didnotleavetheirgeneralregion.
Ifthey"camefromtheeast,"itwasfromtheeastbankoftheNile .
Intheinterestoftradeandforeigncommerce,Funjkings,asmany
Africankingsweretodolater,begantoacceptIslamandtakethe
Arabictitleofsultans.Thereafter,writerscalledthekingdomthe"Funj
Sultanate
."Inthismatterofcommercialactivities,itshouldbespecially
notedthatinearlytimestheBlacksequaledtheSemiticpeoples
intheirinterestanddriveinthefieldsoffinance,industryandforeign
trade
.AlloverAfricatherewerewholesocietiesthatweredistinguished,
enjoyingfamefortheirskillandsuccessinoneofthesebusinessareas
.
Thatinterestanddriveinlargescaleeconomicendeavorsweregenerally
lostalongwithotherinstitutionsthathadbeenthebasisoftheir
advancedculture
.Thiswasthemajortragedyinthehistoryofthe
Blacks,andoneaboutwhichtheyhavenotevenyetbeenfully
awakened.
Funj(or(Shilluk)tradersroamedfarandwideinthegreatgameof
buyingandselling.Thecontinuedprosperityofthecountrydepended
158

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
largelyontheirsellingactivitiesinneighboringstates,inEgyptandover
theall-importantcaravantraderoutestodistantlands .Thistradewas
theforcefulstimulusthatkeptthepeopleathome,busyandhappy,
producingthenecessarysurplusinagriculture,miningandinthecraft
industriesofvariouskinds .HavingbecomeMuslims,ifonlyinname,
theFunjmerchantswerereadilyreceivedeverywhereintheincreasingly
IslamizedworldinAfricaandAsia .Thefactthattheycamefroma
proudandwar-likestatemayhavehadmoretodowiththedeference
shownthemthanthefactoftheirbeingMuslims .Non-MuslimMakuria
andAlwahadamostflourishingtradewiththeMuslimworld
.Their
tradershadalsobeenreceivedwithrespectandhonorbytheArabs
.Itis
ironicthatonehastobeafightertocommandgreaterrespect .Unlike
MakuriaandAlwa,theFunjKingdomdidnotresistIslamizationbut
welcomedit.YetitsAfricannationalismclearlytranscendedIslam .The
numberofsultansandnotableswhorejectedArabicnamesisimpres-
siveandsignificant .Theiropen-doorpolicies,however,weretospeed
upthepaceofArabizationnotonlyintheFunjkingdombutalloverthe
Sudan.
AndasArabizationspreadamongtheBlackssodidslaveryandslave
raiding
.TheArabs'insatiableandperpetualdemandsforslaveshad
longsincechangedslaveryfromaninstitutionthatsignaledamilitary
victorybythenumberofcaputredprisonerstoaninstitutionthat
provokedwarfareexpresslyfortheenslavementofmen,womenand
childrenforsaleandresale.Humanbeingshadnowopenlybecome
veryprofitablearticlesoftradeandtheslavedealershadfoundshorter
routestoquickerriches .TheFunj,likemanyotherBlackstatesthen
andsince,foundaddedwealthintheslavetrade,andanewreasonfor
wagingwarontheirneighborsfor"prisonersofwar"tofurtherthe
trade.'Todayitisdifficulttofindevenasmallregionthatdoesnothave
ahistoryofinter-tribalconflictsstemmingdirectlyfromonegroup's
raidinganotherforslaves,orattemptingtoeitherconqueranother
group,annexitorenslavethewholesocietythatwasoverrun
.TheFunj,
then,becomejustaanotherexampleofaroleplayedbytheBlacksthat
notonlyguaranteedtheirowndamnation,butalsomadetheirreunifi-
cationfornationhoodoranythingelseamostdifficultundertaking
.The
4.OneaccountstatesthattheFunjKingdomjoinedArabsinthe
destructionofAlwa.This,too,ispossible .
TheTwoWhoCarriedOn
159
difficultybecomesimpossibleforsolutionwhenassoonastheyokeof
whiteoppressionhadbeenremoved,thedescendantsofformerblack
oppressorscomeforthastherightfulrulersasbefore,justasthough
nothingatallhadhappenedtochangetheoverlordstatusoftheir
proudslave-sellingancestors.
TheFunjkingdom,becauseofitsMuslimshieldand"war-making
machine,"survivedasablackstate,inwhatotherwisewouldhavebeen
animpossibleenvironment,forthreehundredyears
.Thesecenturies
werecharacterizedbyalltheupsanddowns,internalpowerstruggles,
coupsandcounter-coupsthatbesetotherstates
.SometimesanArab
dynastyruled,sometimesitwasanAfro-Arabline,andatothertimes,
mostoftenitwasablackdynasty,orwhattheArabscalledtheHamaji.
Theendcameatthebeginningofthenineteenthcenturywhenthe
OttomanTurksbegantheirreignofterrorintheSudanwiththeseizure
ofSennarbyMuhammadAli-thesameMuhammedAliwhowasthe
greatestmurdererofBlacksthateversetfootontheAfricancontinent
.
Hismassacreofmen,womenandchildrenwasonsuchascalethateven
thewhiteworldprotested.
Abriefsummaryofthehistoryofthethreeblackstateswehave
mentionedwouldbemuchlongerthanwhatwehavesaidabout
Makuria,AlwaandFunj
.Recountingthedetailsoftheirhistorywasnot
intended
.Ratherthecase-studyapproachisbeingused,asannounced
inthePreview
.Eachofthestatesrepresentsadditionalconcrete
documentationofthepositionsIhavetaken,ofteninwhatmight
appeartobeoverlygeneralizeddeclarations
.Ineachcase,beginning
withEgypt,themainfocuswasonthesignificantdataonthehistoryof
theblackpeople,andnotonthegreatmassesofequallyinteresting
details
.Afewmorestateswillbepresentedasfurtherillustrationsofall
thatisbeingsaidinconnectionwiththehistoryoftheAfricanpeople .
Westartedinthe"HeartlandoftheRace"whereitshistoryclearly
extendedfromtheSudanoverEgypt.
TheantiquityofBlackCivilization
;theamazingheightsitreached
beforerecordedhistory
;theearlyproblemsofAsianinvasions,
amalgamationandthenewbreed,theColouredEgyptians
;Caucasian
penetrationintoroyalblacklineages,theincreasingpressuresonthe
Blacksandtheirsouthwardmigrations
;theAfro-Asianwars;theblack-
outofblackhistoryinEgypt
;thelongdrawn-outprocessofCaucasiani-
zationofEgyptasitwasde-Africanized
;thewithdrawaloftheEthiopian
bordertotheFirstCataract
;theconcentrationofBlacksbelowthatline ;
160

TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


theconfusionofblackhistorythroughtheconfusionofnames,color
anddynasties;integrationandamalgamationasbrotherhoodmyths ;the
greatblackmigrations ;thesplittingupofstatesandlanguagesandtheir
roleinthedeclineofBlackAfricancivilization-allofthesehistorical
factorsweresetforthbeforethefinalcollapseoftheEthiopianempirein
thefourthcenturyA.D., beforewebegantheanalysesofthethree
"children"statesthatwerebornastheirimperialmotherpassed,
bequeathingtothemherowndeathlessspirittocarryon .
ThemaincharacteristicsofthehistoryoftheBlacksarereflectedin
thosestates: Buildinganadvancedsystemoflife,thenhavingit
destroyed;buildingagain,destructionagain,migratingandbuilding
somewhereelse,onlytobesoughtoutanddestroyedagain ;moving,
moving,moving,alwaysmoving,rebuildingandmoving,againand
again;countlessthousandsgivingupthestruggleasutterlyhopeless ;
internalstrifeincreasedasexternalpressuresandthreatstoexistence
increased ;anevery-man-for-himselfphilosophyreplacingthatofeternal
brotherhoodinsomesocieties ;and,throughitall,newstatesforming
evenduringthemostdestructivecenturieswhendeathseemedtobea
rideroneverystreamandpassingbreeze,newstatestryingtorestore,
yet,onceagaintheirlostcivilization,theirwrittenlanguages,their
forgottenartsandsciences,theorganizationandstudyoftheiroral
historythathadcomedownunbrokeninitsmainoutlinesfrom
generationtogeneration,andthechancetoremaininonearealong
enoughtoliveagainunderanAfricanconstitutionalsystemthatis
unrivaledbythatofanypeople,theseeffortswerestillbeingpushedin
everyregionoftheAfricancontinentlongaftertheundermining
operationhadbeensetinmotiontopavethewayfortheconquestsby
Europe.TheAfricanswerestillrebuildingtheirowncivilizationwhen
thatofAsiaandEuropewasimposed .
When,ifever,black peopleactuallyorganizeasaracein
their various population centers,theywillfindthatthe
basic and guidingideologythey nowseekand so much
need is embeddedin theirowntraditionalphilosophy and
constitutionalsystem,simplywaiting tobeextractedand
setforth .And while the'Workinthisfield hasyettobe
advancedfurther,some ofthe most fundamental
principlesofAfricanpolitical scienceand philosophy oflife
aretobefound inthepageswhichfollow.
CHAPTERVI
TheAfricanConstitution:
BirthofDemocracy
INOURINTRODUCTORYPREVIEWOFAFRICANHISTORY
referencesweremadetothecommonoriginofthepeoplethewhite
worldpreferstocall"Negro
."Thatweareherestudyingasinglerace,
notraces,andasinglepeople,notpeoples,isamajortheoryandfactof
blackhistoryandoneofourprincipalguidelines
.Weare,therefore,
primarilyconcernedonlywiththosethingswhichwerecharacteristically
African,practicallyuniversalamongthemfromoneendofthecontinent
totheotherandwhichtherebyindicatedanancientcommonculturein
acommoncenterofBlackCivilization .Onthiswestand.
InthislighttheAfricanConstitutionisdiscussedasabodyoffunda-
mentaltheories,principlesandpracticesdrawnfromthecustomary
lawsthatgovernedBlackAfricansocietiesfromtheearliesttimes
.The
firsttaskwastodivorcetraditionalAfricaninstitutionsfromthose
influencedbylaterAsianandEuropeanincursions
;todeterminewhat
istrulyAfricaninoriginandwhatisinfacteitherAsianorEuropeanor
areflectionofanyotherexternalinfluence
.Anothertaskwastodeter-
minewhetheraninstitutioncalled"African"wasinfactAfricaninthe
senseofbeinguniversalamongtheBlacks,acontinent-wideinstitution
incontra-distinctiontosomethingpeculiartooneormoretribes,
161
162

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
nationsorAfricanregions.Thisdistinctionisimportanthere,fortoo
oftenthingsarecharacterizedas"African"whichapplyonlytocertain
societies.Theserepresentthedevelopmentofthewholecomplexof
culturalvariationsaboutwhichWesternwritersdeclaiminemphasizing
the"greatethnicdifferences"amongthepeople .(Thisisnotaccidental
orwithoutdesign.CaucasianfearsaboutthepossibilityofBlacks
developingasenseofonenessandunityofactionisdeepandcenturies
old.Manysubtleschemesareusedtomaintaindivisiveness,andwith
success.)
Astudentofcomparativehistorycanseewithoutdifficultythat
variouspeoplesscatteredallovertheworldoftendevelopsimilar
institutionswihouteverhavinghadanycontactswhatsoever .Thisis
equallytrueofthemostisolatedgroups .Similarcircumstancesmay
producesimilarideasandculturepatterns,allofwhichmayconfirmthe
Cartesiantheoryabouttheequaldistributionofcommonsenseamong
allmankind.Bysimply"doingwhatcomesnatually,"onesocietymay
evolvealifesystemnotunlikeanothersocietytenthousandmilesaway
acrossdistantoceans .Therefore,neitherthe"ExternalInfluence"theory
northatofthecommonoriginofawidelysegmentedpeopleshouldbe
hastilyaffirmed.Weholdthistobetrueeveninthestudyofoneracein
thegenerallysameenvironmentofonecontinent.Theevidencemust
stillbeconclusive.
ORIGINOFAFRICANDEMOCRACY
Theforegoingobservationssuggestthattheconstitutionofany
peopleornation,writtenorunwritten,derivesfromitscustomaryrules
oflife ;andthatwhatwenowcall"democracy"wasgenerallytheearliest
systemamongvariouspeoplesthroughouttheancientworld .Whatwas
arelativelynewdevelopmentwasabsolutemonarchy.
AmongtheBlacks,democraticinstitutionsevolvedandfunctionedin
asocio-economicandpoliticalsystemwhichWesternwriterscall"State-
lesssocieties"or"Societieswithoutchiefs
."Whenthesesocietieswere
referredtoas"primitive"democracies,thewritersareinfactdoingthe
veryoppositeofwhattheyintended
.Farfrombeingjustadescriptive
termforbackwardpeoples,"primitive"alsomeans"thefirst,"the
beginners.Moreover,manyofthese"statelesssocieties"werestatesin
TheAfricanConstitution

163
factwithoutnecessarilyconformingtoapredeterminedWesternstruc-
turalpatternofstate
.Indeed,whatiscalleda"statelesssociety"inAfrica
wouldhardlybeclassifiedassuchintheWest,fortheWesterndefinition
ofastatedoesnotincludetherequirementsof oneman asitsexecutive
head-a state
beinganycollectionofpeopleoccupyingagiventerritory,
andlivingundertheirowngovernmentindependentlyofexternal
control.
Thesefactsaresetforthattheoutsetbecauseboththeconstitutional
systemanditsoffspring,Africandemocracy,originatedin"chiefless
societies
."And,whatisevenmoresignificant,democracyreachedits
highestdevelopmentherewherethepeopleactuallygovernedthem-
selveswithoutchiefs,whereself-governmentwasawayoflife,and"law
andorder"weretakenforgranted.
Thebasicstructuraloutlineofthesestatesremainedthesame
throughoutAfrica .Thereweretheusualvariationsandexceptions.The
amazingthingwasandistheuniformity-amazinghowthemostbasic
elementsofancientblackcivilizationcouldhavebeenheldonto,conti-
nent-wide,byallofthesedispersedandisolatedgroupsinspiteofthe
continuingimpactofunimaginableforcesofdestruction .
Thelineagetiesandresponsibilitiesandtheage-gradeorage-set
systemweretheearliestinstitutionsthroughwhichtheAfricanconstitu-
tionfunctioned,andoutofwhichitsdemocracywasborn .Itwasa
networkofkinsmen,andallegedkinsmen,allofwhomdescendedfrom
thesameancestororrelatedancestors
.Allmightliveinthesame
communityorstate,buttheywereoftenscatteredfarandnearin
separateandindependentsocieties .
Theancestorfromwhomtheyclaimeddescentwasalways"great"
becauseofsomeoutstandingdeedorextraordinaryachievements .
Thesegenerallygrewinmagnitudeastimeandthegenerationspassed,
thuscausingthetrueachievementstobeoverlaidbythefalseclaims
growingoutofpraisesongs
.Eachgenerationofpoetsandstorytellers
gavetheimaginationfullrangeinRomanticglory .Mythswerebornin
thismanner,andthelaterconceptsofbothroyaltyanddivinitygained
supportfromthesamesource
.Incontiguousindependentchiefdoms
thelineagewasthepowerfulfactorinprovidingthebasisandincentive
forthelaterformationofkingdomsandempires
.NopeopleinAfrican
historyusedtheconceptofkinshiptiesmoreeffectivelythentheLunda
intheremarkableexpansionoftheirempire.Evenmoreremarkable
1 64

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
thantheterritorialexpansionoftheLundaempirewastheirideaofa
nationasonebigbrotherhood .
Accordingly,insteadoffirstattemptingtoconquerandannexby
force,theywouldapproachindependentstatesandseektodemonstrate
fromoralhistorythatallofthemweremerelysegmentsofacommon
lineage,allbrothersinfact.Itappearsthatthemajorityofstates
believedintheprincipleofacommonancestryandreadilybecame
membersoftheempire .Somerequiredmorefactsbeforetheywere
convinced,stillotherswerenotconvincedorpreferredtoremain
separateandindependent.Theseweregenerallyconqueredandgiven
alowerstatusinthenationthanthosewhounitedvoluntarily.
Butweareconsideringlineagebeforetheriseofkingdomsandin
particular,thelineageasthegoverningandorganizingforceinstates
withoutchiefsorkings,wherecommunityconsensuswasthesupreme
lawthatanyonecouldignoreonlyathisperil.
Therewereinterestingaspectstothemanysituationswherealarge
numberofthesechieflessstateswerescatteredoverawideterritory,
eachindependentoftheothers,yetallfullyaware(andunlikein
Lundaland,hadtobeconvinced)thattheybelongedtoacommon
lineage .Kinshipfoundexpressionintradeandintemporaryconfedera-
tionswhenattackedbyexternalfoes(thosenotconsideredtobe
membersoftheirlineage) .
Therewerequarrelsandwarfarebetweenthesememberstatesofthe
commonlineage .ThehighlyhumaneaspectofAfricanwarfarethat
puzzledmanyWesternvisitorsdoubtlesslydevelopedfromthe
widespreadrecognitionoflineageorkinshipties .Forinthemuch
heralded"tribalwars"themainobjectivewastoovercomeorfrighten
awaytheadversary,nottokillatallifitcouldbeavoided .Hencethe
hideousmasksandblood-curdlingscreamsastheycharged .Evenwhen
theenemywasdefeatedorcompletelysurrounded,escaperouteswere
provided,thevictorspretendingnottobeawareofthem.Indeed,there
arereportsof"restperiods,"calledwhenneithersideseemedtobe
winning.Atsuchtimesthewarriorsonbothsidesmightmeetatthe
neareststreamtorefreshthemselves,kideachother,andlaughateach
others'jokesuntilthedrums,gongsortrumpetssoundedforthe
resumptionofthebattle .ThiswastraditionalAfrica .Howdiditchange
toawarfareofkilling,lineageornolineage?Howdidithappenthat
evennowinourmodernand"advanced"civilizationsomeofthemost
murderousandinhumanofwarsarefoughtbyBlacks againstBlacks,
TheAfricanConstitution
165
andthisinthefaceoftheirincreasingawarenessthattheyareinfactone
people?ItisquiteclearthatinearlyAfrica"war"wasnotmuchmore
thanafrightfulgamewhenamongthemselves
.Wastheradicalchange
broughtaboutbythedeath-dealingincursionsfromAsiaandEurope?
Thisraisesotherquestionsofgreaturgency
: Arewereallycivilized
today?Havewenotsubstitutedthetrappingsofcivilization-our
triumphsinscience,technology,andthecomputer"revolution"-for
civilizationties?Sufficeittosaythatthesteadyweakeningoflineage
tiesanditsspiritofunitywasalsoaweakeningofthesenseof
brotherhoodandunityamongtheBlacks
.Todayitfindslittleexpression
exceptinvariouslanguagesortribalgroups,andthesemaintainitmore
andmoreasacohesiveforcetobeusedagainstallothers
.
Lineage,then,wasthemostpowerfulandeffectiveforceforunityand
stabilityinearlyAfrica,andthiswassotruethatastatecouldbeself-
governedwithouttheneedforanyoneindividualasruler,chieforking
.
EveryonewasalawyerbecausejustabouteveryoneknewtheCustomary
laws.
Theage-gradeorage-set(alsocalled"class")wasthespecificorgani-
zationalstructurethroughwhichthesocietyfunctioned
.
Classificationwasdeterminedbytheperiod
in whichonewasborn.
Allpersonsborninthesameyear,orwithinageneralbutwell-defined
periodbeforeorafteragivenyear,belongedinthesameage-grade
.
Eachgradecoveredablockofyears
: Age-gradeonemightincludeall
childrenuptoagetwelve
;gradetwo,fromthirteentoeighteen ;grade
three,nineteentotwenty-eight
;gradefour,twenty-ninetoforty;and
gradefive,fortyandabove
.Therewassenioritywithineachgrade
accordingtoageandintelligence
.Intelligenceandwisdomwere
supposedtomatchone'sage
.Statedanotherway,theAfricanphilosophy
thataccordedsomuchdeferencetoelderswasbaseduponthe
assumptionthat,callotherthingsbeingequal,
thosewhowerelivingin
theworldandexperiencinglifebeforeotherswerebornshouldknow
morethantheseothers
.Thisqualificationisimportantbecauseitwas
laterappliedintheelectionofchiefsandkings
.Beingheirtothethrone
wasnotenough
.Onehadtomeetotherqualificationsorbepassed
over
.Therefore,beingolderortheoldestinone'sgroupdidnot
commandtheusualrespectifonewaslazy,atroublemakerorafool
.
166

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
EARLYEDUCATION
Theinterlockingresponsibilitiesofthevariousgradesaccountedfor
thesmoothfunctioningofthechieflessstates.Eachgradehaditsown
social,economicandpoliticalrole .Thechildren'ssetcoveredtheyears
ofgameandplay.Aroundtheagesofsixandseven,however,general
trainingandsomelittlejobsbegantobemingledwithplay .Primary
educationincludedstorytelling,mentalarithmetic,communitysongs
anddances,learningthenamesofvariousbirdsandanimals,theidenti-
ficationofpoisonoussnakes,localplantsandtrees,andhowtorunand
climbswiftlywhenpursuedbydangerousanimals .Childtrainingalso
includedknowingandassociatingwithmembersofone'sage-groupas
brothersandsisters,andtoregardthemasbrothersandsistersuntil
deathandbeyond.Littlechoresaroundthehousebecameroutine,such
asgatheringsticksofwoodforfuel,bringingwater,tendingthecattle,
feedingthechickensor,ifagirl,lookingafterbabyoryoungerones,
imitatingmotheratcookingandtryingtolearnhowtosewandknit .
Thenearestthingtotheboy'spoliticalroleinchildhoodwaswhenhe
carriedhisfather'soruncle'sstooltovillagecouncilmeetingsand
listenedtotheinterminabledebates .
Thenextgradeabovechildhoodwasteenagethroughageeighteen.
(Theseperiods,ofcourse,variedindifferentsocieties.)Now,both
trainingandresponsibilitieswerestepped-up.Playtimewaseitherover
orverymuchlimited.Educationandtrainingbecamemorecomplex
andextensive .Theyouths'entirefuturedependedupontheir
performanceatthisagelevel.Heorshewasmarkedforsuccessor
failureinthissecondage-setthatbeganatage 13. Theboywasnow
requiredtolearnhisextendedfamilyhistoryandthatofhissociety,the
geographyoftheregion,namesofneighboringstatesandthenatureof
therelationswiththem,thehandlingofweapons,huntingasaskilled
art,rapidcalculation,clearingthebushforplanting,thenatureofsoils
andwhichkindsgrewwhatbest,militarytactics,careandbreedingof
cattle,thedivisionoflaborbetweenmalesandfemales,bartering
tactics,rulesofgoodmannersathomeandabroad,competitivesports.
Hewasrequiredtoprovideleadershipexamplesforthechildhoodage
groupbelowandresponsibilitiestotheage-groupabove.
Theapprenticeshipsysteminwhichonebecameaskilledcraftsman
wasoneofthemostimportantofthesecondlevelage-setactivities .This
isanotherreasonwhythisage-gradewasthemostcrucialofall .Atits
TheAfricanConstitution

167
endonewentthroughtheinitiationritesfortheexaltedlevelof
manhoood
.Thegirlsage-groupdifferedfromthoseoftheboys
.Intro-
ductiontowomanhoodroles,forexample,wasearlier
.Theyhadthe
sameintellectualtrainingastheboys
: history,geography,rapidcalcula-
tion,poetry,musicanddance
.Thetraininginchildcare,housekeeping,
gardening,cooking,marketing-socialrelationswithparticularstresson
goodmanners,theseweresomeoftheessentialsintheage-grade
educationandtrainingofyoungpeopleatthislevel
.Housekeeping,
mentionedabove,doesnotrevealtheimportantkindoftrainingthat
cameunderthatheading,foritsmostimportantaimwas"howtobea
successfulwife"-aneverlastinglydesirablewife
.Inmanysocieties,this
trainingbyolderwomenawayfromthecommunityincludedtheartof
excitingsexualintercourse,positionvariations,cleanlinessintherela-
tionshipand,inshort,thedo'sanddon't'sinintimaterelations
.These
earlyblacksocietieswereinmanywaysfarinadvanceofthemodern
.
ThefirsttwogradesmaybedesignatedasAandB,thethirdasC,the
fourthasD,andthefinalandhighestasgradeE.GradeC,ages19
through28,wasthemanhoodandfirst-line-of-actiongroup .Itsmembers
ledinthehunting,communityconstruction,preparingthefieldsfor
planting,formingthevariousindustrialcraftguilds(secretsocieties,
eachofwhichguardedtheprocessesofitsart),protectingthefar-
ranginggrazingcattle,theupkeepofroadsandpathsbetweenthe
villages,policingareaswhennecessary,andformingthebulwarkofthe
fightingforce
.TheyoungwomeningradeC,weregenerallywives .
Theywereresponsiblefortheplantingandcareofthefarms(theheavy
workofbushclearing,etc
.,havingbeendonebythemen),the
operationsofthemarkets(hencethestressonmentalarithmeticintheir
training),visitingandcareofthesickandtheaged,formationof
women'ssocieties(themediaforwomen'ssocial,economicandindirect
butveryrealpoliticalinfluence),andtheywereresponsibleforandin
supremecontrolofallmattersconcerningthehome
.Inthosesocieties
thathadfemalefightingforces,thewomen'sarmieswereformedalmost
entirelyfromage-gradeC.
Intermsofconstitutionalrightsandduties(thetwowereinseparable
inearlyAfrica),therewasnotmuchdifferencebetweenage-groupC
andage-groupD
.Senioritywasthesignificantdifference,sinceDwas
fromage29to40
.Ifotherwisequalified,membersinthisclass,upon
reachingtheageof 36, wereeligibleforelectiontothemosthighly
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
honoredbodyinthesociety,theCouncilofElders-anhonorand
privilegespeciallyreservedforthose40yearsoldandabove,groupE.
THEEARLIESTJUDICIALSYSTEM
Inthechieflessstatesthefunctionoftheelderswaswhollyadvisory .
Forthisreasontheyrarelyevermetasacouncil .Acouncilmeeting
mightbecalledbytheSeniorElderincaseofextremeemergency.
Matters involving membersofthesamefamilyorclancouldbesettled
bythefamilycouncil,eachfamilyorclanhavingitsownelder .Conflicts
betweenfamiliesorclanscouldbebroughtbeforeanymutuallyaccept-
ableelderforsettlement .Theelder'sjudgmentwasnotbindingonthe
partiestothedispute .Thiswastheconstitutionaltheory .Ifthecasewas
"big"andseriousandthedisputantsweredissatisfiedwiththeelder's
decisionregardingit,theycouldcallinoneormoreadditionaleldersto
hearandpassonthecase .Theirdecisionwasalsoadvisoryandcouldbe
disregardedbythepartiestotheaction .Yes,theelders'advisory
judgments couldbe ignoredunder ancient Africanconstitutionallaw.
Yetunderpracticaloperationofthatsame constitution,thedisputants
couldignoretheirelders'judgmentonlyattheirperil .Fortoignorethe
elderswasconsideredtobe ignoring thecommunityitself.Theonly
exceptionstothiswerethosecaseswheretheelderoreldersrendered
anobviouslybaddecision .Eventhenitwasnotlefttothe contestants to
saywhetherthejudgmentwasgoodorbad .Thecommunitydecided,
becausethecommunitywasthoughttoberepresentedintheever-
presentcrowdatsuchhearings .They,thepeoplepresent,always
indicatedtheirattitudebyexpressionsandnodsofapprovalordisap-
provalofdecisionsreached .
Theconstitutionaltheoryandprinciplehereareespeciallysignificant
becauseoftheimportantformtheytookinallAfricansocietiesinevery
partofthe continent astheyevolvedfromsocietieswithoutchiefsto
centralizedstatesunderchiefs,kings,andemperors .Inthis continent-
wide constitutional developmentthechieforkingbecamethe
mouthpieceofthepeopleandthe instrument forcarryingouttheirwill.
Theystillhadno"ruler"intheAsianandEuropeansense .Onquestions
indispute,hewasinthesamepositionaslitigantsinthechieflessstates .
Likethem,underthe constitution, hehadabsolutepowerintheory,
andintheoryhecouldignoretheCouncilanddoexactlyashepleased.
Butinpractice,likethedisputants,hedidnotdaredefytheCouncilof
TheAfricanConstitution

169
Elders,whichalsohadevolvedandbecome"thepeople"-theirdirect
representatives .
Africansgenerallyprefertodwellontheconstitutionaltheoriesand
nottheconstitutionalpractices
.Theyproudlyspeakofthefreedomand
absolutepowersofthechieforking
.'Somewilleventellyouthatthe
king"ownedalltheland"inthecountry.Theyarenottryingtodeceive.
Wordsofanotherlanguageoftenfailtotranslatethepeople'sconcepts
ormeaning.Whentheysaythekingissupremeorhasabsolutepower
theymeanthathehasabsolutepowertocarryoutthewillofthepeople
.
Itwassowellunderstoodthatsupremepowerrestedinthepeoplethat
itwasneverthoughtnecessarytostatesuchafact.Likewise,theywould
say,andsayproudly,theking"ownsallthelandinthecountry"since
everybodybutafoolknewthathedidn't,thatnobody owned theland
(againintheWesternsense),andthattheking'srolewasthatof
custodianandoverseer,hisprincipaldutybeingtoseethatthelandwas
fairlydistributedamongallfamilies .
Inthechieflesssocietytheeldersweretheoverseersoflanddistribu-
tiontofamilies .Finally,nothingcontributedmoretotheefficiencyand
successofself-governmentwithoutgovernorsthanthesystemwherein
eachagegradewasresponsiblefortheconductofitsmembers,andthat
beforeanymisconductcouldreachone'sage-gradecouncilitwas
handledbyhisfamilycouncil.Thisnevermeantleniency.Itmeantthe
veryopposite,becauseeachfamilywasjealousofitshonorandimagein
thecommunity,andanymemberwhosebehaviorreflectedunfavorably
onthefamilywouldbeintroublewiththeirownfamilyfirstofall .The
resultofthiswasthattheage-gradecouncilsrarelyeverhadacaseand,
obviously,thisself-government,beginning withthebasicsocialunit,the
family,radicallyreducedthenumberofcasesthatwentbeforethe
elders
.Statedanotherway,eachfamilypoliceditself,eachagegroup
policeditself,sothattherewaslittleornothingthatthecommunity
as a
wholehadtodo.Eachgroupelecteditsownleaders .Thesemetwith
otherage-gradeleadersoncommunitymattersthatcutacrossage-grade
lines.
ItwasthereforeinthesocietieswithoutchiefsorkingswhereAfrican
democracywasbornandwheretheconceptthatthepeopleare
sovereignwasasnaturalasbreathing
.Andthisiswhyintraditional
1.TheMossiwereaspecificexample .
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Africatherightsoftheindividualnevercamebeforetherightsofthe
community.Individualfreedomwasunlimiteduntilitclashedwiththe
interestsorwelfareofthecommunity.Thisisalsowhytheevolutiontoa
highlycentralizedstatestillfoundthekingundercommunallaw,not
aboveit,anddefinitelyunabletodoashepleased .
Theseself-governingpeopledidnothaveaUtopiansocietyinany
idealisticsense .Theirswasapracticalsocietyineveryway.Thelaws
werenaturallaws,andorderandjusticeprevailedbecausethesociety
couldnototherwisesurvive .Theirswas,infact,agovernmentofthe
people;theirswas,infact,notatheory,butagovernmentbythe
people;anditwas,infact,agovernmentforthepeople .Thatthiskind
ofgovernmentdid"passfromtheearth"isanotherfactwenowcall
"modernprogress ."
Weshallnotelatertheimpactofsomeofthedevelopmentspreviously
mentionedonthetraditionalconstitution,particularlyasitoperatedin
thereestablished,centralized"migratory"states .Meanwhile,itmightbe
wellifwesingleoutsomeofthekeyprovisionsofthatconstit5tion ;for,
again,theaimistosetforth-andsetforthinspecificterms-theactual
all-AfricaninstitutionsthatallAfricanslostandofwhichtheirdescen-
dantsdonothaveevenamemory.Oneoftheworld'sgreatestconstitu-
tionalsystemswasoneoftheirtragiclosses .
SOMEPOLITICALTHEORIESANDPRINCIPLES
OFANCIENTAFRICANCONSTITUTIONLAW
AND
THEFUNDAMENTALRIGHTS
OFTHEAFRICANPEOPLE
(DrawnfromAfricanTraditionalConstitutionalandCustomaryLaws .
Differentversionsandmodificationsofthesamelawsoccurredin
differentsocieties.)
1.ThePeoplearethefirstandfinalsourceofallpower .
II.Therightsofthecommunityofpeopleare,andofrightoughtto
be,superiortothoseofanyindividual,includingChiefsandKings(a)
TheWillofthePeopleis thesupremelaw;(b)ChiefsandKingsare
underthelaw,notaboveit .
TheAfricanConstitution

171
III.Kings,ChiefsandEldersare leaders, notrulers.Theyarethe
electedrepresentativesofthepeopleandtheinstrumentsforexecuting
theirwill.
IV.Governmentandpeopleareoneandthesame.
V
.Thefamilyisrecognizedastheprimarysocial,judicial,economic
andpoliticalunityinthesociety
;thefamilycouncilmayfunctionasa
courtempoweredtotryallinternal(non-serious)mattersinvolvingonly
membersoftheExtendedFamilyGroup .
VI
.TheElderofeachExtendedFamilyorClanisitschosenrepresenta-
tiveontheCouncil.
VII.DecisionsincouncilaremadebytheElders.TheChieforKing
mustremainsilent
.EvenwhentheCouncil'sdecisionisannounced,itis
throughaSpeaker(Linguist)
.Decreesorlawsareissuedinthesame
mannertoassurethatthevoiceoftheChieforKingisthe"voiceofthe
people."(Thisisanexampleofaprovisionthathadwidevariations
.)
VIII.Thelandbelongstonoone.ItisGod'sgifttomankindforuse
andasasacredheritage,transmittedbyourforefathersasabond
betweenthelivingandthedead,tobeheldintrustbyeachgeneration
fortheunbornwhowillfollow,andthustothelastgeneration
.
IX
.Eachfamily,therefore,hasarighttoland,freeofcharge,sufficient
inacreageforitseconomicwell-being
;fortherighttotheopportunity
andmeanstomakealivingistherighttolive .
(a)Theland,accordingly,cannotbesoldorgivenaway .
(b)Thelandmaybeheldforlifeandpassedontothefamily'sheirs,
andsoonforever .
(c)TheChiefistheCustodianofallland,theprincipaldutybeingto
assurefairdistributionandactualuse .
X.Allmoneys,gifts,taxesandotherformsofdonationstoChiefor
Kingstillbelongtothepeopleforrelieforaidtoindividualsintimesof
need.
XI.Everymethberofthestatehastherightofappealfromalowerto
highercourt .(Insomestatesappealscouldbetakenevenfromthe
King'sCourttothe"MotheroftheNation .")
(a)TheprocedurewasfromtheChiefsVillageCourttotheDistrict
Court,totheProvincialCourt,totheKing'sCourt .
(b)Suchappealswereallowedinseriousormajorcrimesonly(those
affectingthewholesociety) .
17 2

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
XII.Finesforoffensesagainstanindividualwenttothevictim,not
thecourt.
(a)Partofthemoneyreceivedfromtheloserwasreturnedtohimas
anexpressionofgoodwillanddesireforrenewaloffriendship .
(b)Anotherpartwasgivenasafeetothetrialcourtasanappreciation
ofjustice.
XIII."Royalty"inAfricantermsmeansRoyal Worth,thehighestin
character,wisdom,senseofjusticeandcourage .
(a)Hewhofoundedthenationbyunitingmanyasonemustbethe
realleader,guideandservantofhispeople .
(b)Thepeople,inhonorofthefounderofthenation,thereafterwill
electChiefsfromthefounder'sfamily(lineage)iftheheirsmeet
theoriginaltestthatreflectedtheFounder'scharacter,whose
spiritwassupposedtobeinherited .
XIV.Thetroubleofoneisthetroubleofall.Noonemaygoinwant
whileothershaveanythingtogive .Allarebrothersandsisters .Eachis
his"brothers'orsisters'keeper."
XV.Agegrades,sets,andclassesaresocial,economic,politicaland
militarysystemsfor(1)basicandadvancedtraditionaleducation(formal) ;
(2) individualandgroupresponsibilityroles ;(3)policeandmilitary
training;(4)divisionoflabor;(5)ritesofpassageandsocialactivities .In
chieflesssocietiestheagegradesaretheorgansofsocial,economicand
politicalaction.
XVI.BridePriceorBrideWealthisthegiftthatsignifiesmutual
acceptanceonthepartofbothfamiliesandisintendedasafamily
securitybondwhichmaybereturnedinpartifthewifeturnsouttobe
worthlessorutterlyunsatisfactory .(BrideWealthtendedtostabilizethe
institutionofmarriage.Thiswasnot"wife-buying.")
XVII.Thecommunityasawholeisconceivedofas One Party,
oppositionbeingconductedbyleadersofvariousfactions.
(1)Factionsofoppositionareusuallyformedbythedifferentage-
groups:
(2) Debatesmaygoonindefinitelyoruntilaconsensusisreached .
(3)Onceaconsensusisreached,andthecommunity'swilldetermined,
allopenoppositiontothecommonwillmustcease .
(4)Thosewhoseoppositionissoseriousthattheyareunwillingto
acceptthenewlawmay"splinteroff'eitherindividuallyorin
groupsunderaleader(toformanewstateorthenucleusforit) .
TheAfricanConstitution

173
XVII.Inwarfaretheobjectisnottokilltheenemy,buttoovercome
himwithfear,ifpossible,suchasscreamingwarcries,loudnoise,
hideouslymaskedfaces,etc
.Wherekillingisunavoidableitmustbe
keptataminimum
.Incaeofdefeattheremustbesomekindofruseto
enabletheenemytoretireinhonor .
XIX
.TheAfricanreligion,notbeingacreedor"articlesoffaith,"but
anactualwayofthinkingandliving,isreflectedinallinstitutionsandis,
therefore,ofthegreatestconstitutionalsignificance
.
(1)Politically,theroleoftheChiefasHighPriestwhopresentsthe
prayersofthepeopletohisandtheirancestorsinHeaven,isthe
realsourceofhisinfluence,politicalorotherwise
.
(2)Socially,the"ritesofpassage,"songs,andthedances(todrive
awayevil,etc
.),aswellasthepurificationandsacrificialritesfor
theatonementofsins-areimportant .
XX
.Sincereligiousandmorallawmustprevailandtheracesurvive,
amanmayhavemorethanonewife
;forheisforbiddentosleepor
cohabitwithhiswifeeitherduringtheninemonthsofpregnancyor
duringthesucklingperiodofoneortwoyearsthereafter
.(1)Thewife
maynotpreparemealsforthehusbandorfamilyduringthemenstrual
period
.(2)Thehusbandisstrictlyforbiddentohaveanykindof
relationshipwithonewifeduringthesetperiodthatbelongstoanother
wife.
XXI
.Thesupremecommandofthefightingforcesisunderthe
Council,nottheKing
.IftheKingbecomestheCommander-in-Chief,it
isthroughelectionbytheCouncilbecauseofhisqualificationasa
generalorfieldcommander
.Thispositionendswiththewarandthe
armedforcesreturntoformerstatusundertheCouncilor,moredirectly
undertherespectiveParamountchiefs
.Therewerenostandingarmies .
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
THEFUNDAMENTALRIGHTS
OFTHEAFRICANPEOPLE
Thefollowingisarepresentativenumberofhumanrights,alsodrawn
fromcustomarylawsortraditionconstitutions :
Everymemberofthecommunityhad-
(1)Therighttoequalprotectionofthelaw .
(2)Therighttoahome .
(3)Therighttolandsufficientforearninglivelihoodforoneselfand
family.
(4)Therighttoaidintimesoftrouble .
(5)Therighttopetitionforredressofgrievances.
(6)Therighttocriticizeandcondemnanyactsbytheauthoriesor
proposednewlaws.(Oppositiongroups,insomeareascalled
"TheYoungmen,"wererecognizedbylaw .)
(7) Therighttorejectthecommunity'sfinaldecisiononanymatter
andtowithdrawfromthecommunityunmolested-therightof
rebellionandwithdrawal .
(8)Therighttoafairtrail.Theremustbenopunishmentgreater
thantheoffense,orfinesbeyondabilitytopay.Thislatteris
determinedbyincomeandstatusoftheindividualandhisfamily.
(9)Therighttoindemnityforinjuriesorlosscausedbyothers.
(10)Therighttofamilyorcommunitycareincasesofsicknessor
accidents .
(11)TherighttospecialaidfromtheChiefincircumstancesbeyonda
family'sability.
(12)Therighttoageneraleducationcoveringmoralsandgood
manners,familyrightsandresponsibilities,kinshipgroupsand
socialorganization,neighborhoodsandboundaries,farmingand
marketing,rapidmentalcalculation,andfamily,clan,tribaland
statehistories.
(13)Therighttoapprenticetrainingforausefulvocation .
(14)Therighttoaninheritanceasdefinedbycustom .
(15)Therighttodevelopone'sabilityandexerciseanydeveloped
skills .
TheAfricanConstitution

175
(16)Therighttoprotectone'sfamilyandkinsmen,evenbyviolent
meansifsuchbecomesnecessaryandcanbejustified .
(17)Therighttotheprotectionofmorallawinrespecttowifeand
children-arightwhichnoteventhekingcanviolate .
(18)Therightofaman,evenaslave,torisetooccupythehighest
positionsinthestateifhehastherequisiteabilityandcharacter .
(19)Therighttoprotectionandtreatmentasaguestinenemy
territoryonceoneiswithinthegatesoftheenemy'svillage,town
orcity.
(20)Andtherighttoanequalshareinallbenefitsfromcommon
communityundertakingsifonehascontributedtothefullest
extentofhisability,nomatterwhoorhowmanywereableto
contributemore .
Theseconstitutionalprinciplesandpracticeswereheldontoand
carriedbythemigratingBlackstoeverypartoftheAfricancontinent .
Thisfactisoneofthemostremarkablepartsoftheblackman'sstory-
mostremarkablebecauseeventhosesocietiesthatsanktobarbarism
heldontothefundamentalsageafterageasthoughtheywereclutching
thelastthreadsoflifeitself
.EveninEgypt,wheretheAsianand
Europeanimpactwasgreatest,Africanconstitutionalismcouldnotbe
completelyblottedout .
. . . Wehavecomeoverawaythatwithtearshavebeen
watered . . .
Wehavecometreadingourwaythroughthebloodofthe
slaughtered . . .
CHAPTERVII
TheScatteringofthePeople :
RoutestoDeathandResurrection
THEAFRICANMIGRATIONSHAVEBEENSTRESSEDATVARIOUS
pointsasoneofthemajordevelopmentsfromwhichsomuchcanbe
learnedaboutthehistoryoftheblackpeople .Themigrationsexplain
manythings .Theywerepeopleinperpetualmovements .Themove-
mentswerehumantragediesspanningtoomanymilleniums .Itwas
notedthatthegreatpressuresontheAfricansactuallybeganin
prehistorictimesandthatthepressuresthatuprootedsomanysettled
communitiescamefromtwoprincipalagentsofdestruction : theslow
andrelentlessincursionsofoceansofsandandtheslowandrelentless
incursionsofAsianhordes .TheEuropeans,cominglater,accelerated
themovements.
MIGRATIONS
ASCULTUREDECLINES
Themigrationswereofmanydifferentkinds,andsomuchsothatthe
overalldescriptionofthemisoftenmisleading .Therewasnogeneral,
continuousflightofpeople,hereandtherealloverthecontinent .Some
ofthemovementsweresoslowandlim.tedinspacethatonemight
hesitatetocallthemmigrations .Thesewerethegroupsthatmovedonly
arelativelyshortdistanceeachtimeandasawhole,neverlefttheir
176
178

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
generalarea .Afterahundredyearssuchgroupsmightnotbemore
thanahundredmilesfromtheirtraditionalhomeafterseveral
generations.Eveninthecasesofthosewhomigratedfarthest,the
movementhadbeenslow,slowbecausethewholemovementwas
forced,everybreakupapainfuluprootingofcommunitiesthathad
beenbuiltonhopesanddreamsofapermanentabode .Everymove
wasasearchforstillanotherabodewherelandandwatercouldsupport
lifeandsecuritycouldassureanotherchanceofsurvival.Theseslow-
movingmigrationswerementionedinthediscussionofgeographical
influences .
Therewerealsothebetterknownmigrationsthateruptedand
movedsouth,eastandwestliketidalwaves .Theseoccurredasthe
resultofthemanyAsianandEuropeaninvasionsandconquests .They.
werefurtheracceleratedbythenewturnintheinstitutionofslavery
fromtheseventhcenturyA.D.,onward .Atamuchlaterperiod,after
thesixteenthcentury,blackmaraudinggroupssuchastheJagaandthe
Ngoniaddedtotheturmoilanddisorganization .
ItisquiteclearthatthewavesofBlacksthatspreadoverAfricain
thesemigrationscamemainlyfromtheareawhereblackconcentration
wasgreatestandtheattacksonthatconcentrationpersevered
relentlessly.Thisareaofblackconcentrationofpopulationwasthe
ancientEthiopianEmpirewhichIhavedescribedasthe"Heartlandof
theRace"-themotherlandwithacivilizationthat,despitetheAsian
invasions,stillincludedallUpperEgyptin3100 B.C., andextended
southwardovertheSudanacrossAbyssinia .
Buteverywherethepeoplefromthebirthplaceofblackcivilization
wanderedtheyfound,almostwithoutexception,peoplealreadysettled,
somehavingprecededthembydecadesorcenturies,andotherswho
hadbeenthere,accordingtotheirancestors'story,"sincethebeginning
oftime ."Such,forexample,wasthetraditionoftheKeteandCwa
peopleinCentralAfrica .Theinter-tribalwarsandtheintensetribalism
thatdevelopedfromthemareamongthefatefuloutcomescitedin
connectionwiththemigrations .
Ihavestatedanumberoftimesthat,inevitably,therewerenon-
Blacksinthemigrationsastheywere,inonewayoranother,integrated
withAfricansandparticipatedwiththeminotherdevelopments .This
meantthattherewerealwaysanumberofpredominantlyblackgroups
withsomeAsiansandMulattoeswhowereasloyaltotheraceasany
Black.Thisisthekindoffactthatblastsanyattempttoindictawhole
peopleorputthemintoasinglecategory .Humanbeingssimplyrefuse
TheScattering ofthe People

179
tobegeneralizedintoneatcategories
.Inancienttimesandevenlater
therewereCaucasianswhoregardedtheBlacksassuperiorpeople
.The
questionaboutinherentinequalitytheywouldhavethoughtabsurdto
entertain
.TheGreeks,whoseemedtohavestudiedtheadvanced
civilizationoftheBlacksmorethananyotherwhitepeople,werefirst
amongthisgroup
.Therewere,therefore,alwaysCaucasianswhowere
affectionatelydrawntotheBlacksasbysomemagic
.Whenrecognized
asgenuinebytheBlacks,theesteembecamemutualandsuchCauca-
siansbecameanintegralpartofsomeblackgroups
.Thesewere not the
Caucasians,AsiansorWestern,whoinfiltratedblacksocietiesfordomi-
nationandfutureconquests
.TheseweretheCaucasians,albeit,asmall
minority,whostayedwiththeBlacksandfoughtshouldertoshoulder
withthemagainsttheirownkind,retreatedwiththemindefeat,and
were,therefore,apartofthemigrations
.Ihavealsoemphasizedthat
notallofthemixedbreeds,whetherAfro-AraborAfro-European,
desertedtheBlacksforthewhites .Forawhilethemajoritydidcleaveto
theraceoftheirfathers,thedevotionoftheminoritytotheraceoftheir
mothersseemedtobesospiritualinnaturethatitmorethanovershad-
owedthewhite-worshipinghalf-whites.
WHITESCHOLARSASAUTHORITIES
Andwhathasallthistodowiththemigrations?Theansweris
"almosteverything
."MuchofthehistoryofAfricahasbeenwrittenby
anthropologists
.Theyhavewrittenitwithinthetheoreticalframework
oftheirownethnology
;andhistoriansandothershavereliedalmost
entirelyontheirclassificationofpeoples
.Theusualclaimthatthe
historyisascienceismadedespitetheamountofpureguessingthat
characterizesitsconclusions .Racismissoobviousinmostoftheanthro-
pologicalfindingsthatonemaywonderhow,iftheyhopetomaintain
thefictionofbeingscientific,itcouldescapetheirnotice
.Ithasbeen
suggestedthattheirbiasdoesnotinfactgounnoticed,butthattheyare
socertainofthefavorablereceptionbythewhiteaudiencetowhich
theyaddressthemselvesthatwhatothersoutsideofthatworldthinkisa
matterofconsequence
.Theselatterdonotsupplythemillionsthat
supporttheirAfricanstudies
.Themainthrustoftheirfindingsisto
makeAfricaCaucasianfromthebeginningofitshistory,andtogivethe
Blacksnotjustasubordinaterolebutnosignificantroleatallinthat
history
.Hencetheirgreatemphasison(1)the"Caucasoid"identityof
thisorthatAfricantribeand,(2)failingthat,inahighlyadvancedall-
180

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
blacksituationwherenosuchclassificationcouldbemade,toallege
Caucasianinfluenceinonewayoranother .Thisrecorddoesnot
requiredebate .Itmeetstheeyesinmostofthebooksbythese
"Africanist"experts.Thereshouldbenoconfusionover"Negroid"
typesor"Caucasoid"typeswheretherewassuchawidespreadmixing
ofracesaswasthecaseinAfrica,aselsewhere,fromtheearliesttimes .It
becomesevenmoreridiculouswhenitisestablishedthatcertainCauca-
sianshave"Negroid"featureswithoutthebenefitofhavingany"Negro"
bloodand,conversely,manyoftheblackestoftheBlackshavephysical
characteristicswhicharesupposedtobelongtoCaucasiansonly .
Inlinewiththeirpresumptionintakingoverthecontinentand
reorderingitsracialcomposition,theanthropologistsandtheirhistorian
followershavedeclaredthatthe"trueNegroes"(BlackAfricans)are
concentratedinWestAfricaonly!Withonewaveofthemagicwandin
theirall-powerful,"scientific"hand,theychangedthebiblicalstorythat
theblackracedescendedfromHamthroughhisson,Cush .Theplain
factthattheLandofCushwasancientEthiopiaitselfandthatthe
Cushites(Kushites)wereBlackswassimplyignored,andCushiteswere
reclassifiedasCaucasians!Thewhitesandhalf-whiteswhowereallied
withblackgroupsandmigratedwiththemaresingledoutasthe
determiningelementsinwhateverthegroupsachieved,eveninthe
plantingofcropsandirrigationtechniques .TheAsiaticCaucasianswho
areknowntohavesettledalongthenorthernandeasterncoastsof
Africaeveninpre-historictimesarenowbeingpresentedasthe
indigenousinhabitants .Thatarchaeologistswouldfind"Caucasoid"
typescenturiesoldinanyoftheseareasshouldbetakenasasimple
matterofcourse .NorwouldIthinkitsurprisingifexcavationsdiscovered
CaucasoidskeletonsseveralthousandyearsoldanywhereinAfrica .
Thesameunshockedattitudeismaintainedwhen"Negroid"typeswere
discoveredontheBritishIsles .Indeed,"Negroid"remainshavebeen
foundinotherplacesinEuropeanddistantlandswherenoBlackswere
knowntohavelived,nottomentionthemillionsknowntohavesettled
outsideofAfrica .Therefore,insteadofpostulatingatheoryofhistory
that,onthebasisofafewskeletalremains,awholepeopleinhabitedan
areafirst,itwouldbemoresensibletoconcludethatmembersofthisor
thatracecertainlyhadvisitedorsettledintheareainthelongago,some
dyingthere,awayfromtheirownnativeland .Butsupposetheydid
comeaspermanentsettlers,suchastheDutchinSouthAfricaandthe
BritishinRhodesia?ThewhitesofSouthAfricaarenotwaitingforthe
certainverdictofanthropologistsandhistoriansintheirfavor .They
TheScatteringofthePeople

181
alreadyclaimtobetheoriginalinhabitants,saying,asGeorgePeter
Murdockandhisschoolproclaim,that"theAfricanscameintotheland
later
."AthousandyearshencetherewillbenodearthofCaucasoid
remainsinAfrica .
IjustreferredtoGeorgePeterMurdock .Allthroughthesediscussions
Ihavebeenunsparinginmycriticismof"Caucasoid"scholarshipat
variouspoints
.Ihave,ineffect,accusedthemofthesubtlethieveryof
theachievementsofanimportantdivisionofthehumanrace -deliber-
ateandunconscionable .Tounderstandthebasisforthiscriticism,one
neednotmatchmylaborbywadingthroughoverahundredbooksby
them
.OnegoodexampleofallthatIhavebeensayinginthisconnection
willsuffice .ThatexampleisMurdock's
Africa-ItsPeopleandTheir
Culture. Forhereisanotheroneofthoseworkswhichisrepletewithall
thetrappingsofprofoundscholarship,bearing,asallsuchworks
invariablydo,themarkofscientificobjectivity
.Yetfrombeginningto
end,Murdockmaintainshiscentraltheme
: Africansarenotinfact
Africans ;blackcivilizationwasnotinfactblackcivilization
;countless
"peoples"thoughttobe"Negroes"bymany,suchastheBushmen,the
Masai,Kushites,Pygmies,eventheBantu,etc .,areof"Caucasoid"
origins
.Andwhilehisownaccountofmigrationsoftencontradictshis
mainthesis,this,Isuppose,hedismissesassimplyunavoidable
.Hewas
athisracistbestinaspeciousandratheramusingargumentthat
attemptedtoprovethateventheAzanianswerenotblack .Isitnot
significantthatsomanywhitewritersspendsomuchtimeandenergy
tryingtomakethisorthatpersonorgroupnon-African?
Certaindirectconsequencesofthemigrationswillnotbefully
understoodunlessthemanycenturiestheyslowlycoveredarekeptin
mind
.Thedevelopmentandspreadofthenumerouslanguages,dialects,
separateandindependentsmallcity-statesfromwhichvarietiesof
culturepatternsinevitablyemerged,theseoutcomeshighlightthefactors
ofsegmentationinthedeclineofadvancedblackinstitutions
.But
migrationsfromthefirstcentersofblackcultureintheSudanandEgypt
hadbeneficialresultsalso .
Themigrantswereanewkindofmissionaries .Theycarriedwhatever
theycouldoftheiradvancedcivilizationwherevertheywent,andthey
carrieditfarandwide .Thebackwardgroupsthathadbeenlivingfar
awayfromthecentersofprogresswerethebeneficiaries
.Aneconomic
revolutionoccurredinareaswheretheNilemigrantsnotonlybrought
newgraincropsbutalsonewimplementsandfarmingtechniques
.They
alsospreadthegospelofindustrialproductionthroughtheexpansionof
craftsandtheirorganizationintoguilds
.Thegreatestofthesewasiron,
182

TheDetructionofBlackCivilization
foriron,allbyitself,createdthegreatestindustrialrevolutioninAfrica
andbecameatonceboththecatalystan(foundationofthenewstate
formationsandexpansionsofpower .Itlikemanner,basicAfrican
institutions,suchasthetraditionalconsitutionaland socialsystems,
werereinforcedbythemigrationsfromthHeartland.Andwhilemany
ofthesebasicinstitutionswereinfluencesandmodifiedbyIslamand
ChristianEurope,theyallremainedsouryieldingatthecorethatthey
canbestudiedtodayalmostasdirectlystheycouldhavebeenfive
thousandyearsago.Thereisanotherfactinthisconnectionthatisnot
pointedoutoftenandneverstressed .We ;enerallyspeakgliblyenough
aboutAsianandWesterninfluenceonBlckAfrica,butseldomabout
theinfluenceofAfricaonAsianandWeserninstitutions .Theprocess
ofAfricanizationbeganatoncewhenevrandwhereverthe Blacks
cameincontactwithforeigninstitutionsBothIslamandChristianity
hadtoyieldtoAfricanization.Evenautcraticsultansandemirs, all-
powerfulinAsia,clashedhead-onwithheconstitutionalrole ofthe
CouncilinAfricaandhadtoyield .Threligionsthatspread most
rapidlyandwidelywerethosewhichwerreadilyadaptabletoAfrican
culturalpatterns .IslamandtheCatholicChurchledinthis, andthe
CatholicChurchoutdistancedeveryotterChristiandenomination in
growth.
AlargevolumeshouldbewrittenonneAfricaninfluenceonboth
AsianandWesterncivilizationsincethainfluence,beganinancient
times,wasnotlimitedtoCaucasiansonr,eAfricancontinent,butwas
carriedtootherlandsby-migratingwhitswhothemselveshadbeen
Africanized.Africanvaluesdidnotdieevenamongthemillions of
slaveswhoweretransplantedtodistantlands .IntheUnited States
wherethesystemtostampouteveryvesigeofblackculturewasmost
thoroughgoingandrelentless,Africantrad: ionspersistedandinfluenced
notonlythewhiteslave-owningclass,)utthecourseofAmerican
civilizationitself.
Thehistoricalsignificanceofthemovmentofpeople,nomatter
underwhatcircumstances,canhardlybeiveremphasized .
WehaveseenhowandwhythefligkofBlacksfromtheSudan
increasedastheArabhordescontinued : osweepinduringthe 13th
centuryandIslamizationwasmoreaggressvelypushed .TomanyBlacks
leavingthehomelandwhatwashappeningwasfarworsethanthesight
oftheircities,townsandvillagesgoingupinflames
.Fornowtheysaw
theirveryownleaders,kingsandothernotables,divestingthemselves
ofatraditionofcivilizationthatwentbackbeyondhistoryintopaleolithic
timesand,forexpediencyorself-interest,werehumblygraspingatthe
robesoftheArabs,theirlanguageandtheirreligion
.Theirleaderson
thethronewerenolongerAfricansorEthiopians
.Theywerenowofstill
anotherrace: TheywereblackArabs!
Soitdidnotmatteratallthatnewstateswereformingunderblack
Arabrule
.TheArabsnotonlytoleratedtheseblackMuslim
rulers
(sultansandemirstheywerenowcalled)butfounditexpedienttouse
themasfrontsincontrollingtheremainingblackpopulation
.Thereal
rulerswerethevariousArabtribesthatwerenowscatteredalloverthe
Sudan
.TherewasagreatdifferencebetweenthesenewblackMuslim
statesandFunj
.ForwhileFunjwasalsoasultanateinname,ithada
longlineofblackrulerswhosteadfastlyrefusedtobeArabizedevento
theextentofacceptingArabnames
;andeventheArabpopulation
knewverywellthattheMuslimreligionofthoseblacksultanswasvery
superficialindeed
.ThenewfringestatesofDarfur,Wadaiandothers
underblackMuslimsofferednoplaceofrefugeforthosewhosevery
reasonforflightwastomaintaintheirownracialidentity,dignityand
religion.
THESAHARANTRAGEDY
WereturntotheSaharaagain,forhereiswherethefirstblack
migrationsbeganbeforewrittenhistory
."Sahara,"orwasteland,indicates
whatitbecame,notwhatitwas
.Itwasthelargestnorthernregionof
Bilad asSudan,the"LandoftheBlacks
."Viewingthisvastareaforat
least5,000years,itisdifficulttobelievethatitwasnotforeverthus
.
ButtheSahara,farbiggerthantheUnitedStates,wasoncealandof
lakes,rivers,forests,greenfields,farms,villages,townsandcities
.
Wildlifewasabundant
.Cattlegrazedinmeadows,andhorse-drawn
chariotsspedoverthehighways
.Itwasagreatland,yetonlyapartofan
evengreaterblackworld .
WehavealreadynotedthatthisBlackAfricanworldhadbeenunder
relentlesspressuresfromtheseacoastsbyinvadingwhites
fromthe
earliesttimes-Hebrews,Phoenicians,Mongols,Arabs,Berbers,Greeks,
Romans,etal
.Itwasalsopointedoutthatitisnotwithoutsignificance
thateventodaymostoftheinvadersoccupythesameareaswherethey
firstcamein-theseacoasts .
184

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Forcenturiesthesewhitesmusthavebeenreceivedwiththetraditional
Africanhospitality.Theywereimmigrants,settlersandtraders .Many,
liketheearlyBlacksthemselves,wereseafaringmen .ThattheBlacks
wereonceamongthemostadventurousofpeoplesisevidencednot
onlybythepresenceoftheirdescendantsinmanylandsandnumerous
farflunglands,butalsobyarchaeologicalremainsfoundinvarious
partsofEurope .
Itseemsclear,therefore,thatthewhiteswerenotregardedas
invaderswithulteriormotives,butasco-partnersinthefurtherdevel-
opmentofworldtrade.Therewasnoobviousreasontothinkotherwise .
Noparticularsignificancewasseeninthefactthatthewhitesalways
massedalongtheseacoastsandbuilttheirtownsandtrading-post
strongholdsthere .TheBlackswerealsointhesesamecoastalareas .
Therewasageneralmixingoramalgamationoftheraces,also,fromthe
earliesttimes
.InthisareatheoffspringsofBlacksandwhiteBerbersand
ArabsbecameknownasMoors,Tuaregs,TippuandtheFulani.Like
Afro-Americans,theywereofeveryconceivablecomplexion,someof
thewhitesthaving"Negroblood
."ThescientistsonAfrica,however,
classifyeventhedark-skinnedinthesegroupsas"Caucasoid ."
Itdoesnotappearthatanyblackprophetscameforthtowarnthe
trustingAfricanpeoplethatoverthreemillionsquaremilesoftheir
fertilelandwouldbemadeavastwastelandbytheslowlymoving
sandstormsfromthenorth,orthat,evenfleeing,theirveryliveswould
likewisebemadeavastwastelandbythe"whitestorms"fromthe
seacoast.
Thesandstorms,atfirst,begantheirlongandrelentlessrampageover
hundredsofmiles,butonlyaspreviousdeforestingandthedisappear-
anceofgrasslandmadethiseasy
.Thedesiccationbeganfarbackin
time,probablyduringaperiodwellafterQuatenarytimesbegan .No
oneknowsnowlongthatawfulprocessofdryinguplakesandrivers
lasted.Whatiscrystalclearisthatduringtheensuingmigrationsthe
Blacksmadetheirgreatestandmosttragicerror
.Itwasanerrortobe
fraughtwiththediresthistoricalconsequencesforthewholeblackrace
.
Insteadofmoving enmasse totheseacoastsandmaintainingthe
dominantpositionthere,whichtheycouldhavedoneeasily,they
moved enmasse towardtheinterior,firsttotheremainingoasesinthe
desertandthenintoNorthernandSouthernEthiopia(Egyptandthe
Sudan),andtothesouth,centralandwesternregions .
TheBerbers,ArabsandtheirAfro-Asianoffsprings(Moors,Tuaregs,
etc
.)nowfirmlyheldtheentirenorthern,northwesternandeastern
I
TheScatteringofthePeople
185
seaboardofAfrica.Thistremendousvictoryofthewhitemanwasnot
achievedbyconquest
.Itwasachievedbydefaultonthepartofarace
toopreoccupiedwiththeimmediatepresentandlesswithitsfuture,a
racewhosecenturiesofblindtrustinthewhitemansurpassedallunder-
standing
.Onemightsaythatinsurrenderingalloftheircoastalareasto
theAsiansandMulattoes(apparentlywithoutafightexceptinthecase
ofLowerEgypt)thattheBlacksnotonlysealedthemselvesofffrom
worldcommerceandgeneralinternationalrelations,buttheyalso,at
thesametime,sealedtheirownfatetobeasurrounded,hemmed-in
huntinggroundforslaves .ThepatternforEgyptandAxumwasclear
cut.Theirstorywasalreadyoutlinedearlyenoughandsoclearlythat
eventheblindcouldnotbeunawareoftheshapeofthingstocome .
Thatshapeemergedintheirpresent
: Thewhiteswereaggressive,
alwaysrelentlesslypushingforthecommandpositionineverysituation,
nomatterhowsmalltheirnumberorhowinsignificanttheproject ;the
Blacks,bycontrast,werenotsoaggressive,tendingtowardthe
brotherhoodapproach,andgenerallystrikingonlyinretaliationfor
priorwrongsdone
.Thisoverallhumaneandessentiallyreligiousattitude
of'theBlacksledArnoldToynbeetosaythatmankindmayhaveto
emulatethemifcivilizationistobesaved
.Thisishardlyacompliment
inaworldwheretheverymeaningofcivilizationislost .Inthefaceof
theCaucasianwill topower anddomination,thisreligionofmeeknessis
atacitsurrendertothepermanentoverlordshipoftheaggressiveand
thestrong.Thisisthetestimonyofhistory.AndperhapsthisiswhyI
havealwaysbeenpuzzledbythedeclarationofJesusChristthatthe
meekwouldinherittheearth.Didhemeanthegrave?
The"pattern"referredtoabovedevelopedfromthefactthatcountless
thousandsofBlacksdidnotmigrateanywherebutremainedamongthe
Asians
.Theygraduallybecamethelowestclassinthesociety,although
therewassomemobilityorescape .routes.TheBerbersandArabs
constitutedtheupperclassandrulinggroup
;nextcametheAfro-
BerbersandAfro-Arabs(Mulattoes),alsoclassifiedaswhite,butina
classbelowwhites
;andfinallytherewerethestilllowerclassofBlacks
and,strangelyenough,allBerbers,Arabsandmixedbreedswhochose
tocasttheirlotwiththeBlacksandsharetheirdestiny.Isaid"strangely
enough,"buttherewasreallynothingstrangeaboutit
.Itwassimplya
humansituation
.Apartoftheexplanationwasthatoutofcenturiesof
intermarriagestherehaddevelopedanetworkoffamilyandkinship
relationships
.Butitmeantmuchmorethanthesekinshipties .These
whitesandhalf-whites,admittedlyasmallminority,neverthelessdid
nothavetohavethemselvesclassifiedasBlacks,givinguptheopen
186

TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


opportunitytodirectpower,fameandfortune .Likethemajorityof
whitesandhalf-whiteswithsimilartiestotheBlacks,theycouldhave
easilycutthosetiesandevendeniedthatanytieseverexisted .Thatwas
theeasyway,theself-servingandexpedieiatway .Theyrefusedtotakeit
andchosetoshareallthehardshipsoftheBlacks .Idwellonthis
becausehere-wecatchafleetingglimpseoftheprogressofthehuman
spiritasitemergedonaplaneabovetherewardsofmaterialismand
self-interest.Idwellonitbecausewhereverthissmallgroupexistsin,a
worldgonemadwithgreed,therewillremainsomefainthopefora
morehumaneworldinthenext1,000years .
Socialandeconomicmobilitycamefromthecircumstancesthatthe
BlacksmadeupthestrongestcontingentsoftheBerberandArab
armies.Somebecamecommanders,othersbecamechiefcounselorsto
sultans.Mostmaleswerecastrated,however,orremovedfrompossible
contactwithallfemales .Anequallysignificantgroupwasthelabor
forceofenslavedBlacks.Thesewerehighlyimportantbecausethey
relievedthewhiteAsiansfromalllabor .TheBlackswhowereskilled
craftsmeninvariousfieldsfaredbettersincetheyweregenerallyspared
fromthewhip.
TheplightoftheBlacksinwhite-dominatedareas,includingtheir
enslavement,wouldhavebeendifferentifthemasseshadnotscattered
insmallgroupsoverthetractlessSahara,theNileValley,Ethiopiaand
otherregionsofthecontinent .TheothersreferredtoweretheBlacks
whoremainedwheretheywereastheironcevastandfertilehomeland
slowlyturnedintoaSahara,orwasteland .
Geologists,archaeologistsandotherspecialistshavealladvanced
varioustheoriestoexplainthegreatmysteryofthetransforming
Sahara.Weneednotretelltheirinterestingstoryhere,forevery
explanationseemstoprojectstillanotherpuzzlingquestion(forme,at
anyrate) .Forexample,justhowdidtheAlbionSea,avastinlandbody
ofwateraslargeasFrance,disappearintheSahara?Howmanycities
andtownslieburiedunderthosemountainsofsandandrocks?
Weknowthatinagivenareaallfarms,orchardsandevenvillages
couldbecompletelycoveredoverwithsandinamatterofweeks .The
fiercewindswhippedupwallsofsandandgravellikemountainous
oceanwaves.Sincethisregionisover1,000mileswideandmorethan
3,000milesfromeasttowest,mostofthepeopleintheinteriormust
haveperishedwiththeirvillages,farms,lakesandrivers .Theexceptions
werethoseluckypeoplewhosefarmsandvillagesescapedinundation
bythemovingoceansofsand .Intheseplacesofrefuge,latercalled
TheScatteringofthe People
oases,theotherwiseindiscriminateforcesofdeathanddestructiondid
indeeddiscriminate .Sometimeshighwallsofsandbegantopileupjust
beforereachingthesesites,leavingthemsafelyinvalleysthusformed
.
Thesecontinuedtobethecentersoflifeandhopeastheyearspassed
onintoourowntimes
.Anditisnotwithoutsignificancethattwo-thirds
oftheSaharapopulationtodayisstillBlack .
Liketheirancestors,theycontinuedtobesettledcommunitiesof
farmersandcraftsmen,thekindofcommunitieswherecivilizationitself
isborn
.But,alsoliketheirancestorsandallotheradvancingpeoples,
theywerevulnerabletothewidelyrangingcamel-ridingBerberand
Arabnomads
.Thesetent-dwellingraidersgainedabsolutecontrolofall
thetrans-Saharantraderoutes .Withtheirkinsmenincontrolofallthe
commercialseaports,theyhadeffectivecontrolovertheeconomiclifeof
Africaand,therefore,Africaitself
.Thematterofmakingthatcontrol
morecompletebyraidingandenslavingtheBlacksinscatteredoasis
communitiesbecamerelativelyeasy
.DirectcontactswithEuropeand
Asiameantthepossessionofthelatestsuperiorweaponswhichthe
Blackswereunabletosecure-firearms .
ETHNOLOGYANDTHEMIGRATIONS
ThegreatstoryoftheSaharaisyettobetold .Archaeologyhashardly
scratchedthesurfacebeneathwhichalostcivilizationliesburiedunder
severalthousandfeetofsandandrocks .Howfarwestwarddidthe
effectiveruleoftheancientempireextend?Howmanykingdomswere
thereandbywhatAfricannamesweretheyknown?Werethefringe
states,suchasancientGhana,thatwerefoundfightingforsurvivalon
theedgesofthedesert,onceapartofavastimperialsystem?Thereis
someevidencethatthismayhavebeenthecase,buttheactualfact
remainsunknownandspeculationbecomesanidlepastime
.
WhatisknownisthatthemigrationsfromtheSahara,whileheavily
concentratedinUpperEgyptandtheEasternSudan,alsospreadout
overAfricainandthroughtheWesternSudan .
Imayseemtohaveoveremphasizedtheethniccompositionofsome
migratinggroupsbyrepeatingreferencetoit.Butitissoimportantthat
whitehistorianshavebypasseditinordertoestablishanewtheoryof
prehistoricCaucasianoccupationofAfrica.Havetheynotfound
supposedly"Caucasoid"remainsandartifactsindifferentplaces?
Accordingtothistheorythewhites,intheirconquestofAfricawere
simplyreturningtotheirownoriginalhomeland
.Butwhere,now,isthe
187
188

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
homelandoftheBlacks?Our"Africanist"expertsdonotknow.Some
few,apparentlyseeinghowridiculouswasthecornerintowhichthey
hadpaintedthemselves,suggestthatperhapstheBlacksmigratedfrom
India,or"somewhere"inEurope!
OthersundertaketoestablishCaucasianpriorityinAfricabyexcavat-
ingstructures"whichnoNegroescouldhavebuilt."Anexampleisa
prehistoricsiteinUganda.Theyfoundwhatseemstohavebeenawell-
builtfortificationofearthwork,reservoirs,damsforirrigation,trenches
andpitdwellings .Allthisindicatedthemassorganizationandskillsofa
superiorpeople,suchastheSidamo,forexample ."NowhereinEast
Africa,"theauthorconcludes,"areNegropeoples,eitherBantuor
Nilotic,knowntohavebuiltstructuresevenremotelycomparableto
these ."'This,likeathousandsimilarfalsestatementsaboutAfricans,
requiresnoanswer.Thefactsnowarewellknown.Butletusnotmiss
thecentralpointinallthis .TheSidamopeople,citedbythisanthropolo-
gistastheprobablebuildersofthosestructures,arethemselvesBlack
Africans,asblackandasAfricanasaretheanthropologist's"Bantu"and
"Nilotic"groups .Ihavelivedamongallthreegroups.Someofthe
peopleineach .groupareof"mixedblood"asasimplematterof
course-justasAmericanBlacksaremixed.Butintheirpathological
drivetopreventanyconceptsofunityfromemerginginAfrica,Cauca-
sianscholarshave beenrelentlessindividingtheBlacksofAfricainto
numerousethniccategories .Thisgrandstrategywasdesignedtomake
eachgroupfeelunique,specialandhostiletoallothergroups. .The
developmentofdifferentlanguagesinthescatteredandisolatedsocieties
wasthemostfavorablesituationforthedivisionoftheBlacksandthe
furtheranceofhostilityamongthem.
Noneofthiswasevildeliberatelydesigned .Thewritingofthehistory
(or,rather,non-history)ofnon-CaucasiansfromaCaucasianviewpoint
wasadevelopmentofrelativelyrecenttimes .Itfollowedlogicallyfrom
the19thcenturytheoriesofsocialevolution.Racism,thenaturalby-
product,nowhada"scientific"basis,andassuchbecameanintegral
partofeducationitself.ThisiswhyWesternanthropologistshave
playedthedominantroleinshapingAfricanhistorywhich,fromtheir
viewpoint,wasthestudyof"primitivepeoples ."Themigrations,aswe
haveseen,servedtheirpurposewell.
1 .Murdock.
TheScatteringofthePeople
189
THEIMPERIALISTSWITHTHEPEN
Thepicturebecomesclear,however,whenweknowthatthe"Black"
migrationswerenotalwaysallblack
.SomeofthesewereAfro-Asians,
somehadafewwhiteAsians,othergroupswereentirelyAfro-Berberor
Afro-Arab
.Theseoftentendedtoformanindependentethnicgroup,
keepingtothemselves
.TherewerealsosomegroupsofBerbersand,
later,ArabswhomigratedfromtheSaharatofavorablelocationsinthe
interior
.So,asstatedabove,sincewearehereconsideringtheearliest
migrationsfromtheSahara,tofind"Caucasoid"remainsinanypartof
Africatodayisreallywithoutanyparticularsignificance
.Suchfinds
obviouslydonotjustifytheconclusionsreachedbymanywriters .
ButtheseexpertsonAfricaarenotignorantoftheessentialfactsand
outcomesofmigrations .Thisiscertainlytrueofthosewhohavestudied
thedispersonsandthemixingofpeoplesoverthemilleniums
.They
know,butthereisapparentlyadeeplyfeltneed,anurgentandalmost
desperatecompulsiontojustifythepowerpositionofthewhiteworld
averthenon-whitepeoples
.Thatwhitepowerissoall-encompassing
makesthetaskofWesternscholarship,inparticular,easyenough
.
Firstofall,theyarenotonlysupportedbythealmostlimitlesswealth
amassedfromtheexploitedpeoplesoftheearth,buttheyalsostill
,control,directlyorindirectly,theeconomiclifeofeveryblackstate
today
.Thisisequallytrueofnumerousnon-Africancountries,stillpoor
andbegging,whiletheirwealthisbeingdrainedofftothealreadyrich
countries
.Secondly,theycontrolworldeducationandscience .Scholar-
ship,supportedbybillionsofdollars,farfrombeingindependentand
"objective,"hasgenerallyserveditsmasterswell,becomingarrogant
andoverbearingintheprocess
.Theirmostpowerfulweaponisasingle
word,science
.Havingsuccessfullyraisedsciencefarabovereligionin
thefaithofpeoplegenerally,theymaynowpresentalmostanyproposi-
tionorconclusionas"scientific"andgainwideacceptance
.Theagehas
passedwhenmenlistenedwithreverencewhenitwasdeclaredthat
"ThussaiththeLord ."Now onesimplyhastosay,"accordingto
science . . . "or"mostscholarsareagreed . . .,"etc .Finally,theuniversities
spearheadedthefinaleconomictriumphoftheWestovertherestofthe
world
.Sciencepushedthepartnershipofbigcorporatewealthandbig
governmentintoexcitingfields-ofinventionsanddiscoveries
.Weapons
ofuniversaldestructionactuallyout-distancedthetechnologyoftime
andspace.
Who,then,couldquestion
.whitesupremacy?Whodaredtochallenge
viewpointsheldbyscholarswiththisawesomearrayofpowerbehind
1 90

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
them?CertainlynothingcomingfromtheBlacksrequiredanyserious
consideration.Themindtransplanthadbeenmostsuccessfulasan
operationontheBlacks .
Havinglostthehonoroffullmanhoodthatcomesonlyfromthepride
ofracialworthandidentity,theblackman'smindgenerallyoperates
favorablytowardhiswhiteenemiesandnegativelytowardhimselfand
hiskind.
Nooneknowsthisbetterthanthewhites .Theyhave,therefore,hada
freeandunchallengedhandinreorderingtheLandoftheBlacksasthey
sawfit,classifyingandnamingpeople,placesandthingsjustasthey
pleased.TheBlackswerenonpersonsornobodiesintheirownland .
Fromoneendofthecontinenttotheotherblackyouthsawgreat
monumentsandstatuesofEuropeansonly,EuropeanandArabnames
forAfricanroads,hills,lakes,townsandcities .Oneyoungster,whose
ancestorshadmigratedfromthenorthcenturiesago,stoodgazingata
statueofCecilRhodes ."He'sinourschoolhookstoo!"heproudly
informedhisparents .Thesmileleftasheasked,"Butwhyare our great
menforgotten?Weneverhearaboutthem."Asnonecouldanswer,
therewassilence .Thisparticulargroupbelongedtoafamilythatwas
2,000milesfromtheknown"original"home .Thisreferstotheplace
thatoraltraditiondeclarestobetheoriginalhome .Butweknowthat
the"placeoforigin"oftengivenintheoralrecordmeanstheplace
wherethegrouplivedforsomanygenerationsthatprevioushomesites
duringtheselongdrawn-outmigrationshadbeenforgotten .Whatthey
hadforgotten,however,waslesstragicthantheirignoranceofsomeof
thewell-knownfactsoftheirmorerecenthistoryasapeople .Theboy
hadraisedimportantquestions .Theycouldnotanswerbecausethey
areBlacksofRhodesia .WhatlittlehistorytheyknewwaswhiteRhode-
sianhistory,andthistheycouldlearnfromRhodestoIanSmith .They
didnotknowthattheyhadbeenlivingforgenerationsinthecenterof
whatwasonceoneofthegreatestblackempiresinAfrica,norhadthey
everheardofthegreatAfricanleaderofthatempire,EmperorMutota.
Aselsewhere,Rhodesianhistorybeganwiththecomingofthewhites .
Allbeforethatis"unknownpre-history."
TOTHECAVES,TOTHESWAMPS
Wehavebeenstudyingthosepeoplewhowereactuallymigrating
fromahighlyadvancedcivilizationtolessadvancedregionsorregions
notadvancedatall,butwhocontinuedtorebuildnewstatesuntilthey
TheScatteringofthePeople

191
weredestroyedbytheEuropeaninvasions.Sincearepresentative
numberofthesestatesappearinthefollowingpages,afinalword
shouldbesaidaboutthevastnumberswhofoundonlycavesand
swampsasplacesofrefugeand,therefore,builtnostates,butsank
lowerandlowerinhopelessness,ever-presentfearsofcapture,andalife
thatwasnotlifebutananimal-likestruggletosurvive .Ireferredto
thesebefore,butalltoobriefly.Theyareaninseparablepartofthe
historyoftherace .Theirsavagestateenablesustomeasurethedistance
fromtheheightstothelevelwheresomanyoftheracehadfallen ;italso
maybetheboldrecognitiononourpartthatservesasaguidelighton
theroadbacktogreatness .Callthem"savages"ifthatpleasesyou.But
theseweretheBlacksinretreatbeforetheslave-hunters .Thesewere
theBlackswhohadtochoosebetweenenslavementforlife,andthatof
alloftheirdescendants,andfreedom.Theydidnothesitate .Theychose
freedomeventhoughitmeantthelossofcivilization,acivilization
whichtheyhad,infact,alreadylost .TobeslavesofArabs,Europeans
orAmericanssimplymeantbecomingtheeconomicfoundationof their
civilizationandthesteadydestructionofthecivilizationoftheBlacks .
So,allhailtotheBlack"savages"-thosenobleancestorswhochose
bothfreedomanddeathinpreferencetowhiteenslavement!Freedom
anddeath.Oncethepathstheymadeinflightcouldbefollowedfor
daysbytheirbloodyfootprintsinthesand.Thewindblownsandhad
easilycoveredtheseup.Latertravellersandslave-hunterscould
determinethevariousroutesofflightbytheskeletonsfoundhereand
there,fallenstatuesleftbythosewhocouldnotmakeiton .Theywere
generallydisjointedandscattered ;sometimesitwasabonyarmpro-
trudingfromthewindsweptsands,alegoverthereoraskullseemingto
smile"peaceatlast!"Thebonesofotherthousandswhodiedinflight
wereneverseen.Theylayburiedforeverunderthetonsofsandand
rocksthatmovedovermuchoftheregions .
MassesofBlacksfoundsecurityinhillsthatweremadeinaccessibleto
bothArabsandEuropeans.SuchwereBlackswhoisolatedthemselves
inthestrongholdsoftheNubaHills.Theywereneverconquered,
throwingbackallinvadingarmyunitsthatattemptedsubjugationand
enslavement.Westernerspointtotheirprimitivestate,totheirnude
andhalf-nudebodies .TothesomewhattwistedWesternmind,naked-
nessinpublicisindicativeofthesavage .The"twistedmind"becomes
evidentwhenthesamepeopledonotfinditnecessarytoexplainthe
1 92

The DestructionofBlack Civilization


universalityofwhitenudistcoloniesornakedbodies(nottomention
sexualintercouse)onpublicstagesandscreens.ReferencetotheNoba
people,ofcourse,issimpletogivestillanotherexampleofapeoplewho
hadtomakethegrimchoicebetweenfreedomandslavery,chosing
freedomevenwhenthatchoicemeantisolationand,inevitably,retro-
gression.Blackswhowereamongtheveryfirstweaversandcloth
makersonearthcouldnolongerwearclothes .
Theseflightsbeforethemightyfirepoweroftheinvadersbecame
moregeneralafter1400 A.D., eventhoughguns,after200yearsof
development,werestillnotinwidespreaduseinAfrica .OnlyEuropeans
andArabswereabletosecurealimitedsupplyofthese"precious"and
certain-to-conquerweapons .TheBlackshadnothingofthekind .
Meanwhile,experimentationtoimprovevarioustypesofgunneryand
speedupproductionwasfranticallypushed .Thesuccessfuloutcomeof
thisgreatventureinfirepowerwasthepreludetotheindustrialrevolu-
tionthatwastochangenotonlythematerialworld,butwhatwasleftof
thehumanenatureofmanhimself.
Itisnotlikelythatthepeoplewerethengenerallyawarethatthey
werebeingslowlyhemmedinfromalldirections .Itispossiblethat
manydid"feel"it,withouthavinganyexactknowledgeofbeing
encircled,althoughthedangermightbeseveralhundredmilesaway
wherethehostileseasmetthefriendlyland .Othergroupsofwandering
Blacksheadedfordismalswamps,stillothersdugcavesinhillsides .
Therewerethosewhowanderedaimlesslyoutintothescorchingdesert
anddiedwiththeirbabiesstrappedtotheirbacksandlargerchildren
clutchedbytheirhands.Thismeantthatthebleachedskeletonsoflittle
babiesandchildrengreetedtheeyesasthoughadditionaltestimony
wereneededtoshowhowmanyoftheyoungwereincludedamong
thosewhocouldnotmakeiteventobarbarism.
Allofthosewhosurvivedinthesevariousgroupsendedupinareas
wheretheycoulddolittlemorethansurvive .Eveniftheyhadnot
splinteredoffintosmallindependentsocieties,famineanddisease
wouldhavereducedtheirnumbersanyway.Therefore,asnotedelse-
where,thereweremanyfirmlyunitedgroupsthatweresolargethat
migratingasasingleunitwasimpossible .Heretheverycircumstancesof
thecasedemandedseparation,estrangementandisolationfromthe
mothersociety,andtheeventualdevelopmentofseveralnewlanguage
groups .ThedisunityamongtheBlacksthatspreadoverthewholerace
oftendevelopedfromcrisissituationsoverwhichtheyhadnocontrolin
theawfulstruggletosurvive .
TheScatteringofthe People 193
Themillionswhofoundsecurityonlyinplacesofextremeisolation-
incaves,swamps,aroundafewpreciouswaterholesindesertsandon
inaccessiblehills-noneofthesepeoplewerefavoredwiththechance
eventobeginthebuildingoftheirlostcivilization.Farfrombeing
ashamedofthemas"savages,"thischapterisasalutetothem,asalute
withpridethatsaystothem"allhonorandallglory!"UnliketheBlacks
weknowmostabout,theycouldnotbuildgreatkingdomsandempires .
Manywerefarremovedevenfromthefringesofanadvancingworld.
Yettheyoverrodetheunceasingattacksofbothdeathandhell,and
survived .Whatismore,theyheldfastthelastlineoffreedomonthe
Africancontinent,andtheyhelditagainstcannonfiretotheveryend .
Evenwhencolonialismsweptovertheirlandtheywereneverconquered .
TheyhadbeenwiseenoughtoseebothIslamand, Christianityasjust
anotherroutetotheslaverytheyhadfoughtanddiedtoavoid .They
remainedsteadfastintheirownreligionand,therefore,werecalled
"pagans."Butalloftheirchildrenwerebornfree,noneinMuslimor
Christianslavery;andtheirgirlswereneverdraggedofftobecome
slavesintheharemsofArabs,orasbreedinggirlsforwhitemen in the
West.
Finally,1referredtoBlackswho,thoughforcedtomove,neverleft
theirhomelandregion.TheNobadidnotmoveveryfarfromwhere
theyhadlivedfromtimesimmemorial.AfargreaternumberofBlacks
heldonintheirancientcenterafteritwasoverrun,refusingeitherto
leaveorbeenslaved.Theystayedandbattledagainsttheinvaders,
finally,beingconcentratedinthesouthernprovincesoftheSudan
wheretheearlierhistoryoftheraceinEgyptisstillbeingrepeated,line
byline .Andthisiswhyitissoeasytounderstandthehistoryofthe
Blacksandseeveryclearlyhowtheywerenotonlyforcedfarback
behindtheadvancingraces,butalsopushedtothelowestlevelsof
degradation .Forthathistoryisstillbeingmadetoday,covertlyand
openly,foralltheworldtosee .TheBlackswhoareunderpressure
todayinBahrElGhazal,UpperNileandEquatoriaarestillfightingfor
survivalagainsttheall-conqueringColouredArabsjustastheirfore-
fathersfoughtfivethousandyearsagofromtheMediterraneanin
LowerEgypttowheretheyarenowmakingalaststand.Romantic
history?Whoneedsit?Theyhavebeenmassacredbythehundredsand
villagesleftinashes,buttheyfighton .Thisall-blackregioniskept
isolatedandcutofffromthedevelopmentsandhigherlevelsoflifeseen
intheArab-dominatedSudan .TheseSouthernSudanesehave
194

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
remained(evenin 1973) both"primitive"and"pagan,"justastheir
brotherselsewherehadtoremainundersimilarcircumstances .
Itwasstillthehuntinggroundforslaves
.TheBlackshadtoremain
sharplyalertatalltimes,forthemodernslavetrafficwascovert,subtle
andoftenhighlysophisticated
.Therewerenooutrightraids.Theslave
agentsmayappearasemploymentofficersseekingworkersorrepresen-
tativesofschoolsofferingfreetrainingfornurses,teachersandvarious
trades
.IwastoldwhenIwasworkinginthisareathatthesetacticswere
successfulforalongtimebecauseoftheextremepovertyandthe
desperateneedforjobs .
Thefightingthathasbeengoingonconstantlyforfifteenyearshas
causedthesamekindofmigrationsasmostofthosealreadydescribed
.
Thousandshavebeenmigratingintoanycountrythatallowedthemto
enter.Eveninthismodernagemanywillneverseethoseleftbehind
again.Theywillscatterandsettleamongotherpeoplewhereverthey
can.Theywillbecome"lost"inthemerger,whiletheirbrothersand
sistersstaybehindandcarryontheancienttraditionoffightingon
againstoverwhelmingoddsaslongastheycanstand .
Inthisstudyyoumusthavenoticedthatthepastandpresentare
joined.Westudyourpastfortheexpresspurposeoflearningwhat
thingsmadetheracegreatinthepast,whatexplainssubsequent
failuresandweakness,andwhat,inthelightofthathistory,wecando
now-ifwehavethewill
.Thisiswhatthestudyofhistoryshouldmean
forAfricanpeopleinparticular
.ThischapterontheMigrations,for
example,tellsusmuchthatisevenalarminglycrucial.Buthowmanyof
uscaretograpplewithitsrealsignificance?
Whoaskswhyisitthattheblackworld,forever"up-tight"overSouth
AfricaandRhodesia,hasremainedsilentaboutthe 15 yearsofthe
slaughterofBlacksintheSudan?IaskedfourleadersoftheResistance
iftheSouthernprovinceshadeverappealedtotheOrganizationof
AfricanUnityforhelp
."Wehavebeenbeggingthemeversinceit
started,"wastheunanimousreply."Notforarms,butjusttouseits
influencetostoptheburningofourvillagesandthemassacreofour
people
.But,yousee,thewhiteandbrownArabsactuallycontrolthe
policiesoftheOAU
.ForusthatmeansthattheystillcontroltheBlacks
ofAfrica . . . "
Meanwhile,migrantsstillwanderasofold.Forthem
freedomandindependenceareyettocometoAfrica .
. . .
Thefirst,andperhapsthemostimportantfactisthatthegeneral
e
nslavementofAfricans,proclaimedtotheworldassavages,began
duringtheveryperiodandintheveryWestAfricainthecenterof
whichoneofthegreatuniversitiesoftheworldandothercolleges
werelocated.
-TheBlackRevivalofLearning,p . 247
CHAPTERVIII
TheResurrectionandtheLife
:
CaseStudiesbyStates
"THEYCALLEDIT"GHANA"
ONEBLACKSTATEDEFIEDTHESLOWONSLAUGHTOFTHE
Saharaforovertwothousandyears,hangingontoitsfringesfarinto
historictimes,justasthoughitwasdeterminedtolettheworldactually
seehowallofitssisterstatesinthatvastwastelandhaddied
.
Furthermore,itsveryantiquityandthesimilarityofitsadvancedinstitu-
tionstothoseoftheEthiopianempireintheeasthasraisedthequestion
ofwhetheritwasawesternoutpostofthatempire
.Thereis,ofcourse,
noquestionaboutthetravelsofBlacksbetweentheEasternand
WesternSudan.
The"geographers"wereamongthefirstforeignerstoarriveinthe
regioninthe10thcenturyA.D
.TheArabandEuropeanpracticeof
namingcountriesandpeoplesoftendisplayedbothignoranceandarro-
gance
.Theydidnotcondescendtoinquireofthepeopleaboutthe
nameoftheircountryorthemeaningofthetitlestheyheld
.Sothey
calledthiscountry"Ghana,"meaningtheleader,headofthestateor,in
Westernterms,theking .
Thepeoplewhomigratedintothecountryfromalldirectionshad
everyreasontobelievetheywerefarenoughintotheinteriortobefree
195
TheResurrectionandtheLife
197
andsecureatlastinakingdomthathadneverbeenconqueredeither
bytheforcesofnatureorofmen.Anditshistorywaslong.Ascitizens,
theycouldhelpinthefurtherdevelopmentofthegeneralprosperity
andtheeducationwhichwasanintegralpartofthenationalprogram .
Ghana'sactualhistorygoesfarbackbeyonditsknownrecord .That
recordlistedforty-fourkingsbeforetheChristianeraandthisalong
wouldextendGhana'sknownhistorybeyondthe25thDynastywhen
thelastblackpharaohsruledEgypt(7thcentury B.C.) .
Holdingonandholdingoutagainstaslowlybutsteadilyexpanding
oceanofsand"-thenowthreemillionsquaremilesoftheSahara
Desert-ithad,nevertheless,reachedahighlevelofgreatnessinthe
eleventhcenturyandwasanempirecomparabletomostEuropean
statesatthattime .Itsurpassedmanyothersinsocialorganization,
militarypower,economicwealthandinthepromotionofhigher
education .
ThisAfricanempirehadexpandedterritoriallybybothconquests
andpeacefulallianceswithneighboringcountries,includingdependen-
ciessuchasSama,Garantel,Gadiaro,Galam(present-dayNorthern
Ghanaarea),Diara,SosoandTekrur ;thedeserttribesofBerberswere
madetributaries-theZenaga,Lemtuna,Goddala,Messufa,et. at.
Theempire,knownasthe"LandofGold"becamegreatnotonly
becauseitcontrolledthegreatestsourceofgoldforbothEuropeand
Asia,butalsobecauseofitsironminingandironmanufacturesforover
athousandyears .Leadershipintheironindustrymadeheradominant
poweroverlessprogressivepeoplesintheWesternSudan .Thisstatus
andthemasteryofironalsomeantthedevelopmentofamighty
militarypower,equippedwithawesomeweaponsoverwhichithada
monopoly.Theseweaponswereheraldedabroad,strikingfearamong
neighboringstates.Somewereannexedwithoutresistance,othershad
tobeconquered .
Controlofcaravantraderoutestothenorth,east,EthiopiaandEgypt
wasprobablythemostimportantfactorintheever-growingwealthof
thenation.Therewereimportandexporttaxes,asystemofweights
andmeasures,andcontrolofinflationbylimitingtheflowofgold .
Kumbi-Kumbi,thecapital,wasatwincityofstonemansions,temples,
mosquesandschools,alongwiththethatchedroofhutsofthemasses .
Thelargertownsandcitiesweregenerallylocatedonornearlakes,
riversandlesserstreamssuchascreeks.TheNigerwasthemost
importantriverfortrade,travelandwarboats .
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TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
Itwasamixedeconomyofagriculture: wheat,millet,cotton,corn,
yams,andcattle-raising(cows,horses,goats,camels,andsheep) .The
ironindustry,miningandnumerouscraftswereorganizedasguilds :
blacksmiths,goldsmiths(jewelers),coppersmiths,stonemasons,brick-
masons,waterdiviners,carpenters,weavers,sandal-makers,dyers,
cabinet-makers,furniture-makers,andpotters .
Thesoilwasmorefavorableformilletthanwheat .Muchwheatwas
imported.OtherimportsfromAfricancountriesandabroadweresalt,
textiles,cowrieshells,brass,dates,figs,pearls,fruit,sugar,driedraisins
andhoney.Thechiefexportsweregold,ivory,rubber,andslaves .
UndertheEmperorTenkamenin (1060 A.D.) theimperialarmy
numbered200,000 (1060 A.D.) ofwhich100,000weremountedand
40,000 wereexpertlytrainedbowandarrowbrigades .Itwasnota
standingarmy;rather,itwassomewhatlikeaNationalGuard,trained
andreadytoanswerthecallwhenneeded,butotherwisefollowingtheir
usualoccupations .ThemostfamousschoolswereatKumbi-Saleh'
andDjenne .TheworldrenownedUniversityofSankorewasatTim-
buktu(northofGhana) .
Allthisandmuchmorepassedawaylikeadream.Whathappened?
Thiswasagreatcivilization .Whathappenedtoit?Thecountryandits
capitalwasvisitedbythegreatArabgeographer,ElBekri,sometime
after 960A.D.Hedescribedavastcountryoffertilefieldswithrivers
andlakes,woods,andgreenplains,ofbusyvillages,towns,and"citiesof
stone."YetwhenBonnetdeMezieresvisitedthesiteofthecapitalcityin
1914,allhesawatfirstwasalevelwastelandofrocksandsandasfaras
theeyecouldsee .Whathappenedtothecityofstone?Wherewerethe
greenfields,thegreentrees?Wherewerethelakes?Andaboveall,what
becameofthegreatWagaduRiverthatflowednearthecapital?How
couldanyofthesethingseverhavebeentrue?Ifthereisanysuchthing
astheunbelievable,hereitwas.Yet,oralhistoryinsistedthatthiswas
theareawhereGhana'sancientcapitalcityoncestood .
Diggingunbelievingly,theexcavatorsfinallyreachedandbeganto
unearththecitythathadbeenentombedbythedesertsandsfor
centuries.Theveryideathatiteverexistedhadalmostbeenforgotten .
1 .AlsoknownasKumbi-Kumbi.Likewise,Djenneisavariationof
Jenne.
TheResurrectionand theLife

19S
Herethen,buriedundertonsofsand,wastheanswertooneofthe
greatestriddlesofhistory .Tounderstanditistounderstandoneofthe
mostpowerfulforcesinthedeclineofAfricancivilization,andwhyso
manyofthecontinent'sfamine-crazedpeoplesankintobarbarismand
thelifeofsavages.ThefallofGhana'sempirewasmerelyaprologueto
thefateofthestillgreaterempiresofMaliandSonghaythatlaterspread
overmuchofthesameareaandbeyond .Theculminationoftheprocess
ofdisintegrationwasbeingslowlyreachedineachofthesecountries
evenwhiletheywereexpandingovervastareas,flushedwithallthe
gloriesofwealthandpower.Wemighthereobservethat,nearlya
thousandyearslater,theillusionthat bigness, wealthandmilitary
poweraresufficienttoguaranteesecurityandpermanencestillpersist .
Indeed,powerandwealthtendtomakerulersbothobstinateandblind
inthefaceofobviouslyunderminingforces .
ThedestructionofthecapitalbytheMuslimsin 1076andthegreat
migrationfromthecountryare part ofthestory;butonlyapart,
becausetheMuslimsdidnotstayinforce .Thisinvasionwassimply
anothermajorfactorintheprocessofslowdisintegrationandexpedited
it .ItcertainlysteppedupthemassflightsofGhanaianssouthwardinto
theforestsandtothecoast .
Asecondfactorthataffectedthestabilityandgrowthofthecountry
wasthecontinuousraidsbytheSemiticnomadsofthedesert(bearin
mindthatsomeoftheattackingnomadsweretributarysubjects),mostly
BerbersandArabs.'Theaimswerebootyanddestruction,notconquest
andsettlement.Thedesertpeoplehatedsettled,civilizedlife,regarding
itasfeminine .Theraider'sappearedsuddenlyinsurpriseattacksand
disappearedassuddenly.Settledcommunitiesweredesertedand
migrationsdeveloped enmasse. Therefugeemovements within the
countrycreatedinternaltensionsandconflicts,whilemovements from
thecountryfurtherweakenedit .Achainreactionsetin,andsomeof
theinternalcausesofconflictanddisintegrationmaybenotedas
follows:
1 .Dissatisfactionwithacentralgovernmentthattendedprogressively
tounderminethetraditionalconstitutionsofboththe parent-nuclear
2.Areminder: "Berbers"and"Arabs"generallyincludedBlacc
Africans,Afro-BerbersandAfro-Arabs-allconvertedtoIslam.The
mostfanaticalMuslimswereoftentheBlacksandMulattoes .
200

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
stateandoftheformerlyindependentstateswhichnowmadeupthe
empire.
2.Thedesireforindependenceonthepartofthesestates,ormore
securityinanalliancewithsomeotherseeminglyrisingpower,suchas
Mali.
3.Hardtimes.Droughtleadingtofaminewasbecomingmore
frequent,almostapermanentcondition .Farming,theoccupationofthe
masses,wasbecomingtoodifficulttosupportlifeasthesoilitselfwas
dying.
4.Thedeclineoftrade.Stepped-upArab-Berberraidsoncaravan
trails,thelife-lineoftheempire .
5.FailuretocaptureWangaragoldmines,leavingthestateinthenow
precariouspositionofadependentmiddleman .
6.Civilstrifeoversuccessiontothrone .Therulingclasshadbecome
Muslim,introducingrevolutionarychangesintraditionalconstitutional
practices .
7.Weakleadersonbothlocalandnationallevels .Wisdom,courage
andabilitywerenolongertestsforhighoffice .
8.Religiousconflicts .Muslimkingsversusnon-Muslimmasses.This
meantwarontime-honoredreligiousbeliefsandpractices.TheAfrican
masses,ofcourse,wereregardedas"infidels,"buttheruthlessprogram
offorcedconversionstoIslamfailedasmoreandmoreofthepeople
fledthecountry.Islameventuallytriumphedoverthiswholearea,
whichistodaywhatwasFrenchWestAfrica .
9.Theincreasingdeathofthesoil : Deforestation,erosion,andthe
uninhibitedsouthwardmovementoftheSahara.Thegradualdrying
upofstreamsandsinkingoflakesandriversweredeathknellsfora
civilizationthatwasalreadydecayingforreasonswhichIhavejust
outlined.
10.Changesinclimate : Thequickevaporationofrainfall,leavingthe
soilasdryandthirstyasever.MauriceDelafosse,inhis Negroesof
Africa,declared : "TheregionwhereKumbiwasbuiltisnowveryarid .
Intruthitrainshereeveryyear,butthereare(now)norivers ;and
exceptatafewpointswherepoolsandsheetsofnotverydeepsubter-
teraneanwaterexist,thevegetation,althoughfairlythickinspots,is
reducedtothinpasturage,gumtreesandotherspinybushes(halogen) .
Theregioncontainsnovillages,andistraversedonlybynomadicMoors
andhuntersoftheNemaditribe .Butverynumerousandextended
tracesofformerhabitationsandburialplaceswhichturnupatevery
TheResurrectionandtheLife

201
instant,showthatthecountrywasformerlyinhabited,inpartatleast,
bysedentarypeoples,andleadustosupposethatitwasbetterwatered
thanitistodayandmoresuitablefortillage .Besides,Bekrispeaksof
vastandprosperousfieldswhichextendedtotheeastofGhanathe
CapitalCityandlocaltraditionsareunanimousinattributingthe
declineofthekingdomandthedispersionofitsinhabitantstothe
dryingupoftheWagaduandconsequentfamine . . . "
ThisearlyconclusionbyDelafossewithregardtothereasonsforthe
disappearanceofonehighlycivilizedAfricanstatehasnotonlybeen
confirmedbylaterinvestigation,butthesamemajorfactorsexplainthe
collapseofotherAfricanstates .
MALI
Maliwasthesecondofthe"GreatThree"WestAfricanempiresthat
becamewellknowninthemedievalworld.Althoughitshistoryhas
.beentracedbacktopaleolithictimesthroughrockpaintings,carvings
andotherarchaeologicalfinds,suchasthe"Asselarman"in1927,the
empireroseinthe13thcenturywiththedeclineofGhana .
KangobawasthesmallkingdomoftheMandinkapeopleonthe
southernborderofGhananearthemouthoftheNigerRiver .Itwasa
tributarystateandheldthestrategictradingpositionofdominanceover
thegoldminesofbothWangaraandBoure .
Amongthecontestantsforsuccessiontothedisintegratingempireof
Ghanaweretwoofitsrebellingprovinces,KaniagaandDiara .These
wereovercomebythenearbyKingdomofTegrurundertheleadership
ofSumanguru,whosucceededincapturingthecapitolofGhana,
KumbiSaleh,in1203.Heundertookthetaskofrebuildingtheempire,
provedtobeunequaltoit,andwasdefeatedbytheMandinkaking,
Sundiata,atthehistoricBattleofKirinain1240.Thebattle'soutcome
wasthebeginningoftheMalianEmpire.UndertheEmperorsSundiata
KeitaandMansaUlitherewassystematicreorganizationandconsolida-
tionoftheformerempireandexpansionbeyondit;sothatwhenMansa
Musacametothethronein1312hehadasolidfoundationuponwhich
tobuildwhatwastobecomeoneofthegreatestempiresofthetime,
andtoberecognizedassucharoundtheworld .
Buttwothingsshouldbenotedhere.ThefirstisthatbothGhanaand
MaliincludedstrongArab-Berbertribalstatesundertheirrule .Mostof
thesewereuniteddesertsocieties.Theyoccupiedthesurrounding
202

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
strategicpointsofpower
.Theywereabletoharassandraidthegreat
caravansconductingthevastimportandexporttradeoftheblackstates
acrosstheSahara
.Thearmedescortguardswerepowerlessagainst
thembecausetheycouldthrowamile-longcaravanintodisarrayand
confusionbythetacticsofsuddenattackandwithdrawal,attackand
withdrawaluntiltheheavilyladenedfleetswereattheirmercy
.These
caravantrails,thelife-linesofempires,wereregularlyunderattackor
threatened
.Onesolutionoftheproblem,itisbelieved,wasforblack
kingstobecomeMuslims
.EmbracingIslambecamenotmerelyapolicy
toexpediency'whereverArabandBerberMuslimsgainedadominant
footholdinBlackAfrica,butitbecameacompellingmeanstoeconomic
survival
.TheMuslimsnotonlycontrolledtheall-importantcaravan
trails,butallAfricanportsoftradewiththeworld
.Thefactthatmany
ofthedeserttribeswerenominallyapartoftheempire,ortributariesto
it,mademattersworse
.Pretendingtobeloyaltotheemperorwhenthis
servedtheirpurpose,theycouldplayitbothways
.They,therefore,
alwayshadtheirseparatecommunitiesinthecapitalcityandall
importanttradingtowns
.AsMuslim"brothers,"theysecuredimportant
postsinthegovernment
."Protected"caravansmovedunmolested.
Whatitmeansisthatthe"loyal"Arabs,asadvisorstotheking,wereina
positiontocollecttributefromhimtopayoffpotentialraiders
.Here,as
elsewhere,"brotherhood"and"integration"weremostbeneficialfor
thewhitesevenwhentheywereinapoliticallysubordinatestatus
.
ThesecondimportantfacttobenotedisthattheArab-Berber
positionnearandwithintheempirewasthebasefromwhichthe
fanaticalAlmoravidesspreadtheIslamicreligioninWestAfricawithan
uncompromisingaggressivenessunmatchedinthehistoryofreligion
.
Theirproselytisingbrotherhoodswerecampsofmilitantmissionaries
.
Theywerehostiletotheblackmassesbecausethemassesactively
resistedconversiontoIslam.Here,again,maybeanexampleofwhyso
manyAfricansand,especiallyAfro-Americans,thinkofArabsas
"Colouredpeople"
;forthewell-knownAlmoravideswereindeedpre-
dominantlyMulatto.
StrongBlackMuslimkingsprotectedtheirpeople
.Baranmindanah
wasthefirstMansa(king)ofMalitoembraceIslamin1050A
.D.He
urgedthatallsucceedingmansasdothesame
.(Arabichistorians,there-
fore,listhimasthefirstkingofMali .Thehistoryofthecountrybegan
withIslamandthepilgrimagestoMecca-anotheraspectofthe
"blackout
.")Theemperor-kingswhocameafterBaranmindanahdid
TheResurrectionandtheLife

203
indeedbecomeMuslims,mainlyforreasonsmentionedabove .Some
becameasfanaticasanyofthesemi-barbarousAlmoravidesofthe
deserts.SuchwasthegreatMariJalak,knowntofameasMansaMusa .It
appearsthathisdrivingambitionwastobeknown,worldwide,asthe
greatestBlackMusliminallAfrica .Hesucceeded,anditpaidoffonall
frontsexceptamongthemassesofcommonpeople .
Internationaltradenowmovedfreelyinalldirectionsoverthe
caravantrails.Between 1307 and 1332Malievolvedfromanexpanding
kingdomtoanexpandingempire .Itextendednorthoverthedesert,
extendingitsauthorityovertheall-importantsaltminesofTaghaza;
eastwarditreachedtheHausaStatesofNigeria,andwestwardit
coveredthestrongTegrurandthecountriesoftheFulani(Afro-Berber)
andTucolorpeoples.TheremarkableexpansionofMalimeantthe
remarkableexpansionofIslamintheWesternSudan,andincountries
outsideoftheempire.ThespreadofIslamreplacedAfricantraditional
laws.TheKoranwasnowtheconstitution .Allthismadeforincreased
internaldiscord,rebellionsbyconqueredgroups,andmigrationsfrom
thecountry.
Herewehavetoremindourselvesthatwecannothaveitbothways:
Manyoftheblackkingdomsandempiresaboutwhichwesingwith
pridebecamegreatbyridingroughshodoverotherblackstatesand
people;andthussowingevenmoreseedsofhatetogrowamongblack
generationsstillunborn .
Thedeclinedidnotbeginuntilafter1400when,underweaker
successors,theGhanastoryofinternaldisunityandstriferepeateditself .
After1550Maliasanempirewaslittlemorethananinspiringmemory.
Therefollowedtheusualarrayofnumeroussmalland"independent"
states,eachripeforeasyconquestbyastrongerpower .
Islamwasthatpower.Itcontinuedtospreadasvariousblackrulers
followedtheexampleofMansaMusaandbecameMuslims.JustasMali
hadspreadovertheformerGhanaempire,Songhaywastospreadover
Mali.
SONGHAY
ItisalmostlikeretellingthestoryofGhanaandMali .TheSonghay
peoplewerethenucleargroupthatwastobuildtheirnametothe
greatestAfricanempireofthe15thand16thcenturies .Theirsmall
state,withitscapitalatKukya,waseastoftheNigerRiverbend
204

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
betweenGaoandAgadis .Itshistoryunceralonglineofdias(kings)can
betracedbacktothe7thcentury
.The16thruler,DiaKossoi, was
crownedatGaoearlyinthe11thcenturyandthecapitalmovedthere
.
Thecaptureofthatcity-statefromtheSorkopeopleinthe7thcentury
wastheearlybeginningofSonghayexpansion.
TheSonghaywereoneofthoseuniquepeopleswhoasawholecan
becharacterizedashighlyintelligent,industriousandaggressivelyinvin-
ciblebothastradersandwarriors
.WiththecaptureofGaotheirsuccess
wasassured,forthiswastheimportantcaravancenterforinternational
trade
.ItdominatedthecommerceofthecentralregionsoftheWestern
Sudan,controllingtheflowofgoldandvoryfromthesouthernforests
andtheprecioussalttradefromtheTaghazaminesinthe
northern
desert
.Thiswasanintolerablesituaticnforthestill powerfulMali.
Therefore,in1325MansaMusasentseveraldivisionsunderhisablest
generalstobringGaoandotherSonghavpretendedloyaltyandwhole-
heartedallegiancetotheMaliempirewhilebusily
rebuildingand
reorganizingtheirarmiesandpoliticalstructure
.Theydiscontinuedthe
ruleofthediasin1335andstartedanewleadershipwiththekinglytitle
ofsunni.
Thesecondsunniofthenewline,Su
.ieman-Mar,wasabletobreak
awayfromMalianddeclareGaoindepeidencein1375,justfiftyyears
afterbeingundertheempire'srule
.Therefollowedalongperiod of
relativecalmandinaction .Therecordindicatesthatthefortunesofthe
nationroseorfellaccordingtothecharacteroftheleadership.
Soitwasthatrapidexpansioninalldirectionswasresumedwhen
SunniAli,perhapsthegreatestofSonghayemperors,
cametothe
thronein1464
.HebecameanominalMuslimforthesameeconomic
reasonsthatinfluencedotherblackkings
: TheMuslimsnotonlycon-
trolledtradewithAsiaandEurope,bu
: theyalsodominated trading
activitiesintownsandcitiesthroughresidentmerchants
.Thewealthof
thenationdependedverylargelyoncooperation
withthem.The
Africanpeople,ontheotherhand,weregenerallyanti-Islam. The
problemofallAfricankingswashowtobeaMuslimwithoutalienating
thepeople
.SunniAliwaspowerfulenDughtoplayitbothways . It
becamecleartotheArabsandBerbersthathisrealloyaltywastothe
traditionalreligionoftheAfricans .Theyneverforgavehim.However,
atthecloseofhis35yearsofleadershipasagreatgeneralandstatesman
in1492,theSonghayempirerivaledthatofMaliinwealthandterritor-
ialexpansion
.ThetwoprincipalseatsofLarning,TimbuktuandJenne,
TheResurrecion and the Life

205
hadbeenincudedinSonghay'snorthwardandwestwardsweep .Itwas
atTimbuktuthattwoofthegreatAfricanwritersoftheperiodwrote
theirfamoushistoriesinArabic . TarikhalFattash,byMahmudKati,
and Tarikh Al Sudan,byRahmanasSadi .ThemostfamousAfrican
scholarduringthisperiodofSonghay'sintellectualflowering wasthe
biographeraidlexicographer,AhmadBabo,3 bornin1526.Theyall
wroteinArabic,justasBlackAmericans,today,allwriteinEnglish,and
forthesamereasons .
THEBLACKREVIVALOFLEARNING
Songhay's ;reatnesswasduetosomethingmorethantheremarkable
expansiono'itsempireoveraterritorylargerthanthecontinentof
Europe .Thawasgreat,butgreaterbyfarwasthegrandscaleonwhich
therevivalcflearningspreadamongtheBlacksofWestAfrica-The
WesternSucan,or"LandoftheBlacks ."Threeoftheprincipalcenters
oflearningvereatJenne,GaoandTimbuktu.Attheheadofthe
educationalsystematTimbuktuwastheworldfamousUniversityof
Sankore,dnwingstudentsfromallWestAfricaandscholars from
differentfonigncountries .Itwasespeciallynotedforitshighstandard
ofscholarshband,therefore,exactingadmissionrequirements(about
whichthereveresomecomplaints) .
TheUniversitystructureconsistedofa(1)FacultyofLaw,(2)Medicine
andsurgery,"3)Letters,(4)Grammar,(5)Geography,and(6)Art .(Here
"Art"hadtodowithsuchpracticaltrainingasmanufacturing,building
andotheraliedcrafts.Afterthebasictrainingtheexpertiserequired
wasthroughthetraditionalapprenticeshipsysteminthevariouscraft
guilds.)
ThereweethousandsofstudentsfromallpartsofWestAfricaand
otherregion.Wehavenorecordoftheexactnumber.Theaccounts
alsomentionthelargenumberofscientists,doctors,lawyersandother
'scholarsattieUniversitywithoutgivingtheexactnumber-perhaps
notconsiderdnecessaryinthe15thand16thcenturies .
Andthereissomethingelsethatsimplyhadtoexistunderneaththis
universitys''stemforwhichthereisnorecord, account,orevena
3.Somewiters,includingE.W.Bouil,classifyhimasBerberorAfro-
Berber.
206

TheLstruction ofBlackCivilization
passingreference.ThiswastheWestAfcanelementaryandsecondary
schoolsystemwithoutwhichtherecoulnothavebeenaUniversityof
Sankorewithsuchhighstandardsforamission .
Aswehaveshown,theMuslimreliginanditsArabiclanguagehad
spreadovermuchofWestAfrica,andidbeenembracedparticularly
byblackrulers,notablesandmerchats,alongwiththeimmediate
followersofallofthese
.ThemasseshidontotheAfricanreligion,
althoughthousandsofthesealsofound : expedienttopassasMuslims
intownsandcities .
TheArabiclanguage,unlikeanyotheintheworld,hadathree-way
advantageinitsspread
.LikeLatininuropeatthetime,itwasthe
languageofreligionandlearning
;butulikeLatin,Arabicwasalsothe
languageoftradeandcommerce.This la usemadeitmorewidespread
amongtheBlacksthanitwouldhavebetotherwise
.Arabic,therefore,
wasthelanguageusedbyblackscholainWestAfricawhetherthey
wereMuslimsornot
.ButthestudyitheIslamicKoran,lawand
literaturewasatthecoreoftheUniveity'scurriculum
.Andallthis
madethewide-spreadrevivaloflearinginAfricaappeartobean
entirelyMuslimaffair .Thefactisthathethirstforlearningwasso
compellingthattheintroductionofanyvittenlanguageafterthelossof
theirownnativewritingwaswelcomecas a godsend.Tobeablenot
onlytoreadandwriteagain,butalsoiadvancetohighereducation
wasfarmoreimportanttoAfricanstinthevehiclesofreligionas
media,whetherMuslimorChristianincentation
.FortheMuslimand
Christianmissionariesreligionwasthenainobjective
;butformost
Africanseducationwasthemainobjecti~ .
ItmaynotbewithoutsignificanceiattherenaissanceinAfrica
occurredatthesametimeitdevelopecinEurope,betweenthe15th
and16thcenturies,andthatbothinEuipeandAfricaIslamicsources
werethecatalysts
.FortheArabs,liketiearlyGreeks,hadadvanced
theircivilizationbysystematicallydrawigheavilyontheculturesof
pre-existingcivilizationswithwhichtheyameincontactastheyspread
outfromthedesertsofArabiatodistatlands
.Theyenrichedand
expandedtheirownlanguageinawelleganizedenterpriseincopying
themostimportantliteraturetheycotsfind
.Themostimportant
classicalmanuscriptshaddisappearedfrnEuropeentirelyduringthe
so-called"DarkAges
."Theonlysourcesxtantwerethosecopiedand
preservedbytheArabs,withoutwhichscholarsgenerallyagree,the
greatEuropeanRenaissancecouldnoth,eoccurred.
InthisregionofAfrica,aselsewherewhereverAsianandEuropean
influenceprevailed,thedestructionofblackcivilizationwasreal,not
imaginary.Butinthiswidespreaddestructionsomethingwasgenerally
missing,enoughtogiveposterityaclearideaofthestateofthingswhich
were.Oftheperiodonlythreegreatblackwritersescapedthe"Blackout,"
MahmudKati,RahmanesSadi,andAhmadBabo.
Whoweretheothers?Babo,thelastblackpresidentoftheUniversity
ofSankore,triedtotellusinhisseriesofbiographies .Butthese,too,
weredestroyecalongwithfortyotherworksofwhichhewastheauthor .
ThereseemstobenoquestionatallaboutBabobeingthegreatestand
mostprolificAfricanwriterandscholarinthe16thcentury .Perhaps
"African"shotldbedroppedhere,forwhoelse,AsianorEuropean,
authoredaconprehensivedictionaryandfortyotherworksduringthis
period?Hisfameasascholar-educatorspreadtodistantlands .
IntheMuslindestructionoftheSonghayempire,themaincentersof
learningwithalloftheirpreciouslibrariesandoriginalmanuscripts
weredestroyecfirst .Thentheage-oldpracticewasadoptedofseizingall
menoflearningandskilledcraftsmenforenslavementandserviceto
theconquerors.Foremostamongthosecapturedandcarriedofftothe
MagrebwasAhmadBabo.Therehewastreatedasanhonoredguest
andinstructedtousehisgreatlearningintheserviceofhisconquerors,
theMoors.
Now,again,justwhoweretheMoors?Theanswerisveryeasy.The
originalMoors,liketheoriginalEgyptians,wereBlackAfricans .As
amalgamationbecamemoreandmorewidespread,onlytheBerbers,
ArabsandCclouredsintheMoroccanterritorieswerecalledMoors,
whilethedarcestandblack-skinnedAfricanswerecalled"Black-a-
Moors."Eventually,"black"wasdroppedfrom"Blackamoor ."InNorth
Africa,andMoroccoinparticular,allMuslimArabs,mixedbreedsand
BerbersarereadilyregardedasMoors.TheAfricanBlacks,havinghad
eventhisnametakenfromthem,mustcontendforrecognitionas
Moors.
WedonotknowwhetherBabocontinuedtowriteandpublishany
morebooksduringtheremainingyearsofhiscaptivityinMorocco,as
indeedweareignorantofeventhetitlesofthefortybooksheisknown
tohavewritten.Butsupposejustfourorfiveofhisworkshadescaped
destructionanicamedowntous!Orevenjust one. Andyetweareonly
consideringwhattheAfricanracehaslostfromjustoneman,andnot
thecountlessetherswhoseverynameswereerasedalongwiththeir
208

TheDestructionof
BlackCivilization
works
.Itshouldbeneedlesstopointoutinthisconnectionthatjustas
Blacksprofitfromthebestworksbywhitescholars,whitescananddo
profitfromthecontributionofBlackstotheadvancementofknow-
ledge
.Therefore,thedestructionofBabo'sworksandthoseofother
Blackswasthedestructionofanessentialpartofworldcivilization
.
InconsideringthefloweringoflearninginWestAfricaanditsbrutal
interruptionbytheMoors,certainimportantfactsshouldstandout
becausetheyrunthroughtheentirefieldofblackhistory
.
Thefirst,andperhapsthemostimportantfactisthatthegeneral
enslavementofAfricans(proclaimedtotheworldassavages)began
duringtheveryperiodandintheveryWestAfrica,thecenterofwhich
heldoneofthegreatuniversitiesoftheworldandothercolleges
.
ThesecondimportantfactisthatBlackMuslimswerenotspared
fromdestructionbynon-BlackMuslims .
Thethirdall-importantfactwasthenon-enslavementofMulattoes
andtheirclassificationas"white,"EgyptiansandMoors
.Thiscrucialfact
mustnotbeglossedover,asithasbeenthroughoutourhistory,first,
becausethereweremanytribesorsocietiesinAfricawhichwere
exclusivelyMulatto(tousethetermloosely)
.Nothingwasmorecharac-
teristicofthemixedbreedclans,tribesorsocietiesthantheirunceasing
effortstoemphasizetheirseparateidentity,andtheirconstantfearof
beingconsidered"Negroes"orBlackAfricans
.Hence,theirover-anxious
crusadesor jihads
againstblackstatesandtheirspearheadingmostof
theslaveraidsinAfrica
.Theyfurtheremphasizedtheir"ethnic
difference"byalwaysretainingthousandsofblackslavesintheirown
service,whilesellingtheothers
.Thewhiteman,bydrivinghisoffsprings
asawedgeintotheblackraceisnotonlyabletokeepitweakbykeeping
itdivided,butheisabletomaintaineffectivecontroloveritwithoutthe
necessityofhisownpresence
.ThemostmurderousoftheMulattoslave
traderswasTippuTib,withhisslaveempireheadquartersonZanzibar
.
HisslavetrailsextendedineverydirectionfromtheEastCoastfarinto
theinteriorwherewhiteslavetradersfearedtogo
.ButTib'sagentsand
slavecaravanleadersweregenerallycolouredlikehimself
.Andsince
Blackslavearmieswerealwaysboththebackboneandspearheadin
EuropeanandArabadventures,therecordshouldbeclearinidentifying
alloftheparticipantsintheslave-huntingcrusadesinAfrica
.
Therewere,therefore,moresignificantfactorsinthedestructionof
thislarger-than-EuropeSonghayempireanditsadvancingeducational
systemthanisevidentfromasummarystatementthatitwas"destroyed
bytheMoors ."
TheResurrectionandthe Life

209
THEBLACKMUSLIM
TRIUMPHANDTHEEND
SunniAliwassucceededbySunniBaruin 1492. Herefusedtocom-
promisewithIslamatall,defendedtheAfricanreligion,andthereby
lostthesupportofthetownsandcitieswhichwerethecentersof
Muslimpower.Hewasdeposedafterayear,thuspavingthewayfor
SunniAli'schiefminister,greatestgeneral,andmostardentandsincere
BlackMuslim,MuhammadTure .Hebecameemperorin 1493,withthe
militarytitleofAskia .HematchedSunniAlinotonlybyreigningthirty-
fiveyears,butbyextendingtheempireeastwardovertheHausaStates
acrossNorthernNigeria,northwardovertheSaharabeyondtheTaghaza
saltmines,andwestwardtotheAtlanticOcean .Hehadearnedthe
namebywhichheisbestknown,AskiatheGreat .Attheageof80he
wasdeposedbyhiseldestsonin 1528 anddiedtenyearslater .Hissuc-
cessorsweregenerallyweakandhadshortreigns .
Weakleadersandshortreignsledtointernalconflictsandsocial,
politicalandeconomicdisorganization .Theseconditionsweresignals
forrevoltsbyconqueredstatesandattacksbyothers.In 1582theHausa
StatesregainedindependenceandwithinafewyearstheMossiStates
renewedtheirattacks.TheSultanofMorocco,MulayAhmad,nowsaw
hisopportunitytocapturethesaltminesofTaghazaandthegoldof
Songhay.Armedwithgunsandcannons(thenavailabletoAfrican
armies)theMoroccansmettheArmyofSonghayunderAskiaIssihakat
Tondibiin 1594. Spearsandarrowshadtogivewaytogunfire .There-
aftertheSonghayforcessplitupintosmallunitstoharassenemygarri-
sonsandoutpostsinsurpriseattacks .Theseattemptstodislodgethe
invaderslastedover70years .ButtheSonghayofgloriousmemorywas
nomore.ThearmiesofIslamcontinuedtheirtriumphantmarchin
Africa,destroyingitsbasicinstitutionswherevertheycoulddoso .
THEREMARKABLEMOSSI
Theynevercalleditan"empire ."Theycalleditthe"MossiStates."
Weletitgoatthat .Butitwas,infact,anempireifthesamedefinitionis
appliedasitisinotherareasoftheworld.Itwasaunionofkingdoms,
similartoothercoregroupswhoseexpansionistproclivitiescreate
empires.Itdifferedmarkedlyinthepatternofcentralizedauthority.
ThetraditionalAfricanpoliticalsystemoflocalautonomywasmain-
210
TheDstruction ofBlackCivilization
tainedintheindependenceoftheindiedualstatesthatmadeupthe
empire.Therewerefive"core"kingdons
: Wagadugu,Yatenga,Fada-
Gurma,MamprussiandDagomba
.Eachhadbecomeakingdominde-
pendentlyoftheothers,eachaspowerfilastheother
.Theunionof
thesestateswasinspiredbythebondsofkinship,acommonMossi
origin.
AlthoughlocatedsouthwardbetweenthegreatarmsoftheNiger
riverandalmostsurroundedbytheexpandingempiresofMaliand
Songhay,neitherwasabletosubdueambringtheMossiwithintheir
empire
.Quitethecontrary,withthegreaestandmostdashingcavalry
forcesinAfrica,theMossicarriedthewaitothem
.
TheMossinationisanothercasestuybecauseitisalsoatypical
exampleofmigratingBlackswhounitedtiformnewandlargerpolitical
entities,conqueredthepeoplewhosehonelandtheyinvadedand,at
thesametime,showedwideculturalvariaionswhileholdingsteadfastly
tothefundamentalsofAfricanconstituionalprinciples
.Theywere
reflectednotonlyinthepoliticalorganizaionofAfricanstates,butalso
intheconquerors'respectforthelandrghtsofthosewhoseoriginal
homelanditwas
.Inshort,therightsofcoiquestdidnotincludeowner-
shipoftheland-afundamentalconstitutonalprinciple
.
Ihaveemphasizedthedifferencebetweentwomaintypesofmigra-
tions
: Theslowandalmostleisurelymovenentsofpeopleovercountless
centuriesbecauseofthenolongertoleraileconditionsofclimateand
soil
;andthestepped-upmigrations,anountingtorefugeeflights,
becauseofincreasinginvasionsfromAsiaandEurope
.Itistheselatter
causeswithwhichwearenowdealing. -heyincreasedastheArabs
overrantheEasternSudanandbecameaperiodofcrisisbetweenthe
12thand17thcenturies
.Thiswasthelongperiodduringwhich
migratingBlacksundertooktoformnewaidstrongerstates
all overthe
continent,succeedingwhileotherrefugeeBlacksfoundthemselvesin
areaswherejusttosurviveatallrequirdalltheenergytheycould
musterfromdaytoday
.Progress?Whatpogress?Howprogress?
Blessed,then,werethemigrantswho,uilikethose,foundterritories
whereprogresswaspossible .Blessedwere : heMossi.By1500theyhad
becomeadominantpowerandoneofthemostindustriousnationsof
theperiod
.TheAfrica-wideconceptofthcbasisforlegitimaterulewas
heldtoasameansofsocialcontrolandrationalunificationaswellas
thebasisforallauthority,highorlow.Ase ;ewhere,italltracedbackto
thefoundersofthenation,inthiscaseOuelraogoandOubri
.Theyhad
The ResurrectionandtheLife

211
theNam,theGod-givenpowertoleadmen .Alloftheirdescendants
shouldinherit : hispowerand,therefore,inherittherighttorule .
Implicitinthis,orcertainlyintheideasdevelopedfromit,wastheright
toconquerand-ule .Theideaofroyaltyevolvedfromthesamesource,
furtherillustratinghowafactandacommendableidea,suchashonoring
thefoundersofanation,maybeelaboratedthroughtimetoagrandold
myth.ButinlvtossilandtheNamseemstohavebeencarriedto
extremes.Everyoneseekingrecognitionorevenaminorofficeclaimed
tohavethe Nara. ThisbestowedthetitleofNaba(ruler)So-And-So.
TheextenttowhichthepoliticalstructurewasbasedupontheNam
madeMossisocietysomewhatuniqueamongAfricanstates .Sincethe
nabasofthefivecorestatesclaimedequalityandwereallfiercelyinde-
pendentinbotispiritandaction,theearlyContestswereoverwhat
stateshouldbecometheleaderofthemallandprovidetheMogho
Naba(KingofKings)
.Wagadugufinallywon,althoughitwasnotsenior
intheNamlineofdescent .Itwonbecauseithadbecomethecenterof
economicactivityand,therefore,nationalprosperity,andbecausethe
Wagadugupeopleoutdidthemselvesinscreamingpraiseandpraise
songsfortheirNaba,whowasthe"RuleroftheWholeWorld,"his
dominionswereboundless,hewasGod'ssonand,therefore,sacred
;no
onemustlookuponhisface,allmustprostratethemselvesbefore
him. . . supremejusticecanbefoundonlyinourMoghoNaba
.Allthis
wastoomuchfortheotherstatestoovercome.TheWagaduguNaba
thusbecametheMoghoNabaoftheunitedMossikingdoms,principali-
tiesandchiefdoms,eachofwhichwasvirtuallyautonomous
.The
MoghoNabahadnorealauthorityoutsidehisownWagadugukingdom
.
Unitywasachievedthroughnegotiations,friendlypersuasionor,allelse
failing,sometimesbyforceofarms.Morenationalunityseemstohave
beenachieved,however,becausethevariousstatesvoluntarilyfollowed .
thesuccessfulexampleofWagaduguinsocial,economicandpolitical
organization,andtheritualisticsplendorofacourtthatclaimedrulership
oftheworld.
ThepoliticalstructuredidnotvaryfromthetraditionalAfrican
constitutionalsystem: Thevillagechiefandcouncil,districtchief(Naba)
andcouncil,provincegovernor(Naba)andcouncil,andMoghoNaba
andcouncil.TheOuidiNaba(primeminister)wasnextinauthority
undertheMcghoNaba .Eachimportantministerinthenational
governmentwasalsotheNaba(governor)ofaprovince-another
variationfromtraditionalpractice .
212

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Therewereothervariations
.Someweehighlyimportant .Onewas
theMinisterofMuslims
.For,unlikesomanyotherAfricansocieties,the
migratingMossihadlearnedsomethingfnmthehistoryoftheBlacksin
theirrelationswithArabandBerberpeoiles
.Noforeignerscouldsettle
inMossiterritory
.ButsincetheMossitlemselvesweregreattraders,
theyneededthefar-flungoutletswhichheMuslimseverywherecon-
trolled
.Muslimtraderswerethereforeadnittedintothecountryunder
thestrictsupervisionoftheMinistryforvuslims
.AllMuslimactivity
wasrestrictedtotrade
.ThereligionofIslanwasrejected,conversionto
bothteachingandreligionforbidden
.Insiort,theMossisawIslamand
Christianityasthewhiteman'svehicles)fconquest
.Itwasthe only
blacknationintime,toseethis .Indeed,N: )ssiprophecyheldthatwhen
thefirstwhitemanappearedinthelandnenationwoulddie
.
Thattimehadnotyetarrived .TheMosipolicyofexcludingwhites
orrigidlylimitingthenumberandcontollingtheiractivities
inthe
countryfurtherilluminatesanAfricanexpriencethatisalreadysoclear
thatitshouldrequirenoadditionallight
: AllAfricanstatesthatbegan
todevelopagainafterthegreatdispersion,rebuildingandexpanding,
wereprosperousandadvancing
asblacktates aslongastheybarred
therelentless,aggressivewhitesfromtheircountries
;andtheirdestruc-
tionbecamecertainonlywhentheyabanlonedthispolicyandletthe
AsiansandEuropeansin
.Onthistherecodisentirelyclear .TheMossi
heldonsteadfastlytotheirownAfricanrel
;ionandAfricaninstitutions
andsurvivedoverfivehundredyears,intothe20thcenturyuntilitwas
finallyoverrunbyFrance .
Afewmoreoftheseall-Africaninstitutvnsshouldbementionedto
furtherillustratethe"externalinfluence"shool
.Wearedealingwitha
landandapeoplewhereawhitefacewoullhavebeenacuriosity,and
whiteinfluence,evenunderthedisguiseofeligion,wasbarredbylaw
.
Fewthingscouldbemoreremarkableintiehistoryoftheblackpeople
thantherigidadherencetoabodyofprincblesthatindicatesahumane
andspirituallevelofadvancementthatpintedthedirection
toreal
civilization
.OneofthesewasreflectedintleMossiConquerors'recog-
nitionoftheprinciplethatnomatterhowpwerfultheconquerorsofa
territorymightbe,thelandbelongedtothipeoplewhosehomelandit
was
.Theywererecognizedasthe"rightfLownersoftheland"and,
TheResurrectionandtheLife

213
therefore,negotiationsforsettlementofnewcomerswere
carriedon
withthechiefsor"priestsoftheearth"whorepresentedtheindigenous
people.
Theirpoliticalsystem,highdemocratic,wasunsurpassedbyanystate
anywhereintheworld
.ThatsystemwasdevelopedbyAfricans.The
familywasthesmallestsocio-economicandpoliticalunit
.Theextended
familycouncil,forexample,settledallcasesinvolving
offensesby
memberswhichaffectedonlythefamilyorwerenotseriousenoughto
becarriedtothevillagecourt .Badbehaviorbyonememberwasa
reflectionontherestofthefamily
.TheWesterncreedoffierceindivi-
dualismhadnoplaceinthesociety
.Whatonedidwaseitheracreditto
hisfamilyoradishonor .' .
Thevillagecouncilwasthenextpoliticalunit,withanelectedhead-
manandaCouncilofElders
.Theeldersweretherepresentativesofthe
variousfamilysectionsorwardsthatmadeupthevillage
.Thevillage
councilwasthecenterofauthority,subjecttothewillofthecommunity
.
Thedistrictswerethenextandlargerdivisions,varyinginsize,
and
havingmanyvillagesandtowns
.ThedistrictNaba(chief)wasavery
importantofficial
.Anynumberofdistrictsmadeupofprovincesand
kingdomswhichformedthenation
.ThegreatNanamse(pluralfor
Naba),wereelectedbytheirrespectivecouncilsandsubjecttotheirwill
.
Thislatterfactwasgenerallywelldisguisedbyceremonialphraseology,
ritualandautocraticsoundingdecreesfromthethrone
.Indeed,itwasa
generalpracticeforboththecouncilministers
andthepeopleto
proclaimthattheMoghoNabahasallpower,isthe"mostpowerfulking
intheworldoverwhichherules
."Thesefictionsseemtobeoneofthe
delightsofthepeople
.Fordidnotthesesamefantasticclaimshelpto
maketheWagadugutheMoghoNaba?Indeed,duringthe
periods
Africansocietiesweremostdemocratic,everyeffortseemstohavebeer
madetomakeitappearthatthesupremepowerwasexercisedbythe
rulers,neverbythepeople
.UponthedeathorremovaloftheMogho
Naba,forexample,therewastheconstitutionalfictionthathissuccessor
mustbechosenbytheOuidiNaba(PrimeMinister)
.AndtheOuidi
4
.Eventheauthorisannoyedbythenumberofinescapable
repetitionswhichoccurinanycomparativestudyofarepresentative
sampleofsocietiesorstates,wherethefocusisonthecommonorigin,
sameness,
anduniversalityofallbasicinstitutions
.Thedescriptionof
these,statebystate,meansrepetitionafterrepetition
.
214

'heDestructionofBlack Civilization
Nabamadethepublicproclamatiotwithalltheceremonialpompand
splendidostentationbefittingoneoargedwithsuchanawesomeres-
ponsibilityasthatofnamingthene);emperor.Yeteveryoneknewvery
wellthattheOuidiNabawasmere(announcinganelectionthathad
alreadybeenmadebytheCouncil('State .
Inadditiontothesecouncils Q variouslocallevels,theMossi
developedanotherwayofcontrolligthebehaviorofrulers .Thiswas
thepracticeofmovingfromoneusatisfactoryvillageordistricttoa
morefavorableone .Wholevillage;mightmovefromonedistrictto
another.Nodistrictchiefcouldaffor
: thisdirectreflectiononhisability
to"keepthepeople" 5,themostimprtantofhisinaugurationoaths .It
alsotendedtounderminetheeconolyofhisarea .
ThequestionofabsolutismintractionalAfricaisinterestingbecause
itsooftenmeanstheveryoppositeowhatisunderstoodbythetermin
AsiaandtheWest.Insevendiffemtsocietiescoveredinmyfield
studiesindifferentregions,alldecla>dthattheirtraditionalkingshad
"absolutepowers"asrulers .Follow-panalysisrevealedthatwhatwas
meantwasthatthechiefsorkingsha"absolutepower"tocarryoutthe
clearlyunderstoodwillofthepeople-which,ofcourse,isafarcryfrom
self-assumedabsolutism.TherewasnoabsolutisminWesternterms .
EvenShakaofthegreatZuluempircomplainedbecausethecouncil
failedtocheckhiminhisexcessesHeexpectedsomecontroland
guidance
.Thiscontrolwasnotattemtedbyacounciloverawedbyhis
greatnessasaleader .Asindicatedelsewhere,mystudiesshowthat
factorssuchastheZululandsituatinhelptoexplainthedeclineof
ancientAfricandemocraticsystems . .siaandEuropewerenotrespon-
sibleforeverythingthathappenedaversely.
TheMossibecametheoutstandighorsebreedingcountry.The
finest,swiftestbreedsbecametheirsecialty
.Itwasprobablyfromthis
factthattheyhaddashingcavalryfoesthatsooftencarriedthemto
victoryandprotectedtheirlandfrmconquestforover500years .
TherewasagreatoutsidedemandfoMossihorsesanddonkeys.These
becameanimportantfactorinoneoithemosteconomicallyadvanced
countriesinAfrica .Weturnnexttoheireconomicenterpriseandthe
prosperitythatflowedfromitasstillnotherillustrationofwhatblack
5.AnAfricanleader'soathto"kepthepeople"meantprotecting
andpromotingthewelfareofthepeole.
TheResurreionand theLife

215
peoplecancontheirowninitiativewithouttheaidoforevenhaving
seenawhitman.
Itwasabicallyfarmingsociety.Asuperficial,orevenanon-expert
lookattherldish-brownsoilwouldleadonetothinkthatthiswould
orcouldnotealandforaflourishingagriculture .Itgavethelietomy
description ,
whatinappearanceseemedtobeunproductivelandin
otherpartscthecontinent-hardbrownsoil,robbedofitstopsoiland
moisture.HeintheMossiStatesjustabouteverythinggrew
: cotton,
millet,wheycorn,peppers,yams,rice,peanuts,kolanuts,onions,
tobacco,etc'heirindustriesincludedtanning,fineleatherworks,cloth
making,bas!try,strawhats,iron,leadandantimony,andcopperware,
mats,jars,ps,pans,soapanddriedfish .
Allofthiproductionmeantthatthesixcaravanroutesthatcriss-
crossedthe,untrywerethehighwaysforathrivingexportandimport
trade
.Theynportedsalt,coffee,tea,perfumes,carpets,finerobesand
otherthingneeded,suchasneedles,whichtheythemselvesdidnot
produce
.CironandcottonclothseemedtoleadintheMossiexport
tradefora~rylongtime
.Honeywasalsoanimportantpartofthe
markettradibutIdonotknowwhetheritwasfoundwildinabundance
orwasderivifromacultivatedbeehiveindustry . 6
Therewetaxesleviedonalltradingtransactions,oncaravan
transportsdoughthecountrytootherlands,andonforeigntradersin
thelocalmaetsthroughoutthecountry
.Thepeoplepaidan"income
tax"inthefmofapercentageoffarmproduceatharvesttimeorother
commoditie
TheEurceanshadbeenhearingaboutthisprosperouslandthat
barredthebitesfromenteringsincethe15thcentury.Attemptshad
beenmadeyvariousEuropean"travelersandtraders"togetinside
thisinteriorountryforseveralcenturies
.Allwithoutsuccess.Some
soughtperrssionjusttopassthrough
.Butagainwithoutsuccess .Even
theusualvitestrategyofcontactingandformingfriendlyrelations
withpossib'
;heirstothethroneanddissidentfactionsdidnotsucceed,
6.1receivlconflictinganswerstothisquestion .
216
TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization
b
p
eventhoughArabsandEuropeanswreincreasinglybasedinallthe
surroundingcountriesduringthe19tlcentury
.Itwasduringthe19th
century,however,thattheMossiexcisionofforeignersbecameless
rigid,andtherebeganagradualrelaxtionofrestrictions,especiallyof
Muslimtraders
.Somewereallowedt<settle .Andwhileitistruethat
thevanguardwereBlackMuslimsfronrhenowwhollyIslamizedneigh-
boringblackstates,theypavedthewaandmadeitsmootherfortheir
whiteMuslimbrothers
.Moreover,aincreasingnumberofyoung
"modern"Mossileadersbegantoconsidrtheage-oldpolicyofexcluding
whitesasunenlightened,ifnotdownrikatuncivilized
.Whatdidagreat
militarypower,thegreatestinAfrica,havetofearfromafewwhite
facesintheland?Butwhataboutthe3reat Prophecy: whenthefirst
whitemanappearedinthelandtheriationwoulddie?Nothingin
Mossilandwasbetterknownandmoruniversallybelievedthanthis
rophecy
.ItwasbackedupbecauseerlyAfricansregardedwhiteas
vilinitself
.Stilltheyoungmodernscolddeclaretheprophecytobe
justanotheroldsaying,"manifestlyuitrue,becausesomeArabshad
eenadmittedintothecountrylong[goandthenationstilllived,
strongerthanever.Soitseemed.
I
Meanwhile,Europeanswereclosingionthecontinentandhadthe
MossiStatessurrounded: theBritishon: heGoldCoastandinAshanti
tothesouth,theGermansnextdooriTogoland,whiletheFrench
werepressingdownfromthenorthandheIvoryCoastonthewest
.All
hadtheiragentsbusilygatheringasmundataastheycouldaboutthis
powerfuland"overlyproud"blacknatin
.Atfirsttheseagentshadto
operatefromtheoutside,DupuisfrorAshanti,KoellefromSierra
Leone,andKrausefromTogoland
.Theeweremanyothers .Krause,a
GermaninTogoland,wassupposedtobthefirstEuropeantoslipinto
thecountrywithacaravan.
TheGreatProphecywasnowabout
o befulfilled,almostprecisely.
ThefirstwhiteEuropeanhadenteredthcountry
.Thenextwhiteman
cameinboldlyin1888,backedbytheapremepowersoftheFrench
Empire(albeitcalledaRepublic)
.ThiscnissaryofconquestwasLouis
Binger
.Hecametoplacethecountry"u;dertheprotectionofFrance ."
He
.metastrongleader,stillreadytofigl,intheMoghoNabaSanum,
HerejectedtheprofferedFrenchprotecorateasaruseforconquest,
resentedBinger'shaughtyanddisrepeciulattitude,andorderedhim
outofthecountryatonce .TheMoghcNabaknewthatatthatvery
momentGermantroopsweremarchinitowardhisborders .Binger's
TheResurrectionandtheLife

217
realimportanceinthehistoryoftheAfricanpeople,however,was
hisreaffirmationofthewhiteman'sunchangingattitudetowardthe
Blacks
.Saidhe,"Ifeelthatawhitemantravelinginthiscountry,
whoeverhemaybe,shouldnotprostratehimselfbeforeablackking,
howeverpowerfulthelattermaybe .(Hewasnotexpectedtodothis .)It
isnecessarythatawhitemanshouldinspirerespectandconsideration
whereverhegoes.Theyshould come asmasters(italicsadded),asthe
superior
classofthesociety,andnothavetobowtheirheadsbefore
indigenouschiefstowhomthey
aredefinitelysuperior inall respects."7
Inshort,andinevenplainerlanguage,thelowestwhitescumofEurope,
themostdepraved,are,nevertheless,thesuperiorsofthegreatestblack
kings.TheCaucasianCreed
.Itisacreedfordestructionanddeath .
Millionshavealreadydiedforitandbecauseofit
.Howmanymillions
more?Thefutureholdsthissecret.
Meanwhile,the1888GermanarmyunderVonFrancoishaltedatthe
Mossiborder
.Thegreatzongagongos(wardrums)hadsoundedthrough-
outMossilandandeasilyreachedtheearsoftheGermanforces
.They
werenotfools
.Thedeath-defyingMossiarmieswereaswellknownas
weretheirindustriesandflourishingtrade
.TheGermansalsoknewthat
theMossiforceswerewaitingforthem,probablyimpatiently,underthe
personalcommandoftheTansobahimself(MinisterofWar)
.Onemay
wonderwhyVonFrancoisdidnotrealizeevenbeforeleavingTogoland
garrisons,howfoolhardyitwouldbetoinvadethecountryoftheMossi
.
Inanyevent,heturnedhisforcesbackandthusavoidedcertainannihi-
lation.
Thefactisthatneitherofthethreegreatpowerscontendingfor
MossilandwantedtoriskitsforcesinarmedcombatwiththeseBlacks
.
Anotherstratagemwasadopted
: Awarofattrition.Hitthesefighting
Blackswhereitwouldhurtthemost
.Weakenthemwithinbydestroying
theirgreatinternationalcaravanroutes
.Throwthecountryintoan
economicpanic
.TheBritish,FrenchandGermansallparticipatedinthe
greatconspiracy
.WhilethewaragainstMossicommercewasquietly
pushed,the"friendly"missionstotheMoghoNabawentforward,one
afteranother,Thiswaseasynow
;afterthedeathofSanum,hisweaker
7 .QuotedinE.P.Skinner,TheMossi oftheUpper Volta.
218
TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
andmoreEuropean-mindedbrotherbecameMoghoNaba .Haditnot
beenforastrongerandnotsotrustingCouncil,hewouldhavebeen
takeninmoreeasily.
Thewideuseof"black"agerts,usuallyMulattoes,continuedtobe
thewhiteman'ssecretweaponisbecomingmastersoftheblackworld .
WhentheBlackswereontoptheycouldposeasloyalmembersofthe
blackrace-asmanyofthemwereinfact ;ortheycould,having"white
blood,"allythemselveswiththewhitesandservetheirinterests .The
whitesalwaysmadethisbotheasyandattractivenotonlybyemphasizing
theirsuperioritybyblood,butbygivingthembettereducationand
economicopportunitiesthanBkcksunderconstantsurvivalpressures
couldeverhopetoachieve .Thissystembecameworldwideindividing
theraceandcreatinghostilecolorbarswithinit .ForsincetheMulattoes
hadabettereducationand,therefore,ahigherincomethantheirblack
half-brothersandsisters,they,lkethewhites,regardedthissuperior
socialandeconomicstatusastheindexofinherentsuperiorityitself .
Heresuperiorityseemedtobeademonstratedfactoflife,notatheory.
AndthatwaswhytheMulatto,orCreoleGeorgeEkernFergusonfrom
SierraLeone,nowplayingtheroleofaloyalBlackAfrican,wasablenot
onlytoreachtheMoghoNabawithoutanytrouble,buteventonego-
tiateatreatyonbehalfoftheBritish,somethingthatalltheEuropeans
hadbeenunabletodo.Theinternalsituationwaschanging;thefierce
spiritofnationalismthatdivertedtheGermanTogothreathadsomehow
declined.
Nowtheshadowslengthened,Thewhiteshadalsobeenbusily
buildingupandtrainingstrongbhckarmies .Blackstrainedtohate,kill,
andconquerBlacks.BloodofBlac<swastosprinkleandfurtherdarken
thepagesoftheirhistory.TheFrenchwerethemostefficientinthis
development,thebafflingphenomenonofBlacksmorereadilyfighting
anddyingforthewhiteman'scausthentheyarefortheirown
.Indeed,
AfricawasconqueredforthewhitesbytheBlacks,andthereafterkept
undercolonialcontrolbyblackpoliceandblacksoldiers
.Verylittle
whitebloodwaseverspilled.Blacl: troops,smallstaffsofwhiteofficers
andacoregroupofEuropeansoldiers .Instructionswerestrictandbrief:
AlwaysusetheBlacks .KeepEuropeanforcesinreserveorintherear .
AndsoitwasthatinJuly, 1896 aFrenchlieutenantnamedVoulet
andhisstaffledastrongarmyofblackcavalryandinfantryacrossthe
Mossiborderstobattletheirway : oWagadugu.Thelastofthegreat
blackstatesinAfricawasnowmakngitslaststandunderMoghoNaba
TheResurrectionandtheLife
219
Wobogo,whoseemedtogrowincourageashiscountrycollapsedall
aroundhim
.In 1897
theFrench,unabletosecurethesurrenderofthe
Mossileader(whocontinuedtoeludethemandstagecounterattacks),
finallyappointedaMoghoNabawhowouldservethem
.Mossiguerrillas
continuedthewarfromthebushyearafteryear,longafterallhopefor
victorywasgone
.Theywerefightingonjustasthoughtheydidnot
knowthatthefirstwhitemanhadlongsincecomeandthat,therefore,
thenationhaddied
.Theyfoughtonbecause,whiletheirempire
passed,thedeathlessMossispiritlivedon,inwitnesswhereoftheirown
MoghoNaba,thelastoftheelectedline,foughtwiththemsidebyside
fromthebushandneversurrenderedtoFrance
.
TheGreatProphecyoftheMossiturnedouttobethe
prophecyforallAfrica : "Whenthefirstwhitemanappears
inthelandthenationwilldie ." -
CHAPTERIX
CentralAfrica:
EvidencefromaSmallState
THEKINGDOMOFKUBA
WEMUSTNOTLOSESIGHTOFWHATWEAREDOING-THE
importantpointsofwhatwehavebeendoing: Apartialviewofthe
earlyhistoryoftheBlacksfromthelossofEgyptianhomelandtothe
comingoftheEuropeanshasbeenpresentedthroughasummarystudy
ofarepresentativenumberofstates ;acontinent-wideviewofwhat
happenedtothewholebylookingattypicalsituations .Wesawa
people . . . apeopleforevermigrating,foreveronthemove,foreverin
flightfromthreatstosurvival;anewlocationfound,sighsofreliefand
thanksgivingforanewbreathingspell,andneweffortsatreunification
andstate-buildingalloveragain .Buteverydecadeofunsettledlife,
everydecadeofwanderingoverdeserts,savannasandthroughthe
forests-everysuchdecadewasoneofretrogression,ofdisintegration,
decadesofdecline,andnonewlyestablishedstatewasabletoreachthe
levelsofachievementsofthepastbeforeitwasengulfedeitherbythe,
IslamicEastortheChristianWest .Thisiswhatwehavewitnessed,no
matterwhatBlackstatewasstudiedorinwhatregionofAfricaitwas
located.'
I.JanVansinahasdonepioneeringandmostoutstandingoralhistory
studiesinthisarea .Idrawheavilyonhisfieldstudieshere,although,
andperhapsbecauseofmyownfieldworkintheregion,Iinterpret
someofhisdatadifferently.SeeBibliographicalNote.
220
iii
222

The DestructionofBlack
Civilization
Oneofthesewanderinggroups,unliketheKongoleseandAngolans,
begantomigratefromtheAtlanticseaboardbeforethewhitesarrived,
wasfreefromcontactswiththemmuchlongerand,therefore,founded
anewnationthatlastedmuchlonger .Thecoregroupwasmadeupof
BlackswhocametobeknownasBushoongs
.Theyweremovingfrom
placetoplacetowardtheinteriorandfinallybeganthedevelopmentof
thenewstateduringtheperiodwhenthewhitestormcloudswere
slowlyrisinginalldirections-the 200 yearsbetween1475,themost
criticalinthehistoryoftheBlacks
.Itwasduringthisperiodthatthe
greatnooseofencirclementwascompletedandfixed,andtheBlacksof
Africafoundthemselveshemmedinandthreatenedfromalldirections,
fromthenorth,fromtheeast,fromthewestand,finally,fromthesouth.
Thewhiteman'smarchtowardworldconquestandworlddomination
wasinfullswing.Thismostcriticalperiodinthehistoryoftherace,I
say,wassuchbecausethisclosinginontheBlacksfromalldirections
wasthebeginningofthefinaldeath-blowstowhatremainedoftheir
owncivilization.
Thereweredireconsequencesintermsoftheirpsychologicalimpact
onAfricansunderperpetualdanger .Anewfatalismemergedthat
carriedthesentenceofultimatedoomtothemindsofthousands .Some
gaveupresistancetoanything,includingaresistancetoslaveryand
resistancetothebarbarismthatengulfedthosewhoeitherwentback-
wardsorstoodstillformentalatrophy ;sometriedtosavethemselvesby
servingtheinvaders'cause,evenifitmeantenslavingandkillingtheir
ownpeople;somebelievedthatbecausethewhitemancameinbig
shipswithbig,earth-shakingguns(cannons),surelytheymustbethe
godsoftheworld;otherssawnosenseintryingtomaintainunityinthe
faceofsuchoverwhelmingodds
.Rather,thedrivemustbetosecure
thesegunsandammunitionfromthewhitesevenifitmeantceaseless
warsrstosecuretheslavesthewhitesdemanded,securethembywarring
ontheirownkinsmeninneighboringterritories .Andstillothersresolved
nevertoyield,tomoveandkeeponmovingratherthansubmit,to
rebuild,andkeeprebuilding,nevergivingup ;andtofightforunityas
theonlyroutetosurvival-voluntaryunityifpossible,unitybyforceif
allelsefailed .Theselast"others"weretheoneswhohadthespiritthat
accountsforthesurvivalofthemostbruisedandbatteredoftheracesof
mankind.
SucharepresentativegroupweretheBushoongs .Thistheirrecord
willshow.AsthePortugueseslaveraidsspread,theBushoongsmoved
Central Africa
223
inlandfromtheAtlantic,enlistingnewfollowersastheymovedor
temporarilystopped.TheywereheadedtowardtheCongoregion.
Fleeingfromthewhiteswasnottheonlyproblemforthemasitwasnot
theonlyproblemforthemillionswhohadtrampledoverAfricabefore
them
.WhentheyhadsettledontheLowerKwangoearlyinthe16th
century,theirimmediatefoeswerethefierceJagawarriors,aroaming
tribethatseemedtobemoreinterestedinraidsofdestructionthanin
settlinganywhere .Theyweredestroyers,notbuilders
;andtheywere
setonacoursetopreventothersfromsettlingandbuilding
.Andwhile
largegroupsofthemdidsplitofffromthemainbodytomergewith
othersandformstates,theyseemedtobenothingmorenorlessthan
bloodthirstybarbarianswhoengagedinwarfareforthesheerthrillof
warfare.TheseeventuallyopenedwaragainsttheBushoongstatethat
wasformingoverawideareaalongtheKwango
.Underrelentlessand
savageattacksbytheJagawarriors,theBushoongswereforcedto
retreatalongtheKasaiandSangururivers,manygroupssplittingoff
fromthemainbodyandgoingindifferentdirections .Themainbody,
ledbyitschief,Woot,enteredtheplainofIyoolinKasaiandbeganthe
formationofalittle-knownstateduringthethirdquarterofthe16th
century
.Itispreciselybecauseitwassmallandgenerallyunheardof
thatIselecteditforasummarystudy
.Therewasanotherreason : Itwas
typicalofhundredsofothersmallblackstateswhich,unliketheworld-
renownedGhana,MaliandSonghay,themigratingBlackshadbuiltall
overAfrica,butwhichseemedtobesoinsignificanttotheconquering
Europeansthattheyweresweptaway,theirpeoplescattered,withno
Vansinastoseekoutitsoralhistorianstohearhowthingscametobe,
whatwasachievedorfailedtobeachievedbeforedeathcametotheir
societyatlast .
ThelittlekingdomofKuba,then,havingitshistoryrecaptured,will
betellingtheirstoryalso,tellingitsubstantiallyasitwasinall
fundamentalparticulars.
TheBushoong,orcentralorganizinggroup,wasalliedinafederation
ofvoluntarykindredgroups,andothertribes,numberingeighteenat
theoutset.TheCwaandtheKetewereindigenous,theCwa,as
previouslystated,havinglivedthere"sincetheworldbegan."They
offerednooppositiontotheinvaders,seemedtowelcomethemand
224

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
becamemembersofthefederalunionunderWootastheelectedking . 2
Manyofthesplintered-offsegmentsfromthecentralgroupscamein
laterfromdifferentdirectionstojointhefederation .Othermembers
weretheMongol Pende,Ilebo,Shoowa,Kel,Kaam,Kayilweeng,Lulua,
Luba,Ngeende,Maluk,Pyaang,Ngoombe,Byeeng,Coofa,andMbeengi
Ngongo.
FromtheverybeginningthecoregroupofBushoongsetanexample
fornation-buildingforallAfrica,butfewAfricanstateseverfollowedit .
Firstofall,thetotalpopulationattheformationofthefederalkingdom
canbeestimatedatbetween75,000and100,000,ofwhichnumberthe
Bushoongswere80percent .Alltheothertribescombined,therefore,
wereonlyone-fifthofthetotalpopulation .Thismeansthatevenunder
themostliberaldemocraticsystemtheBushoongscouldhavedominated
andruledalltheothertribesbythesheerweightandpowerofover-
whelmingnumbers.
Theydidnotchoosetodoso .Herewaswhatmightbeconsideredto
beajustifiableoccasiontodepartfromthetraditionalAfricanconstitu-
tionwithitsall-embracingdemocraticsystem .Quitetothecontrary,
theyfollowedittotheletterbysimplytransformingtheVillageCouncil
ofEldersintoacouncilofStateinwhicheachtribe,nowconstitutinga
constituentprovince,wasrepresentedasanequalbyitsownchiefora
representativeofitschoice .Themembersofthestatecouncilwerethe
electorswhochosetheking.AsitwasthroughoutAfrica,theCouncil
representedthepeopleand,therefore,allpowersnotdelegatedrested
withtheCouncil.Thesignificanceofthiswasthatthesmallesttribeor
province,whichmightbeonly2percentofthepopulation,wasequalin
theCounciltotheBushoonggroupthatwas80percentofthepopula-
tion,a.situationwhichheadcountersmightcriticizeastheveryantithesis
ofdemocracy. 3
ButthenumericallydominantBushoongsseemtohavebeen
statesmenwithalargerviewofwhatdemocracymeantifitwereto
operateasaunifyingforcewithdivergentandformerlyindependent
groups.Whattheydidineffectwastomakeafrontalattackontribalism
notbyfutiledenunciationsorexhortations,butbyactuallydetribalizing
2.ThereisarecordlistingWootinamuchearlierperiod .
3.TheKaammightbethesmallestminorityinthe"KaamState,"but
only a Kaamcouldbethechosencouncillor .
CentralAfrica

225
themselvesfirstofall.Theynotonlytreatedallofthedifferentlanguage
groupsasequals,buttheypromotedanationalpolicyofglorifyingthose
culturalvariationsinanygroupswhichweresooutstandingthatthey
shouldbeadoptednationally.Hence,everytribethatinisolationhad
developedsomethingnoteworthybutpeculiartoitself,nomatterhow
"strange"ordifferentfromallothers,couldseeitsuniqueculture
patternbecomeanationalinstitutionandbefilledwithbothprideand
gratitude.IfthePendehadadifferentkindofdanceandexcelledwith
it,theirswouldbecomethenationaldanceofKuba .IftheLubaexcelled
inthearchitecturalarts,theywouldbetheleadingplannersand
builders;andsooninallhumanendeavors .Eachgroupcouldwin
nationaldistinctioninonewayoranotherforexcellenceinoneormore
fields,includingagricultureandcattlebreeding.
ThekingdomwassouthofZambizinNorthernKatanga,coveringthe
ProvinceofKasaibetweentheSankuriandKasairivers .
Therewerefiverulersduringtheshortperiodof19yearsbetween
1568and1587,onebeingawoman .Itisnotknownwhetherthe
Council,sittingasanelectoralcollege,setwhatseemstoindicatefour-
yearterms .After1587longerbutstillfixedtermsforkings(orqueens)
alsoseemtobeindicated.Itappearsthattheselimitedtermsofofficeby
kingscontinuedduringthesupremacyoftheCouncil .Foralongtime
tenyearsinofficeseemedtobethelimit .Thisbringsustoathirdreason
forselectingKubaasbothasampleandexamplestate .Kubashows
howtheBlacksthemselvesdoundermineanddestroysomeoftheir
ownbestinstitutionsandreplaceblackdemocracywithblackautocracy
withouttheslightestexternalinfluenceoraidwhatsoever .Whatis
more,andoftenoverlooked,akingmaybecomeadespotbythewillof
thepeople!Thisdevelopment,incidentally,isafurtherjustificationof
myrejectionoftwoequallyfalsedoctrines : Oneisthecontentionof
whitesthatthegreatinstitutionsinAfricawereCaucasianinorigin ;and
whitesthatthegreatinstitutionsinAfricawereCaucasianinorigin
;and
theotheristhecontentionofBlacksthatgreatAfricaninstitutionswere
destroyedbyCaucasiansandotheroutsiders,andbythemalone
.What
itallmeansisthattheAfricanpeopleactandreactjustasallother
peoplesdowiththesamemotivations,conditionsorsimilarcircumstances,
aimsandobjectives.
Thedemocraticdirectionofthisstatewaswell-establishedin1587
whenLashyaangMbalassumedtheleadership.Theeconomywasstill
operatingalongprovincialinterestlinesandapparentlywithoutstate
226

The Destruction ofBlackCivilization


directionorparticipation.Themarketsystemwastheonlyintegrating
economicactivityalongbroadnationallines.TheBushoongswerestill
theleadingboatmakers,fisherman,andhunters .Becausetheywerethe
mostnumerous,thistendedto)versupplyKubamarketswithfishand
game.On theotherhand,farmproductionwasnotonlyfarbelow
demandbutitwasalsotoolimitedinvariety.Thismeantaverylimited
dietofmillet,bananas,peanuts,fishandfowl.Thecloth-makingindus-
triesexpandedastheironsmithandothercraftsdeveloped .The
buildingtradeswerethebusiestinthenewnation-building.These
includedarchitects,carpenters,Drick-makersandmasons .
THEPOLITICALORGANIZATION
Thepoliticalstructureactuallybeganwiththefamilycouncilorclan
council,whichisthebasicsociaunitofkinsmen .Duringtheformative
periodofthestateeachclanhaditsownvillage .Asnewimmigrants
swelledvillagesintotownsandcities,thesebecamedividedintoclan
sectionsorwards .Eachwardsentitselderasarepresentativetothe
village,town,orcitycouncil,ovrwhichpresidedthevillageheadman,
townsubchief,orcitychief.Thesechiefs,inturn,servedasrepresenta-
tivesoftheirareasontheprovincial.counciloverwhichtheParamount
Chiefofthewholetribepresided .TheParamountChiefsofthecentral
provincesorstates,theoriginaleighteenfounders,representedtheir
provincesintheCentralStateCounciloverwhichtheelectedKingof
Kubapresided.
Conqueredstatesandtribeswhichcameafterthefederalunionwas
formedwerenoteligibleforrearesentationontheStateCounciland
theirchiefs,therefore,couldnotparticipateintheelectionofkings .
Therewereotherspecialbenefit;andprivilegesenjoyedbytheeighteen
elector-chiefswhichotherchief;didnothaveor,morepointedly,the
newcomershadburdensandresponsibilitiesfromwhichtheelector
chiefswerefree .Theheaviestofthesewerethetributarytaxesleviedon
allchiefsexceptthe"originaleighteen ."This,too,wastocausetrouble
later .
CentralAfrica

227
THEGOVERNMENTOFKUBA
TheCouncilofState
(a)1heKingpresiding
(b)1heLinguist(interpreterandspecialaidetoKing)
(c)"IheChiefofChiefs(PrimeMinister .Thetitle"ChiefofChiefs"
actuall)isthatoftheKing.HereitmeanstosaytoallthechiefsofKuba :
"WhenyouseeandspeaktomyChiefMinister,youseeandspeakto
theKirg.")
(d)1heGovernorsofprovinces(Paramountchiefs) .Eachparamount
chiefo-oneofhiselectedgeneralswasinsupremecommandofall
militaryforcesinhisprovince .TheKing,whowasalsoagovernorofhis
particuartribalprovince,hadonlythesoldiersofhisprovinceunderhis
command.
2.AdministratorsnotmembersoftheStateCouncil
(a)FrstChiefoftheTreasury
(b)ChiefofBorderDefenses
(c)Supervisor-GeneralofTaxCollection,GoodsandServices
(d)ChiefoftheKing'sHouseholdandProtectorofAncestralTombs
aidRegalia
(e)ChiefofRoadsandMarkets
(f)Collector-GeneralforTributaryStates(Thisofficewascreatedin
tlewakeofMboongaLeeng'simperialistexpansion in1650.)
Thenweretwenty-sixkingsduringthethreehundredandforty-two
yearsoKubanhistory,orfromabout 1568 to1910.Asinthecasesof
Ethiopa,Egypt,Makuriaandtheotherstatesstudied,hereonlyafewof
theoubtandingleaderswillbementioned .Inthusrigidlylimitingthe
scope,venecessarilypassedovermanygreatleadersandimportant
events,justasweshallbedoinginthecaseofKuba .Herealso,weare
notashterestedinchronologicaldetailsasweareinsuchthingsasthe
developmentofnationalpoliciestounitediversetribesinapatriotic
devotiontoonenationandotherpoliciesthatwouldclearlydefeatthat
objecti-e.Thefounderorfoundersofanationconstitutethespecially
honoredgroupthroughoutAfricaanditwasthesourceofroyaltyitself.
SoKulawasstillfollowingtheAfricanconstitutionwhenitmadethe
centralornucleargroupof 18 foundersthepermanentrulingcouncilto
theexcusionof"strangers"(inAfrica,allthosewhocameafterthecom-
munityornationisestablished.)Yetitisequallyclearthatasnewcomers
increasedthepopulationandasthenation,expandedbyconquering
228

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
neighboringsocieties,thereasonsforfutureconflictswerealsobeing
expanded.Thesereasons,notedhereinKuba,wereAfrica-wideand
accountfortheinternalconflictsinthenewAfricanstatestoday,even
thoughalldiscontenthasnotcometothesurface.And,asinthecaseof
Kuba,thetroublestemsfromthefailuretoincludeeverysegmentofthe
populationinanationalprogramofabsoluteequality,andtheoppor-
tunitytoparticipatesofullyineveryphaseofthenationallifethata
senseofpatriotismandbelongingtothenationwillgraduallyoutweigh
thatofbelongingtoatribe .Inshort,whatwedodeprecatinglycall
"tribalism"is,infact,thenecessarycohesiveandsocialmechanismfor
survivalanddefenseagainstthreatstosurvival.Thetribeistheunit
throughwhichtheraceitselfhassurvivedduringallofitsmigratingand
scatteredcircumstances.Theenemiesthatbesetitwereblackaswellas
white.Thisthetribesoftodayknowaswellastheirblackbrothers
outsideofthe"Circleof 18" knewfourhundredyearsagoinKuba.
Tribalismwilldisappearonlywhenthereasonsforitsexistenceinthe
firstplacedisappear.
ThemostnoteworthythingaboutKubainthisconnection,however,
wasthatdespitethegreatdisorganizingfactorjustmentioned,its
originalprogramofunitingmanylanguagegroupsintoonenationwas
sosuccessfulthatithasnotbeenequaledbyanynationinmodern
Africa .Forlookwhatactuallyhappened : Manytribes,includingthe
Bushoonggroup,mergedsocompletelythattheylosttheirindividual
tribalidentityandlanguageandbecameonepeople,speakingone
languagederivedfromalltheothers,theBakubaor"PeopleofKuba ."
ThisEPluribusUnum processthatwentoncontinuouslyallover
Africaiswhatmakestheworkofethnologistsandlinguistssobaffling
andtheirdogmaticconclusionsoftenmisleading,imprecise,and
sometimessimplyfalse .Splittingofffromamajorintoadozensmaller
groups,eachdevelopingadifferentlanguageordialect,thenthere-
mergerofanytwelvesplintedgroupsintoanothermajorgroup,forming
onceagainonepeopleandonelanguageoutofmany,andsoonuntil
thenextsegmentationofmanyandthelaterre-formationofthemany
intoasocietyandlanguagegroupagain.Itis,therefore,unlikely,toput
itmodestly,thatanyanthropologistorlinguistonAfricacouldtakea
groupofBakubatodayanddeterminewhichhadancestorswhowere
BushoongunderQueenNgokady,orPyanpyanngwhenLashyaang
MbalwasKing,orNgeendewhenMboMbooshreigned, 1680-1695,
etc.EvenmembersofagroupasdistinctiveasthePygmies(Cwa)lost
CentralAfrica

229
theiridentitythroughintermarriageswithalmostalltheothergroups .
Theirminglingwithothergroupswasmorewidespreadbecause,unlike
them,theydidnotoccupyaparticularprovincebutwerescatteredinall
ofthem.ThedescendantsofaCwa-MalukmarriageinKingMishema
Tuun'sday(1620)couldnotbedescribedashaving"Pygmoid"features
today,orMalukeither .Thereasonissimple : Therehavebeentoomany
other"crossingsandrecrossings"duringthethreetofourhundredyears
thathavepassed.
THERELIGIONOFKUBA
TherewasnoproblemofreligiousunityinKubabecausetherewas
noproblemofreligiousconflictsintraditionalAfrica .TheBlacks,
havingacommonoriginandacommoncenterofcivilization,hadthe
samefundamentalreligiousbeliefsthroughoutthecontinent,justasall
oftheirotherbasicinstitutionsweresimilar .Theinevitablevariations
wereinsignificantwhencomparedwiththeuniversalsimilarities.The
Kubansbelieved,asallAfricansbelieved,inonealmightyGod,the
CreatoroftheUniverse.Therewerenumerouswaysofexpressingthe
one-godconcept.Hemightbeidentifiedwiththesunandcalledthe
SunGod,or,asavariationofthis,hemightbecalledtheSkyGod.The
numerousothergods,farfrombeinginconflictwiththeGreatGod,
wereanecessarypartofHisdivineplan-Hisowndeputiesandemis-
sarieswhohaddirectchargeofthevariousdepartmentsoflifethat
concernedhumanneeds-theearth(soil),water,illness,health,fertility,
planting,harvest,theforests,war,hunting,fishing,rain,etc .
Therewerelessergodsunderthese .Theirrankorimportancewas
determinedbytheirroleandtheextentoftheirrole .Differenttribes
mighthavedifferenttribalgodsoragroupofkindredtribesmighthave
thesamesub-gods.Eachfamilyorclanmightormightnothaveitsown
clangod,andeachmemberofthefamilymightormightnothavehis
ownpersonalgod.Inshort,thetraditionalAfricanreligionrespecting
anAlmightyGodandahierarchyoflesserdeitieswaslatertakenover
byChristianityintheformsofpatronsaintsandhigherdeitieswhorank
nexttoGodHimself.
ItissaidthatreligioninKubadidnotinclude"AncestorWorship ."
Thisancestorworshipthingisanotheroneofthoseoverdonemyths
aboutAfricans.TheBakubadidnot"worship"theirancestors .But
230

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
neitherdidotherAfricans,ifWesternwritersareusingtheterminthe
sensethatoneworshipsGod-andofcoursethey are usingworshipin
thissense .Justastheypretendnottounderstandtherollofthe
numerousAfricandeitiesbutunderstoodtheroleofthesesamedeities
inWesterncivilizationifwecallthempatronsaints,inthatsamewayas
justabouteveryotheraspectofAfricanlifeandhistoryhasbeenmisre-
presentedanddistorted.
Yetonecanunderstandwhyapeopleforwhomtheideaofimmortal-
ityismerelyacreedwouldfindithardtounderstandtheall-encompass-
ingreligiousphilosophyofapeoplewhoactuallybelievedinlifebeyond
death.Fromthiscentralbeliefnumerousotherbeliefsdevelopednatur-
ally.Animportantonewasthatrelativeswhohadpassedonmaintained
acontinuinginterestinthewelfareofthoseleftbehind .Tojustifyand
preservethiscontinuingoversightoftheirancestors,thelivingdidthose
thingsthatmightmeritancestralapprobation .Therewasancestor
reverence,notancestorworship.Thisreverenceforeldersbeganin
earlylifewiththelivingandincreasedwiththedead .Whenfoodwas
periodicallyplacedatthegraves,nobodyexpectedtheancestralspirits
toeatit(onlyfoolsoutsideofAfricaallegethattheydid) .Whatthey
weredoingwasademonstrationthatthecommunalspiritofsharing
wasbeingmaintained.Furthermore,iftheancestorsapprovedtheir
behavior,theywereinapositiontointercedeontheirbehalfwiththe
deitiesintimesofcrisis .
TheBlacks'conceptionofGodwasonascaletoograndtobeaccepta-
bletoWesternminds .Theyhadtoreduceitbyusingatermthatis
equatedwithpaganism,"primitive"backwardnessandbarbarism.The
wordis"animism."Butthehistorianandanthropologistarewitnesses
againstthemselves,stillprovingtheveryoppositeofwhattheyintend .
Indocumentinganimismasthechiefcharacteristicofthereligionofthe
Blacksfromremotesttimestheyarealsodocumentingthefactthatthe
Blacks'beliefintheexistenceaswellasthenatureofoneUniversalGod
alsogoesbacktotimesimmemorial .
Andwhatisanimism?AsappliedtoAfricansitisthebeliefthatthe
spiritoftheCreatorortheUniversalGodpermeatesallofHiscreations,
livinganddead.Therefore,anyobject,animateorinanimate,maybe
sacred.ThisconceptofGodandHiscreationswouldberegardedas
highly"civilized"ifexpressedbyaWesternerinsomesuchtermsasa
"reverenceforlife."Indeed,preciselythesameAfricanreligiousbelief
becomesthedoctrineof"Immanence"inChristiancivilization.
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231
TheBakuba(peopleofKuba)believedthattwocontendingspirits
affectedman: thespiritofgoodandthespiritofevil .Evilwasthoughtto
beexpressedmostclearlyinwitchcraft,whichinturncharacterized
personsengagedinthepracticeoftryingtodoharmtoothers .InKuba,
asthroughoutAfrica,thepenaltyforwitchcraftwaseitherdeathorpun-
ishment.Themuchmisrepresented"witchdoctor,"farfromengagingin
thepracticehimself,hadthetaskofcombatingthepracticebytryingto
helpitsvictims .Hencethetitle"witchdoctor,"whichcametobe
appliedtoallAfricandoctorsindiscriminatelybecauseofthewidespread
beliefthatalmostallhumanillsresultedfromtheworkofevilspirits
througheviloperators-witches .Alongchaptercouldbedevotedto
thetrainingofthenativedoctorsandtheirpracticeofmedicine .Thisis
notourpurposeatthispoint.Butitshouldbenotedinpassingthat
writershavegenerallyfocusedtheirattentionontheentirelysuperficial
externalsthatdisguisedtheAfricandoctor'srealpracticeofthehealing
arts.Theyspentyearsintheforestsstudyingthemedicinalpropertiesof
variousplantsandherbs .Theywentthroughthesamelongperiodsof
apprenticeshipthatthemembersofalltheotherskilledcraftshadtogo
throughunderamaster.Thepeoplewerenotfools .Theprescribed
medicinehadtobebeneficial.Ifnot,thedoctorwasheldtoaccountfar
morerigidlythandoctorsareinourtimes .TheAfricandoctor'sentire
futureinhiscommunitydependeduponhissuccessfulministrations,
andthesemustovershadowinevitablefailuresnowandthen.And
whilethepsychologicalritualofhideousmaskswasusedtofrightenoff
evilspirits,thewilddanceandmysticalspeechwereallintendedto
impressthepeoplewiththemysteriesofhealing(carriedoverto
modernmedicineinLatinprescriptions) .Afterallofthis,thenative
physicianstillhadtoproducesatisfactoryresultsorbedisgraced.
Religionwasinvolvedinthepracticeofmedicine,asreligionwas
involvedineveryaspectofAfricanlife .Diseasewasbelievedtobethe
resultofsomemisdeedonthepartoftheindividualhimselforthe
workingofanevilspirit .Ifwidespread,thecommunityasawholemay
havesinned,eitherbycommissionoromissionofsomethingthat
offendedeitherthedeitiesortheeverwatchfulancestors .Songs,dances
andsacrificeswerecommunalactivitiesdesignedtoreestablishthe
properrelationshipbetween'thepeopleandtheunseenpowers.
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TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
HISTORYANDPHILOSOPHY
EachKubantribewasresponsibleforitsownhistory,andthestate
wasresponsibleforthehistoryofthenation .Itwasoralhistory.Theoral
historian,againasinthecaseofallothercrafts,wasatrainedhistorian .
HisbasictrainingwasinaMnemotechnicalsystem.Thistrainingin
memorizationbeganasanapprenticetoarecognizedhistorianother
thantheprincipaloralhistorian .Therewerespecialoccasionsfor
membersoftheclantoassembletolistentothestoryoftheclanand
anotheroccasionforthegeneralcommunitytoassemblefortheoverall
historyofthenation .
Theabsenceofwrittenhistorymadethetaskoftheoralhistorianvery
exacting.Hewasgenerallyheldsostrictlyaccountableforanyerrors
madeinhisaccountthatattimesthereactiontomistakesmadeseemsto
havebeenunreasonable .Forwhilehewasallowedthewidestlatitude
incommentariesofhisownandeveninfantasticembellishments
designedtoshockhislistenersorentertainthem,hedarednoterrin
recitingthefactualdataofhistory .Itseemsquiteclearthatnotonlythe
elders(whowerealsowellversedinoraltradition)knewthedifference
betweenthemythicalandthetrulyhistoricalaccount,butthepeople
alsounderstoodwhatwasintendedasamusementandwhatwastheir
realhistory.Asidefrom"talltales,"thehistorianoftenusedproverbs
reflectingthephilosophyofgreatleadersandthatoftherace,praise
songsofgreatmenandgreatevents,songswhichwewouldcall"the
Blues"whichtoldofpastfailuresandheartaches,anddancesofvictor-
ieswonandofthanksgiving.
Buttheassembledelderswerealwayskeepingasharpwatchoutfor
anyseriouserrorsonthepartoftheoralhistorian .Hemightbe
removedorevenbanished.Ineithercasehiscareerwouldbeendedin
disgraceandhisdisgracemightwreckhislifeamonghispeople .Onthe
otherhand,ifsuccessful,therewardsweregreatbecausetheoral
historianwasthecommunity'sstorehouseofwisdomandoneofitsmost
honoredpersonalities .Hewasthecoreoftheeducationalsystem.The
lineagewasthekeytothehistoryoftheextendedfamily,thetribeand
thenation.Withinthelineagewerethesocial,religious,economicand
politicaltiesthatheldtogetherthefamily,tribeandnation .
CentalAfrica

233
SH'AAMTHEGREAT
SlyaamIwasoneofthegreatestleadersthattheblackraceever
prodacedand,consideringtheconditionsandcircumstancesofhistime,
Ithickhewasthegreatest .HebecamekingofKubain 1630, and
duriigtherelativelyshortperiodoftenyearshesetinmotionan
ecommicdevelopmentthattransformedthenationandgaveitanew
forwirddirection.Hewasnotonlyfaraheadofhisowntimeinperceiv-
ingtiateconomicdevelopmentwastheonlywaytorestoretheancient
greanessoftheBlacks,butheisstillaheadofthewholeblackworld
todarintherevivalofeconomicactivitiesonallpossiblefronts .The
ecommyhadremainedonthesubsistencelevel.Itcouldhardlybe
othewisebecausethenationwasstillinitsformativestage,stillvery
yourg.Themainactivitieswerestillinthefieldsofagriculture,fishing,
wearing,mat-making,basketry,wood-carving,carpentry,furniture-
makng,pottery,ironandcoppersmithing,sculptureandpainting.
Theewasaremarkableadvanceinallthearts,especiallythepictorial
arts.SinceitwasfromthelatterthattheBlacksdevelopedtheirwriting
systaninearliertimes(andlostitthroughmigrations)onemaywonder
whehertherewasanyrediscoveryandrevivalofwritinginKuba .Oral
historydoesnottellus .Ordoesit?Wedonotknow .Whatwedoknow
isth,tthekindofstablesocietyandinstitutionsweredevelopinginthis
nationfromwhichwritingdevelopsasacompellingandalmost
indipensableneed.
Slyaam'seconomicrevolutionstimulatedmanyfacetsofthenational
renassanceaboutwhichwenowknowverylittle .FortheRevolutionof
163( wasarevolutioninthinkingandasearchfornewandbetterways
ofdoingthings.ThenewKingwasinterestedinnewstylesandabreak
fronthetraditionalartsforms .Hisdrivewasfornationalconsolidation
andinternaldevelopmentratherthanthewarsofconqueststhatso
mucioccupiedthetimeandenergiesofhispredecessors .Theslowly
developingeconomynowexperiencedasenseofurgencyandnational
direction.Newcropswereintroduced : sorghum,corn,millet(not
entielynewinthearea),tobacco,yams,andbeans .The"external
influence"herewasblack"externalinfluence"andnowhardlyexternal
toKiba,becausesomeofthetribesnowconstitutingthenationcame
frorrareaswherethesecropsweregrown .Wouldyamsandtobacco
grovinKuba?"Let'sfindout,"Shyaamseemedtohavebeensayingon
allfontsalldowntheline .
234

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
The skilledcraftswereexpandedandmethodsofproduction
improvedandspeededupbynewtechniques.Newweavingand
embroiderymethodswerenotable
.Thebreakwithtraditionwasmost
clearlyseenintheexperimentsinnewartpatternsandnewstylesin
wood-carving.
Allthiseconomicactivitymeantamarkedtransitionfromasubsistence
toasurpluseconomy,andthisofcourseledtogeneralprosperity
throughtheexpansionofmarketsandforeigntrade .SinceKubawas
notwithintheorbitofthecaravanroutesofinternationalcommerce,
her"foreign"tradewaswithotherAfricanareas .Kubantrademissions
weresentnearandfartopromotetradethroughtheestablishmentof
marketsatimportanttradingcentersinnearbyanddistantstates .This
wasthemostimportantaspectofShyaam'sEconomicRevolution
.Inthe
declineofthecivilizationoftheBlacksastheysplinteredoffand
scatteredhereandthereoverAfricaandovertheworld,theylostthis
pioneeringspiritofbusinessenterprise,themostcommonurgentneed,
inrecapturingtheirloststatusinthemodernworldofaggressivecompe-
tition.Thetraderswerealsoorganizedintosocieties
.Everyoccupation
exceptagriculturehaditssocietyorguild .Farmerswerenotsoorganized
becausejustabouteverybodywas a farmerinadditiontohistrade.Any
townsmanwhodidnothaveafarmsomewherewouldhavebeen
considered"strange ."One'stradeorprofession,then,wasseenas
possibleonlybecauseofthebasiceconomyand,forthatreasoneveryone
wasresponsibleforashareinagriculturalproduction .
ThegeneralprosperityengenderedbytheEconomicRevolutiondid
notbringgeneralinternalpeace .Theinevitableincreaseinpopulation
wasfurtherexpandedbytheannexationofnewterritoriesandthe
influxoftheendlessstreamsofmigratingpeoplewhowereattractedto
thisnewlandofopportunity.Buttheywere"strangers,"andthisfact,as
notedabove,wasacauseofunrestamongthemandevengreaterunrest
amongtheconqueredgroups .Itappearsthatthenationalprosperity
servedtoheightenthetensionsratherthanreducethem.Moretrouble
camefromBieengelementsinthecountry,membersofamajortribe
thathadchallengedtheBushoongleadershipevenbeforethemove
fromIyool.RebellionsalsobrokeoutjustbeforeShyaamassumedthe
leadership.ThePyaangandKetesucceededincapturinganddestroying
thecapitalcity,whiletheunsubduedBieengcontinuedtheirattacks
fromtheareastillundertheircontrol.
CentralAfrica
235
Theseinternalconflictswereofgreathistoricalimportancebecauseof
thefar-reachingconsequences .Themostimportantoveralloutcome
wasradicalchangesinthetraditionalconstitution
.Tobeginwith,
religionwasdrawnuponasanindirectmeansofsocialcontrolby
enhancingthedivineroleoftheking.Thetraditionalroleofthekingas
theChiefElderand,therefore,theChiefRepresentativeofthepeople
beforeGodwasveryeasilychangednowtotheconceptionoftheking
asthe"LieutenantofGodonEarth
."AsGod'sLieutenantonEarth,the
kingcouldassumepowersnotrecognizedbytheconstitutionandgo
unchallenged
.Butaboveandbeyondthis,theinternalturmoilwas
regardedassuchathreattothenation'sexistencebytheloyalchiefsand
thepeoplethatevenmorepowersthanthekinghaddaredtoassume
werebestoweduponhimtoenablehimtocrushrebellionsbydirect
actionandrestoreinternalpeace .Here,then,ishowademocracymay
becomeanabsolutemonarchy,notbya coupdetat,butbytheconsent
ofthepeoplethemselves.
Theyseemedtobethinkingonlyaboutthe"others"(strangers
causingtrouble)whentheyallowedtheCounciltogivethekingthe
poweroverlifeanddeath .AnotherfatalblowtotheAfricandemocractic
systemwasallowingthekingtoraiseandmaintainhisownnational
army
.Thenationalarmy,asweknow,hadalwaysbeenmadeupof
contingentsunderthesupremecommandoftheCounciloperating
throughtherespectiveparamountchiefsandprovincialkings
.This
singlechangecanbesaidtohavecompletedthetriumphoftheKingof
Kubaasanabsolutemonarch .Hehadalreadyacquiredextraordinary
powersquitenaturallyasthekingdomexpandedovernewterritory
.
Newadministrativeofficeshadtobemade .Someofthesewereso
importantthatthekingencounterednoopenoppositionwhenhealso
appointedthemasmembersofthehithertoexclusiveStateCouncil
.
Thismarkedtheendofthetraditionalcouncilasithadfunctioned
undertheAfricanconstitution.Thecorecounciloftheeighteenelector
stateswasnowoutnumberedbytheappointeesoftheking.
ItappearsthatShyaammadenodisplayandverylittleuseofhisnew
powers vis-a-vis theelectorchiefs .Hischiefinterestcontinuedtobein
thefieldofinternalimprovement,buildingacapitalcity,andupgrading
thesocialamenitiesthatreflectahighlyadvancedsociety
.Theseincluded
newformsofcourtetiquetteandprocedures,resplendentregalia,etc
.
OneofShyaam'sstrategemsforsecuringtheloyaltyandsupportof
importantchiefsandothernotableswastheappointmentoftheirsons
236

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
tomanyimportantposts .Thismovewassignificantbecauseitbypassed
thenephewsinfavorofthesons,thussatisfyingthenaturalbutnever
spokendesireofmostfathersinamatrilinealsociety.
THEKING-GENERAL
Shyaamleftarecordofachievementsthatnoneofhissuccessors
couldmatch.Hewasalegendeveninhisownlifetime .Thepeoplehad
neverknownorheardaboutsuchaleader,andhadneverexperienced
intheirownlivesthedirectbenefitsofsuchleadership .Ithadtobe
magicand,therefore,Shyaamhadbeenthe"GreatMagician ."Since
magicinAfricawassimplyanotherreligiousmeansofinvokingtheaid
ofadeity,tocalltheirchiefintercessorwithGodamagicianmeantthat
hewasactuallysecuringbenefitsforthepeople,andthathewasindeed
the"LieutenantofGodonEarth ."Inshort,"magic"wasanotherformof
prayer,songordanceintheappealstosupernaturalpowersforhelp .
MboongaLeeng,Shyaam'ssuccessor,wasnota"greatmagician ."He
wasawarrior-king,agreatgeneral.Hedidnothavetocarryonthe
economicrevolution.ItcarriedonitselffromthemomentumShyaam
hadgivenit.MboongaLeengdevotedhimselftofurtherwarsof
conquestandtheexpansionoftheroyalpowerwhichthesewarsmade
easy.
Theage-grademilitarysystemstartedbyShyaamwasexpandedfrom
amilitiatoastrongstandingarmy("strong"fortheperiod) .Prisonersof
war,nowslaves,formedtheking'spersonalarmy.Theywerestationed
inseparatevillagesoftheirown.Nowthekingwaspowerfulenoughto
attempttomakethemodestchangesinthematrilinealsystemunder
Shyaammorethoroughgoingandpermamentintheroyalfamilyitself.
Theroyalnephewswereallplacedunderpermanenthousearrestand
sonsofkingsbecameheirstothethrone .Meanwhiletheywereappointed
toimportantgoverningpostsindifferentpartsofthekingdom .And
whileithasbeensuggestedthatthisradicalbreachofconstitutionallaw
wasintendedtoreducethefactionalpowerstrugglesintheroyalfamily,
whatitdidwastosharpensuchstrugglesalongmoreclearlydefined
lines .Mboonghaddividednotonlytheroyal,butallthechiefsand
peopleintothedefendersofthetraditionalconstitutionontheone
hand,andthe"progressive"reformersontheother .Thismeantmore
unrestandmorerebellions .
Central Africa
237
TheKing-generaldealtwiththesewithanironhand,wassuccessful,
andproceededwithanotherimportantassaultontheconstitution .He
outlawedmigrationsfromthecountry.ThishadbeenoneoftheBlack
man'sgreatestfreedoms,therightofeverydissatisfiedindividualor
grouptowithdrawfromthecommunity,migrateelsewhere,andeither
joinsomeothergrouporsetupanewchiefdom.Theuniversaluseof
thisfreedom,letitberememberedateverypoint,isoneofthereasons
forsomanydifferentlittlesocietiesandlanguagegroupsthroughoutthe
continent,whileatthesametimeindicatingacommonoriginandback-
ground.
ThisrelativelysmallandgenerallyunknownkingdomintheCongo
regionwasamicrocosmofBlackAfricainotherrespectsand,asinother
Africanstates,itpresentstheconcreteevidenceandspecificvalidation
ofmuchofthehistoryoftheblackpeople.Therewasstillanother
developmentofthehighestimportanceforethnologists,butonewhich
theygenerallybypassortreatverylightly.Thishadtodowithstill
anotherwaynewtribes,newchiefdomsandnewlanguagegroupswere
formed,ultimatelyleavingnotatraceofwhattherespectivemembers
ofsuchgroupshadbeeninformertimes .Anewtribeandchiefdomof
thiskindwasformedby"strays"andstragglers,individualsandvery
smallgroupsthathadbecomedetachedfromtheirmainsocietyduring
themigrations.Speakingdifferentlanguagesanddialects,theywere
unaffiliatedpersonswhowerelostinthecorporatesocietyofKuba .
Eventobecomesecondclasscitizensasnewcomers,strangershadtobe
membersofasinglegrouplargeenoughtohavethetraditionaltribal
sociopoliticalstructureheadedbyachief.Becauseoftheseconditions
andcircumstancesmanystrayindividualsandsmallgroupsfrom
differenttribesunitedandbegantheformationofanewtribe,anew
languagefromthemergerofmany,andanewtraditionororal.history.
Heretooishowandwhyoraltraditionmaybecomeconfusedandmis-
leadingduringthefirsttwoorthreegenerations .Forthefirstchiefand
hisfamily,chosenasfoundersofthenewchiefdom,mayattemptto
overplaytheirroleinthefoundingandprogressofthenewsociety.
Thecentralpointthatisstressedhereagain,however,isthatthe
historicalprocessinAfricaofsegmentation,remerging,segmentation
andremergingadinfinitumdefiesallattemptsbyWesternanthropolo-
giststodivideandclassifytheracebyopposingethnicsocieties .It
cannotbedoneeitherbylinguisticsorbyconclusionsarrivedatonthe
basisofwidelydifferentphysicalfeaturesand/orcharacteristcs .
238

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Alltheseobservationscanbedrawnfromthemosteventfulfifty
yearsinthehistoryofKuba,1630-1680. Notwithstandingtheunprece-
dentedchangesintheconstitution,ironicallyenough,theperiodsof
Kuba'sgloryandgreatestachievementswereundertheleadershipof
herthreegreatautocratickings-ShyaamtheGreat,MboongaLeeng
andMboMboosh,1650-1680. WiththedeathofMboMbooshaneraof
relativepeace,stabilityandprogresscametoanend .
Butthateraleftuswithaperplexingquestion.Consideringthe
historyofthenationbeforeShyaamandafterMboosh,thatquestionis
whetherdemocracyactuallyservedthewelfareofthepeopleaswellas
autocracy.Itisanawfulquestion,buthereisaspecificcasewherethe
questionrisesunderitsownpower.Inviewoftherecord,noonehasto
raiseit.Itthereforehastobefaced .
Itmaybethatthetradition-boundcouncilswhichweglorifysomuch
becausetheyrepresentedthepeopleandservedasacheckonchiefs
andkings,mayalsohaveservedtbcheckprogressundertheleadership
ofdedicatedchiefsandkingsoffarseeingvision.Thisinturnintroduced
thequestionoftheroleofleadershipintheaffairsofmen,andparticu-
larlyinthehistoryofeverypeoplethathadgreatleaderswholitthe
blazewhichbanishedthedarknessfromtheirmarchingpaths .Since
leadershipisindispensableinanygroupsituation,largeorsmall,the
ultimatesolutioninademocracymaybecenteredaround-thequestion
notofhowmuchpoweraleaderhas,butratherinwhoseinterestand
forwhosewelfarethatpoweristobeused.Thispresupposesanalert
peoplewhoknowwhenandwheretodrawthelinebetweentheir
welfareandtheactionsofapowerfulleader .WhenMboongwenttothe
extremebyappointinganddeposingchiefsathispleasure,thepeople
couldhavecheckedhim.Therefore,thegreatkingswhodidsomuchto
buildastrongnationalsoplantedtheseedsforitsdestructionfrom
withinlongbeforetheEuropeanscompleteditsdestructionfromwith-
out.
From 1680untilthecomingoftheEuropeansinthe 1800's intermittent
internalstrifedarkenedthewholeperiod
.Thestrugglescentered
aroundthevariousconstitutionalviolationsandchanges .Thesewere
themainissueswhethertherebellionswereledbywholetribesorwere
civilstrifeledbyroyalsonsontheonehandandroyalnephewsonthe
other.Throughitall,however,foreignanddomestictradesomehow
continuedtoflourish .Infact,theKubanmarketsweresowidespread
outsideofthecountrythattheseenterprisingBlacksattractedthe
CentralAfrica
239
attentionofthenowworld-conqueringEuropeans .Theynowhad
businessto"explore"upanddowntheKasaiandSankururivers,
checkingontheoperationsoftheBakuba .
OnceagainthemostcrucialpointsinthehistoryoftheBlackswere
beingepitomizedbyasinglesmallnation.ItwastoescapetheEuropeans
that,centuriesbefore,thepeoplewhoformedtheKubanstatehad
continuedtheirmigrationsfromtheAtlanticseaboardandjourneyed
farintotheinterior .Theyhadcomeonandalongthesameriversthe
advancescoutsoftheenemywerenowexploring.
TheBlacks,asusual,weretoobusyfightingamongthemselvesto
marktheheraldsoftheirdoomorseethesignificanceoftheircoming.
Uptothistimetheyhadbeenwiseenoughtoadheretotherule
followedbymostAfricanstatesbyrigidlybarring all non-Africansfrom
crossingtheirborders .Therecordofoverfourthousandyearsshowed
thatineachandeverycasewheretheruleofexclusionwasrelaxedand
AsiansorEuropeanswereadmittedunderwhateverpretext,theultimate
fateoftheBlackswassealed .FirstalonePortuguesecame,"seeking
trade."Whowouldbesillyenoughtofearalonewhiteman?Andwere
nottheKubansthegreattraders,alwayslookingfornewmarkets?Nor
werethefewGermanswhocamelateranyoccasionforconcernother
thannewopportunitiesfortrade .Theexploringexpeditionsupand
downtheriversdidnotcausealarm.Tradingrelationswiththe
Europeanswereindeedestablishedandwerebecomingmoreandmore
profitable .
TheEuropeanswerenotyetpermittedtosettlewithinthecounty.
Butnomatter.Theywere,aswehavesaid,long-rangeschemers .The
patternofworldwideimperialismhadbeendeterminedlongago,and
thetechniquesofpenetrationanddominancewerefixedanduniversally
applied.So,insteadofinvadingthecountrybyforce,somethingthey
wereneverpreparedtodoinitiallyanyway,theyringedthecountry
withtradingpostsalongitsborders .Totheseoutpostsmissionaries
assembledtoformmissions(forGodandtheempire)andwerelater
followedbyarmeddetachments,ostensiblytoprotectthetradingroutes
andnewmarketsfromimaginaryraiders .
Tomakemattersworse,theEuropeancrisisbegantodevelopnear
theendofthelongestandmoststrife-riddenreigninKubanhistory.
KingMbopaMabuncmaMbulwasinthefifthdecadeofhisrule,tired
andwornoutbothbyageandendlessfighting .Farfromseeingthe
gatheringEuropeansasathreat,heandhisimmediatesuccessorsseem
240

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
tohaveregardedthemasagodsendthatwouldsolvetwocritical
problems: ThePortugueseoffertobuyallofthecapturedrebelsand
othertroublemakersandthereplenishingofadrainedtreasurybythe
saleofthesewarprisoners.Thefirstwouldtendtoendcivilstrifeand
restoredomesticpeace,andthesecondwasanewsourceofgreat
wealth.Toberelievedofthecostandtroubleofmaintainingprisoner-
of-warcampswasstillanotherincentiveforsellingthem.Forsuch
reasonstheunforgivablesaleofBlacksintoslaverybyBlacksbegan .
ThefactthatAfricanchiefsandkingshadaquitedifferentconception
ofslaverythanthatoftheCaucasiansdoesnotexcusethem ;forinthe
courseoftimetheyhadtoknowthatintheWestthecapturedBlacks
becameslavesinfact,andnot,asinAfrica,personswhobecame
membersofthecommunity,wereintegratedintofamilies,became
membersofanyofthecrafts,hadrightstofarmland,heldofficesand,
infact,hadalltherightsandprivilegesenjoyedbytheiroriginalcaptors .
So,IamsayingthatwhileatfirsttheAfricanslavesellersmaynot
haveknownthefatetowhichtheywereconsigningtheirbrothers,in
timetheydidlearn.AndforthisreasontheseBlackswillstandcon-
demnedforeverbeforethebarofhistory,KingmaMbulalongwiththe
others.
Thesaleofmalcontentsintoslaverydidnotendthecivilstrife
because,foronething,alltherebelswereneithercapturednordefeated.
Besides,thepermanentcenterofconflictwasintheroyallineageitself.
Thegeneralupheavalafter1885,theyeartheEuropeanconquestofall
Africabegan,madeiteasyforthewhitestoenterandspreadallover
thecountry.Thetradersandmissionarieswerethefirsttotakeoverthe
countrybyfirstallyingthemselveswithopposingchiefdomsand
opposingroyalfactions,urgingoneachtokeepupthefightagainstthe
others.Indeed,themissionariesinKubaweremissionariesofdamnation,
notsalvation.Theyworethedeceptivegarbofreligionbuttheir
activitieswerenotonlyalmostwhollypoliticalbutwereconcernedwith
furtheringthedisintegrationandcollapseofthislittleblacknation .
Theyobviouslydidnotcometohelp,spirituallyorotherwise.They
cametohinder,atleastuntilthecountrywascompletelyunderwhite
rule.Theirnextstep,therefore,wastoactuallysetupchiefdomsthem-
selves,installpuppetchiefs,andrulethecountrythroughthechiefdoms
overwhichtheyandthetradershadcontrol!
Whenthe20thcenturydawned,adyingKubawasgaspingfor
breath,makingitslastdesperateattemptstofreeitselffromthechoking
CentralAfrica

241
handsitthoughthadcometobestowChristianblessings.Butitwastoo
late.Thetemporaryrestorationofthekingwastoolate .TheCongo
FreeState'sgestureofassistancewastoolate .Deatharrivedaccording
toaschedule-andthatwasdeterminedbythewhites. In 1916,the
European-controlledKotaPe,thelasttoholdthefictitioustitleof
"King"todisguisewhiterule,passedfromthescene
;andthekingdom
ofKuba,havinglongsincedied,nowhaditsdeathcertifiedbythe
equallysmallstateofBelgiumthatnowruledaBlackAfricanregionten
timesitssize .
KubawastheAfricanexperienceinsomanyimportantrespectsthat
itwastakenasacase-studytypicalofthatexperience.Wehave
thereforeseenhowmanyofthemigrationsendedafterthepeoplehad
beenuprootedfromoneplaceafteranother.Thosewhowenttothe
farthestregionsfoundwhattheybelievedtobeaplaceofrefuge,and
begantobuildagainasaseparate,isolatedsociety,slowlydeveloping
newformsofspeechandvariationsfromtheoriginalculture .Others
foundrefugeinswamps,cavesandforestsordesertswherethenatural
environmentalonewasaneffectivebarriertoprogressandanunspoken
commandtoretrogresstobarbarism .Stillothers,suchastheBushoongs,
unitedwithothertribestoformanewnation .Outofthisnewnation
thereemergednotonlyanewpeoplecomposedofmanydiversegroups
butalsoanewlanguagesimilarymadeupofdifferentlanguagesand
dialects .
Itwasalsosignificantthatthenewstatewasformedunderthe
guidelinesofthetraditionalAfricanconstitution : Kingsweretobe
electedandthepowercenterwasintheCouncilofState.There
appearedtobeastudiedprogramofnation-buildingbyglorifyingthe
uniqueculturalofferingsofeachsocietyandmakingitscontributionsas
partofthewholenation'sheritage .
Significant,too,wasthefactthatreligion,likeotherbasicinstitutions,
wasessentiallythesameasitwasinthe"HeartlandoftheRace ."The
SkyGod-wasstilltheSunGod,andthesunwassimplytheobviousway
tosymbolizetherealityoftheOneGodconcept,theCreatorofthe
Universe.
242

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Theroleofgreatleadersasbenefactorsinhumanaffairswasrepeated
andmadeclearagaininthelifeandworkofShyaamtheGreatandin
thatofatleasttwoofhissuccessors .Shyaam'seconomicrevolutionthat
promotedremarkableprogressandprosperitymadehisnewtitleof
"LieutenantofGodonEarth"readilyacceptable ;forwerenotthose
leaderswholookedafterthewelfareofthepeopletheinstrumentsof
thedivinewill?Aswehaveseen,apoliticalphenomenondevelops
fromthiscircumstanceinwhichthepeople'sconfidenceintheleaderis
sogreatthathemaybeallowedtoexercisepowersunlimitedtofurther
advancethepublicwelfare .Itisthegenesisofabsolutism.Therefore,
thestudyofthisstatewasalsoastudyofhowanAfricandemocracy
evolvedintoanautocracywithoutanyexternalinfluencewhatsoever
.
Kubarevealedsomethingelse .Wealsosawthattherewasablack
imperialisminAfrica,allAfrican,andwithoutoutsideinfluence
.Indeed,
wesawthemicrocosmofalltheconquestsofBlacksbyBlacks,the
oppressionandenslavementofBlacksbyBlacks,allofwhichleftusthe
heritageofsuspicion,distrustandhatredthataccountsfor"tribalism,"
disunity,fearandunresttoday.
Inspiteofitall,theKubanstatewasrelativelysecureasablackpower
entityuntiltheyallowedthewhitestocomein
.Atthatpointthehistory
oftheBlacksinEgyptandeverywhereelsewasbeingrepeated,andin
exactlythesameway.TheBlacks-hadlearnednothingfromtheir
previousexperienceswithwhites
.TheBlackswerethereforedoomedto
repeatthesamebigmistakesoverandover,meanwhilelosingboth
theircivilizationandtheirfreedom
.Asthelastdaysofthekingdom
show,theseparatistchiefdomsstrugglingforpoweractuallysought
allianceswiththewhitestoovercomethisorthatblackfaction .Theydid
thisinEgyptandlost
;theretheycontinuedtoformallianceswiththe
whitesagainstBlacksevenafterblackrulehadbeenpushedsouthward
belowtheFirstCataract .Thewhiteswereonlytooanxioustoobligein
thushelpingtheBlackstospeeduptheworkinwhichtheywereso
busilyengaged: socialdisorganizationandtheinternecinestrifethatled
towhitecontroloftheirlives .OnemaywonderifKotaPe,thelastof
thefigurehead"Kings"underBelgiumrole,everreflectedonhowand
whytheBlackssooftensealtheirowndoom. .
CHAPTERX
WhiteDevils
fromtheWest
BEFORETHESIXTEENTHCENTURYMOSTAFRICANSONTHE
continenthadneverseenarealwhiteface
.Sinceinmanysocietiesall
devilsandotherevilspiritswerewhite,theritualtowardtheseoffwas
alwaysledbychantingdancerswhosefacesandbodieswerehideously
paintedwithwhitechalk .Thattherewereinfactwhitehumans-living
"whitedevils"-wasunbelievable(probablyfewreportsarebetter
knownthanthoseoffirstcontactwheretheboldestoftheunbelievers
wouldventuretorubtheskinofwhitestoseeifthe"paint"wouldcome
off) .
OverathousandyearshadpassedsinceAssyrians,Persians,Greeks,
Romans,ArabsandTurkshadtakenoverEgypt,andArabsnowalso
ruledtheEasternSudan
.Arab-Hebrewrulewassteadfastinisolated
Abyssinia,whiletheArabsalongtheEastCoast,operatingfromtheir
Zanzibarstronghold,hadnotthemselvesventuredfarintotheinterior
.
TheirAfro-Arabagentsgenerallyspearheadedslave-huntingopera-
tions .
GhanaandMalihaddisappeared,andnowSonghaywasmakingits
laststandagainstArab,Coloured,andBerberarmiesfromacrossthe
desert.Eventherewhereblackarmiesclashedwithinvadingwhite
armies,themassesneversawwhitepeople .Thisrefersnotonlytothe
countlessthousandswhofledupontheapproachofenemytroops,but
alsotothosewhoremainedscatteredoverthecountryintheirvillages
.
243
TheKingdomsofNDONGOand
MATAMBAinthe17thCentury
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PrincipalCities
*

CapitalCities
White Devils fromtheWest

245
Nowthingswerechangingrapidlyandthepeoplewerebecoming
sharplyawarethattheywerebeinghemmedinfromalldirections .To
beginwith,theArabswerespreadingoutandpenetratingformerly
forbiddenbordersofblackstates .Theycouldthereforeenterblack
territoryfromwhichWhiteswerebarred .TheseBlackArabs(many
wereunmixed)confusedAfricanleaderseverywhere,increasedthe
tensionsandtribalwarsamongthem,andhelpedmightilyindestroying
theindependenceofAfricanstates.Havingdiscussedthisinconnection
withthefalloftheMossiStatesandelsewhere,myreturntothesame
subjectagainistokeepafocusontherace'sself-imposedchainsaswell
asonthoseimposedbythewhites.AfurtherreasonisthatBlacks
themselvesdonotliketodiscusstheseinternalhandicapsatall,not
evenamongthemselves.Weprefertopretendthatcertainthingsdonot
exist .Thisfactinitselfisaweaknessthatstrengthensthewhitepower
positionovertheBlacks .
ThePortuguesewerethefirstwhiteEuropeanpeopletoarrivein
WestandCentralAfrica .TheywerenotlonginadoptingtheArab
strategyindividingtheBlacksagainstthemselves-astrategysince
adoptedbyallwhitepeople .
THEKONGO-ANGOLASTORY
ThePortuguesearrivedatthemouthofthegreatCongoriverinWest
Africain 1488. TheiraimwastomaketheirtinyEuropeanstateinto a
vastAfrican-Indianempire .Theyhadtwomenofvisiontoinspirethe
all-outeffortstorealizethedream: JoaoIandhisson,Henry.Africahad
beensecurefrominvasionsfromthisquarterbecausetheWestern
worldhadbelievedthattheearthwasflat .Nowthemythhadbeen
explodedwhenin 1434 GilEanesdaredtosailbeyondtheareawhere
theAtlanticOceanwassupposedtoendandshipsplungeintothevoid:
HesailedaroundCapeBojador .ThenceforththeBlacksofWestAfrica
hadtoconfrontthe"whitedevils"fromEuropeandtheAmericas .
ThePortuguese,asignorantoftheAfricanpeopleastheyhadbeen
abouttheshapeoftheearth,werenotpreparedtofindhighlyadvanced
statesthere .TheKingdomoftheKongowastheirfirstgreatsurprise,
becauseitspoliticalstructureandexpertlyorganizedadministrative
machineryequaledthatofPortugaloranyotherEuropeanstateknown
tothem.Thatsystemrequiresnodiscussionherebecauseitfollowed
246

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
thesameconstitutionalpatternasthatoftheotherAfricanstates
alreadydescribed.TheKongo'seconomicsystemofagricultureand
handicraftindustries,organizedintoguilds,wasthesame ;apprentice-
shiptrainingforallskilledoccupationswasthesame ;andthegeneral
patternofsocialorganizationwasalsothesameasotherAfrican
societies.
TheKongoKingdomwasprosperous,carryingonexternaltradeby
bothlandandriverswithstatesfarthernorth,eastandwest .Thestates
tothesouth,latertobecomeAngola,wereinanuneasycommotiondue
totheincreasingpresenceofforeignersonthecoast,onnearbyislands,
andnowsailinguptheriverstowardtheinterior .Migrationsfromthe
Angolastatesincreased,eventhoughthePortuguesewerethen
bypassingtheregioninfavorofthemorehighlyadvancedKingdomof
Kongo.Wasittheflightofsomanypotentialslavesfromthecoastal
areasthatcausedthePortuguesetomoveuptherivercloserto
populationcenters?Itwasmorelikelyastrategicmove .Byestablishinga
strongholdintheKongokingdomtheAngolaregionwouldthenbe
caughtbetweenPortuguesearmedforcesontheAngolannorthern
borderandthoseontheseacoastandoff-shoreislands.Inshort,Portugal
was asgettinginapositiontotakeoverthiswholeregionofblackstates .
ManyhistoriansandapologistsforPortugueseimperialisminAfrica
usetheKongokingdomastheclassicexampleofthePortuguesepolicy
ofracialequality.Fordidtheynotthemselvesdeclarethistobetheir
policy?AnddidnottheKingofPortugal himself addresstheKingof
Kongoas"brother?"WhathappenedwasthatthePortuguesecaptains
hadmet. Kongoleaders,notjusttheKing,whowereinfactnotonly
theirequal,butmensoanxioustoadvancetheirnationfurtherthat
theywerewillingforanythingnewandbetterthanthewhiteworldhad
tooffer.TheytooktheWesternersattheirword .Theyhadpaintedtheir
monarchasthegreatestkinginaworldthathadadvancedtoapinnacle
ofcivilizationundertheguidanceofauniversalreligionthatwas
headedbyaSupremePontiffwhowasappointedbytheSonofGod
himself.Moreover,thissameSuccessortotheFirstHeadoftheChurch,
theApostlePeter,wouldnotonlywelcometheKingofKongoandhis
peopleinthegreatChristianfold,butwouldsendmissionariesand
teacherstohelpmakehiskingdomthegreatestinAfrica .Portuguese
recordsindicatethatfarmorethanreligionandWesterneducationwas
offered-materialbenefits,suchasgreatwealthfromtrade,wereper-
suasive .
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

247
TheKingdomofKongo,therefore,isacase-studyoftheprocessesof
WesternizingtheveryfirstgroupofBlacksontheAfricancontinent
.'
This,however,wasonlyoneofthemeanstoamuchgreaterend .
NothingcouldhavebeenfartherfromPortugal'srealobjectivethan
bringingChristianityandahighercivilizationtoAfrica
."Christiancivili-
zation"servedasthecharmwordsinthewhiteman'smagicwiththe
incantationswhichhypnotizedbothhisvictimsandhimself
: They
believedtheywerebeingintroducedtoabetterlife,whilethelatter
convincedhimselfthateventheenslavedpeoplewerebetteroffunder
thewhitestandardforcivilization-besideswhichtherewasnoother
.
Hewas,therefore,servingGodhimselfinAfrica
;fordidnotthe
churchesthroughouttheWesternworldsoproclaim?Andwerenotthe
Christianmissionariesthemosteffectiveservantsofempire?
ThecourtatLisbonhadplannedwell
. .Forsuchamini-stateas
PortugalanambitionforanempirebiggerthanthecontinentofEurope,
andthendaringenoughtooperatetheplan-thismustcompeladegree
ofadmirationforthekindofCaucasiangeniusanduninhibitedaggres-
sivenessthatenabledverysmallgroupsofmentogoforthanddomi-
natealmostallthepeopleonthisplanet
.Portugal'spresenceinWest
andCentralAfricaaimedatnothinglessthanbuildinganempireacross
Africafromwesttoeast(fromtheAtlanticOceantotheIndianOcean)
avastswathacrossthecontinentthatwouldalsoservedirectlyasthe
imperialhighwayconnectionwiththeprojectedIndianempire
.The
African-IndianempirewasPortugal'sgranddesign
.TheKongointerlude
wasmerelyaneededstepping-stoneandbaseofoperations .
Buttheyweresmartenoughtorealizethatthefoundationforaper-
manentempireinthelandofanotherpeople,builtwiththeirown
sweatandblood,wouldbemoresuccessfulifthemindsofthepeople
couldbecapturedfirst
.Onedidnotgoinwithgunsblazing
.Onlyfools
didthis,exceptincaseswherethe"natives"weretoodamnsmartand
sawthrougheveryscheme,nomatterhowshiningtheCrossorhow
whitetheextendedhand
.Insuchcasesitwastheirownfault,yetfor
theirownsalvation,thatChristiancannonshadtoblastaway
.Firstof
all,however,thereallybigthingwastochangetheBlacksintothewhite
1
.TheancientEthiopianChurch(inMakuriaandAlwa)hadno
consciousWesternizationprogrambeyondthechangesinnames,and
these,likethoseofJews,wereBiblenames
.
248

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
man'simage-aprocess,previouslymentioned,whichcausedBlacksto
rejectandbecomeashamedofboththeircultureandthemselves,the
onlypeopleonearthtodoso.Thisiswhyitisimportanttohaveaclose-
qplookattheprocessofWesternizationintheKingdomofKongo
whereitbegan.
Themissionariesbegantheirworkonkingsandnotables .Therewas
nothingnewinthisapproach.Indeed,theKongoleseweresoanxious
fortheneweducationanditsvehicle,Christianity,thatthepriests
foundtheirtaskseasy.
Firstofall,tobecomeaChristianonehadtobebaptizedandgivena
"Christian"name .ChristiannameswereWesternnames,andtheyall
tooktheformusedintheconqueringcountry.ThefirstKongoleseKing
tobecomeaChristianwasNzingaKuwuin1492,takingthePortuguese
nameofJoaoI.HundredsofotherBlacksimmediatelyfollowedhis
example-princes,chiefs,ministersandsomeofthemasses.Themost
notableKongolesekingswhobecame"BlackPortuguese"wereAffonsos,
Alvares,DomPedros,Diogos,etc .OverbearingJesuitFatherswere
installedascouncilorstotheking,onefunctioningasaprimeminister .
Thismoveatoncedestroyedthetroublesometraditionalcouncilthat
controlledchiefsandkings-withsuchcouncilsnoEuropeanpower
couldoperate.Theageofabsolutismwiththeriseofthenation-statein
EuropewasdirectlyreflectedintheKongokingdom .WiththisPortu-
guesewedgebetweenthekingandthepeople,theKongorulersnow
foundthemselvesfreetomakeimportantdecisionswithoutreferenceto
blackcouncilors .'Theythereforetendedtobecomeabsolutemonarchs
insofarastheirownpeoplewereconcerned,butgenerallypuppetsin
thehandsofEuropeans.TheexceptionswereAffonsoIandDiogo1.
Theideaofdivinekingshipwaspromotedthroughtheanointmentand
crowningofkingsbyPortuguesebishops .Kingsnowruledas"sonsof
theChurch,"chosenbydivinedecreetoserveit .Thismeantservingthe
Portuguesebymeetingtheirdemands-alwaysmadeasfriendlysugges-
tionsfrombrotherswhowere"equalinChrist ."Eventhetraditional
2.SincetheKongoleserulersweremigrantsintotheterritoryand
extendedtheirkingdomoverindigenouspeople,theking'sappointment
ofkeyofficialswasoneofthesameroutestoautocracyIhavediscussed
inconnectionwiththeriseofnewAfricanstatesfollowingmigrations .
I
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

249
politicalsystemwasmadetoappearasaPortuguesecreation .Itwas
alreadyhighlyandefficientlyorganizedbeforeanyEuropeanscame -or-
ganizedwitheachvillageandtownunderachief(calledmani),each
districtunderamani,andeachofthesixmajorprovincesthatmadeup
thekingdomwasundertheadministrationofagovernor,alsobearing
thetitleofmani .Now,inadditiontothewidespreaduseofPortuguese
names,importantPortuguesetitlesappeared,suchasdukesandinfantes
(anewclassofprinces)hithertoneverusedinAfricabecausethe
Westernconceptionofroyaltywasabsent .Here,then,isanothercase
wherethe"externalinfluence"schoolcanhaveafieldday,since
nothingisbetterknown(andnowheredenied)thanthefactthatthe
AfricanswhoadoptedEuropeanorAsianinstitutions,suchasIslamand
Christianity,forexample,werenotonly"influenced"bythem,but
oftentransformedinto"BlackArabs,""BlackPortuguese,""BlackFrench-
men,""BlackEnglishmen"andsoon.
Infact,itwasthisverytransformingexternalinfluencethatplayeda
decisiveroleinfirstdestroyingthebestinAfricancivilizationwhileat
thesametimegivingworldwidepublicitytoallremainingelementsof
barbarismthatcouldbefound.Thenewmastersofthecontinentwere
inthepositionofall-powerandcould,therefore,maketheirviewpoints
theviewpointsoftheworld .ThesystemofreducingBlackstonon-
personswassothoroughgoingthatnotonlydidthevariouspeopleof
theworldregardthemassuch,but-tragedyoftragedies-theBlacks
themselvescametofeelinferiorandtohatethemselvesandalloftheir
kind.Magic?Here,indeed,amagicalthinghadhappenedsincethese
whiteswhocalledthemselvesPortuguesehadarrived .
Asthe15thcenturymovedontowardthe19th,theEuropeans
becamelessandless"whitedevils"andmoreandmorewhitemasters,
backedupbyawesomefirepower ."White"wasnolongerthefaceofevil
intheBlackworld.'Ithadchangedplaceswith"black ."Now"black"was
thebadgeofevil,allthatwasbad-evenbadluck .Tomakeawhite
manlookevilyouhadtodresshiminblack ;life'sfinaltragedy,death,
calledformourninginblack ;happyevents,suchasbaptismsand.
weddings,requiredthewearingofwhite.GodHimself,beingwhite,
hadcursedtheBlacksandmadethemthe"servantsofman"-man
beingwhiteman,forwasnothemadeinthe"imageofGod?"To
worshipGod,ineffect,wastoworshipthewhiteman .Avolumecould
bewrittenonthescoresoftheselittlepsychologicalgimmicksthatare
nowsodeeplyembeddedinculturalthoughtthattheyaretakenasa
III
250

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
simplematterofcourseandrequirenocomment
.Yettheyarethe
subtleweaponswhichhavebeenmoredevastatinginConqueringthe
Blacksandreducingthemtoaninferiorstatusthanarmedmight
.Cau-
casianvictory-wascompleteandseeminglypermanentwhentheBlacks
throughouttheworldjoinedthewhitesinglorifyingallthingswhiteand
condemningallthingsblack,oreventingedwithblack,includingthem-
selves
.Hereweareattheveryheartofthe"raceproblem,"thisself-
abnegation,self-effacement,thelossofself-identitybycuttingtheir
rootswiththepastandtherebylosingtheverylinkswiththeirhistory
fromwhichapeopledrawstrengthandinspirationtomoveforwardto
evenhighergroundand,infact,thereasonforbeing .
Inshort,intheincongruousattemptstoreplacehisownvalueswith
thoseofthewhiteman,theblackmanlosthisownpersonalityand,
therefore,hismanhood-almostabsolutely
.Nearlyfivehundredyears
havepassedsincethefirstEuropeanslandedonthecoastsofWest
AfricaandtheirphaseoftransformingBlacksfrommentohalf-men
began
.Yetevenwiththislongbackgroundtherearecountlessmillions
offrustratedBlacks,frustratedbytheperpetualannoyanceofthe
blurredvisionandtheblankwallastheystruggletoseelifethroughthe
blueeyesofCaucasians .
ThestatusofAfricanpeoplethroughouttheworldremainstoopre-
carioustodealwiththeirhistorybymerelychroniclingimportant
events.Thesituationdemandsthatgreatereffortsbemadetodetermine
themeaningofthoseevents,theireffectonthepeople,theoverall
changeinthedirectionofhistory,andwhatnewdirections -therace
musttake.ThemajorandimmediatePortugueseaiminAfricawasnot
theconquestofBlacks;rather,theirfirstaimwastodestroyArabpower
inAfricaandtheIslamiccontrolofjustaboutalloftheoverlandtrade
routestotheEast.ForthiscauseColumbushadsailed,andother
Europeannationstooktothehighseas.ThePortuguesesoughttouse
religionastheusualspearhead .ThatChristianstateswereinAfrica
fromtheearliesttimeshadnotbeencompletelyforgotten
.'Onethat
hadescapedMuslimdestructionwaslocatedinwhathadbeenasouth-
easternborderstateoftheancientEthiopianempire,identifiedbythe
3.TherewasnoreasonwhytheancientAfricanChurchshouldhave
been"forgotten"atall .TheVaticanrecordsandthoseatConstantinople
wereavailable .
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

251
Portugueseasakingdomruledbya"KingPresterJohn
."Theideawas
tounitetheChristianforcesofEuropewiththoseofAfricainanall-out
waragainsttheArabs .
ButwhatwasnotgenerallyknownwasthatthekingdomofAxum,
expandingtobecometheEmpireofAbyssinia,wasruledalternatively
byChristianArabsandColouredChristianHebrews .AllArabswere
notMuslims
;allHebrewswerenotJewsinreligion.Itappearsthat
AfricanHebrewandChristianArabcommunitieswereinSouthern
ArabiaandYemen,justacrossfromtheEastAfricancountrytheylater
conquered
.ThePortuguese,however,didnotreachtheAfricanChris-
tiankingdomatthetimetheysoughtitforthepromotionoftheircam-
paignagainstIslam
.Theyhadthereforebeguntheworkofcreatinga
BlackChristiankingdomintheirownimage .ThiswasKongo.By 1512
nooneneededtoguessorspeculateaboutthePortugueseplans
.Their
king,Manuel,madethemclearindocumentaryform: The Regimento.
Thisisoneoftheinterestingandsignificantdocumentsinthehistoryof
blackpeoplebecauseitwasthefirstdetailedblueprintfortheconquest
oftheblackman'smind(acculturationviaChristianity),hisbody
(slavery),andhiscountry
.Thishistoricdocument,however,wascouched
inalltheendearingwordsandphraseologyofequalityandbrotherly
love-fromwhichfacthistorianshavedeclaredthePortugueseAfrican
policytobeoneofequalityrepletewithhumanitarianism
.ButtheKon-
goleseKing,Affonso(hisPortuguesenamenotwithstanding),saw
throughtheelaborateplantoreorganizehiscountryandbegantothrow
uproadblocks,albeittoolate
.ManuelleviedontheKingaheavy
tributeinslaves,ivoryandcoppertopaythecostofhisChristiancivili-
zationprograminthecountry,hisvariousexpeditionsthere,andforthe
"hugeexpenses"inconnectionwiththeeducationofafewKongolese
childreninPortugal,includingtheKing'sson
.Manuel'snextmost
importantmovewastomakecertainthathis
CodedeKongo was
carriedout
.He,therefore,sentSimaodeSilvabothashisambassador,
and,ineffect,governor-generalorviceroyofKongo .
WhileSimaodeSilva'srealfunctionswereclearlyoutlined,these
werecoveredbytheusualtitleofcourtesy: AdvisortotheKingorthe
King'sCounselor
.Inthiscapacityhewasthecoadministratorofthe
nation,asupremejudge,andhadcontroloverarmyandfinance
.He
wastohaveacomprehensivegeographicalsurveyofthecountryto
determinetheextentofitsnaturalwealthfordirectexploitation
.Things
quicklygotoutofhand
.ThePortuguesesettlerpopulation,based
252
heDestructionofBlackCivilization
mainlyonthecoastandoff-shoreiands,desiredthequickerrichesthat
wouldflowfromtheincreasingdlandforblackslaves
.Thesettlers,
therefore,pursuedamoreaggreivecourseofaction,ignoringthe
Lisboncourt'sattempttocoverupherealoperationswiththefriendly
languageofdiplomacy.
Uptothesixteenthcenturytheoplewearecallingslaveswerenot
slavesinthemodernsense,butlabrerseithercapturedasprisonersof
warorpersonsimprisonedforvariasoffenses
.Duringthefirststagesof
theslavetrademanyAfricanthisandkingsactuallythoughtthey
weresupplyingworkersneededaload,andatagreatprofittothem-
selves
.Theyhadnothadexperiemwiththewhiteman'sslavesystem
oritsequationwith"race
."Notatfst,wehavesaid .Butasthedecades
passed,andtheKongostateisagodexample,manyAfricansbecame
enmeshedinthehorrorsofthetrae,knewwhattheyweredoingand,
inthepursuitofgunsandriches,Decameasbrutalasthewhitesin
dealingwiththeirownkind.
Guns.
Blackleaderssawthesenorweaponsofdeathasthesourceof
thewhiteman'spowerandtheimrzdiatethreattotheirownexistence
;
theearth-shakingcannonsthatwe
: beingbroughtintoAfricaseemed
toheraldthedeathofawholeiceoritstotalenslavement
.The
Africansbecameinsistentintheircmandsforgunsasarticlesoftrade
.
Therewasthen,asnow,asilentemargoonarmstoBlackAfrica,asort
ofwhite"Gentlemen'sAgreement
.Thedemandforgunsbythechiefs
waspittedagainstthedemandforlavesbytheEuropeansandArabs
(theArabslavershadnotrouble
: curingfirearms) .Thechiefscould
seriouslyhamperthetradeiftheidemandsforgunswerenotmet
.
Besides,manyslavetraderswerenicktoseethatthesupplyofslaves
woulddoubleandtripleiffirearrrweregiventocertainstrategically
locatedkingdomsandchiefdoms
;frthesewouldthenseektobecome
big,wealthypowers,expandingieirterritoriesoverweakerblack
states,andcapturingmillionsofprbnerstobeenslavedintheprocess
.
ThemoreaggressivetraderswereillingtoarmsuchAfricanstatesas
oneoftheriskscapitalistsmusttakinthepursuitofwealth
.Themore
imperialist-mindedsawanoutcorrevenmoreimportant
: Thatthis
wouldbeabuilt-inmotivationforerpetualwarfareamongtheBlacks
themselves,creatinganeverlastingiatredbetweengroups,destroying
everybasisforunityand,aboveall,irearmswouldkeepthemsobusily
hatitigandfightingeachotherthatieywouldforgettheirrealenemies,
the"whitedevils"fromthesea .
WhiteDevifromtheWest
253
ThePor
.igueseChristianizationoftheKongocreatedsomething
morethanhaos
.Itwasarevoltingmess,nomatterfromwhatangleitis
viewed
.Tcbeginwith,priestswerenotonlyamongtheleadingslave
traders,butheyalsoownedslaveshipstocarrythe"blackcargoes"to
distantlams
.Priestsalsohadtheirharemsofblackgirls,somehavingas
manyastwntyeach
.Theywerecalled"houseservants"bythese"holy
fathers
."'hegreatmajorityofthewhiteswerethescumoftheland
fromwhit]theycame
.Eventhehalf-educatedpriestsweregenerallyof
theveryinvestcharacter,morallyandotherwise
.Theslavesituation
becamemreandmoredesperateandoutofhandaseverywhiteman
downtotolowlyworkerbecameatrader
.Thebuilderssentoverto
erectfortitationsandotherpermanentinstallationsforthePortuguese
(stonean,brickmasons,carpenters,engineers,painters,metaland
othercraf;men)wereallslavetraders
.SailorsandunskilledPortuguese
laborershdtheirownquotasofslaves,especiallyslavegirls
.Forletthis
truthemegefromthemanyfactswhichareburied,andletitstandout
clearly
: O,eofthemainattractionsthatdrewthousandsofwhitemen
wastheirinlimitedsexualfreedomwithalltheblackgirlsandwomen
whowereenslavedandhelplessinthepoweroftheirmasters
.These
"wholesalraids"onblackwomanhoodcontinuedtoswellthemulatto
populaticr,themajorityofwhich,asinthecaseofEgyptandthe
Sudan,bcamethefaithfulservantsandloyalrepresentativesof-the
conquerigracestowhichtheirfathersbelonged .
TheKngoleseking,Affonso,foundhimselfinthemiddleoffires
fromsevcaldirections,andhamstrungbythePortugueseadvisorwho
hadacquedvetopowerevenovertheKing'sactions
.YetAffonsowas
farfrom~eingaweakling
.Hetried,toolate,togaincontroloftheslave
trade,aontrolnowmosturgentbecauseeveryBlackthatcompeting
raidersculdgettheirhandsonwasenslaved,includingsomemembers
ofthepyalhouseholdandnumeroustitleholdersthroughoutthe
country
.Ontheotherhand,thekingofPortugaldeclaredaroyal
monopwoverthetrade
.ThisnotonlyfrustratedAffonso'sefforts,but
clashedLead-onwiththeinterestsofthepowerfulandindependent
slavemrchants,therealcontrollingsettlersontheseacoastsand
islands
.'heseweretherepresentativesofthegreatcharteredcompanies
thatconrolledthecommerceoftheworld
.Sincetheyoperatedunder
royalchrtersandtheCourtwasaprincipalshareholderinallsuch
enterpries,theycouldnotopenlydefytheking
;butthedistancefrom
LisbonciabledthemtobypassdeSilvaandanyotherrepresentativeof
thekin~andcarryonastheywished
.Themissionfathers,the"War
254
TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization
DogsoftheLord"(Jesuits),woremosthelpfulasspearheadsintothe
interiorchiefdomstoformslivehuntingalliancesinexchangefor
discardedguns.
Forthosewhorequirethespecificdetailsandexamplesofjusthow
advancingblackstatesweredstroyedthroughouttheAfricanconti-
nentandwantthefactsrepeatedoverandoveragain,herethenisstill
anotherexampleinbothAngolaandtheKingdomofKongo
.The
strategyfordestructionseldonvaried,givingaddedweighttomy
conceptofa Grand
CaucasianConsensusonmattersconcerningnon-
whitepeoples
.Theaspectnovunderdiscussionwasthepracticeof
havingwhitegroupsspreadoutoverthecountryintothevarious
provinces,heavilyladenedwihgiftsofgoodwill,andgettingthem-
selvesattachedtothecourtsofbcalchiefsasfriendlyadvisorswhowere
goingtoguaranteethesecurity)fthechiefsandtheirpeople,andeven
extendtheirpoweroverotheroeoples,allofwhichwouldmeadgreat
richesforthechiefs.AfewoldJunsreplacingspearsseemedtobesuffi-
cientevidencethatthesewhite
;wereindeedsavioursaswellasfriends.
(TheFrenchnameforthemvas
agentsprovocateurs . TheAmerican
namewouldhavebeenC.I.Aor A.I.D.) Nomatterhowstrongand
effectivetheadministrativemachineryofthecentralgovernmentatSan
Salvadorhadbeen,itwasbeingunderminedanddestroyedbythewell-
plannedEuropeanactivitiesittheprovinces-theidenticalactivities
thathadbeencarriedonintleEgyptianprovincesthreethousands
before,inKuba,andwouldbe'epeatedalloverAfrica
.Theaimwasto
provokewarbetweentheBlack,pittingthegun-armedgroupsagainst
thosewhoonlyhadshieldsaidspears,andthusskyrocketingthe
numberofcaptivesforslaveryromafewthousandsintomillions .Not
onlywerewholevillagesdestroyed,butentireprovincesweredepopu-
latedandtheirformerlyproudandfreecitizensweremarchedoffin
chains,collaredandjoinedtogetherbyheavypoles-asthoughthe
chainsthatbruisedandbounchandsandankleswerenotenough .
Manyroyallineageswereamon
;thecaptives,includingchiefs,whichis
exactlyhowitshouldhavebenifanyofthepeopleweretobe
enslaved
.AccordingtoAfricantraditionleaderandpeoplewereone
andthesame,sharingacommonlot
.Thissenseofoneness,however,
appliedonlytothemembersofone'stribe,andnottoAfricansoutside
ofit,anothertragicfactofblackiistory
.Thisiswhythechiefsandkings
wouldsecureprisonersofwarlyattackingotherstates
.Onlyasavage
chieftainwouldsellhisownpeopleintoslavery
.TheEuropeanslearned
255
thisvery,uicklyandfoundthatitfittedinwellwiththegeneralplanto
keepthe3lacksdivided,foreversuspiciousofeachother,andtohave
thesemLualhatredsandsuspicionshistoricallyderivednotfromany-
thingtheEuropeanshaddonebutfromtheBlacks'ownrecordof
tribal"carfare .
AstheslaveraidsspreadthroughoutAngolaandKongo,theBlacks
continuetofleeoverlandanduptheriverstowardthecentraland
southerrareasofthegreatsavannaregionsandthelakes
.Some,aswe
haveseeinthecaseofKuba,foundsecuritylong
.enoughtorebuild
remarkalestatesagain,othersfoundsecurityonlyinthehidden
recessesfdecayanddecline
.Meanwhile,thefierceJagawarriorswere
stillonrampage,fightingwithoragainstanygroup,includingthe
whitesluetraders
.ButsincetheJagagenerallywagedwaronlyagainst
theirowkind,Africans,thePortuguesewerelesshesitantin
.supplying
themwhguns
.Thewarstocaptureslaveshadbecomesowidespread
amongadwithinthevariousstates,andtheslavetrailstothecoasts
weresoieavywithbarefootedtrafficthatitisdifficulttoseewhyany
alliancewiththeJagawereneeded,unlessitwasthoughttobeneces-
sarytolakeupfortheunbelievabledeathtollamongthecaptives
.
ForerytwomillionBlacksenslavedoveramilliondied
.Therecord
indicateratherclearlythatmanymillionspreferreddeathtoslaveryI
justsaic"therecordindicates,"butyouwillneverfindasinglePortu-
guese,lutch,Spanish,EnglishorAmericandocumentthatexplicitly
saysarsuchthings
.ThearchivesinLisbonarerichtooverflowingwith
Africardocumentsgoingback500years
.Bywadingthroughagreat
massouchwrittenrecordsthehistorianoftengetsapicturethatwas
notintndedforpaintingandmessagesfromthesamedocuments
which'erenotsent-whichismerelyanotherwayofsayingagainthat
writterdocumentsoftenrevealfarmorethantheirauthorsintended
.
You
withereforesearchinvainforanaccountwrittenasthefollowing
:
" . . .It
nottruethatallwomen,andevenchildren,werelikewise
marchdinchains
;thiswouldhavebeenunnecessaryanywaybecause
wehadearnedthattheseblackwomenaresoloyaltotheirmenthat
theywuldfollowthemevenintohell
.Capturetheirmenandyoudid
nothaetocapturethem
.Yetmanyofthesesamewomenwouldseep
deathirectlybyattackingusandourarmedguards
.These,ofcourse
werebatenandchainedthesameasmaleslaves
. . .
Anotherproblen
wasthlargenumberofsuicidesduringthetwo-hundredmiletrektc
256

TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


theslavepensonthecoast .Thegreatestnumberdiedfrompoison
whichhundredsofwomenwouldconcealontheirbodiesforthe
purpose,passingittofriendsandkinsmeninthedarknessofnight
beforegivingittotheirchildrenandfinallytakingitthemselves
.Allthis
slowedusdownduringthenightwhenweshouldhavemovedfaster
becauseitwascooler .Yetthedeadandthedyinghadtohavetheir
chainschoppedofffromtheliving
.Manybabiesweredeliberately
smotheredtodeathbytheirdyingmothers . . . Wedonotbelievethat
theotherdeathswerecausedbythelongmarchassomeallege .For
whileitistruethatweourselvesarecarriedinhammocks,thebearers
changedeverytenorfifteenmiles .Thebiggestandstrongestboysare
selectedtocarryus
.Theyareusuallybetweentwentyandthirtyyears
old.Theyalsocollapsesometimes,butonlyfivehavediedduringthis
year
.ItmustberememberedthattheseBlacksarequiteusedtowalking
verylongdistanceswithheavyburdens . . . Therearemanyproblemsin
thisbusiness.Thecaptains,takingiteasyonthecoast,arealwayscom-
plainingaboutourslowmovementandthemanyweeksittakesonthe
march.Theynevertakeintoaccounthowmuchwearesloweddownby
trampingandstumblingovertheskeletonsandrotteningdeadbodies
ofslavesthatwentalongthesetrailsbeforeus,sometimesyearsbefore
us
.Thestenchofthosewhodiedrecentlyisunbearable,yetwebearit .
Wealsolosemuchtimetryingtofindroutesfreeofthedeadanddying
.
ThentherearescoresandscoresofperfectlyhealthyBlackswhodrop
deadwithoutanyapparentcause .Somesaytheydieoutofsheer
spite-anotherwayofdefeatingus . . . Weworkinfear,forourgunsare
oftenuselessintheincreasingnumberofambushattacksalongthese
death-riddentrails .AndwhiletheKongolesekingsnowharassusin
theirattemptstocheckthespreadofthetrade,therealdangerisinthe
Angolaregion,theregionoftheBlackTerrorintheformofadeath-
defyingblackqueen,AnnNzinga
.Whoeverheardofawomangeneral,
leadingherarmiesinperson?Thetruthisthatsheisthegreatest
militarystrategistthateverconfrontedthearmedforcesofPortugal
.Her
tacticskeepourcommanderssweatinginconfusionanddismay
.Her
aimisnothinglessthanthetotaldestructionoftheslavetrade
.Tothis
end,andwhatalarmsusmost,shehasdevelopedasystemofinfiltrating
ourblacktroopswithherownmen,causingwholecompaniestorebel,
desert,andjoinherarmiesinwhatshecallsa'WarofLiberation
.'Portu-
guese,casualtiesarealwaysheavierthanreported,forshestagessurprise
attackswithlightningspeed,alwaysaimingfirsttocapturegunsand
hireDevilsfromtheWest

257
cannons
.Andwhile
wenowsurroundourselveswitharmedguardson
theselongmarches,weneverknowhowmanyofourblacksoldiersare
theQueen'sownmen! . . ."
Thiswouldhavebeenatrueaccountupto
1663whenthefortyyears
ofunremittingwarfarethatQueenNzingawagedagainstthePortuguese
tofreeAngolaendedwithherpassing
.Africahadlosthergreatest
daughter,theslavestheirgreatestemancipator
.Whereisthisexplicitly
written?Nowhere .
IthasbeenpointedoutthatAffonsowashimselfastatesman,andfar
frombeingamerepuppetinthehandsofthePortuguese
.Eventhough
theprocessgotunderwaywithhisconversiontoChristianityandthe
replacementofhisownAfricannamewithaPortugueseone,hewas
awakenedbythe Code,
andbegantoresistandrejectthoseprovisions
whichweredesignedtomakeAfricansBlackPortugueseinthenameof
Christ,whiledestroyingtheirsovereigntyatthesametime
.Thefactthat
theenemyprevailedintheenddoesnotdetractfromhisstatureasa
greatAfrican
.ThepressureshadincreasedasPortugueserichesfrom
theslavetrade,farfromsatisfyingtheirgreed,ledthemintoexcited
searchesforgold,silver,copperandleadtheybelievedtobeinabun-
danceintheregion,butconcealedbytheBlacks.
PressuresfromtheAfricanpopulationincreasedwiththewidespread
slavehuntsandraids
.HistorianshavehighlightedtheroleofAfrican
chiefsandkingsintheslavetrade
;littleissaidaboutthegeneralAfrican
oppositiontothetradeoraboutthekingsandchiefswholedthefight
against'it .Yet,bytheverynatureofthesituation,thesehadtobe
.as
wellknownastheBlackswhoenrichedthemselvesfromthetraffic
.
QueenNzingawasnottheonlyAfricanabolitionist
.Itjusthappened
thatinhercaseshewasnotonlyinvolvedintreatynegotiationsof
record,butoperatedoversomanyAngolanareasthatshecouldnot
easilybeexcludedfromhistory
.TheKongoleseopposingtheirkings
werefightingbothslaveryandtheChristianChurchthatpromotedit
.
Eventhebroadereducationtheyallsopassionatelydesiredturnedout
tobeafarce,anotherWesternbait
.The"schools,"rigidlyrestrictedin
numberandattendance,werelittlemorethanCatholiccatechistic
classes,undersemi-literatepriestswhowerethemselvesnotonlyslave
258

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
dealers,butthepersonificationofallthatismeantbycorruptionand
immorality.AllofAffonso'seffortstogetatleastonegoodschoolestab-
lishedinKongowereblocked.Foronething,widespreadeducationof
theBlackswasnotreallyintended ;thatwouldhavemeantsendingwell-
trainedteachersinsteadoftheunwanteddregsofPortuguesesociety.
ButevenifPortugalhadhadthebestintentions,sheherselfdidnot
havemanyeducatedmeninthesixteenthcenturyandherownilliterate
masseswerejustasignorantasthoseintherestofEurope.
ThesituationhadbecomeworseonallfrontswhenDiogobecame
kingofKongoin 1545,supportedbytheLisboncourtfactionsthat
couldstillmakeorbreakkingsandinfluencetheirpolicies .Ontheother
hand,thepowerfultraderpopulationhadtheirprincipalstrongholdsat
strategicLuandaandSaoThome,fromwhichpointstheycontinuedto
expandslaveoperationsin,below,aroundandbeyondKongo,allin
defianceofKongolesekingsandthekingofPortugalhimself.Theywere
greatlyaidedbytheking(ngola)ofNdongo,thestrongeststateinthe
Angolaregion. 4 ButNdongowasnominallyundertheKongoasa
tributarystate .In 1556 warbetweenthemajorconflictinggroups,
hithertoundercovered,brokeout,openandfullscale : RoyalPortuguese
forcesalliedwiththoseofKongoagainstPortuguesetraderforceallied
withNdongo-PortugueseagainstPortugueseandAfricansagainst
Africans.
Soitappearsonpaperintherecords .Thesimpletruthisthatitwasa
warofAfricansagainstAfricans,withthePortugueseforcessafelyinthe
rear.Thatblacktroopsweretobeusedinalldangeroussituationsand
whitelivessafeguardedwhereverpossiblewasnosilent"Gentleman's
Agreement"oranaspectoftheGrandCaucasianConsensus;itwas,
rather,anexplicitroyaldecreefromLisbon .Butitwassoveryunneces- .
sary,thisroyalordertoputBlacksinthefrontlinesofbattle .Thiswould
havebeendoneanywayasamatterofcourse .TheKongolesewere
defeatedandNdongoandtheslavetradersnowcontrolledthewhole
trade.Andalthoughthewarwagedagainstthemwasinstigatedby
LisbonanddirectedbyManuel'sownrepresentativesinKongo,the
victorioustradersusedNdongofornegotiationsleadingtoanew
alliancewithLisbonandthefoundationfortakingoverallofAngolaas
4.Thename"Angola,"latertakenfromthetitlefortheking,wasnot
yetappliedtotheregionthatisnowthePortuguesecolonyofAngola .
ED r~

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260

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
acolonyofPortugal .EventhePortuguesecounselorstoDiogocould
nowdenyanyresponsibilityforthedisasterwithastraightface .Yet
whenDiogodiedfiveyearslater(1561),theywerestillactivelyonthe
jobtochoosehissuccessor,thuspromotingfurtherturmoilinanalready
disintegratingnation.Themurderofonekingafteranotherbecame
almostroutine.Attacksfromenemyneighbors,quicktotakeadvantage
oftheroyalweaklingsandinternalchaos,markedthedecliningyearsof
Kongoasagreatpower .Jagawarriorsalmostgaveitadeathblowin
1568,butnotquite .
Thingsmovedrapidly.In1575,AngolabecameacolonyofPortugal
byaroyaldecreeonly,andMotherKongo,fightingforherownlife,
couldonlyweepatthepermanentlossofhergreatestoffspring .But
doesnottheverymentionof1575astheyearAngolabecamea
Portuguesepossession-doesthisnotseemtobesortofclosingthebook
onthemostimportanteventspriortoandafter1575,makingitappear
thattheKongo'snear-collapseledtoanalmostimmediateandeasy
takeoverofAngolaasacolony?Thisisthewayhistoriansgenerally
read.Well,itwasnotthatwayatall.ThedisintegrationoftheKongolese
stateseemedtobecomplete,butitwasnot.Therewasstillanother
revivalunderanotherlineofgreatkings .Andalthoughtheconquestof
AngolawasorderedbyLisbonin1571andbeganin1575,the
Portuguese,totheirgreatsurprise,hadtofighttheirlongestandblood-
iestwar,almostfootbyfoot,beforeAngolawasfinallytakennearlya
halfcenturylater .Theyhadnotcountedonbeingconfrontedwitha
blackqueenwhowouldturnouttobeoneofthebravestgeneralsthat
evercommandedanarmy.TheyhadnotcountedonthenewQueenof
Ndongo,AnnNzinga.
QUEENNZINGA:
THEUNCONQUERABLE
GreatnesswasbornoutofthesavageoppressionoftheAfricansand
outofthatoppressionitgrewlikeagiant .JustwhythePortuguesedrew
somuchbloodwiththelashfromalreadychainedandhelplessslavesis
beyondallhumanunderstandingsince,iffornootherreason,the
victimswere"articlesofcommerce"andthesourceoftheveryriches
slaverssought.Besides,overhalfofthecapturedBlacksdiedbefore
reachingtheirdestination .Self-interest,then,shouldhavestayedthe
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

261
murderoushandsoftheslavers .Nothingdid,andthatfactwasoneof
thereasonsthatQueenNzingasaidthattherealsavagesinAfricawere
thewhites.Theycreatedtheconditionsthatbroughthertothefore .'
ThePortugueseweresoaggressiveintheirprogramofdividingthe
Blacksandkeepingthemfightingamongthemselvesthattheyovershot
themark,simplywenttoofar
.Thesystemofspreadingoutoverthe
countryintotheprovincesandallyingthemselveswiththevarious
chiefshasbeenmentionedmorethanonce
.Butafter1608thecom-
mander-in-chiefofthePortuguesearmytightenedthenoose .Thiswas
BentoCardoso.UnderhisplanAngolawastobefurtherdepopulated
byamassiveonslaughtforslavesthroughacloselycoordinatedsystem
inwhicheverychiefinthelandwouldbe"owned"byaPortugueseand
directlyresponsibletohimforastatedquotaofslaves .Thiswould
bypasstheAngolanking(ofNdongo)towhomtheprovincialchiefs
paidtheirtaxesinslaves.Thiswouldalsomeanincreasedwarfare
betweenthechiefdomsinordertomeettheincreasedquotasdemanded
byraidingintoeachother'sterritories .Chiefsfailingtosecurethe
requirednumberofslaveswerethemselvesenslaved
.Overahundred
chiefsandothernotablesweresoldintoslaveryinasingleyearand
anotherhundredmurderedbythePortuguese . 6 Wemaysafelyassume
thattheactualnumberofchiefsenslavedormurderedwasgreaterthan
thatstateabove,sincethePortuguese,likeothernations,generallycut
casualtyfiguresfortherecord
.Thesituationtobeconsideredhere
however,isthewidespreadconfusionandterroramongahuntedand
leaderlesspeople .Tomakemattersevenworse,ifthatwaspossible,the
half-savageJaga,whowouldjoinanybodyfortheirfavoritegameof
lootingandraping,becamealliesofCardoso
.TheAngolanking,who
hadbeencooperatingwiththeslavetraders,nowsawhimselfbeing
ruinedonallfronts,losinghispeopleand his profits .Hetherefore
begantoresistthePortuguese .Thepeople,eventhoughtheyknewthat
theirkinghimselfwasaslaver,insheerdesperationflockedtosupport
5.ForquiteadifferentversionseePortuguesesources,suchasthe
worksoftheCapauchinmonk,JoaoAntoniaCavazzi,
Descricaoe
HistoriadostresReinos,doCongo,MatambaeAngola
; andthesoldier,
AntoniadeOliveraCadornega,HistoriaGeraldosGuerrasAngolamos .
Reprinted1965and1942respectively,Lisbon .
6.Someaccountsgive80asthenumbermassacred.
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WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

263
thewarofresistance .'Itpaidoff.BoththePortugueseandtheirJaga
allieswerechecked,andthewardraggedonyearafteryear .After
Kabasa,thecapitalcity,felltothePortuguese,theirlosseshadbecome
soheavythatthenewgovernorwhohadbeensentfromLisbonwith
firmorderstocompletetheconquestofAngola"onceandforall,"
neverthelesswasforcedtosueforpeacewithoutvictory .ThePortuguese
hadsufferedadisastrousdefeatbytheBlacks,buttheofficialversion,
andexcuse,wasthattherewas"generalillness"intheirranks .Yetthe
PortugueseinsistedonholdingKabasa .TheAfricansthereforerejected
peaceproposalsasatrickandthewarwasresumedinalandoffamine
wherefoodcropsandtheslavetradeitselfhadcometoastandstill.In
thisdesperatestateofaffairs,thefightingsomehowcontinued,with
bothsidesobviouslyweakenedandindisarray.Itwasduringthis
period,in 1619,thatanewPortuguesecommandermanagedtomurder
overahundredchiefs .AtthispointthePopeintervened,insistingthat
thewholesaleslaughterbeendedandpeacebepursued .In 1622,anew
governorwassentfromLisbontomakepeace .Portugalhadbeen
appointing"governorsofAngola"foroverfortyyearswithouthaving
controloverit.
ThepeaceconferencewasheldatLuanda.Theblackdelegationwas
headedbythecountry'sablestandmostuncompromisingdiplomat,
AnnNzinga,notyetqueen,butsisteroftheking-thewomanpower
behindaweakking,andtheoneresponsibleforinspiringthepeopleto
continuethewarofresistancewheneveryhopewasgone,unlessshe
herselfhadbecometheirlasthope .Butevenbeforethepeaceconference
began,andattheriskofwreckingit,thegovernor'sCaucasianarrogance
couldnotberestrained.Hehaddecidedonastudiedinsultattheoutset
byprovidingchairsintheconferenceroomonlyforhimselfandhis
councilors,withtheideaofforcingtheblackprincesstostandhumbly
beforehisnoblepresence .Heremainedseated,ofcourse,staring
haughtilyassheenteredtheroom .Shetookinthesituationataglance
withacontemptuoussmile,whileherattendantsmovedwithaswiftness
thatseemedtosuggestthattheyhadanticipatedthisstupidbehaviorby
thePortuguese .Theyquicklyrolledoutthebeautifullydesignedroyal
carpettheyhadbroughtbeforeNzinga,afterwhichoneofthemwent
7.ThePeoplewereactuallyrallyingbehindtheKing'ssisterNzinga,
whohadopposedhimforengagingintheslavetrade .
264
TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
downonallfoursandexpertlyformedhimselfintoa"royalthrone"
uponwhichtheprincesssateasilywithoutbeingastrainonherdevoted
follower.Yetsheroseatregularintervals,knowingthatotherattendants
werevyingforthehonorofthusgivingtothesewhitesstillanother
defeat.Igatherfromthedifferentwaysthisincidentisreportedthatthe
Westernmindisunabletograspitsrealmeaning .Somehistorianssawit
asacruelandinhumanuseofslaves,ignoringthefactthatNzinga's
chiefclaimtofamewasthatshewasthegreatestabolitionistofslavery,
thatsheherselfhadnoslavesand,indeed,hadnottheslightestneedfor
any.Onereasonmightbethatshewassomuchlovedandevenblindly
followedbyherpeoplethatitwasbelievedthatallwoulddie,tothelast
manandwoman,followingherleadership.Suchwerethemen,not
slaves,whogladlyformedahumancouchbeforetheastonishedPortu-
guesefortheirleader.
ShefacedthePortuguesegovernorandspokeasaruleroftheland,
andnotasasubjectofthekingofPortugal .Shedidnotrecognizethe
maninthebigchairasgovernorbecauseshedidnotrecognizethe
existenceofaPortuguese"colonyofAngola ."Sheonlysawbeforeher
whatherpeoplehadseenapproachingtheirshoresoverahundred
yearsbefore-pompouswhitedevilsbentonthedestructionofthenon-
whiteworld.TheNdongotermsforpeacewerepresentedasuncompro-
misingdemands,anditwasclearfromthebeginningthatthePortuguese
wouldhavefaredbetterwithaman.Forbeforeanykindoftreatywas
signedPortugalhadtoagree(1)toevacuateKabasaandallnearby
fortifications ; (2) thePortugueseweretowagewaragainsttheJaga(a
harshprovisionsincetheJagahadbeenPortugal'salliesintryingto
crushNdongo) ; (3) allchiefswhohadbecomevassalsofthePortuguese
kingweretobefreedandenabledtoreturntoformertributarystatusat
homeand,finally,theimportantconcessionNzingamadewastoreturn
thePortugueseprisoners-of-warsheheld.Thetreatyof 1622 was
supposedtoendallfightinginthewholeWest-Centralregion .Butthe
governor,asthoughtomakeupforhisdefeatinthepeacenegotiations
withNzinga,marchedoff,almostimmediately,toinvadeKongoagain.
Thetreatythenbecamedeadinsofarasitsexecutionwasconcerned.
ButNzinga'sbrotherdiedthenextyearandshebecameQueenof
Ndongo.ThedistressedPortuguese,inordertodiscredither,putout
thestorythatshehadpoisonedhim.Andwhiletherewasnotascintilla
ofevidenceoranybasisatallfortheconcoction,historianshaveshown
their unbiasedobjectivity byfaithfullycarryingonthechargeforover
White Devils fromthe West

265
threehundredyears .Yet,iflyingisalegitimateaspectofwarfare,the
Portuguesemayhavefeltjustifiedintryingtodestroysuchanimplacable
foeinanywaytheycould . 8 Theirgreatesttroublewasyettocome .
Nzingabecamequeenin 1623,andwentintoactionatonce.Herfirst
majormovewastosendanultimatumtothePortugueseauthorities
demandingtheimmediateexecutionofthetermsofthetreaty,otherwise
warwouldbedeclared.WhilethePortuguesewerepreparingtomeet
theQueen'sarmies,theDutchfleetappearedasanewthreat
.The
Dutch,themselvesgreatslavers,certainlydidnotcomeasliberatorsof
thehardpressedBlacks.TheiraimwastobreakthePortuguese
monopolyandsecuretheirshareoftheslavetradeandthemineral
wealthofWestandCentralAfrica
.Tofurthertheseends,theyusedthe
Blacksasotherwhitepeoplesdidandstilldo .Notimewaslostin
forminganalliancewithPedro11,KingofKongo,inhiswarwiththe
Portuguese.TheDutchhadalreadycapturedsevenPortugueseslave
shipsatsea,sunkothervesselsintheharborsatLuandaandMpinda,
andgenerallyraisinghell.AllthisgaveQueen.Nzingamoretimeto
preparefortheinevitable .Sheevenreversedherdemandsfora
PortuguesewaragainsttheJagaandformedamilitaryalliancewith
themherself.KnowinghowveryunreliabletheJagawere,shesoughtto
makethealliancebindingbypromisingtomarrytheJagachief,Kasanji,
andadoptingcertaindesirableJagacustoms .
Nzinga'sgreatestact,however,probablytheonethatmakesherone
ofthegreatestwomeninhistory,wasin 1624 whenshedeclaredall
territoryinAngolaoverwhichshehadcontrolas free country,allslaves
reachingitfromwhateverquarterwereforeverfree
.Shewentfurther .
Sinceitwascleartoherthat white power inAfricarestedsquarelyon
theuseofblacktroopsagainstblackpeople,sheundertoodthefirstand
onlycarefullyorganizedefforttoundermineanddestroytheeffective
.
employmentanduseofblacksoldiersbyWhites-thefirstandonly
Blackleaderinhistorywhowaseverknowntoundertakesuchatask .
Shehadcarefullyselectedgroupsofherownsoldierstoinfiltratethe
Portugueseblackarmies,firstseparatingandspreadingoutindividually
intoPortugueseheldterritoryandallowingthemselvestobe"induced"
8. .IamnotunawarethatNzingahatedherbrothernotonlybecause
hewasaslavetrader,butalsobecausehehadmurderedheryoungson,
beingtheking'snephew,washeirtothethrone . .
266 TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
byPortugueserecruitingagentstojointheirforces .Thequietand
effectiveworkofNzinga'sagentsamongtheblacktroopsofPortugal
wasoneofthemostglorious,yetunsung,pagesinAfricanhistory.For
wholecompaniesrebelledanddesertedtothecolorsoftheblackqueen,
takingwiththemthemuchneededgunsandammunitionwhichshe
hadbeenunabletosecureexceptbyswiftlymovingsurpriseattackson
enemyunits .TheQueen'sarmieswerefurtherstrengthenedbythe
runawayslaveswhostreamedintotheonlycertainhavenforthefreeon
thewholecontinentofAfrica .TothePortuguese,QueenNzingahad
passedthelastwordinunheard-ofaudacitywhenshewasableto
influencescoresofvassalchiefstorebelagainstthemandjointhecause
oftheirownrace .Thiswastoomuch.Thiswomanhadtobedestroyed .
Ithadcometothat.
ThePortuguesesenttheirultimatumtotheQueenfromtheirLuanda
stronghold,Portugal'sLisboninAfrica .Itdemandedtheimmediate
returnofallchiefs,soldiersandslavestoPortugueseterritory ;thatis,all
whohadfledtherefrom.Refusalwouldmeanwar,theultimatum
concluded.Thefactwasthatastateofwaralreadyexistedsincethe
Queen'sownultimatumofthepreviousyear .ThePortuguesewere
afraidtomoveagainstherthenandtheywereevenmore afraid.to move
againstherstrongerforcesnow,althoughtheycontinuedtogivethe
Dutchthreatasthereasonfordelayingtherequiredall-outattack .
Meanwhile,theusualstrategyoffirstinstigatingfactionalstrifeamong
theBlackswasbynomeansforgotten .Itwasjustthattherewassomuch
unityandpatriotisminthisdominantAngolastate,somuchfanatical
devotiontothis"terribleBlackQueen,"thatinternalsubversionwas
almostimpossible .Theytriedtoovercomeallthisbyformallydeclaring
thatNzingawasnotlegallyQueenofNdongo,thethronevacant,and
oneoftheirownvassalchiefs,AidiKiluanji,wasdeclaredking.The
Portuguesemarshalledalloftheirforcesonlandandsea,theirspecial
riverfleetsinparticular,tocrushNzingabeforetheDutchstruckagain .
ButtheQueenherselfopenedtheoffensive,strikingfirstatthePortu-
guesepuppetkingandhisforces .ThePortuguesecapturedherprincipal
islandstrongholdintheCuanzariverin July,1626,thusdividingher
forcesand,byaswiftencirclingmovementdesignedtocapturethe
Queen,cutoffhermainsupportingregimentsandforcedhernotonly
toretreatbuttowithdrawfromhercountry. Joy reignedatLuandaand
SaoThome.WithNzinga'sflightfromAngolaitappearedthattheblack
menacewasoverandvictorycomplete .AidiKiluanjiwascrownedKing
PhilipIofNdongo.
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest
ThesolidarityoftheBlacksremainedunbroken,however,andtheir
loyaltytoNzingaremainedsteadfast.Shewas"justawayalittlewhile,"
andwouldsoonreturn.Anychildinthemostdistantbushcouldtell
youthattheirQueenwas"justawayonbusiness
."Sowhowasthis
Philip?HisnamesaidhewasaPortuguese,sohecouldn'tbeKingof
Ndongo
.AllAngolankingsandqueensweresoAfricanthatthey
couldn'tbetrickedoutoftheirownAfricannames .TheQueenherself
haddropped"Ann"fromhernamewhenshediscoveredthatbaptizing
aBlackintoChristianitymeantsurrenderinghissoulandbodynotto
anyChrist,buttothewhiteman
.Andoraltraditionfurtherhasitthat
thepeoplenotonlyrejected"PhilipI,"butmadefunoftheveryidea
thatheconsideredhimselftobeking.TheirblindfaithintheirQueen
andthecertaintyofherreturn,accordingtothesameoralrecord,was
notreallysoblind.Thosewhounderstoodthecodeddrummessages
spreadthenewsthatallguerrillaattackswhichoccurredthroughoutthe
landwereattackswhichwerepersonallydirectedbytheQueenand
that,infact,shewasraisinganewarmyofliberation .Herloyalchiefs
andpeopleinNdongoweretostandby,ready.
Thewrittenrecord,nomatterhowslanted,supportstheoral .Forin
November,1627,shecrossedthebordersbackintohercountryatthe
headofastrongarmy,madestrongerandstrongerasherloyalchiefs
andwildlycheeringpeople,includingherfanaticallydevotedfreed
men,flockedtoherstandardasshesweptforwardtorecapturethe
CuanzastrongholdheldbyPhilipIandputhimtoflight
.ThePortuguese
continuedtobeamazedatthisdisplayofblackunity-an'dundera
woman'sleadershipatthat.BlackunitywasnowseenclearlyasBlack
Power,andthatmeantanunconquerablepeople .ThePortuguesewere
resolvedtobreakthatunityandthepowerthatdevelopedfromit
.The
revoltagainstthemhadbecomegeneralasNzinga'svictoriousforces
advanced.ThePortugueseretreatedtotheirownstrongholdsonthe
coast,givingtheDutchthreatasanexcuseandnotthethreatofbeing
annihilatedbytheQueen'sforces .
ButastherewasinfactnoimminentDutchthreat,thePortuguese
regroupedandstrengthenedtheirforcesforanall-outwartodestroy
Nzingaandthistime,nottoceasefightinguntilthiswasdone.They
beganbygivingordersandofferingabigrewardforhercapture,dead
oralive.Theirslavetroops,stillthebackboneofthePortuguesearmed
forces,weregiventhespecialinducementsoflandandfreedomforher
capture.Realizingthatsuchanall-outattempttocapturehermeantthat
267
268

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
countlessthousandsofherpeoplewoulddieinherdefense,she
outwittedthePortugueseagainbyslippingoutofthecountry,instructing
herlieutenantstospreadthewordeverywherethatshehadfledthe
countryand,mistakenlyenteringtheterritoryofanenemy,hadbeen
killed.Togivepointtothestory,therewasgeneralweepingand
mourningthroughoutNdongo,realweepingandmourning,because
themassesbelievedthestorytobetrue.SodidthePortuguese.The
onlyreasonforthewarhavingbeenremovedbyProvidence,the
Bishopcouldcelebrateaspecialmassincelebrationofthisspecial
blessing,andtheColonyofAngolacouldatlastbeorganizedafterover
fiftyyearsofobstruction .Allthingsnowseemedtobehappyandgoing
wellaccordingtotheoriginalgranddesign.
Thenin 1629 thePortuguesestoodaghastwhenQueenNzinga
"burstuponthemfromthegrave,"sweepingalloppositionbeforeher .
ShebroughtinherfierceJagaallies,apparentlywillingtodoeventhisto
defeatthewhites .ThePortuguesewerecompletelydefeated .Shehad
notonlyretakenherowncountry,buthad,meanwhile,becomeQueen
ofMatambaalso,havingreplacedtheweakQueenthere .Nzingawas
nowanempressoftwocountries.Shenowredoubledhercampaign
againstslaveryandtheslavetradebymakingbothNdongoand
Matambahavensforallwhocouldescapefromtheslaverbyrebelling
orotherwise.'Chiefsengagedinthetrafficinnearbystatesnowstoodin
fearofherwrath.ThePortuguesesaw"thehandwritingonthewall."In
ordernottoloseeveryfootholdinthearea,Lisbonsuddenly
rememberedthatithadnevercarriedoutthetreatysignedwithNzinga
in 1622,anddeclaredthatPortugal'swarsagainstherhadbeenunjust!
HighlevelembassiesweresenttotheQueenin 1639 ineffortstoeffect
asettlement.Nzingareceivedthem,listenedtotheirprotestationsof
eternalfriendship,andwentaheadwithdeterminationinreorganizing
bothofthekingdomsandunderminingcolonialruleinareasheldby
theenemy.ThateverywhitemaninAfricawasanenemyoftheBlacks
wasamatteraboutwhichtherewas no roomfordebateinhermind .
9 .QueenNzinga'santi-slaverycrusadedidnotmeanthatsheherself
didnotholdherowncaptivesinbondage,includingthePortuguese .
ThePortuguesehadchangedthenatureofslaveryintoaracialpattern,
andNzingawasparticularlyruthlesswithcaptureblackchiefswhowere
alliesofthewhites.Shedidnothesitatetosellsuchchiefsandtheir
followersintoslavery.
WhiteDevilsfromtheWest

269
EventheholyrobesofthepriestsinAngolanotonlycoveredtheirreal
missionasagentsofempire,butalsocoveredtheirinsatiablelustforthe
blackbodiesoftheirhelplessslavegirls ."Shehadbeenforcedbythe
actualitiesofblack-whiterelationstodistrustallwhites,alongwiththeir
trickytreaties .
By 1641 theDutchhadmadegreatprogressinreducingthepowerof
Portugalallalongthecoast,andNzinga'sadamantpositionmadetheir
situationanimpossibleonetomaintain.Adespairinggovernorand
councilhadnochoicebuttodeclarewaragainstheronceagain,afull-
scalewar.ButthesituationwasnowmostfavorablefortheAngolans .
Theirnorthernneighbor,Kongo,hadbecomemoreactiveinitsown
waragainstthePortugueseand,besides,anewandgreaterkinghad
assumedtheleadership.ThiswasGarcia11,whocontinuedthepolicyof
cooperatingwiththeDutchwhereandwhenKongoleseinterestswere
involved.(Someblackleadershadlearnedtousethewhitesasthe
whitesalwaysusedthem: whenitservedtheirowninterests .)Theother
happydevelopmentforNdongowasthattheDutchinvasionofPortu-
guese-heldareashadactuallybegunin 1641 beforeanymovescouldbe
madeagainsteitherofthetwoblackstates,KongoandNdongo.II
NzingacontinuedhercampaignagainstthePortuguese,winning
victorieseverywhereabattlewasjoined .WithDutchaid,thegreat
PortuguesestrongholdofMasanganofellin 1648. TheDutch,having
previouslycapturedLuanda,nowfoundthemselvesthreatenedbythe
steadyreenforcementsthatcontinuedtopourinfromPortuguese
Brazil.TheDutchwithdrew,leavingtheBlacksinthearea,whohad
helpedthemtocaptureanddefendthis,themostimportantPortuguese
10.TheQueenwasfurtheroutragedoverthesuccessofthe
Portugueseincapturebothofheryoungersisters .Thisgavetheenemy
amostpowerfulbargainingweapon .Yetshecontinuedtorejectallof
theirprincipaldemands,withtheresultthathersisters,towhomshe
wasdeeplydevoted,remainedincaptivityformanyyears .
11.Wemustcontinuetoskipovermuchinevery'regionthatisbriefly
coveredinthiswork .Thisisoftenpainful,ashere,forexample,Iam
unabletodealwiththequiterelevantstruggleoftheunconquerable
DembopeopleagainstthePortugueseandslavery.Butthismustwait
untilblackhistoryiswrittenindepth,periodbyperiod,regionby
regionandstatebystate .
270

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
cityinAfrica,tofendforthemselvesalone .Whilethechiefsandtheir
forcesdidindeedputupagallantfight,theyweremassacredinoneof
themostsavageonslaughtsonrecord .TherecaptureofLuandaby
SalvadordeSa,thenewgovernor,andhiscrushingofblackopposition
there,ledhimtoinitiatenewpeaceeffortswiththetwokingdomsof
KongoandNzinga.TheKongolesekingrefusedtoanswerhisletter,but
didsendamonktohearthegovernor'sterms .Nzingaalsoagreedto
effortsatnegotiations .ThesegesturesbythetwoAfricanleadersled
SalvadordeSatoadvisethekingofPortugalthatalltheAfricanstates
werecowedandtheirpowerbroken .Heknewbetter,ofcourse,for
eventhechiefsandtheirpeopleinhisownPortuguese-heldterritory
werestillfightingondespitethemassacres,andprobablybecauseof
them.
IfthePortuguesehadbeenabletoconquereitherKongoorNdongo-
Matamba,nopeaceofferswouldhavebeenmade .Hadn'ttheytriedit
overandoverandfailed?Tobeabletoconquerbothnowwasoutof
thequestion.Again,theoldconquestroutewasinvoked: beguiling
smilesandprotestationsoffriendship,findingconcreteexpressionin
negotiationsforpeace .Thelanguageofdiplomacyreacheditsmost
brilliantheightsofdeceptioninthosevelvetyclausesofproposed
treatieswhichtheAfricans,iftheysignedthem,wouldbesigning
themselvesandtheirpeopleintoperpetualbondage .Thisfactwas
supposedtobeassuredbytheotherfactthattherelevantclauseswere
soambiguousthattheycouldbeinterpretedinseveraldifferentways-
inthiscaseinwhateverwaythePortuguesechosetointerpretthem.
Theverysameprovisionsofthetreatiescouldbereadandexplainedto
theBlacksinsuchlanguagethatitwouldappearthattheEuropeans
werenotonlyhumblingthemselvesbutalsoproclaimingtheoutcome
as .agloriousvictoryfortheAfricans .Ofcourse,noBlacks,notevena
Nzinga,wassupposedtobeintelligentenough,sharplyintelligent
enough,toseethroughallthis .But,strippingawayalltheglittering
verbiage,Nzingasawataglancethatwhatitallmeantwasthatshewas
tobeavassalofthePortugueseking,onepayinghimabigannual
tribute .Shewoulddiefirst.Andnooneshouldhaveknownthisbetter
thanthePortuguesewho,atthetimeofthislatesttreatyoffer,hadbeen
atwarwithher,andrepeatedlydefeated,forovertwenty-eightyears.
Theyhadmetoneofthegiantsofthehumanracewhomtheyhad
foundimpossibletorecognizeassuchbecausesheappearedonthe
planetnotonlyasawomanbutonewithblackskin .Nzinga,therefore,
WhiteDevils fromtheWest 271
keptthemanxiouslywaitingforactiononthetreaty,toyingwithitfor
sixyears,whilegivingherwar-tornlandandtired-outpeopleaperiod
forrestandrecovery.Shewasthesamequeenwhohadtwicefledthe
countrynottosaveherselfbutsaveherpeoplefromaslaughterthather
flightwouldprevent .Forthesamereasonshedidnotwantthewar
resumedagainafteroverfortyyearsofwarfare .Ontheotherhand,she
wouldnotsurrenderhercountrytoPortugalanditsslavetrade .The
areasofAngolatheystillheld,includingtheimportantislandsof
LuandaandSaoThome,belongedtotheAngolanpeople,andsomeof
theseareasbelongeddirectlytoherownkingdomsofNdongoand
Matamba.Finally,then,in 1656,tiredandwearyfromfourdecadesof
relentlessstruggles,shesignedatreatythatwasrevisedandmade
acceptabletoher.HergreatestconcessionallowedthePortuguese
puppetking,Aidi,toheadtheterritoryconcededtothem.
ThereweresevenmoreyearsofabusylifeforQueenNzinga-pushing
reconstruction,theresettlementofex-slaves,andundertakingthedevel-
opmentofaneconomyoffreemenandwomenthatwouldbeableto
succeedwithouttheslavetrade .Shecouldnothavebeenunawarethat,
withthePortuguesestillstronglyentrenchedinthemoststrategicareas,
unlessshewassucceededbyequallygreatleaders,allofherlaborsin
defenseofthefreedomoftheBlackswouldultimatelybeinvain .That
wastheburningquestionin1663asadullautumnsunlengthenedthe
shadowsoverthepalacegroundswherethousandsstoodintears : Were
thereanymoreGarciasanywhere?WouldGodsendthemanother
Nzingatoholdthelineagainstthetrulywhitedevils?Thesunslowly
wentdownbehindtheAngolantreesanddarknessspreadoverthe
land.OverthreehundredyearslatertheBlacksofAngolaarestill
fightingthePortuguese,andstillwaitingforthesunrise .
Intheheart-tornstateofnationalmourningtheQueen'sCouncil
permittedtwoprieststocomeinandperformthelastritesofthe
Church.SincetheQueenhadrenouncedtheCatholicreligionmany
yearsbeforeherpassing,andhadbannedmissionsfromhercountryas
centersofsubversion,thisappearanceofpriestsattheroyalbedside
maybeexplainedeitherasaonce-a-Catholic-always-a-Catholictheory,
orasanattemptbyCatholicPortugaltogivetheappearanceoffinal
victoryonallftonts.Inthiscaseitwouldmeanthatthemostuncon-
querableoffoes,recantingandsubmissive,hadbeenconqueredby
theirreligionintheend.Andsoitiswrittenintheofficialdocumentsof
Portugal,thewrittenrecordusedbyalmostallhistoriansofAfrica,that
272

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
NzingahadreturnedtotheChurchthathadbaptizedher"Ann" .Yet
shewasoneoftheveryfirstBlackstoseethatthePortugueseconquests,
theslavetrade,andtheChurchwereallinseparablyoneandthesame .
Thelongyearsofwarfarehadbeenequallyagainstallthree-the
unholytrinity .Andshehadneversurrendered .I n 1963, threehundred
yearsafterherdeath,herpeople,nowCatholicthemselves,didnot
believeshehadeverreturnedtotheChurch . 12
12. ForamoredetailedstudyofQueenNzinga,seeRoyArthur
Glasgow's The WarriorQueen, JohnWileyYSons, 1969, and Queen
Nzingaand the MbunduResistancetothe PortugueseSlave Trade,
scheduledforpublication 1971 byOxfordUniversityPress.Notein
particularthegreatdifferenceintheaccountofthelastdaysofthe
Queenandthatofmine.
CHAPTERXI
TheLast
oftheBlackEmpires
ONABALMYSPRI NGAFTERNOONI N 1964,1 CAMEOUTOFA
largecavewherearchaeologistshadbeenworkingandclimbedupthe
highestofthesixhillsinthearea
.I nthevalleyandasfarastheeyes
couldseetherewassomuchofthesamebreathtakingnaturalbeauty
thathadbeenseeneverywhereinthecountrythatonemightwonder
whethertheGardenofEdensurpassedit
.I wasstandingintheheartof
Monomotapa,(thenwhite-ruledRhodesia,butnowindependentZim-
babwe).,thelastoftheblackempiresinAfrica
.(Abyssinia,ormodern
Ethiopia,hasbeenunderSemiticorSolomonidruleforcenturies
.The
rulinghousetracesitslinetoKingSolomon).
Uptothispointwehavebeendealingverylargelywithstatescreated
orexpandedbymigratinggroupsbeforethecomingofAsiansand
Europeansintotheirterritories
.Wehave,therefore,beenlookingat
purelyAfrican-createdinstitutions
.Butthepicturehasbeenverymuch
skewedbythefactthatverylittleattentionwasgiventotheadvanced
stateofearlycivilizationinotherpartsofthecontinentpriortothe
incursionsofthisorthatgroupofimmigrantsafterthe1200s (A.D.) .
Thiskindoftreatmenthasmisledmanyinthebeliefthatahighly
advancedcivilizationexistedonlyintheNileregionsofancientEthiopia
(EgyptandtheSudan),andwasspreadsouthwardfromtheearliest
times.Thattheseearlyblackbrothersfromthesouthprobablybrought
273
274

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
moretotheirblackbrothersinEgyptthantheyborrowedfromthemis
becomingclearerasourresearchdevelops .Thestepped-upwavesof
"crisismigrations"afterthedestructionoftheEthiopianEmpireshould
notobscurethecentralfacts.
Theinvadingimmigrants,then,oftenfoundthealreadyexisting
statesaswellorganizedandwithinstitutionsashighlyadvancedastheir
ownhadbeenbeforethe13thcentury .But,almostwithoutexception,
theyallhadonethingincommon,theonethingthatmadeeachoneso
easytoconquerfirstbyblackinvadersandlaterbywhiteinvaders:
Theywereallsmall;thesmallerandweakerthestate,themorefiercely
"independent"itwas.TheAfricancontinentpresentedavast,vast
panoramaofmini-states-atonceavastpanoramaofdisunityand
weakness.Thereorganizinginvaderstendedtoexpandterritoriallyover
manyoftheseadjacentstates,thusforcingakindofartificialunity .
UnliketheKubaofShyaamandtheAngolaofNzinga,fewundertook
thegreattaskofdevelopingasenseofnationalcommunityamongthe
manydiversegroupsthatmadeupthestate .TheVakarangaimmi-
grantswhodevelopedtheEmpireofMonomotapafollowedthegeneral
practiceofestablishingeffectivepoliticalrule,whilepromotingeconomic
development.
Asforecastabove,howeverweshalllookbrieflyatthepeopleand
theircivilizationsomecenturiesbeforetheVakarangaadventinthe
early 1400s. ThelandandthepeopletobecoveredbytheEmpire
extendedfromthenorthabovetheZambeziRiver,includedRhodesia,
westwardtotheKalahara,eastwardoverMozambiquetotheI ndian
Ocean,andsouthwardintotheTransvaalinSouthAfricabelowthe
LimpopoRiver(Vembe).
Sincethearchaeologicalevidencegatheredalloverthisvastterritory
makesitclearthatirontechnologyandalliedcraftswerewelladvanced
herelongbeforetheChristianera,thespreadoftheeconomicrevolu-
tionoverAfricabytheironagemayhavecomefromthissouthern
centeraswellasfromMeroeinthenortheast .Fromtheperiodroughly
indicatedasearlyas300 B.C ., thestateswhichweretoformtheEmpire
ofMonomotapawereengagedinawiderangeofdiversifiedeconomic
activitiesthatlednotonlytointerstatetradebutforeigncommerceover
theI ndianOceanaswell.
Thiseconomicdevelopmentwasinextricablyanindexofthe
developmentoftheircivilization.Thedrivefortheattainmentof
excellenceineverythingproducedwasreflectedintheirartistic
TheLastoftheBlackEmpires

275
endeavorsevenoncommonutilitieswhereartcouldhardlybeexpected.
Thehugejarsforstoringgrainwereglazedandasbeautifullychannelled
asthecupsusedbypriestsandkings
.Here,aselsewhereinearlyAfrica,
thereseemstohavebeenaninsatiabledriveforbeautyandperfection.
Therewasanunderlyingphilosophy
: Eachcraftsmanfeltthathis
finishedworkwasatonceareflectionandactualmeasureofwhathe
himselfwas,hischaracter.Theindustrialactivities,particularlymining,
overshadowedagricultureandeventhreatenedtheexistenceofthis
verybasiceconomy .Overfourthousandancientminingsiteshavebeen
discovered,andnooneclaimsthattheseareall
.I ronore,goldand,toa
lesserextent,copperandtinweretheleadingindustrialactivities,
althoughivoryandivorycarvingsalwaysplayedaconsiderablerolein
thetotaleconomy .
Thesewidespreadindustrialactivities,alongwiththeeverincreasing
numberofcattlebroughtinbymigratingpastoralgroups,drovethe
farmerstothehills-toanewtypeofterracefarmingoneveryavailable
hillside,andthebuildingofmoundsforthesamepurposewherethere
werenohills
.Asdifficultasallthiswas,thegeniusofAfricanmanwas
furthertestedinovercomingthemoreformidableproblemofwaterand
anirrigationsystemforhillsidesandmounds
.Widespreadmining
meantwidespreaddeforestationbecauseofthedemandfortimberfor
charcoalproduction-anotherindustrybyitself
.Soilerosionkeptpace,
unchecked
.Thesteadydisappearanceofgrasslandswasassuredby
cattleandotherroaminganimalsthatfedongrass,thegoatsbeingthe
mostravishing
.Theagriculturallifeofthecountrywassustainedby
intensiveterracefarminginthenorthesastregionofwhichI nyangawas
thecenter.
By 1200 A.D.,
productionandinternationaltradehadalreadyreached
thehighlevelaffluencethatwastoattractArabsandEuropeanstothis
land
.Goldwastheleadingexportcommodity,althoughtherewasalsoa
greatdemandinI ndiaforthesuperiortypeofironwareprocessedin
Monomotapa
.TheAfricansmeltingprocessandtypeofironore
peculiartotheregionenabledthemtoproducethebestswords,spears
andotherweaponsthatcouldbefoundanywhere
.Theironindustries
createdaneconomicrevolutionnotonlyinwarfarebutalsointhepro-
ductionoffarmingtools,householdandkitchenwareandbettermining
tools
.Thecraftsofblacksmiths,goldsmiths,coppersmithsandtinsmiths
werethemostimportant,eachbeingawellorganizedsecretsociety
.
Quiteearly,andwithoutany"BronzeAge"period,theyexperimented
276

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
withalloystotinandcopperandbegantheproductionofbronzeand
bronzeimplementsonalimitedscale
.Thewidespreadpotteryfindsof
somanydifferenttypesindicatethevastnessoftheirceramicsindustries
.
Thedecorativedesignsofallpottery,aswellasonallotherartifacts
found,seemtotellusthatalloftheseearlycraftsmenwereartistsalso
.
Thatthereweremanyotherhighlyskilledandprofessionalclassesis
evidentfromthetotalculturalrecordtheseearlyBlacksleftbehindin
SouthernAfrica
.Theseveralthousandminingsitesofsomanydifferent
kinds-iron,gold,copper,tin-suggestexpertprospectors,justasthe
ruinsofnearbytemplesandotherbeautifullydesignedstonestructures
tellusthatthereweregreatblackarchitectsandstonemasonsherejust
astheyhadbeen in BlackEgyptwhenthefirstpyramidswerebuilt
there.
Buttheancientruinsofsomanycities,townsandvillagesarethe
stonypagesoftheunwrittenhistoryweseek
.Andjustaswrittenrecords
ofblackhistoryweredestroyed,here,too,inMonomotapathefirst
ArabsandEuropeanstofindtheselongsincedesertedsitesundertook
wreckinganddestroyingoperationsonascalebeyondbelief
.These
wereyourmodernmen,yourcivilizersofothermen
.Hiddenandlostin
thetangledvinesandtreesofforests,manystonetempleswerestill
defyingthecenturiesofpassingtimeandstandinginallthedignityof
theircolonnadedbeautyuntilthe20thcenturywhentheywerewrecked
bythesamepeoplewhohadwreckedtheraceofthebuilders
.Thefact
thatalmostalloftheseruinswerelocatedinorneargoldminingareas
enabledsomewritersto"explain"thatthewantondestructionwas
carriedoninafeverishsearchforgold
.Butanyoneviewingthenature
andscaleofthedemolitionofthemassivestonestructureswouldfindit
difficulttoseehowthesearchforgoldinvolvedthedestructionof
buildings.
Theireffortswereinvain,however
.Somuchcouldbereassembled,
reconstructed
;somuchcouldnotbedestroyedatall
.Therewas,
therefore,arecordleftwritteninstone,arecordthattellsthestoryof
BlackswhowerebuildingahighlydevelopedcivilizationinSouthern
Africaduringthesameancientperiodtheirbrotherswereamazingthe
worldbytheiradvancesinNorthernEthiopia(Egypt)anditssouthern
region(Sudan).
TheLastoftheBlackEmpires

277
THEEMPI REBUI LDERS
WehavebeenestablishingthatthehighcivilizationofMonomopata,
forwhichtheinvadingVakarangahavebeencredited,antedatedtheir
comingbyatleast1,500years.Duringthislongperiod,beforetheRosvi
chiefsledtheirpeopleintotheregionin1400(circ .),thereweremany
changesandimprovementsinthemethodsandstylesofthevarious
crafts.Thechangesareshownbydeterminingtheperiodofsuch
artifactsaspotteryandthearchitecturaldesignsofbuildings .The
Vakarangasimplycontinuedtobuilduponandfurtherdevelop
preexistingstates.Theirgreatestachievementwasinweldingseveral
strongstatesandsomelesseronesintoonegreatempire.Theirsecond
greatestachievementwasthereclaimingoftheseacoastlandsthathad
beenleasedbythestatestoAsiansastradingposts,butoverwhichthe
Asianshadgraduallyassumedabsolutesovereignty .I tisthesameold
storyofthesametechniquesofpenetrationanddominationthathadto
berepeatedoverandoverinthesepagesaswemovedfromcountryto
country .Ethiopia,Makuria,Alwa,Ghana,Mali,Songhay,theMossi
States,Kongo,Angola,andKubawerealldestroyedasadirectresultof
thefirsttradingpostfootholdsestablishedintheirlands.Andsoitwas
fortheotherstatesonthecontinent,largeandsmall
.Nonewithstood
theSirens'songsofthefabulousrichestobegainedfromtrade .Asthe
historyofthisregionofAfricaisgenerallywritten,onegathersthatthe
advancedculturesontheseacoastandkeyislandswereofAsianorigin,
theblackbarbariansbeingconfinedtotheinterior.Thefactisthat,
whilereadilygrantingconcessionsfortradeandsettlementtotheAsians
onlandsalongtheI ndianOceancoastline,Africansdidnotwithdraw
butremainedasactiveseacaptains,sailors,traders,boatandship
buildersand,inshort,inalltheon-goingoccupationsalongthecoasts .
ThebuildersofstonecitiesintheinterioralsobuiltwhereArabs,
I ndiansandlaterPortuguesesettledatSofala,Chinde,Quelimaneand
farthernorthatKilwa.Whenthecattle-breedingVakarangacameinto
thecountryundertheleadershipoftheRosvirulingclan,theyfound
theindigenouspeoplemorehighlyadvancedthanthemselves .Thefact
thatsomanyofthestatesthatcameintoprominencebetweenthe13th
and16thcenturieswerefurtherreorganizedandexpandedby
newcomershastendedtoobscurethepreexistingcivilizationupon
whichtheimmigrantsbuilt.Therewereseveralkindsofinvaders.Some
werefromahomelandonlyrecentlybrokenup .Thesecouldmake
immediatecontributionsfromtheirownsocietyofwhateverwasnew
278 TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization
andadvanced,whateverskillsortechnologiesthathadnotbeenlostor
forgotten;othermigratinggroupshadbeenonthemovefromone
settlementtoanotherforsomanygenerationsthattheyhadlostsomeof
themostessentialelementsintheheritageoftheirdistantforebears
duringtheseconstantmovementsfromplacetoplace,movements
whichwerethemostpotentfactorsindisintegratingcivilizationitself ;
andstillotherinvaderswereruthlessbarbarians"pureandsimple ."
Eventhese,afterbeingabsorbedbyanadvancedpopulation,were
oftengiventhecreditforthenewadvancesmadebythestate
.Someof
thesocietiesinthisgreatregionwereondifferentlevelsofdevelopment.
AmongtheseweretheSotho,Tswana,Matadyatadyaortheso-called
"Bushmen,"theVatonga etal. TheArabs,ofcourse,hadbeenslowly
penetratingtheinteriorfromtheirseacoastfootholdsforovertwo
hundredyearsbeforetheVakarangaarrived
.By1400theyhadtheir
tradingpostsscatteredthroughouttheindependentstateswhichwere
toformtheempire.AccordingtoD .P .Abraham,by1500about10,000
Arabswerestationedatdifferentpointsintheinterior
.Theyhadbeen
penetratinginlandallthewayfrombeyondKilwatostationssouthward
belowSofala
.Themajorbuilt-inthreatwascompletebeforethefirst
greatVakarangakingsurveyedthescene .
THEGREATMUTOTA
Theyearwas1440 .ThekingwasMutota .I njustaboutanyotherland
hewouldbeknowntohistoryasMutotatheGreat .Heandhiscouncil
wereapparentlyquicktoseethateventhemostadvancedstates,each
standingindependentlyandalone,weredoomedunlessunifiedintoa
singlenationwithastrongcentralgovernment.Thisshouldbeachieved
byvoluntaryassociationifpossible
.ThedivisiveinfluenceoftheArabs
operatinginthecapitalsoftherespectivestateshadtobeobvious,as
theyappearednottofeelitnecessarytobeeitherassecretiveoras
subtleastheirPortugueseenemies
.BoththeArabsandtheEuropeans
hadonethingincommon,however.Bothhadthedeeplyrooted
convictionthattheyknewtheBlacksandthattheirpoweroverthem
andthecontinuedabilitytogarnertheirendlesswealthrestedsquarely
onkeepingthemdividedandcontinuouslyateachother'sthroats
.No
one,excepttheBlacksthemselves,neededanyargumenttoshowthat
blackunitymeantblackpowerandblackpowermeantanendtowhite
domination,fromtheeastorthewest .
TheLastoftheBlackEmpires

279
Mutotaandthenewleaderssawandunderstoodthisverywell
.They
knewwherealmostallthegold,copper,ironandtinhadbeengoing
fromover4,000mines
.Theyknewhowallthestrategemsusedbythe
BlackstobartheArabsfromtheinteriorhadfailed,andwould
continuetofailaslongastheArabscontrolledalloverseastradeby
controllingtheentireseaboardand,havingdonesounchallengedforso
longthattheynowclaimedsovereigntyoverthewholecoastalarea
.
Therefore,Mutota,in1440,beganthecampaigntocarryouthisown
"GrandDesign,"agreatplanthataimedatnothinglessthanuniting
.BlacksinavastempirethatcutacrossSouthAfricabelowtheLimpopo
River,andcoveredRhodesiawithanindefiniteboundarybeyondthe
ZambeziRiverinZambia,andonoverMozambiquetotheI ndian
Ocean,sweepingsouthwardagaintorepossesstheentirecoastline
frontingthenewempire.
NowisallofthisthesameversionasgivenbyAbrahamandother
Westernhistorians?WouldanArabhistorian,no-matterwhatthefact
:
mightbe,presentitthisway?Ofcoursenot
.TheWesternhistorians,
employingtheirusualclubtocrushrebellionfromthemasters'view-
points,wouldproclaim"sheerRomanticism!"For,seeherenow,listen
:
DoesnotProfessorAbrahammakeitquiteclearattheveryoutsetthat
noblackman,kingorcommoner,couldhaveconceivedofsuchavast
undertaking?Whatblackman,unaidedbywhites,couldhaveMutota's
greatandawe-inspiringvision?Abrahamandhisschoolmightwell
thanktheirGodthatthereweremany"White"Arabsaroundtowhom
suchcreditcouldbegiven
.Afterareviewofsomanycenturiesofthe
ideologicalstanceofwriterswhereBlacksareconcerned,angerand
outrageshouldbereplacedwithamusement
.Forithasbecome
amusing-tothiswriteratanyrate-towitnessthesweatingdilemmaof
theseinvestigatorswhenconfrontedwithanykindofall-Blackachieve-
ments,eveninrelativelyunimportantandroutinematterswhichany
humanor,anypeopleofanyraceanywherewouldbethoughtcapable
ofachieving
.ButwhereBlacksareinvolvedinanythingconsideredout-
standing,thewhitessomehowfeelthreatened
.Whatisthreatened,of
course,isthedeeplyrootedpresuppositionoftheinnateinferiorityof
theBlacks
.I fsomewhereintheirlonghistoryasinglerecordof
outstandingachievementbyBlackswasfoundbywhitesanddeclared
atoncetobesuch,ratherthan"evidently"non-Negroid,ifthiswasever
donetheblackworldhasbeenunabletodiscoveritand,ifthereisan
errorhereoramisconception,acorrectioniswelcomed
.
280

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
But,returningtothetraditionalwhitelineinthiscaseoftheVakaranga
king,AbrahamandotherssaythattheArabspersuadedhimtounify
andexpandthecountrynorthandsouthandtotheI ndianOcean-the
ArabswhohadnothingtogainfromastrongandunifiedBlackempire
andmightlosewhattheyhad
.ProfessorAbrahamsaysthattheArabs
"conceivedandimplantedinthemindoftheRosvikingadesirefor
empire
."'Theempirewastoserveasan"effectiveumbrella,"protecting
theiroperationsinthecountryfromthePortuguese
.Scholarlyreasoning,
butlogical?Ofcourse,exceptthattherewerenoPortugueseorPortu-
guesethreatsintheareain1440
.Theydidnotarriveuntil65years
later.
MeanwhileMutotamovedforward
.Hisfirstmovewastorecruitand
buildupstrong,well-trainedarmies,eachunderanablegeneral
.He
displayedthemarkof a greatexecutivebyhiskeeninsightinthe
evaluationandselectionofmenforpostsofhighresponsibilityand,in
sodoing,securedtheactivesupportoftheGreatCounciloftherealm .I t
issignificant,too,thathisleadershipstrategyincludedrecruitingsoldiers
fromthesurroundingstateswhichwerenotyetapartoftheprojected
empire
.Anotherimportantmovewastosecureunitythroughthe
voluntaryassociationofasmanystatesaspossiblebeforeanyconquest
byforcewasattempted
.TheusualAfricanpatternofempirebuilding
wasfollowed
: Allstatesjoiningtheimperialunionwerenotonly
assuredofautonomybutspecialrightsalso,suchasmembershipinthe
GreatCounciloftheEmpire,aprivilegedeniedterritoriesthathadto
beconquered
.Withthesepoliciesreaffirmedandsettled,Mutota's
formidablearmiesbegantheirsweepinthedifferentplanneddirections
andfieldsofoperation
.Themaindrivewasnorthwardunderthe
commandoftheKinghimself
.Withintenyearsallterritorybetweenthe
LimpopoinSouthAfricatotheZambezihadbeenbroughtunder
imperialrule
.Thegreatundertakingwasfarfromcompletionwhen
Mutotadiedin1450
.Theobjectiveshadbeenworkedoutindetailed
specificationsofablueprintforexpansion,unificationanddevelopment
ofagreatempirecomposedofgreatstates.
1 .D.P .Abraham,"MARAMUCA : AnExerciseintheCombinedUse
ofPortugueseRecordsandOralTradition," JournalofAfricanHistory,
Vol.I I ,No .2,1961 .
Unlikemostofthesocietieswehavebeenstudying,theVakaranga
clanshadbecomepatrilineal
.Therefore,Mutota'ssonratherthanhis
nephewwasthesuccessortothethrone .Thiswasahappycircumstance,
sincetheson,Matope,turnedouttobeasgreatastatesman-kingand
generalashislatefather
.Hehadthegreatertaskbecausesomeofthe
mostpowerfulstatesinthe"Blueprint"hadyettobewon,andbreaking
Arabcontrolovertheseacoasts,thegreatestundertaking,hadnotbeen
achieved
.Matopeassumedtheleadershipaggressively,havingthegood
fortuneofsecuringthesameloyaltytheablestgeneralshadgiventohis
father,supportedbyfanaticallydevotedsoldiers
.Thiswasnoaccident,
forMatopehimselfhadbeenapopularyoungcommanderduringhis
father'sreign
.Aboveall,ChangaandTogwa,twoofMatope'sgreatest
generals,werehisfriends
.Thearmieswerereorganized,strengthened
byrelentlesstraining,andexpanded
.
ThisdisplayofbothstrengthandunityamongtheBlackspuzzledthe
Arabs.Thiswassomethingnew,amazing
.Theyhadalonghistoryof
dealingwithBlacks,andnothingwasbetterknownthanthedisunity,
mutualsuspicionsandthehostilityofonegrouptowardanother
.How
wasthisspectacleofoverthirtydifferenttribalgroupsformingsolid
phalanxesofunityunderblackleaderstobeexplained?Moreover,the
Arabs,whohadalwaysmaintainedtheirownblacktroopsunderArab
officers,werebarredfromjoiningtheimperialforcesbybothMutota
andMatope
.Allthiswasseenasaveryrealthreattothepowerful
commercialpositiontheArabshadinallthehithertoindependent
statesaswellastheequallypowerfulpoliticalinfluencetheyenjoyedat
thecapitalsofthesestates,nottomentiontheirindependentstatuson
thecoasts.
Matope'scampaignsfortheunificationofmanystatesintoone
empirewerenoteasy
.ForalthoughtheArabspledgedandproclaimed
theirundyingloyaltytothenewEmperorasthismissionofempire
buildingadvanced,theysecretlygaveactivesupporttothearmiesof
resistingstates.SomeofthekeystatesthatformedtheEmpirewere
Mbire,Guniuswainthesouthernregion
;Chidima,Utonga,Barwe,
Manyika,Madonda,andShiringomaformedtheeasternandsouth-
easternregion
.I ttookthirtyyearsofunremittingeffortstocompletethe
EmpireofMonomotapawithitslongeasternborderbathedatlastby
theI ndianOcean
.Everydetailofhisfather'sspecificationshavingbeen
carriedoutinfull,awearyEmperor,wornoutbythetask,retiredforthe
finalsleep.Theyearwas1480 .
'F
282

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
Whatwouldhappennow?Thegreatimperialsystemhadbeen
completed
.Blackunityhadbeenachievedamongnumerouslanguage
groupsononeofthewidestscalesinhistory,fromZambiadowninto
SouthAfrica
.Citiesofstonedottedtheland,theZimbabwecitiesnorth
andsouthwerethedeathlesssymbolsofapeople'sgreatness
.Thelong
warsofexpansionseemtohavestimulatedeconomicdevelopment
ratherthanhinderit
.Thegovernmenthadgainedamoredirectcontrol
overtheminesandminingindustries,andthismeantmorecontrolover
theArabsintheinteriorandonthecoast,especiallyatSofala,Kilimoni,
SenaandTeteontheZambezi
.Theagriculturalsystemwasactively
promotedbythecentralgovernmentand,indeed,justasthevast
buildingoperationsthatproducedtheamazinglybeautifultemplesand
hugestructuressuchastheGreatZimbabwewereallgovernment
sponsored,sowerealltheothercraftindustries
.Activegovernment
sponsorship,promotionorencouragementinallthesefieldsdidnot
necessarilymeangovernmentownershipordirectcontrol .
TheEmperorMatopealsoleftthecountrywithagreatorganized
religionwithapowerfulandformallyorganizedpriesthood,something
unusualinAfricaoutsideofancientEgypt,Ethiopia,andAbyssinia
.
ThetraditionalAfricanreligionisessentiallythesameeverywhereon
thecontinent,butitisgenerally unorganized and,therefore,hasseldom
hadanorganizedpriesthoodwithasinglerecognizedcreedorbodyof
prescribedbeliefs
.YetjustabouteveryAfricansocietyknownbelieved
in one
AlmightyGod,nomatterbywhatnamehewascalledorhow
manylessergodstheremightbe .I nMonomotapahewascalled
Mwari-theVakarangaversionandcontributiontowardnationalunity .
Butwouldtherebeunitynowthatthelastofthetwogreatpersonalities
aroundwhomunityrevolvedhadsilentlystolenawayintheshadowsof
theGreatZimbabwe,goneforever?Thequestionariseswhenevera
greatleaderpasses;politicalpsychologyandmasspsychologyarecrucially
combined
.Whetheragreatstatesurvivesafterthedeathoftheleader
whomadeitgreatandhelditsdisparatepartstogetherbyhischarisma,
alone,woulddependuponthegoodfortuneofhavingasuccessorof
equalgreatness,orthemiracleofhavingdevelopedastrongspiritof
nationalcommunity,ofoneness,ofaloyaltyandasenseofbelongingto
thenationthattranscendthetribe .
TherewereunifyingfactorswhichMatopeleftbehindinhisgreat
empire
.Onewasthatsameorganizedreligionledbyahighlyadvanced
andliteratepriesthood .(ReligioustemplesattheGreatZimbabwewas
TheLastoftheBlack Empires

283
certainlythenationalcenterofreligion
.)Theotherimportantfactorthat
shouldhavemadeunityimperativewasthegreaterprosperitythat
wouldflowfromeconomicinterdependenceandclosecommercial
relationsbetweentheconstituentstatesandprovinces
.Thegreatsystem
ofroadsandhighways,insteadofbeingrecapturedbythebushand
forestsafterservingtheirinitialmilitarypurpose,couldhavebeen
convertedintopermanentnationalhighways,crisscrossingtheEmpire,
andthusservingastheindispensablecommunicationlinksforadminis-
tration,trade,travelsbythepeopleand,inshort,unification
.Other
factorsthatshouldhavebeenasolidfoundationforblackunitywere
thesimilarityoftheirsocialinstitutionsandtheabsolutesamenessof
theirconstitutionalsystem .
Yet,withMatope'sdeaththeEmpirebegantobreakup
.Why?Not-
withstandingalltheforcesmentionedabovethatshouldhavemadefor
unityandstability,theactualfactisthatthetraditionalAfricanpolitical
systemwasfundamentallyandstructurally
anti-empire. Theverycir-
cumstanceoftheendlessprocessofsegmentation,offoreversplintering
offtoformlittleindependentmini-states,developedabuilt-indisunity,
reinforcedbytheattendinggrowthofdifferentlanguages
.Butself-
governmentorchiefdomwasawayoflife,notatheory
.Chiefsand
Elders,aswehaveseen,wereleaders,advisorsandrepresentativesof
thepeople,andnottheirrulers
.Thesameoperatingprincipleprevailed
whenagroupofstatesunitedtoformakingdomandkingdomsunited
toformanempire,butwithadisturbingdifference
: Centralization
tendedtoerodelocalautonomy,transferingchiefsfromthecontrolof
theirpeopletothecontrolofthecentralgovernment
.I nthecaseof
conqueredterritoriesthischangewasabruptandpainful
.Anditwas
oneoftheprincipalreasonsforlaterrebellionsandthebreak-upof
kingdomsandempires
.Therefore,letussayagain,tosaythatArabs
andEuropeansweresolelyorevenmainlyresponsibleforthedestruction
forthedestructionofallgreatAfricanstateswouldbeglossingoveror
attemptingtoignoretheprincipalinternalfactor: disunity .Whatthe
whitesdid,AsiansandEuropeans,wastoappraisethiscontinent-wide
disunityand"cashin"on ittothefullestextentpossible
.Theydidnot
havetodivideandconquereven,fortheBlackswerealreadydivided,
justasthoughtheywerewaitingfortheforeignconquerorstocome
.
284

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
Theforeigners'rolewastointensifythedisunity,topromotethe
suspicionsandhatredthatdevelopedfromit,andtocheckanytendency
ormovementtowardunityamongtheBlacks.'
AlltheArabshadtodoinMonomotapawastomoveswiftlyduring
theperiodofmourning,confusionanduncertaintyfollowingMatope's
death."Advisors"wouldsurelybeneededatthevariousprovincial
capitalsmorethanever
.Fromthesekeybasestheyactivelyfurthered
thedestructionofanempire,theveryexistenceofwhichwasathreatto
theirownpowerpositionwithinit.I twasmorethanathreat,forhad
notMatope'ssweeptotheI ndianOceanreducedtheircontrolthere,
leavingthemwithonlythreetradingstations?TheAfricans,already
havingthe"every-province-for-itself"psychology,weresimplyurgedto
domorespeedilywhattheyweredoingmoreslowlyintheirownway
.
OfChangaandTogwaitmustbesaidtotheirhonorthatdevoted
servants,ablegenerals,governorsoftwoofthemostimportant
provinces,remainedloyaltoMutotaandMatopethroughouttheir
lifetime,aperiodofdevotedserviceextendingoverfortyyears
.Now,
however,thereappearedtobenoreasonorevenapossibilityfortrans-
feringthesameloyaltyandlovetoNyahuma,weaksonandsuccessorto
thegreatKing
.TheArabshastenedtoexploitthisinGuniuswawhere
Changawaskingwithaspirationstobecomeemperor.Togwa,Kingof
Mbire,supportedhislong-timefriendandcolleagueintheimperial
venture
.Bothoccupiedthemostfavorablepositionforrallyingsupport,
fortheyheldthesouthernregionwhichwasthefirstcenterofKaranga
power,thecenterfromwhichtheexpansionspread,andthelocationof
thefirstZimbabwecapital.
TheArabstrategymustnotbeoverlooked .Beyondtheconsideration
ofgreaterconcessionsfromthewinningside,theydidnotcarewhich
sidewon
.Theyworkedforandsupportedallsides,eachagainstthe
other
.Nonewantedastrongempire,buttheywantedChangatolaunch
awaragainsttheexistingempireunderthepretextofbuildingagreater
onethanwaspossibleunderthenewEmperorNyahuma .TheArabsin
thenorth,ofcourse,wouldurgeNyahumatocrushthepretensionsof
theupstartChangainthesouth.Arabsinbothregionsdidmorethan
2. Thisstrategyofthewhitesisasclearandunmistakabletodayasit
wascenturiesago.I tisanaspectofwhatI havereferredtoasthe
"GrandCaucasianConsensus."YetBlacksappeartobeheedlessofit .
285
justadvise
.Theybackedtherespectiverulerswithmoneyandmaterials
andmen-blackmen,thatis-theArabs'ownprivatearmiesofblack
troops
.ThustheArabs,andlatertheEuropeans,werealwaysableto
sendintobattlestillmoreBlacksagainstBlacks .NowChanga,grown
oldanduncertain,wasgivenanentirelynewvision'ofgreatness
: He
couldnotonlycapturetheEmpireandbecomeasgreatanemperoras
hewasageneral,but,indoingso,hecouldcreateagreatbrotherhood
ofArabsandAfricans,abrotherhoodinwhichArabswouldbehis
faithfulservantsascitizens
.Tocrownitall,andintestimonythereof,he
wasgiventhe"unprecedentedhonor"oftheArabtitleofAmir,sothat,
asinthecaseoftheimmortalCaesar,hisveryname,Changamire,
wouldmean"emperor"forever.
Thisflatterywastoomuchfortheoldmantowithstand
.Thenew
Changamireconcludedhiswaragainstthecentralgovernmentwith
victoryandthedeathofNyahumainbattlein 1490 . I twasagainthe
sameoldstoryofthewarsthatfollowed,theinternalchaosduringthe
riseandfallofonesectionof . theempireafteranother,andthemurder
ofChangamireor,inshort,thefragmentationoftheempireuntilwhat
remainedwasthemuchreducednorthernregionandabout 600 miles
alongtheI ndianOceantoaninlanddepthofbetweentwoandthree
hundredmiles.I nthismuchreducedandweakenedstate,Monomotapa
hadtomeetastillmoreruthlessenemywhenthePortuguesearrivedin
1505 . Theywereaggressive
.TheiroriginalaimtoreplacetheArabs
first,tobreakandtakeovertheircommercialandpoliticalpowerinall
ofthenowdisunitedkingdomswasruthlesslypursued .This,itwillbe
recalled,wasimplementingtheoriginal"GrandDesign"thatbeganin
KongoandAngola.Withinfiftyyearstheyhadpenetratedallofthese
kingdoms,securingconcessionsofland,establishingtradingpostsand
missionsthroughouttheinterioraswellasalongtheZambeziandthe
I ndianOceancoastandislands
.TheArabsdidnottakeallthiswithout
afiercestruggle,largelycenteredaroundattemptingtoincitetheBlacks
againstthePortuguese,andthuscreatingfurtherchaoticsituationsout
ofwhichtheyhopedsomehowtoemergeontop
.Themurderofa
PortuguesepriestatthecourtoftheMonomotapanEmperorin
1561
wasjustwhatthePortugueseneededasareasonforopenintervention
witheventualPortuguesesovereigntyovertheentireregion
.I twasan
oldtrick,wellknownandpracticedbythesecretagentsofgreatpowers
:
Tosacrificeone'sownfellowcitizensinaforeignland,ifbysodoing,the
largerendsofthestatemightbeserved .ThePortugueseversionthat
286 TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
thepriest'sdeathwas"engineeredbyMuhammadansofMozambique"
mayormaynothavebeentrue.ThePortuguesethemselvesmayhave
doneit.Thisdeath,then,meantthatthehonorofPortugalhadbeen
challenged .I nsteadofattackingtheArabschargedwiththecrime,
however,theydirectedtheirpretendedoutrageatthetotteringBlack
Empirewithmilitaryintervention.I n 1575 anultimatum,disguisedasa
treaty,requiredtheEmperortoexpelallArabsfromthecountry,grant
morelandconcessionsforPortuguesegoldminingoperations,more
tradingpostsandmissionsand,finallyin1629thegreatobjectivewas
reachedwhentheEmperorMauuraacknowledgedtheKingofPortugal
ashisOverlordandbecamehisvassal.PortugueseCaucasianizationof
theBlackshadbegunearlybyhavingallchiefs,kingsandemperors
replacetheirAfricannameswithPortuguesenames .Therewas,there-
fore,alonglineofEmperorsSebastiaos,Philippes,Domingos,and
Affonsos,hereasinKongoandAngola . ;
ThePortugueseland-grabsallovertheregionmeantthattheywere
notcontentwithpoliticaloverlordshipandcommercialsupremacybut
werephysicallytakingovertheabsoluteownershipofthelandsofthe
peopleinallareas.When,in1663,theEmperorDomingossummoned
upenoughcouragetoresisttheonslaught,hewasmurdered .Thiswas
theyearQueenNzingadiedandPortugalnowfeltunchallenged .Mean-
while,thePortuguesewereridingsohighandmightythattheyhadset
uptheirowncapitalsintheinterioratMasapaandinManyika,centers
ofgeneraladministrationandcommerce .TheGreatZimbabwecapital
cityoftheEmpirebecameamereshadowofPortuguesepower ;useful
onlyincarryingouttheirordersand,aswasthecasewiththeother
townsandcities,begantodisintegratetowardastateofruinsasthegold
wealthofthenationwastakenoveranddepopulationofthecountryby
theslavetradespread.ThehighlyorganizedAfricanreligion,undera
priesthoodthathadbeensopowerfulthatithadblockedthespreadof
I slamforover200years,wasnowsweptasidebytheaggressively
pushedChristianmissionsinalmosteveryvillage .
3.1havebeenreferringtonamechangingthroughoutthebook ;yetI
doubtwhetherBlacksingeneralfullyrealizetherolethisplayedinloss
ofthesenseofselfworth.
TheLastoftheBlackEmpires

287
I n1693theseeminglyall-powerfulPortuguesewereamazedbythe
rapiddevelopmentofanunexpectedphenomenon
: therevivalofblack
unityinthesouthernprovinceswhichweretheoriginalcenterofthe
Empire,nowstillundertheleadershipofacontinuinglineofChanga-
mires
.OtherformerlyseparatistkingdomsunitedundertheChanga-
mire'sleadershipandopenedafull-scalewaragainstthePortuguese,
aimingatdrivingthemoutoftheland
.Thesuccessfulmilitarytacticsof
Matopeandhisgeneralswererememberedandfollowed
: careful,
unrushedtrainingandorganization
;thesecretmovementoftroopsin
smallgroupsindifferentdirections,allassembling
enmasse atastated
timeandplaceneartheenemystrongholds
;thentheswift-movingand
generallysurpriseattacksbydifferentarmiesondifferentPortuguese
centersatthesametime
.Theseoperationstooktwoyearsofdesperate
fightingbecause,ofcourse,thePortugueseforceswerebetterarmed
.
AccordingtotheoralrecordsoftheBlacks,therealreasonfortheseries
ofvictoriesoverthePortuguesewasthattheirblacktroopsonlyputup
tokenresistance,oftennoteventhat,butwholecompaniesdesertingto
jointheirblackbrothers.
Withtheirblackshieldthusremoved,the
.Portuguesethemselves
werenowexposedtodanger
.Thenumberkilledwasfrightening
.They
fledthecountrytozonesofcomparativesafety
.TheChangamirearmies
reconqueredmostofMonomotapaandavigorousanti-Portuguese
policywasadopted
.Thisnotonlyaimedattheirtotalexclusionfrom
theinteriorbutalsoatendingtheirinfluenceinwhatremainedofthe
oldEmpirewhichdidnotcomedirectlyundertheChangamirerule
.
Eventraderelationswiththewhitesandothercontacts
. hadtobe
carriedonthroughBlacksandMulattoes
.ThegreatlyreducedMono-
motapacontinuedtobefurtherdestroyedbytheendlessinternalstrife
amongtheBlacks,frustratedbythestateofdeclineandhelplessness,
but,yetunwillingtojoinforceswiththestrongersouthernkingdoms
whichwereunitedundertheChangamires
.Decadeafterdecadethe
samestoryofchaos,socialdisorganizationanddeclinerepeateditself
.
Thistime,however,neitherPortuguesenorArabswereabletoreestab-
lishtheirformerpowerpositionthroughouttheregion
.Forwhileallthis
wasgoingonduring17th,18thandintothe19thcenturies,threeother
threateningstormcentershadbeenrisinginSouthAfrica
.
Twoofthese,theBritishandtheDutch,hadmovedinlandfromthe
Cape,establishing"republics,"andtherebycompletingtheencirclement
oftheBlacksofAfrica-amostsignificantdevelopmenttowhichI have
288

The Destructionof BlackCivilization


referredseveraltimes.Thethirdthreat,insofarasMonomotapawas
concerned,wastherapidriseandexpansionoftheZuluEmpireunder
Shaka,anempirewhichdevelopedfromasmallvillagestate .Wehave
seenthatthegreatmigrationsoverthecontinentdevelopedfrommany
differentcauses,takingmanydifferentforms,andwentinalldirections.
Andwehaveseenthatwholeblackcommunitiesfledbeforeincoming
blackconquerorsjustastheydidwhenwhitesinvadedtheirland .The
greatZuluEmperor-King,Shaka,becamemoreruthlessinhisonslaughts
tounifytheBlacksinanempirethatwouldbegreaterandstrongerthan
theundisciplinedand,therefore,fallingMonomotapa .Anempire,
unlikeMonomotapa,thatwouldnotonlyserveasonevastandimpreg-
nablefortressagainsttheshrewdlyschemingwhitesswarmingupfrom
theCape,butafortressfromwhichtheycouldbeattackedand
destroyed.Shakaandhispeople,liketheothercountrieswehave
studied,hadneverseenawhitefacebeforetheinvasions.Buthehad
learnedaboutthemmoreandmoreastheyapproachedthebordersof
hiscountry .ToresisthehadtounifytheBlacksfirst.Kingsandchiefs
whocouldnotseethedangerinsomanylittleindependentstateshad
betterpreparetomeettheirmaker.Countlessthousandsfledenmasse
beforeShaka'smightyarmies.Aswellingtideatmanytribalstates
underpowerfulkingsandchiefsmoved-awildandmercilessrampage
thatexpressedtheirangerovetShakaonallthepeopleintheirpath .
TheleadinggroupsthatstrucktheChangamirekingdomsfirstwere
theNdebele,SwaziandtheShangana .TheycrossedtheLimpopoin
1830andsweptontotheZambezi,spreadingterrorastheymoved
northward
.ThisleftthefewPortuguesecentersthatremainedinthe
unconqueredterritoryexposedtothenewdanger.Thatstripofterritory
wasonceagainallthatwasleftoftheformerEmpireofMonomotapa
.
TheoverallscenewasoneofBritish-Dutchpressuresontheblack
empireinSouthAfrica,thepressureofthemigratingBlacksfromthat
empireonotherBlacksandtheirdestructionofwhatremainedofstill
anotherblackempire ;whiletheBritishandtheDutch,infiercecompe-
titionwitheachother,movedsteadilyforwardtotakeoverthewhole
southernregion .ThePortuguesestillheldontotheirstronglyfortified
posts,especiallyalongtheZambezi,andwereabletoreachapartition
agreementwiththeBritishin1890 .Thus,thePortugueseingaining
Mozambiquestillheldavastblackempire
.TheBlackswhohadfled
fromShaka'sarmiesandhadenteredthelandbeforetheBritish,
TheLastof theBlackEmpires
289
openedwaragainstthewhitesin1895
.Therebellionwasunderthe
generalleadershipoftheMatabeleinvaderswho,therefore,could
expectnosupportfromthegeneralpopulation
.Theyweredefeatedby
theBritish
.I n1902,theBlacksofanotherimportantkingdomintheold
empire,Barwe,roseinrebellion
.BythenBritishpowerwassofirmly
establishedthattheoutcomewaspredictable
.Thelastblackempirehad
becomewhite-ruledRhodesiaanditssouthernmostterritorywasnow
undertheironruleoftheDutchinvadersofSouthAfrica .
Thismarkedthecloseofstillanothertragicera
.Thelastemperorof
thelastblack-ruledempireontheAfricancontinent,ChiokoDam-
bamupute,knewnomorehowtodealwiththeengulfingtidesof
conquestthanmostoftheblackleaderswhoprecededhim
.LikeKota
Pe,theBakubakingwhentheBelgianstookovertheCongo,none
seemedtohavehadsufficientinsightsforthewhitesituation,tohave
justenoughsenseofracetoenablethemtorealizethatthedestinyofa
wholepeoplewasatstake,andnotjusttheirpersonalwell-beingor
eventhefortunesofasingle .state .
TheblackqueenofAngolaremainstheoutstandingleaderwhoread
thewhitemanstraightfromAtoZandmappedstrategiesforthecon-
frontations
.Whenshedied,shewasstillQueenoftheBlacks,andher
peoplewerestillfree .
PARTII
Andthe bridge wassuspendedbetween the two
eternities
Arched sohighup there thattheWatchman
Couldfromhis towerseeallthat had gone before
Andallthatwasto come.
Andthatiswhytheanxious,helplesspeoples of this
crazy world
Continuetolookup indespairand cry
OWatchman,tellusinthisendlessnight
Just whatthesigns ofpromiseare!
CHAPTERXII
AViewfromtheBridge
THESUMMINGUP
THISHASBEENANINTERPRETATIONOFHISTORY. IHAVE
sweptacross6,000yearswiththestoryoftheAfricanpeople,touching
hereandthereonprehistoric' beginnings,suchasatWo'se,andselec-
tivelyspotlightingthe"blackout"areasinthathistory inmybroad
sweepthroughthemilleniums. Myownfieldstudiesinjustaboutevery
regiononthecontinentandmyinterpretationevenofthedataofmany
ofthescholarsappearinginthebibliographyoftenledtoquitedifferent
conclusionsthantheirs . Indeed,thesemodernWesternerseitherignore
orcontradictsomeofthebestevidenceoftheancientwritersonAfrica .
TheconflictofviewpointsonthehistoryoftheAfricapeopledevelops
asissuesinthework,andIsupposethatatthepresentlevelofcivilization,
suchaconflictshouldbeexpectedbetweenthosewhorepresentthe
mastersoftheglobeandthosewhoareinrebellionagainstthemasthe
writersofthehistoryofthepeopletheyoppress . Invariablythere isa
deeplyfeltneedtopresentthedominatedpeopleaschild-likecreatures,
inferiorbyanordinanceofnatureand,therefore,helplesswithoutthe
permanentruleandguidinghandofthemasterrace .
1 . "Prehistory"isanotherimpropertermwearestuckwith. Itsvery
originreflectstheself-glorificationofthosewhohadlearned towrite,
thewrittenrecordsbecomingsacredandtheprincipalsourceoftruth.
Thereisactuallynosuchthingas"prehistory . " Manwasleaving
historicalrecordsmillionsofyearsbeforehebegantowritethem .
293
294
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
PerhapsthehighlightsinthehisoryoftheBlacks-whichisallthis
workclaimstobe-wouldbeevenmoreclearlyunderstoodifIhad
writtenbackward,beginningwiththepresent . Foronething,less
documentationwouldberequired,forbyfocusingonpredominantly
blackSouthAfrica,ZimbabweancthepresentdaySudan,thewhole
worldcouldsee,almostataglance,exactlywhathappenedtoBlack
Egyptmanycenturiesago. Thes:riptoftheplay,"Whitesagainst
Blacks,"isthesame. Theeternaldriveglorifying"whiteblood"isthe
same,findingdirectexpressioninillCaucasiancontrolledsocialand
economicsystems:InSouthAfricatheDutchoffspringsbyblack
womenareclassified"Coloureds"andrankedasaseparateethnicgroup
belowtheDutchinsocialandeconomicstatus,butfarabovethe
Africans. InEgyptthe"Coloureds'graduallybecamethemajorityas
moreandmorewhitescameinaidmoreandmoreBlacksmoved
southward. Thename"Egyptian"wastakenoverbythewhitesand
theirnorthern"Coloureds"asapplyngtothemselvesalone. TheBlacks
whoweretheoriginalEgyptianswerenolongercalledEgyptians,justas
theBlacksinAfricatodayarenobngercalledSouthAfricansthere,
onlythewhitesareSouthAfricans.
BothinEgyptandSouthAfricatheschemewastomaketheMulattoes
aseparateethnicgroup,superiortttheBlacksbecauseofCaucasian
blood,thuscreatingmutualhatred,thatwouldmakeunitydifficultif
notimpossible. BygivingallMukttoesprivilegesandopportunities
deniedtoBlacks,theschemewor':ednotonlyinSouthAfricaand
ancientEgypt,butitwassuccessfulthroughouttheworldandstill
operatesintheclosingyearsofthe20thcentury. Thewhitemanhas
everyreasontoproudlyviewhishandiworkinmanagingpeopleand
pronounceitgood. IntheSudanthewhiteArabsweresosuccessfulthat
their"Coloureds"thereconsidertlemselvesArabs, notAfricans, and
lookdowncontemptuouslyontheBlacksintheSouthernSudan
exactlythesameastheEgyptianCoburedsregardedthissameonceall-
Blackregion(Ethiopia)centuries,go . ThepictureintheNorthern
Sudantoday,then,isexactlythesaneasthepicturewasinNorthern
Ethiopia(Egypt)afteritbecamepredominantlyAfro-AsianandAfro-
European;andthepictureintheSouthernSudantodayisthesameall-
BlackpictureSouthernEthiopia(tI>rSudanitself)presentedovertwo
thousandyearsago. Andjustastheirancientforefathersbattledthen
againsttheEgyptianColoureds,theBlacksintheSouthernSudanatthe
veryhourtheselineswerebeingvrittenwerestillarrayedinbattle
AViewFromtheBridge

295
againsttheArabs,nowpredominantly"Coloured"-andforthesame
ancientreasons.
Doesanyonewonderwhythisall-importantwhite-createdcolor
factorisskippedoverbywhitehistorians?Iftheywerescientificintheir
approachandobjectiveintheirmethods,theywoulddealwiththe
Mulattoroleinblackhistory,eventhoughitwasamajorsourceofwhite
powerandthewhiteman'smosteffectiveagentinhelpingtodestroy
blackcivilizationseverywheretheywerefound
. Whitehistorianswould
reallygrowninstatureiftheythemselveswrotethestory-wroteitasit
was
. Thiswillneverhappen,ofcourse
. Fortheywouldberecording
howtheincreasingnumberof"Coloureds"aftereachwhiteinvasion
madeiteasytocreditthemwithallthegreatadvancestheBlacks
themselveshadmade
. They,thewhitewriters,wouldbetellinghow
thesehalf-Blackscametobeclassifiedas"Caucasoids"andhowhelpful
thiswasinobliteratingBlackEgyptfromthepagesofhistory
. Bythis
masterstroke,throughtheirownsexualcreations,theywereableto
erasetheBlacksasthefirstbuildersofagreatcivilizationanddeliberately
robthemofthathonor .
Thelong-drawnoutprocessbywhichallthiswasaccomplishedhas
beendetailedinthiswork
. Ithadtobedealtwithalongwithother
factorsandforces,becausetheinferiorstatusofblackpeoplethroughout
theworldtodaytendstoconfirmthewhiteman'sdoctrinethattheyare
inferiorinfact
. Hiswholesystem,universallyapplied,wasdesignedto
maketheminferiorandkeepthemso
. Who,then,inthe20thcentury,
wouldbelievethatthesesameBlackswereoftheracethathadbuilt
greatcities,developedwriting,theartsandscienceswhenthewhitesof
Europewerestillroamingtribesofbarbarianwarriors?Thisbeinga
well-known(thoughnotpublicized)factofhistory,how,then,explain
thedescentoftheBlacksfromtheheightsreachedbytheirforefathers
tothedepthsinwhichtheyfindthemselvestoday?Thiswasthecentral
questioninallofourresearch
. Mostoftheimportantanswersaregiven
inprecedingchapters.
Futureresearch,especiallyfieldresearch,willrevealanevenmore
amazingstory
. Astudyofthegeneralhistoryofmankindrevealsno
peoplewhohavesufferedsomuchineveryareaoflifeandsurvived
.
OnethinksimmediatelyoftheJewsandthesystematicoppression
whichtheyhaveencounteredineveryland
. Buttheywerenot
enslaved-notsincethedayswhenwhitesweregenerallyenslaved
everywhereandslaveryhadnothingtodowithrace
. Wehaveseenthat
296
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
whiteslaveryended,afterthemurderousrevoltofwhiteslavesinthe
1 3thcentury,whiteslaveryendedandthereaftertheconcentrationwas
onBlacks,alone
. TheJews,beingwhite,andtenaciouslyclingingto
theirownheritage,wereabletofindescaperoutesnotopentoBlacks
anywhere:business,financeandscience
. Theywerefreetostudy,and
studytheydid,surpassingalmostallotherpeoplesintheresulting
intellectualsupremacy
. Learningbecameasecondreligion. Theyhad
seenthattwoofthecertainwaystoovercometheiroppressorswerethe
masteryofwealthandintellectualexcellence
. They,therefore,became
moneylenderstoemperors,kingsandpopes
. Meanwhile,theBlacks
werestillbeinghunteddownandenslavedand,whenfree,theywere
keptasclosetothestatusofslavesassucheffortscouldachieve
. Yet
todaywearebeginning,justbeginning,tolearnabouttheheightsfrom
whichtheywere, driven. Oneofthehighlyimportantthingsthisstudy
revealedwashowtheverycolorofblackcametomean"slave,"and,
thereforeequatedwithbadluck,inferiorityandshame
.
Wehavedaredtogobeyondthelimitsandtheguidelinessetforusby
theczarsofhistoryandgeographytodiscoverthatAncientEthiopia
coveredNorthAfricatotheMediterraneanSea,thatEgyptwasthe
northeasterndivisionofthatempire,andthatevenaslateas31 00B
. C.
whenwhiteAsiansheldLowerEgypt,Ethiopiansstillheldmostoftheir
homelandinUpperEgypt
. Inshort,almostallofEgyptwasasblackas
lateas31 00B. C. Isay"aslateas31 00B. C. " toemphasizethefactagain
thatallthisiswellknowntowhitehistoriansconcernedwithAfrica
.
TheyknowbecausewhentheearliestGreekandRomanwritersstudied
intheland,EgyptwasstillBlackEgypt,theyknewwhatthehistorywas
andtheylefttherecords
. EvenwhenHerodotusarrived,blackcivilization
wasknowntobesoancientthatitsbeginningwaslostinadistantpast
beyondmemory
. ButwhenhearrivedhefoundaverymixedEgyptian
populationofwhites,browns,yellowsandblacks
;thefirstthreegroups
nowdrawingalinebetweenthemselvesasEgyptianswhilegivingtothe
BlacksthelowestclassstatusalongwiththeiroriginalnameofEthiopians
(originalasGreekterm)
. Theremayhavebeensomejusticeinthissince
whenHerodotuswasinEgypt,themassesofnon-integratingBlackshad
themselvesrejectedbothEgyptandtheEgyptiannamesastheAsians
andAfro-Asiansbecamethemajority,andtheyhadconcentrated
belowanewborderlineasEthiopiansinanEthiopianempirethatno
longerincludedEgypt.
AViewFromtheBridge
297
Themostimportantfacthere,isthattheGreekswerethefirstEuro-
peanstoknowthatthemostadvancedcivilizationoftheancientworld
wasinAfrica,thefirstEuropeanstostudyandbedirectlyinfluencedby
it,andtoproclaimittotheworldboldlyandwithoutreservations
.
Indeed,itisfromGreekhistory,includingtheirmythsandlegends,that
wegetsomeofthebestinsightsintotheearlyhistoryoftheBlacks
. They
drewupontheLandoftheBlacksforarchitecturaldesigns,cityplanning,
sculpture,scienceandevenreligion
. Thesetheyreshapedandmade
Greek
. TheGreekswerethebesttravelingstudentsintheworld
. In
theirrelationswithAfrica,theyexemplified,asnootherpeoplehad,the
eclecticprocessofcivilizationandprogress-thereadinesstoborrow
fromotherpeoplesthebestintheirculture,tobereshapedormade
overtosuitone'sownidealsandneeds
. Havinglostmostofourown
writtenrecordsthroughdestruction,endlessdisplacement,andthe
graduallossofAfricanscribes,theblackworldowesthedebtof
everlastingthankstothoseearlyGreekandRomanwriters,butmostly
Greek,whohadincludedmuchofourancienthistorywiththeirown
andpasseditdownthroughthecenturies
. Wesalutethem!
TheearlydisruptionofAfricancivilization,aswehaveseen,was
followedbyalongseriesofabsoluteblockadestoprogress
. These
includedthecombinedforcesofnature
:Everexpandingdeserts,scarity
ofwater,hostileclimateandtheravagesofdiseasearisinglargelyfrom
conditionsoffamine
. Andyetwhiletheprimarycausesofdisasterhad,
fromtheearliesttimes,setinmotionthedispersionsofpeoplessearching
forsurvivalsites,throughitallkingdomsandempireswerebuilt,
destroyed,andbuiltagain
. Theseweretheslow-movingvoluntary
migrationsfromwhichsomanyofthesmallandlargesocietiesdeveloped
withdifferentlanguagesanddialects .
TheinvadersraidingintothecontinentfromAsiaandEurope
formedthesecondcenturies-longbattlefrontsagainstwhichtheBlacks
hadtofightforsurvival
. Thesewarsspannedseveralthousandyears,
andinanearlierchapterI"wonderedoutloud,"andstillwonder,how
anypeople,weakenedbyperpetualhungeranddisease,couldpossibly
carryonwarsofresistancetothewhiteinvadersforover5,000years
.
Thistheydid,andthistheirdescendantsmustknowandremember
withpride
:thatblackresistancetowhitedominationcoveredover
5,000years
. Whentheenslaverspressedinuponthemfromthenorth,
theeast,thewestandfromthesouth,theycontinuedthefight
;the
298

TheDestructionof BlackCivilization
resistancetoslaverycontinuedwhilethecontinentwasbeingdepopulated
byitwiththeactiveparticipationofmanyblackchiefsandkingsseeking
wealthandthewhiteman'spromiseofsecurityfromalloftheirblack
fores.
Thethirdbattlelinesforsurvivalwere,therefore,internal,andpoints
uponeofthemaincontributionstheymadetowardstheirdomination
byotherpeoples
. Astimewentontheybecamesopreoccupiedwith
warringagainsteachotherthattheyseemedtoregardthewhitesas
friendsbycomparison
. Thisseemingcontradictionisbaffling . Forwhile
thereisnothingnewaboutapeoplefightingamongthemselves,they
generallystopifoutsidersattack,forgettheirdifferencesandjoinunited
ranksagainstthecommonfoes . Caucasianswillwagefrightfulwars
againstotherCaucasians,butwillquicklyunite,asthoughbyinstinct,
againstnon-whites,notonlyinwarsbutininternationalpolicies
. They
havedevelopedakindofbuilt-insolidarityintheirrelationswithnon-
Caucasianpeoples
. Thisfact,asmuchasanythingelse,helpstoexplain
theirpositionasmastersoftheworld.
Ontheotherhand,andinglaringcontrast,disunityandnoncooperation
havebeencharacteristicofblacksocieties . Andthisfact,morethan
anythingelse,helpsintheunderstandingnotonlywhytheBlacks
eventuallylostintheirbattlesagainstthewhites,butalsowhyeven
todaytheyarestillunabletodealwiththewhiteworld
. Thissituationof
antagonism,self-hatredandattendingdisunityintheraceisamatterof
suchgraveconcernthatIhavereturnedtoitagainandagainthroughout
thesediscussions.
TheonlyreasonfordealingwiththeroleplayedbytheMulattoesin
blackhistory,forexample,wastoshowhowbafflingandcomplexthe
problemis
. Fortheywereusednotonlytohelpdisguisethemostsignifi-
cantachievementsofBlacks,buttheywerealsoeffectivelyusedto
furtherenhanceandperpetuatethealreadyexistingconflictsanddivisions
amongthem
. Nowtheyhadjustasmuchrighttobeclassifiedaswhite
astheydidtobeclassifiedasblack. Buttheyfounditexpedientto
operateinbothworlds,exploitingtheBlackswhileservingtheinterests
ofthewhites
. Therecouldneverbeanyclear-cutjudgmentordefense
againstinternalsubversionalonganvcolorline,becauseinalmostevery
blacksocietyitwaspossibletofindanyMulattoeswhowereasloyalto
theraceasanyonecouldbe,and,aswell,pureBlackswhomightbe
paidagentsoftheArabsorEuropeans . ThestateofBlackAfrica,then,
wasastateofperpetualfears,fearsofbeinghunteddownandattacked
AView From theBridge

299
fromwithout,fearsofbetrayalsbyunknownfollowersfromwithin,
fearsofattacksbyothermigratingBlackswhowerethemselvesfleeing
fromdanger,fearsofhunger,ever-mountingdiseaseandofthealarming
numberofdeaths
. Thesefearsofallkindswereadisease-
. allproducing
analarmingsourceofmutualsuspicionsanddistrust
. Centuriesofthis
producedtheamazingoutcome
:Blacksbecametheirownworstenemies
and,therefore,increasinglyahelplesspeople
.
Themigrationswerethemovingphenomenainthetragedy
. For
whilewehaveseenthatmanyofthemendedwiththerebirthofnew
statesfromoneendofthecontinenttotheother,statesthatstooduntil
ArabsandEuropeansdeliveredthefinaldeathblows,millionsofother
Blackswereunabletoachievethistemporaryglory
. Thesewerethe
Africanswhosedailytaskwassheersurvival-nothingless,nothing
more
. Everyoneoftheircommunitieshadfourtosixmonthsofeach
yearwhicheveryoneknewas"StarvingTimes"-theperiodwhen
childrenatedirtandthebarkfromtrees
;whenitwasagreatoccasionif
foodenoughcouldbefoundfortwoorthreemealsaweek
;whento
findawaterholeoralittlestreamthathadnotcompletelydriedupwas
evenmorejoyfulthanfindingsomethingtoeat,andatime,whensome
motherswouldstealawayintothebushwiththeirlittleskeleton-like
childrenwithswollenbelliestodiequietlyintheshade-thiswas
"StarvingTimes
. "Duringthisawfulperiodofhelloneartheventhe
better-offcattle-raisinggroupsoutsideofthetsetseflyregionssuffered
greatlossesinherdsastheywanderedfarandwideinthefranticsearch
ofunparchedgrasslandandwater
.
Innoneofthisarewedealingwiththemerelyunusualmisfortunes
whichareoccasionallyvisiteduponalmosteverypeople
. No . Weare
dealingherewiththeunusual,somethingquitedifferentinthegeneral
experienceofmankind,forwearereviewinghereapermanentsituation
which,incombinationwiththeforcesoutlinedinforegoingpages,
destroyedthecivilizationofanentirerace,checkedprogress,andforced
countlessthousandsintobarbarism
. Thesewerethepeoplewhosought
freedomandsecurityintheforests,swampsandcaves
. Some,unableto
advanceundertheseconditions,neverthelessbattledagainstsinkingto
thelevelofsavages
;somerebuilttheirstateseveninthevastforestsand
stillothers,famine-crazed,becamesavagesorsemi-barbarians
. Manyof
thegroupsthatdescendedtothisloweststateofexistencewereisolated
inareaswhere"StarvingTimes"wasnotaperiodofmonthsbutof
years.
300

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
TheworstoutcomefromtheforcedmigrationsalloverAfricainthe
longsearchforplacesofrefugeandfreedomweretheendlesssplintering
offofsocietiesintocountlesslittleisolatedstates
. Overall,itisdifficultto
seehowitcouldhavebeenotherwise . Theyhadtosplitup . Unity,in
termsofkeepingaverylargegrouptogether,wasimpossible
. Seldom
could1 0,000peoplemove enmasse, nottomention1 00,000 . And
1 00,000wouldbeasmallnumberifitwasagreatstatethatwasbeing
disorganizedanddestroyed. Iftheywerebeingattackedbyinvaders,
notonlyexpediencybutlifeitselfdictatedthattheysplitupintosmall
groups,eachunderanelectedleader
. Inthiswayboththechancesof
escapefromtheenemyandoffindingfoodandwatersomewherewere
betterthanwouldbethecaseiftheymovedinonevastbody . Someof
theseseparatedgroupsdidindeedmeetagainbychancebeforethey
hadbecometotalstrangerstoeachother
. Theseoftensettledinthe
samegeneralregionandnearenoughtoeachothertomaintainthe
samelanguage
. Othersmetagain,generationsaftertheoriginalsegmen-
tations,asstrangersspeakingindifferenttonguesandwithdifferent
patternsofculture-"strangers,"yetalldescendantsfromthesame
society
. Worsestill,theBlackshavebeensobusybeing"different"
throughalltheseyearsthattheyhavebeenunabletoseethatunderlying
alloftheirculturalvarietiesisthecompellingevidencethattheyareall
membersofthesameraceandhavethesamecommonorigin
.
Themostremarkableoutcomeofthemigrations,withtheirfragmen-
tations,disunitiesandinterminableturmoilandcrisesisthattheyheld
on,tenaciously,tothesamedemocraticandpoliticalsystemsandthe
samesocialinstitutionsmaintainedfromoneendofAfricatotheother,
justasthoughtheywerestillmembersofoneandthesamevastAfrican
society
. Thisfactwasimmediatelyreflectedintheinstitutionsand
politicalstructureofeverynewstatethatemergedduringallthose
centuriesofmigrations
. JustastheCounciltoldEthiopiankingswhat
theycouldandcouldnotdo,thesameremainedtruethroughoutthe
continentwhereblackruleprevailedaccordingtotradition
. Thiswas
why, 3,000 yearslaterand 3,000 milesfarthersouth,aShakacould
complainbitterlybecausetheZuluCouncilof"yesmen"failedtocheck
himinhisexcesses . Findinghimselfanabsoluteautocrat,hewas
surprisedtofindthathehadbeenallowedtogetawaywithit
.
AViewFromtheBridge
301
AVIEWFROMTHEBRIDGE
What,then,is"theviewfromthebridge"?Theoutlookisgrim
. For
theblackpeopleoftheworldthereisnobrighttomorrow
. TheBlacks
maycontinuetoliveintheirdreamworldofsinging,dancing,marching,
prayingandhoping,becauseofthedeludingsignsofwhatlookslike
victories-stilltrustingintheultimatejusticeofthewhiteman
;buta
thousandyearshencetheirdescendantswillbesubstantiallywherethe
racewasathousandyearsbefore
. Forthewhitepeople,stillmastersof
theworld,donothavetoyield
. Theyhaveneverchangedtheirreal
attitudetowardblackpeopleduringallthepassingcenturies,andthere
isabsolutelynothinguponwhichtobasethebeliefthattheywillchange
inthecenturiestocome
. Concessionsonsomedemands,yes. Expe-
diencydictatesthis
. Notingthattheblackmassesacceptasleadersany
andall"Negroes"whoholdimportantpositions,thewhites,who
controlthesepositionsdirectlyorindirectly,actuallydeterminewhothe
leadersofBlacksshallbeasindependentblackorganizationsemerge .
Thedanglingattractionsofgovernmentandfoundationgrantsarethere
toquiettheoutspokenbutmoney-hungry"leaders
. "Indeed,someof
theseleaderswerequickindiscoveringthatthemostcertinroutetoa
handsomegrantor"loan"ispretendedoutrageandshouting"militancy
. "
Thewhitesknowthisalltoowell
. Theyarequitewillingtopour
millionsofdollarsintoallkindsofblackcommunityprojectsprecisely
becausetheyknowthatthesephonyleaderswilldonothingthatwill
reallyimprovetheconditionsunderwhichtheblackmasseslive .
Blacksarestillhopelesslynaiveiftheydonotyetunderstandthatthe
whitesneverdid,anddonotnow,intendtoincludeBlacksinthe
doctrineofhumanequality,equaljusticeoranythingelsethatmeans
realequality
. ThewhitedeterminationtokeepBlacksinaninferior
positionissodeepthattheywillbattleagainsttheenactmentofcivil
rightslawsevenwhentheyknowtherewillbenorealenforcement
. The
oppositionistotheveryideaofequality .
ThoseNegroeswhoaresofranticallyfightingtoescapefromthe
Africanracebywayof"integration"andamalgamationwillcontinueto
meeteverlastinganduniversaloppositionfromthewhites
. TheNegro
drivetobewithwhitesineverysituationisequalledbythewhitedeter-
minationtopreventit
. Yetthewhitesmusttrulyfeeladeepsenseof
prideinseeingthisNegroleadershipsoclearlyvalidatingtheirown
beliefinwhitesuperiority
. Theirpretended"QualityEducation"objec-
302

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
tiveactuallycollapsesunderthewheelsofbusesfor"racialbalance . "
Theyareproclaimingtoalltheworldthat,regardlessofgeneraldesegre-
gation,inanyall-blackorpredominantlyblackpopulation,theBlacks
themselvesareutterlyincapableofachievingormaintaininghighstan-
dardsofexcellenceineducationor,indeed,anythingelse . Herewe
have, Withintherace, theintolerablesituationofananti-blackgroup
proclaimingtherace'sinherentinferioritymoreeffectivelythanthe
whitesevercould,preciselybecausethisgroupisregardedas"black. "
Furthermore,andevenofgreaterimportance,theamalgamationist
Negroesgenerallyholdmostoftheadministrativeandkeyteaching
postsintheeducationalsystem
. Throughsheerindifference,therefore,
theycanblockthedevelopmentofthequalityeducationinblack
schoolswhile,atthesametime,sendingtheirownchildrentowhite
privateschools. Theirremaininginterestintheblackschoolsisthe
moneyderivedfromtheirsupervisoryandteachingpositions .
Meanwhile,blackstudentsintheso-calledintegratedschoolsand
collegesthroughouttheUnitedStatescontinuetotelltheworldthat
theyareassegregated within astheywere without. Farfrombeing
accepted,dailyinsultsofvariouskindsoccurinsidetheclassrooms,in
thehalls,andontheoutside. Whenfightsbreakout, astheyinevitably
do,andthepolicearecalledin,-theygenerallyarresttheblackstudents,
notthewhitestudents,nomatterwhostartedthetrouble
. Apress
report,September1 5, 1 972, simplyread:"During. therecesshoura
blackmalestudentwascalledanoffensivenamebytwowhiteboysand
pushedagainstthewall. Ageneralfightbrokeoutbetweenblackand
whitestudents. Policewerecalled. Thirteenblackstudentswerearrested
andjailed. "
Now,ofcourse,allthisispublicinformation,andisnewstonoone .
Butsomeofthesalientfactsthatseemtostandoutclearlyareasfollows :
1
. WhiteAmericaisdefinitelyandunalterablyopposedtotheinte-
grationandamalgamationofthetworaces .
2 . . BlackAmerica,themasses,areequallyopposedtotheintegration
andamalgamationoftheraces.
3 . Thedriveformoreandmoreamalgamationis,andalwayshas
beenspearheadedbythose"coloureds"whomaintainaseparatist
societywithintheblackrace,andwhoarenot,andneverhavebeen,
identifiedwiththeblackmasses.
4. Sinceeverybodyknowsthattherearemillionsoflight-skinned
membersoftherace,someaswhiteasanyCaucasian,whoareas
AViewFromtheBridge
303
Africaninspiritandareasdevotedtotheraceasanyoneelse,the
crucialquestionishowlongwillthisotherwhiteorientedgroupbe
allowedtoblocktherealprogressoftherace?
5
. Thosewhoseekandhopeforadmittanceintowhitesocietyshould
notbecriticizedorcondemned
. Aspreviouslystated,itisanindividual
matterofchoice,anditisbothnaturalandrightiftheir"blood-call"isto
thewhiteraceratherthantotheBlack . Buttheycannotbeallowedto
usetheirimposedleadershippositionstobrow-beatallBlackAmericans
intothelineofmarchtowardwhitesociety per se, andthustowardsthe
ultimateextinctionofBlacksassuchinthiscountry :Itisalongthisline
againsttheirbenigngenocidethattherealbattleforsurvivalasadistinct
peoplemustbefought.
6 . Thedrivefor"integration"ismostdamnableononescorealone
:It
isadeliberateandstepped-upattackonthemostsignificantaspectsof
theBlackRevolutionoftheSixties . ThatRevoltwasthereversalinthe
psychologyoftherace,aquestforitslostmanhoodbyfirstemancipating
themindfromthebondageofover-Caucasianization,andtoestablish
forever
. therealbasisforequalitywiththerestofmankindfromthe
rediscoveredpagesofahistorythatwassupposedtobe"lost"becauseit
revealsalonglineofgiantsunsurpassedbyanypeopleonearth
.
TheNegrointegrationistsarehostiletotheBlackRevolution,andaim
todefeatitsmainaimsbyforcingtheblackchildrenandyouthofthe
nationmoredirectlyunder"whiteeducation
. "Onceagain,asinslavery,
theywillbecutoffnotonlyfromthehistoryoftheirrace,buttheywill
alsobecutofffromaknowledgeofalltheotherfieldsinwhichBlacks
haveexcelled,andfromwhichcomestheinspirationto"go-forthanddo
likewise
. "ThegreatmentalrevolutionamongtheBlacksthateventuates
inmoreandmoreself-respectandanewsenseofmanhoodandself
worth,allthisalarmstheNegrointegrationists,andtheyareresolvedto
.
defeatitbykeepingtheBlacksfirmlyunderthemindcontrolofwhite
institutions.
7. Theyareabsolutelyrightaboutthegenerallackof"qualityeduca-
tion"inblackschools,theveryschoolsinwhichtheyaretheprincipal
supervisorsandteachers
. Buttheirmindsandinterestsareelsewhere.
"Ghetto"childrenareunteachable,theyassurethemselves
. Andthey
andtheirequallymisguidedprincipalsandteachersofallkindswill
fighttothedeathaClarkoranyotherplanthatisexpresslydesignedto
improvetheteachingandlearningprocessesinblackschools
. Theyfear
304

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
theveryideaof"communitycontrol"becauseitpresentsthepossibility
thatirateparentsmightdemandtheremovalofthemerelyjobholding
andindifferentprincipalsandteachers .
8. ThemillionsofAfricansofmixedbloodwhohavealwaysbeen
steadfastanddevotedtotheraceknowthatwhenthewhitemangives
themapreferentialstatusabovethe"unmixed,"butalwaysbelow
himself,hedoessotomaintainthemythofsuperior"whiteblood. "
TheirredemptionfromthesinofAfricanbloodisproportionatetothe
amountof"whiteblood"intheirveins . Indeed,ifoneislightenough,or
near-white,hemayevenbeappointedSecretaryofaDepartmentofthe
U. S. Government,andamemberofthePresident'sCabinet-andstill
notequal.
Furthermore,whiteAmericahasfoundthattheirpurposeswere
servedbestbyclassifyingas"Negro"allpersonswithanyamountof
Africanblood,nomatterhowsmall. Thisobviousinjusticehasnever
beenopenlychallengedevenbythosedirectlyaffectedandwhobitterly
resentbeingsoclassified.
ButtheUnitedStatesrefusedtofolloweithertheSouthAfrican
systemofmakingtheirAfro-Dutchoffspringsaseparateethnicgroup
bylawandcallingthem"Coloureds,"ortheancientpracticeofEgypt
andtheArabworldofclassifyingmixedbreedsas"white . "Thisfacthas
hadatremendousimpactonintegrationistNegroesintheUnited
States,leadingmanytoidentifywiththeArabworld,ratherthan
Africa;andeventoadoptArabicnames,ratherthanAfricannames. In
fact,becauseoftheirpowerfulholdonAfricathroughthereligionof
Islam,andthevastColouredpopulationinmanyArabstates,many
whiteArabswillpubliclystate(forAfricanears)thattheyareanon-
whitepeople.
However,eveniftheUnitedStatesdidattempttoreclassifythis
groupaseitherwhiteorcoloured,themillionswhoareboundtothe
Africanracebyunbreakabletiesoflovewouldfightsuchamovetoits
death. Thesehavenodesiretobeeitherwhiteor"coloured . "Forlike
thelateCongressmanAdamClaytonPowell,whocouldhavepassedfor
"white"anywhereintheworld,theywouldsay,"CallmeBlack!"-know-
ingfullwellthat"Black"refersnottoanyone'scolor(forwhichnoneis
responsible),but"Black"definesone'sattitudetowardsthehomeland
ofhisancestorswhichfromtimesimmemorialwascalled "TheLandof
theBlacks. "
A ViewFromtheBridge

305
SomethingdifferentdevelopedinBlackAmericafor,whereas,in
mostotherpartsoftheworldtheMulattoesformanelitecaste,thisis
trueonlyofcertaingroupsintheUnitedStates-suchastheWezotsof
MarylandandVirginia(alsoknownbyothernames)andtheirspill-over
inWashington,D . C. Ingeneral,thedividedloyaltiessplitthemasanti-
Africanandpro-African,whichisthewayitalwayshasbeen.
The"viewofthebridge"thusfarhasbeenarefocusonthefutilityof
ourcontinuingandchild-likefaithinthewhiteman'sjustice,andbelief
thatourprotests,marchingdemonstrations,singingandprayingwill
changehissixthousandyearsofhostilitytous;andthattheNegroes
whofranticallybattleforadmissiontowhitesurburbia,andtoits
privateclubs,golfcourses,swimmingpools,etc . ,willneverbewelcomed
eventhoughtheymanybe"near-white"incolor . Thefinalfocalpointin
thisconnectionisthatthemasses,fromtheblackestoftheBlackstothe
lightestofthelights,donotcareatallaboutsociallymixingwiththe
whites.
They,thewhites,ontheirpart,havenoreasonorinclinationtodo
morethanmaketokenconcessionsfromtimetotime,thusquieting
noisy"leaders,"butneverchangingtheinferiorsituationofthemasses .
TheystillownandcontrolthewealthofAfrica,directlyandindirectly,
andfromit,alongwiththatfromotherareasoftheworld,theyhave
developedtechnologiesandaworldcommerce-allfullyprotectedby
governments,alsoundertheircontrol,thatassurethemofcontinued
whitesupremacy. Thisphenomenalsuccess,thisunquestionable
"positionofstrength,"derivedfromtheirconquestsofotherpeoples
andtheirwealth,hasledthemtobelievethattheyare,asamatterof
fact,thesuperiorpeopleand,therefore,therightfulrulersofthisplanet .
Why,then,shouldtheybeexpectedtoyield?"HumanRights?""Equal
Justice?"Whatarethesebutnarcoticslogansforthemasses,eventhe
whitemasses,whicharequicklyconcededas"ideals"and"principles"
everywhere?
Themassesofpoorwhitesalsoliveontheseslogansandidealsof
equaljustice. Theyareapitifulpeople,oftenhalf-starvedthemselves,
yetlivingandhavingtheirbeinginthehappythoughtthattheyare
membersofthewhiteconqueringrace,andthattheonceenslaved
Blacksamongthemarelivingevidenceoftheirownsuperiority . They
enjoythegloryreflectedfromthedominationandpowerachievedby
therulingminorityoftheirrace,tooignoranttorealizethattheyare
usedasthetoolsofhatetosupporttheirwealthandpowerconcentrated
306

TheDestruction ofBlack Civilization


inrelativelyfewhands . Whenthesepoorwhitessecurethekindofjobs
thatmovethemupinthatglorylandcalled"MiddleClass,"theygetthe
mostconcreteevidenceoftheirinnatesuperiority . Theyfindthatthe
economicsystemissostructuredthat,(1 )tosecurebetterjobsand
advancement,thenumberonequalificationistobewhite; (2) thateven
whereonlyatokennumberofnon-whitesareemployed,theymaybe
requiredtohavecollegedegrees(andsometimestheMaster's)whilethe
highersalariedwhites,includingthesupervisors,maynothaveahigh
schooleducation. Thesearenotmerely"may"and"maynot"theories .
IntheUnitedStatestheofficialstatisticsshowthat,nation-wide,black
collegegraduatesnotonlyearn$1 ,040ayearlessthanwhitehighschool
graduates,buttheyearnlessthanawhite1 0thgrader. Thewhite
collegegraduatesaverages $3,095 morethantheblackcollegegraduate;
(3) Blacksmustpaymoretolivethanwhites . Thelowerwagesthey
receiveandthehigherpricestheymustpayarebuilt-inguaranteesthat
theywillalwaysoccupyaninferiorplaceinthesociety . Merchantsnow
generallyhavetwopricesforthesamegoods,one"black"andone
"white. "WiththeuneducatedBlackstheyarehavingafieldday . They
areequallysuccessfulinrobbingtheeducatedblack"middleclass"
becauseofitsabidingfaithandstatus-strivingcomplex . Thesearethe
"Negroes"whoreadilypay $225 amonthforahousejustvacatedby
whiteswhorenteditforonly $1 25, and"Negroes"whobuy $25,000
homeslistedtowhitesforfrom$5,000to$1 0,000less-provided,of
course,that"whitefolkspreviouslylivedthere. "Andthe"InnerCity"
foodmarketschargehigherpricesforcheaperbrandsofcannedgoods
andequallyhighpricesforleftoversfromtheirfirstclassstoresinsur-
roundingwhitesuburbia ;and(4)theinsurancecompaniesfacethis
economicwarontheBlacksboldlyandactuarially . Theysimplycharge
Blacksmoreforlessbenefits. Blacksmustpaymuchhigherpremiums
thanwhitesforlifeinsurance,forexample,becauseithasbeen
determinedthattheirlifeexpectancyis1 0yearslessthanthatofthe
whites. Fortheinsuranceindustryitisstrictlyamatterofbusiness . They
knowthatthetotaleconomicsystemissostructuredagainsttheBlacks
thatitisimpossibleforthemtomaintainproperhealthstandards . Being
Black,theymustdiefirst-by1 0years .
Allthisgivescomfortandassurancetothepoorandonce-poor"silent
majority. "Theyfeelthattheyhaveeveryreasontobesilent,fordoes
notthissilentandsecretwaragainsttheBlacks,carriedoneveryhourof
theirexistenceanddeeplystructuredintheveryfabricofnationallife,
AViewFrom theBridge

307
publicandprivate,doesthisnotreassurethemeverydaythattheyare,
indeed,membersofthesupremerulingrace?
The"ViewfromtheBridge"hadtofocusfirstontheUnitedStates'
becausesomuchpointstothislandastheplacewherethefirstmajor
racialexplosionislikelytooccur
. OnewouldthinkthatSouthAfrica
feelsmoresecurewithhugeAmericaninvestmentsandmilitarybacking
thanAmericaitselfis .
AVIEWOFTHEMOTHERLAND
ThisbringsustothemainreasonforthefocusonAmerica . Itquickly
assumedtheroleofthewholewhitewestasthevariouspowerswere
forcedfromtheirimperialruleinAsiaandAfrica-forced,thatistosay,
fromdirectpoliticalrule,orthepoliticalfunctionsofcolonialism. The
worldatlarge,inthegreatestmisconceptionofmoderntimes ;tookthis
tomeanAfricanindependenceatlast,Africanfreedomandtheendof
Europeancolonialism
. TheplaintruthisthattheAfricanstatestoday
arenotevenhalffreeandindependent,forcolonialismwasfromthe
beginningexactlywhatitistoday,aneconomicsystemforthecontrol
andexploitationofthewealthofotherpeoples
.
Itwasanditisaprivateenterprisesystem . Colonialgovernmentwas
initiallycompanygovernment
. Whenthepoliticaltaskgottoobig
becauseoftheincreasingrivalriesbetweenthegreatpowers,themother
countrieswouldappointcolonialgovernorsandotheradministrators
. In
otherwords,governmentbythehomecountrycameinasaprotecting
umbrellaforthemainobjective
:economicexploitation. Thateconomic
controlstillprevailsalloverAfrica
. Itisnot"neo-colonialism,"butthe
oldcolonialismitself,stillcarryingonunderthebeautifulandhigh
flyingflagsof"independent"Africannations. Thevariousmineral
resourcesaresovastandinvolvesomanybillionsofdollarsthat
individualAfricans,calledupontodecidewhomtheywillserve-their
peopleorthemastersofthecountry'swealth-oftendecidetoservethe
latter. ThefactthatAfricaisstillineconomicbondagetoherformer
politicalmastersbringsusbacktoourpointofdeparture .
Asthemorepoliticalcolonialismdisappeared,theUnitedStates
rushedintofillthebreach, to takeupthebannerasthe"Leaderofthe
FreeWorld"(theAtlanticorWesternpowers),TheAmericanmilitary
basesscatteredallovertheworldhavemeaningfarbeyondany
30 8

TheDestruction of BlackCivilization
supposedCommunistthreat. RichEuropeannationsnolongerneedto
maintaintheir`usualarmiesfordefense,fortheirGreatWhiteBrother,
UncleSam,willgladlydraftmentokeepAmericanforcesthere.
Americanarmedmightiseverywhere,readytorushintoplaytheself-
assignedrole. ThisnewworldmissionoftheUnitedStatesreplaces,as
farasitcan,themoredirectruleoftheWesternpowersoverthenon-
whitepeoples. ThethreattoBlackAfricaandblackpeopleeverywhere
shouldbeobvious.
Fromtheverybeginning,forexample,theAmericansecretpolicywas
togivelittleornoassistancetoAfrica. Outrightgrants,suchasthe
billionspouredintoEurope,wereneverexpectedbytheblacknations .
TheAfricanshadsenseenoughtoknowthatsuchfreegiftswerefor
whitesonly. Buttheydidexpecttosecureloansonreasonabletermsof
repayment. TheAmericanattitudeonloanstoAfricanstatesturnedout
tobeaboutthesameasitwouldhavebeeniftheyhadbeenbeggingfor
freegrants. TherewasaverydefiniteAfricanpolicy,however . The
policywasnottoannouncethepolicy . Therewasapublicannouncement
ofwhatwasintendedasa"policy"earlyinthe1 960s. ItissaidtoAfrica,
ineffect,thattheUnitedStateswouldcontinueitsfriendlyinterestand,
asalways,saidlittleornothinginthematterofloans . Otherfriendly
adviceincludedthewell-knowninformationthattheycouldapplyto
theWorldBank. ThebigAmericanairandmilitarybaseinEthiopia
madeitafavoredAfricanstatelikeLibya . Americaninvestmentsintwo
otherAfricanstatesenabledthemtosecureloans.
Blacknationsthatmightovercometheforeigneconomicstranglehold
withintheircountriesbyincreasedproductionandexportsforforeign
exchangefindtheirexporttradeblockedbythetariffwallsofthesame
UnitedStatesandthesameEuropeanpowerswhoseindustrialmachines
wouldbecrippledwithoutthewealth,mineralresourcesandbasic
strategicmaterialstheystillcontrolandshipoutofAfrica . Inaword,the
Blacksneitherownnorcontrolthewealthoftheirownland. Supposedly
freeagain,theyareunabletorebuildevenaswellastheirmigrating
forefathersdidbeforetheArabandEuropeanconquests. Asshownin
previouschapters,freedofthewhiteman'scontrol,acontrolfrom
whichhmostofthemwerefleeing,'theywereoverridingallobstaclesand
successfullybuildingandrebuildingnewstatesuntiltheywerefinally
overtakeninthe1 9thandaslateasthebeginningofthe20thcentury .
TheoverallViewfromtheBridge,then,issimplytheviewofwhereand.
AViewFrom theBridge
309
howtheblackpeopleoftheworldstand today afterasummaryreview
ofatleast6,000yearsoftheirhistory
. And,whetherthefocusison
Africa,theCaribbeans,theAmericasorelsewhere,theyarenowseen
standingattheCrossroadsofhistory,andconfused
.
" . . . OutoftheStormypast
`TillWeNowstandatlast. . . "WHERE?
CHAPTERXIII
TheBlackWorld
attheCrossroads
ONEOFTHEMOSTTROUBLESOMEFACTSINTHESTUDYOF
historyoververylongperiodsoftimes,suchasseveralcenturies,isthat
atruthmayslowlyemerge,periodafterperiod,untilitclearlyforms
itselfintoatruthimpregnable,afactnowhereexplicitlystatedassuchin
themassofdatacovered. Asonecontinuestomoveondownthrough
thecenturies,countlesseventsandsituationsmaycontinuetomake
supportingadditionstowhathasalready -beenestablishedasanunas-
sailablefact. Yetthattruthmaybesorepugnant,soutterlyvoidofany
rationalorintelligentreasonforitsexistence,thathardlyanyhistorian
wouldwishtostateitinhiswork .
YetIdidjustthatwhenIwrotethat"thewhitesaretheimplacable
foe,thetraditionalandeverlastingenemyoftheBlacks . "Thecompelling
reasonforpubliclyputtingthisdeclarationinitshistoricalcontextis
clear :Thenecessaryre-educationofBlacksandapossiblesolutionof
racialcrisescanbegin,strangelyenough,onlywhenBlacksfullyrealize
thiscentralfactintheirlives : ThewhitemanistheirBitterEnemy . For
thisisnottherantingofwild-eyedmilitancy,butthecalmandunmis-
takableverdictofseveralthousandyearsofdocumentedhistory. Even
thesamplecase-studyoftenblackstatesinthisworkshowsthateach
andeveryoneofthosestateswasdestroyedbywhites .
31 0
TheBlackWorldattheCrossroads

3 1 1
Facingthisrealitydoesnotcallforincreasinghatredorscreamingand
utterlyfutiledenunciations
. Farfromit. Foralltheseshoutingemotional
outburstsbyBlacksareinthemselvesindicationsofweakness,because
theybecloudthemindandpreventthecalmandclearthinkingthatis
absolutelyrequiredforplanningiftheraceistobesavedfromfinaldes-
truction. "Destruction"isnottoostrongatermhere
. Onlyfoolswillbe
unabletoseethattheraceisagainbeinghemmedin,surroundedbyits
enemies,andcannotsurviveforeverunderwhatmightbecalledastate
ofgradualsiege
. Those"Negroes"whoarestillpleadingwiththewhites
forbrotherhoodthrough"integration"aresodeafandblindthatthey
areunabletogetthewhiteenemy'sreplytothesefranticpleasfor
acceptancethroughintegration .
Thereplyofwhiteswassoloudandclearthatitwasheardaround
theworld
:Whensegregationinschoolsandresidenceswasoutlawed
throughouttheUnitedStates,whitesfledfromthecitiestothesuburbs
justasthoughaplaguehadstruck,orsomedeadlydiseasewasspreading
.
TheBlackswereleftaloneinthecities,nowcalledghettoesorthe"inner
city. "Thiswasrejection,total,complete
. TheblackyouthofAmerica
gotthismessagefromthewhitesfirst,andtheygotit-quickly
. They
formednewbattlelines. Severalmillionsof"MiddleClass"Negroesand
theirleadershavenotreceivedthemessageyet,andprobablynever
will
. Forthemthewhitemanistheshipandallelseisthesea. They
themselvesdonotfeelcompetenttodevelopthehigheststandardsof
lifeintheall-blackcommunitiescreatedbytheverywhitestheyso
muchworship
. Forthem,therecanbeno"qualityeducation"unless,by
hookorcrook,somewhitefaces,anykindofwhitefaces,areinthe
classrooms
. Theirmaindriveistoforcethefleeingwhitestoaccept
themor,"Please,0yousuperiorpeople,allowustobussomeofour
childrentoyourschools!"Astheyachievethesehollowvictoriesonthe
integrationfront,theyaddanewcry :"Giveus racialbalance!"
These Negroes haveneithertheethnicpridenortheself-respectthat
issocharacteristicoftheAmericanIndians,JapaneseandChinese ;and
theyseemutterlyinsensitivetobeingopenlyrejectedbythewhites,and
battleonwiththefantasticideathattheycanforcethewhitestoaccept
themsocially .
OnemajorreasonwhyyoungBlackAmericaunderstoodthewhite
positionsoquicklywasthatbysomehappycircumstanceinhistorythey
weremorecloselyattunedtothegreatcommonpeopleand,therefore,
sharedtheircommonaspirationsandcommonsenseNoonehastotell
3 1 2

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
themthattherecanbenobiggerfarcethanthe"integration"ofhated
andoppressedBlackswiththeverywhiteenemieswhooppressthem.
Boththefarceofintegrationandthe"everlasting"whiteenemyare
regularlyhighlightedintheworld'spress :raceriotsinintegratedU. S.
armiesinEuropeandevenatwarinIndo-China;raceriotsincampsin
U. S. A. ; raceriotsonbattleshipsofintegratedU. S. Navyand,inshort,
opencombatbetweenBlacksandwhiteswhentheyareforcedtogether
asequals. Thereispeaceandharmony,ofcourse,whentheBlacks
humbly"stayintheirplace"-theirsubordinateplace .
UsingthecourtstoforcewhitestoacceptBlacksasequalsisquite
futileevenwhenandifallthethousandsofcourtbattlesarewon. White
Americaisoverwhelminglyagainst"integration . "AndwhiteAmericans
arenodifferentthanotherwhitesthroughouttheworld. Theonly
instancesintheirhistorywhenintegrationwaswelcomedwerewhen
theoutcomewouldputtheminamoredominatingposition,oroneof
personalsecurity,moneyandaprestigetheycouldneverotherwise
achieve. Hence,becauseofthehighpremiummanyNegroesgivetoa
whiteskin,themostordinarywhiteswilleagerlymarryanyblackstaror
anyotherBlacks,iftheyhavemoney . Butinnoperiodinhistory,and
thispointisimportant,havethemassesofBlackssoughtintegrationand
generalamalgamationwiththewhites . Duringalloftheirtravails,their
prideinracewassteadfast. Muchoftheso-called"self-hatred"actually
reflectsasenseoffutilityanddespairoverlackofleadershipandunity
foraction
. They,theblackmasses,rejectedgeneralintegrationasa
movementtoobliteratetheblackraceassuch . Theblackmassesstill
rejectit. Ihavepointedoutblindalleysintowhichwearebeingledby
leaderswhoseaimsandobjectivesarequitepersonalandnotthoseof
theblackmasses. 'Theseblackmassesdemandabsoluteequalityonall
fronts,preciselythesamerights,privilegesandresponsibilitiesasall
1 . Nooneshouldpresumetosaywhattheattitudeofanylargegroup
ofpeopleiswithoutlearningwhatitisdirectlyfromthepeople
concerned. Our"studyofviewpoints"beganin 1 955. Thesurvey
startedatTuskegeewith 52 schoolsupervisors,principals,teachersand
graduatestudentsfrom 1 2 states. Theyweretoconductpollsfromtime
totimeintheirrespectivestatesoveraperiodofyears . -Noformalities.
Norush. Justtwosimplequestions:"Doyouwantintegration? (3) Why?
(foreither"yes"or "no. ")
TheBlackWorldattheCrossroads

31 3
othercitizens,andwithoutanyexceptionswhatsoever. Thisobviously
includestherightofeveryindividualtoattendtheschoolorcollegeof
hischoice,rentorbuyahomewhereverhepleases,marrywhomhe
pleases,whiteorblack,andtofreelyuseallplacesofpublicaccommo-
dation-allofwhichisafar,farcryfromthedoctrinethatallofthis
mustnecessarilyincludeawhitepresencetobevalid,oramass
movementbytheracetowardamalgamation . Thepresenceofwhitesin
anygivensituationshouldbeincidental,ifconsideredatall . Whatthe
"Negroes"referredtoaboveseemincapableofgraspingisthedifference
betweena"goodschool"anda"whiteschool,"a"goodcommunity"in
whichtoliveanda"whitecommunity. "Tothemtheyarenecessarily
thesame-continuingevidenceoftheCaucasiansuccessincapturing
themindsofBlacks.
THEMOTHERLAND
ATTHECROSSROADS
TheproblemisessentiallythesameinourAfricanhomeland
. There,
too,"white"isstillthestandardofexcellence,ofwhatisright,wiseand
best
. IpersonallyknowanumberofAfricanpresidentsandministers
whowillnotdaretomakeimportantdecisionswithouttheguidanceof
whiteadvisors,menwhooftenknowfarlessaboutthequestionsat
handthanthepresidentsandtheirministers . Buttheyallfeeltheneed
fora whiteseal ofapproval.
TheBlacks,therefore,stillhavealongwaytogoinordertoachieve
absoluteequalityasfreemenamongfreemen. Theyhavealongwayto
gointheUnitedStatesandthenumerousotherareasinwhichtheylive
allovertheworld.
InAfrica,atthiswriting,Tanzanialeadsinthefirsthard-headed,
masses-oriented,socio-economicprogramthatisexpresslydesignedto
raisetheleveloflifeofthewholepeople,beginningwiththoselowest
down
. ItisatrulyAfricanprogram,drawingheavilyonAfricancultural
traditions. Itwas,fromitsveryinception,toomuchforthoseofthe
"Elite"whothinkofindependenceasameretransferofpowerfroma
whiterulingclasstoablackrulingupperclass,leavingthemassesno
betteroffthantheyhadbeenundercolonialism . Thesearethekindof
smugandcocksureleaderswhoarepreparingthegroundnotfor
militarycoups,butmassuprisingssuchasAfricahasnotyetwitnessed .
3 1 4

TheDestructionof BlackCivilization
Thefirstlineofactionshouldcenteraroundthestudyanddevelop-
mentofnationwide,people-involved,self-helpcooperativeprograms,
villagebyvillage,townbytownandblockbyblock . Eachcommunity
woulddoitsowndevelopmentplanning,thegovernment'sprincipal
rolebeingtoprovideadvisors,training,technicalassistanceandloans
whenandwheretheseareneeded. Forpeoplewithlittleornomoney,
barterandexchangearethefirststepstowardeconomicsalvation,the
basesforcapitalformation. Increasedfoodproductionshouldbeseenas
forbothwealthandhealth . Themainemphasiswouldbeinter-
communityrelationsbetweenthevariouslanguagegroupsinalldevelop-
mentprograms. Thismeansagreementplansforeachareatospecialize
inproducinggoodsneededbutnotproducedintheotherregions . This
isthedirectroutetonationalunitythroughcooperationinorderto
reachthegoalsdesiredincommonbyalllanguagegroupsineach
Africanstate. Thiscallsforthinking,planningandhardwork . Nowitis
justhere within therace where integrationis notonlyneeded,butitis
mandatory. Weshallremainaweakpeopleuntilwebeginthedrivefor
integrationofBlacksfirstofall,insteadofbattlingtointegratewith
otherpeoples.
Thesecondgreattaskofgovernmentcallsforfurtheringthehome
fronteconomicdevelopmentbyaggressivelyworkingforAfrican
economicunityonascaleneverbeforeattempted. Interstatetradeand
othereconomicprogramsdesignedtodealwithAsiaandEuropemust
beginwithunityofactioninAfricaitself,regionbyregion,andthen
inter-regionalorcontinentalefforts,ifBlackAfricaisevertofreeitself
fromthepresenteconomic,morass . Norwillwebeabletocoverour
failuresbyendlesslysweatingandfumblingoverSouthAfrica . Black
Africacanneverdealeffectivelywithwhite-ruledareasuntilitdeals
withBlackAfricaitselffirst. Thefoundationforeverythingwedoor
wishtodoiseconomic-awordthatsimplymeanswealthenoughtobe
reallyindependentandhavingthemeanstodowhatmustbedone .
Ifwehavenotnoticedthateveryoneofthegreatblacknations
studiedroseastheresultofavarietyofwealth-producingactivities
whichenabledthemtoachievesetgoals,ifwemissedthisfact,thenwe
missedthemostimportantlessontheyleftusinthisbook . Anothersig-
nificantfactwasthewidespreadtradebetweentheearlyAfricanstates.
Somehowtheyoverrodethe"communicationsbarriers"aboutwhich
wenowhearsomuch. ThecryingfirstneedthroughouttheAfrican
world,however,isdedicatedleaders,notjustoffice-holdingbureau-
TheBlack Worldatthe Crossroads

31 5
crats,butmenandwomenleaderswhowillbemoreandmoreinthe
fieldamongthepeople,andlessandlesspreoccupiedinofficeswith
paperwork
. Thesewillbepeopleonamissiontoimprovethelivesof
thepeople,ratherthanenrichingthemselves . Meanwhile,afrustrated
peoplesendupasilentprayer,oftenheavywithtears . "Please,0God!
Sendusafew real leaders,justafew,Lord!"
WANTED:LEADERS
ANDANAFRICANIDEOLOGY
Theblackpeopleoftheworldhave,therefore,comeatlastto
destiny'scrossroads
. Theymustmakesomefundamentaldecisionsasa
single people. Theonehopefulsignisthat. theyareslowlyandpainfully
comingtotheirhithertobecloudedsenses,comingtorealizethatthey
areonepeoplewithacommondestinyandthat,nomatterhow
scatteredovertheworld,thetreatmentsufferedbyoneblackgroupis
sufferedbyall
. Butthereisaterriblecrisisofleadershipatthecross-
roads
. Thereisnounitedleadershipgrouporanyrealefforttocreate
one
. Thegreatdifficultyisthatblackleaders,again,unliketheJews,do
notknowwhattheirownheritageis
. Theyarealmostwhollyignorantof
theirownculturalsourcefromwhichindependent,originalthinking
springsandprogressisinspired
. The"Negro"leaderswhospearhead
andcarryonthecampaignsforintegration(amalgamationbeingthe
aim)notonlydonotknowthegreatheritageoftheBlacks,theydonot
wanttoknowit. TheywishtodrawontheCaucasianheritageand
becomeidentifiedwithit. Theyaretotallyrejectedbythewhites,butno
matter;theykeepontrying,becausethewhite"liberals"doencourage
themtohopebymixingwiththemfromtimetotime . Otherleaders,
equallyignorantoftheirheritage,simplydonotknowwhich. wayto
lead. They,too,feelcompelledtoadoptandfollowCaucasianideologies
becausetheydonotfeelfree,equalandcompetentenoughtodevelop
anideologyoftheirown,anAfricanorientedideology .
Hence,many,includingsomeblackyouthleadersfromwhomso
muchwasexpected,arejumpingoutofwhitecapitalisticdemocracy's
fryingpanstraightintowhitecommunism'sfire
. Neithersystemwas
designedfortheblackworld,yeteachisonlytooanxioustousethe
Blacksastheyhavealwaysbeenused
:Anumericalpowerbasefor
whiterule
. Moreover,thecapitalisticversionofdemocracyandthe
3 1 6

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Sovietversionofcommunismnotonlycouldnotservetheinterestsand
aspirationsoftheblackmassesbuttheydonotservetheinterestofthe
whitemasses-neitherofthem . Ofcourse,therewouldbeamuch
largerclassandamorepowerfulclassofblackcommissarsandblack
"CentralCommittees"ifcommunismshouldspreadovertheblack
worldandmoreblackcapitalistsifcapitalismbecomestheprevailing
wayoflife . Ineachcasewehavenotatheoryoraspeculation,buta
plainoperatingfactthatevenafoolcansee :Bothcapitalismand
communismhaverulingclassesthatsuppressandexploitthepeople .
Themassesofpeople,likesomanymassesofpuppets,arefedandfilled
withthe"idealsandprinciples"ofbothsystems . Forthesetheyfightand
die,screamingtheseidealsasthoughtheyweredrugged. Votingcreates
anillusionofpowerthatdoesnotexistinfact . Itworkswonderfullywell
fortherulers,therealdecision-makers,becausethepeopleincapitalistic
democraciesactuallybelievetheyaredecidingandrunningthings . One
surprisingdifferencebetweencapitalisticandcommunisticcountriesis
thatthepeopleinthelattercountriesknowtheyarepowerless .
WhentheUnitedStatesassumedtheleadershiproleofholdingthe
lineofwhiteWesternpowerthroughouttheworld,Russiatookovera
similarroleforthewhiteEastEuropeanstates . TheHammerandSickle
flagisdifferentthantheStarsandStripes,buteachnowrepresentsthe
sameobjective:communismseekstobringthevariouspeoplesofthe
worldunderthewhitesupremacyofwhitecommuniststatesunder
Russiandomination;ourcapitalisticdemocracyaimsatdoingthesame
thing-whiteruleunderAmericandomination. Hencethe"ColdWar"-
whichhasnothingtodowithCommunismitself . Theso-called"Cold
War"is,infact,acontestbetweentwoofthestrongestwhitepowersfor
worlddomination. Becausecommunismisnottherealissue(ascapital-
ismisnottherealissueonthecommunistside),theUnitedStateswill
formalliancesandgiveall-outaidandsupporttoacommunistcountry
justasquickly(somesaymorequickly)astoanon-communistcountry-
anythingtoweaken,notcommunism,butRussia,thechiefwhitechal-
lengeforworldrule.
AsbetweenthesetwogiantsthechoiceoftheBlackscanonlybea
choicebetweentwogroupsofwhitemasters,althoughtheyokeand
shacklesofoneareattractivelypaintedred. NorwilltheBlacksfind
theirsalvationinMao'sChinaorany"ThirdWorld"inwhichtheywill
stillbeinasubordinateposition . Tobeequaltheymustfirststandon
theirownfeet.
TheBlackWorldattheCrossroads

31 7
Inthiscapitalismvs. communismconnection,theimmediatetrouble
confrontingtheBlacksisthatsomanymillionsofthemhavebeenmade
sowhollydependentonthewhiteraceforsomanygenerationsthat
theyhavebecomementallylazy . Forthese,dependencehasbecome
comfortable;itfreesthemfromtheinitiative,responsibilityandplanning
requiredofindependentfreemenandwomen. "Leaveittothewhite
folks"hasbecometheirunspokencreed. Theyhavenotyetcometo
realizethatthisattitudeofdependencebysomanyisresponsibleforthe
wholeracebeingcharacterizedas"children,"andmenbeingcalled
"boys. "Toberecognizedasmen,theyseemnottoknow,theymust
aggressivelyassumetherealroleofmen. Andthisiswhysomanyblack
leadersexpectthesolutiontotheso-called"raceproblem"tobehanded
tothemonthesilverplattersofwhiteideologies. Thisexcusesthem
fromboththementaltasksofworkingouttheirown,andthelabor
requiredforactuallycarryingthroughaunitedactionprogram,first
nation-wideandthenworld-wide.
Itisneedlesstosaywhatelementarycommonsensedictates,whichis
thatwhentheAfricanpeopleachieveenoughunitytodevelopthe
ideologicalguidelinesfortheirownadvancement,theywilldrawwhatis
bestforthemfromanyorallexistingsystemsasasimplematterof
course. ForwhateveranAfricanorganizedwayoflifemightbe,they
wouldnothesitateanymorethanStalinandtheSovietleaderswhen
theybroughtincapitalistsfromtheUnitedStates,Germanyand
England-nottoadoptcapitalism-buttolearnthosecapitalisticskills,
techniquesandmethodswhichwouldbeusefulinbuildingagreat
SovietUnion. Theemergingcommuniststatesdrewheavilyoncapital-
ismwhenitservedtheirpurpose,openlyandwithoutapology . Hence,
theybecameequalwiththegreatestpowerswithoutchangingtheirown
ideology. Theseobservationsareaddressedonlytothosewhoseemnot
toknowthatonemayextractwhatheneedsfromcapitalismand
communismwithoutbecomingcapitalistorcommunist.
THEBLACKUNITYTHREAT
Nooneseemstohavenoticedorunderstoodthesignalsfromthe
whiteworld,signalswhichtellhowtremendouslyimportantthewhites
regardanymovementtowardunityamongtheBlacks . Nothingracial
seemstoupsetthemmore . Thatiswhytheyinsistonbeing"inon"any
3 1 8

TheDestructionof BlackCivilization
blackorganizationalmovementeitherasfinanciallysupportingmembers,
oras"advisors,"observersorreporters . Tobarthemfromanyexclusively
all-blackconferenceisregardedassomethingalittlelessthantreasonor
assomekindofblackconspiracyinthemaking . Ontheotherhand,no
Blacksareeverpresentatall-whiteconferenceswherethefateofBlacks
everywhereisdiscussedanddecided.
UnityamongtheBlackshasbeenpreventedforsomanycenturies
thatthevariousmechanismstokeepBlacksdisorganizedhavebeen
perfectedintheWesternsystemofracecontrol . Thewhitemanis
keenlyawareofthetremendouspowerofanywellorganizedgroups.
ButanorganizationofBlacksonascopethatwouldrepresentthevoice
ofBlackAmericawouldbeathreatandachallengenotonlyto
continuedwhitedominationofBlacksintheUnitedStates,butalso
foreignpoliciesandpracticesthataffectthelivesofAfricanpeople
elsewhereovertheworld.
Buttheapprehensionofwhitesaboutthepossibilityofrealblack
unityappearstobequiteasneedlessnowasinthepast . Forwearestill
inthe"meetingandtalking"stageofourhistory,andappearnottobe
readyeventobegintheattackontheobviouslybuilt-inobstacles . These
havebeenpointedoutoverandoveragaininthisstudy . Theyhadtobe
emphasizedandcouldnotpossiblybeoveremphasized,because,in
additiontothehistoricreasonsforourownself-generateddisunity,no
othernon-whitepeopleonearthareinthedangeroussituationof
havingsomanyoftheirleadersselected,appointed,sponsoredor
financedbythewhiterulingclasses. InthecaseofBlacksintheUnited
States,andthesameistrueofBlackselsewhere,theseNegroheadsof
importantinstitutionsandorganizationsrepresentthewhiteman's
"indirectrule"overtheblackcommunity . Itisthevoiceofthese
"leaders"thatisacceptedasthevoiceoftherace . Theydoindeedhavea
greatfollowing,drawnalmostentirelyfromthetraditional"Negroelite"
or"uppermiddleclass"lawyers,governmentofficials,doctors,professors,
schooladministrators,scientists,engineers,headsofintegrationist
organizations,etc. Theyareessentiallyanti-black,anti-Africanand,
therefore,anti-blackstudies . Hencetheirfranticdrivefor"integration"
which. ofcourse,willeffectivelycheckthe"alarming"developmentof
prideinrace,asenseofculturalidentitywithone'sownbloodline,and
agrowingknowledgeofbeingmembersofaracewitharecordof
achievementsunsurpassedbyanyotherpeople,despitetheconversion
ofsomuchthatwasblacktowhite. ThistheNegroleadershipwould
TheBlackWorldat the Crossroads

31 9
destroyevenatitsinceptionbyforcingtheblackyouthofAmericamore
directlyunderwhiteeducation,directionandcontrol-avengefulstriking
backatblackyouthforstartingarevoltagainsttheirmentalenslavement
inthefirstplace.
Inapaneldiscussionwiththreeotheruniversitypresidents,thehead
ofonemajorwhiteuniversitysaid,"Integrationisaverymisleading
term. Ourblackstudentsareasseparatefromthewhitestudentsasthey
areinthegeneralsociety . Andtheyknowit. Theycomebecauseofthe
vastnumberofspecialscholarshipsofferedtothem . Thisisawise
programfromourpointofview. Itbringsmoreofthefutureblack
leadersintoamoretraditionallyAmericanenvironment . . . Wearenot
disturbedbytheirdemandforblackstudies,forthese,ofcourse,willbe
graduallyphasedoutastheiremotionscool . . . "
Thatsamemonth(May, 1 971 ), aNegroprofessordeclared, "Black
studiesareridiculousinanyuniversity . Iamnotblack,andIwillnot
joininthisnewhypocrisy . IamaNegro;yetoutsidetheUnitedStatesI
amconsideredwhite. "
On. arecentTVprogram,theheadofa"militant""black"movement
wentevenfurther . Inresponsetoaquestion,hesaid,"Lookatme!Iam
neitherBlack,Negro,norAfrican. IamaMoor. MyrootsareinAsia!
(HewasborninMississippi . )"But,"themoderatorpressed,"youcall
yourmovementablackmovement?" "Ah!"thegreat"Moorish"leader
replied,"That'sstrategy,"apparentlysatisfiedthattheblackmassesdid
nothearhimor,iftheydid,wouldnotunderstand.
Quiterelevanttoallthis,Ihavemadeseveralpointsabove. Onewas
that,notwithstandingthewhiteman'swelldevelopedsystemofmain-
tainingdisunitywithintheAfricanrace,heisstilldisturbedbyanysigns
ofamovementtowardsunityamongBlacks,andgoesintoactionin
manysubtlewaystooffsetit. Theimportantpointisthemostdisheart-
ening. Thisisthefactthatthewhitemanreallyhasnothingtofearfrom
anyeffectiveunityamongBlacksforalong,longtimebecausehe
himselfinstallsandbacksmostofthekeyleadersoftherace,twoof
whichIhavejustquotedabove,andthenumberislegion. Westillhave
intheclosingyearsofthe20thcentury,therefore,exactlythesame
uniqueproblemthatconfrontedAfricansinEgyptoversixthousand
yearsago. Andwechallengeanystudentofhistorytopointoutany
otherpeoplewhoareorhavebeensaddledwithaperpetually
disunifyingandprogress-checkingproblemofthismagnitude . Forwhile
320

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
thewhitemanhasmingledhisbloodwithnon-whitepeoplesfrom
timesimmemorial,innootherpeoplewastheoutcomeahostile"race"
withinarace. Noothernon-whitepeoplewithCaucasianblood,
whetherIndian,JapaneseorChinese,feelanycompellingreasonfor
integration(acodewordforamalgamation)withthewhites . Quitethe
contrary,theyresistitasapolicyoranacceptablegeneralpractice.
Theonlyhopeforthekindofracialunitythatwillreallyliberatethe
BlacksinAmericaandcommandtherespectoftheworldwillbeanew
kindofmassorganizationonascalewithanactionprogramnever
beforeattempted. Thiswillrequireanewkindofleadership,aleadership
withthesinglepurposeofhelpingthemassesuptowardsabetterlife .
Wearenotedforourcountlessorganizations,largeandsmall . Eachisan
independentkingdom,strugglingtobecomeanempireunderaGreat
Chief. Thisisinevitableinthecircumstances. Butasthehistoryof
Africa,notoneofthese,standingalone,canmeetthemountingcrisisof
therace. Iftheywillnotunite,theraceneednotcontinueindespair
becauseoftheunyieldingprideofindividualleaders. Apeople'smass
organizationmovementcanoverrideallobstacles. Butwillthisbedone?
Thesubtitleofthisbook, GreatIssuesofaRacefrom4500B. C. to
2000 A. D. , haspuzzledsomereaders. 2000 A. D. ? Thatistheendofthis
century,andwearenotthereyet!Thissubtitle,however,notonly
reflectstheauthor'sconvictionthatthemainobstacleswhichconfronted
usinthepastandarewithustodaywillstillbewithusintheyear 2000
andafter,butalsothatfortherestofthiscenturyitisverylikelythatthe
Blackswillstillbemeeting,listeningtoandapplaudingfiery,soul-stir-
ringspeeches,protestinganddenouncinginjusticesorhappilyrelying
onpoliticsastheultimatesolutionofourproblems . Thefrustrations,
confusionofgoals,andasenseofhelplessnessarelikelytocontinueinto
thenextcentury . Whatblack. youthbeganasthefoundationforanew
andmightyadvancemaybe,and,indeedisbeing,defeated .
Butwhetherthetaskof whatmustbedoneis undertakenbythis
generationorlefttothenext,onethingiscertain: Itcanneverbesaid
againthattheblackracedoesnotknowexactlywhattodo,orthatnota
singlememberoftheraceevercarefullystudiedandthenpresenteda
ComprehensivePlanasonewayout. Forthefinalpagesofthiswork
offersuchaPLAN. Itisnot THEPLAN,butAPLAN- acomprehensive
basisforbeginningandimproving -butbeginning.
CHAPTERXIV
Organizing
ARaceforAction
JUSTASITISINTHECASEOFAFRICAANDBLACKPEOPLE
everywhere,thecentralproblemofover 35 millionBlacksinthe
UnitedStatesisunity
. Nothingwilleverbeachievedbysucha
minoritygroupinwhiteAmerica,nothingthatleadstorealadjustment
forprogress,untilapowerfulunitymovementamongBlacksdevelops
throughouttheUnitedStates
. Thismustbedonetoachievefull
recognitionevenasmenandwomen,nottomentionfullcitizenship.
Asalargerandlargermeasureofnation-wideunityisachieved,the
nexttwostepsshouldbeinthedirectionofchartingapracticallineof
advanceandofaction,oncethecoursesofactionarecarefullyand
sensiblyplanned
. Thepictureofseveralthousandblackorganizations,
eachindependentandvyingforleadership,issubstantiallythesame
pictureoffragmentationanddisunityinAfricathatledtothedownfall
ofthewholerace
. Wehavealsoseenthateveninearliesttimesvery
oftenallthatwasinvolvedwasthatsomebodywantedtobethe
"head,"wasnotgettingtherefastenoughand,therefore,organizedhis
ownlittlestate. Mostofthemperished,pickedoff'onebyone . The
samethingwillhappentoanyblackorganizations,standingalone,that
disturbsthewhitemind.
321
322

The Destruction ofBlackCivilization


Theobstaclestounityaresogreatthattheoutlookisbothdiscouraging
andfrighteningtoallbutthestrongwiththewilltobothsurviveand
overcome. Theveryfirstmajorobstacletobeovercomeinvolvesa
mentalrevolutionoutofwhichBlackAmericafacesuptothestark
realitythatwhiteAmericaasawholeisitsenemy,thatBlackswillbe
recognizedonlyinasubordinaterole,thatthescatteringofblackoffice-
holders,highandlow,reallymeansnothingtotheraceasawhole,that
thereareactuallytwosetsoflawsasadministered-oneforwhitesand
oneforBlacks,justastherearetwosetsofwagesandprices ;andfinally,
thattheBlacks'loyaltyanddevotiontothewhites,inspiteofallthey
havedoneandstilldoagainstthem,mystifiesthewhitesthemselvesand
confirmsanewtheirbeliefthatsuchhumble-dogattitudesindicate
inferiorityindependentlyofeverythingelse .
UntilAfro-Americansarequiteclearintheirownmindsabouttheir
realsituationinthiscountry,alltalkaboutunityandachievingequal
justicewillbejustthat-uselesstalk. Butwithaclearunderstandingof
reality,thespecificstudiesandplanningforabroadprogramfor
securingracialunityandprogresscanbegin .
Noonewouldproposethat 35 millionBlacksbebroughtundera
singleumbrellaofleadership. Noristhatnecessary. Butanorganizing
nationalconferenceshoulddevelopaprogramdesignedtoform
hundredsoforganizationsintoonevastnationalbodyofmillions,with
eachsocietycarryingonitsownfunctionsasbeforeexceptinmatters
concerningthewholerace,ororganizebyfamiliesandindividuals,
communitybycommunityandstatebystate. Wherethematterconcerns
thewholerace,affiliatedgroupswouldspeakinonevoicethroughthe
overallorganizationoftherace. 'ButsincetheoverallRaceOrganization
willbedirectlyinvolvedinpromotingdefinite Action programsonall
fronts,themembersofallaffiliatedgroupswillalsobemembersofthe
overallRaceOrganization.
TheseparatistmovementofwhitesgaveNegrointegrationistsanother
shock,showingthemhowutterlydependenttheyhadbeenonwhite
1 . Examplesmightbenation-wideboycotts,U. S. supportandsupply
ofarmsandbomberplanestoPortugalandSouthAfrica,domesticand
internationaltradepoliciesthataffecttheBlackWorld,andsimilar
mattersaboutwhichnotasingleexistingblackorganizationcouldhave
anyeffectatall.
Organizinga Racefor Action
323
enterpriseforjustabouteverything,eveninall-blackneighborhoods
beforethewhiteslefttheirownexclusivesections
. Buttheshockdidnot
affecttheirdependentmentality
. Inanall-blackcommunityof1 00,000
peopletherewereonly 3
black-ownedgrocerystores-andverysmall
onesatthat,comparedwith75white-operatedstores
. Notasingle
black-ownedhardwarestore(7white)orlaundry(1 5white-owned
laundramats),etc
. InacityofnearlyamillionBlacksthereisnotasingle
black-owneddepartmentstoreoranyotherimportantenterprise
. We
haveleftitalltothewhites,justasthoughtheyalonecancreatejobs
andjobopportunities.
Theperpetualhat-in-handcryofpovertymustend
. Whatwehave
toomuchofisthepovertyofspirit
. Norwillthelack-of-financealibi
stand,forinspiteofourlowerincomes,wewastemillionsinluxuries
.
Whatwelackisthechain-storevisionandtheenterprisingspiritthat
organizesgroupsfullyabletolaunchlarge-scalecommunity-financed
undertakings.
Thewhitewithdrawalcreatedcity-wideblackcommunities
. Mostof
thefirstclassserviceswenttothesuburbs
. TheBlacksmustnowfillthe
gapsonallfronts,mustprovetheirworth
. Thetimeforbigtalkingis
over. Thetimeforbigactionishere
. Thatiswhyanation-wide
movementforunityinonevastorganizationofmillionsistheroadto
constructiveactionthroughthevariousblackcommunitiesofthe
country.
WANTED:ALL
PRISONERSTOENLIST!
Organizingtheraceforactionmustincludeacarefullydeveloped
planfortappinganddrawingonsomeunusedandrejectedsourcesof
sourcesofstrength
. Theseareourprisonersandformerprisoners . For
amongthemanyproblemswhichtheBlacksthemselvesmustsolveis
crime,andprimarilybecausealmostallcrimescommittedbyBlacks
are
againstBlacks,notwhites. Theremustbesomeprogramofactionin
sheerself-defense
. Bothcrimeandthefearsforsafetyitbreedswill
begintodisappearintheblackcommunityonlywhensomesuch
programsforunity,foropportunities,andpubliceducationasoutlined
inthisworkgetsunderway .
324

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Theseoffendersdonotknowthattheyareenlistedinthewhiteman's
armytoslowlydestroytherace. TheWartakesmanyunsuspecting
forms,includingthebigandincreasinglywidespreaduseofnarcotics
amongBlacks;andanarmedsurroundingsuburbia,trainedby"Sports-
men"gunandtarget"clubs" ;nation-wide"taskforces,"speciallytrained
forinner-cityoperations,thelistgoesonandon.
Thecommunitymustbemadesafeforpeopletoliveandwork,
happilyandwithoutfearsforthemselvesortheirchildren . Therefore,
theBlacksthemselvesmusthaveaprogram. Hereiswhere"community
control,"aboutwhichwehearsomuch,shouldbegin . First,anti-crime
stepsmightbewidespreadinformation(whichiseducation)aboutthe
truemeaningofBlacks'crimesalmostexclusivelyagainstBlacks,and
secondly,communitydevelopmentplansaredesignedtocreatemore
opportunitiesforall. Thereareotherpossibleprogramsthatcould
radicallyreducecrime,programsshortofthefinalstep . For,ifallelse
fails,thecommunity,eachcommunity,shouldopenanall-outwar
alonglinesdeterminedbythecommunity . Nosuchfinalcoursewillbe
necessary,however,iftheblackcommunitybecomesatrulyfunctioning
communityinfact. Forthentherewouldbesomuchworktobedonein
anoverallracemovementthattheso-calledcriminal,injailorout,
wouldhaveasocietynotonlytoreturnto,butonethatwelcomeshim
warmlyandneedshim(orher)urgently.
Asthingsnowstandallthistalkabout"returningtosociety"issheer
idiocy. Whatsociety?TheonlysocietyIknowaboutisascriminaland
oppressiveoutsideofthepenalinstitutionsasareitsrepresentatives
insideofthem. Thebigdifferenceisonlyinthebignessofsocietyin
general,thebignessofcrime"offthestreet"andupinhighplaces,and
thebignessofthehostilityto,andrejectionofthemencomingoutof
prisonsbytheverysamesocietytowhichtheyareexpectedtoreturn
andadjust!
Weare,whetherwerealizeitornot,imprisonedinseparablywithour
confinedprisoners,ex-prisonersandthosewhoareheadedforplaces
behindwalls. Wearetogether. Whoisgoingtobemurdered,then?
Raped?Robbed?Thewhites?Ofcoursenot,andforseveralclear-cut
reasons.
Thefirstmaynotseemobvious. ButBlackswhosoreadilymake
criminalattacksontheirownpeopleare,unconsciously,strikingout
againsttheunbearablesituationofwhatappearstobepermanent
OrganizingaRaceforAction
325
disunityand,therefore,theutterhelplessnessofaracewhoseliberation
fromoppressioncanbeachievedonlybyunitedinitiativesofitsown
.
They,theso-calledcriminalsandtheiryouthfulfollowers,expectnothing
beneficialfromthewhiteworld,andseenoreasonforhopeintheir
own. Hence,likecagedanimals,theystrikeatwhatisnearestthem-their
ownpeople. Theyareactuallytryingto killasituation theyhate,
unawarethateveninthis,theyareservingthewhitemanwell
. Forthe
whitesneednotgoalloutfor"genocide"schemes,forwhichtheyare
oftencharged,whenBlacksarekillingthemselvesoffdailyonsucha
largescale .
Thisbringsusdirectlytothesecondreasonwhymostcrimesby
BlacksareagainstBlacksand not, aseventhewhiteswouldexpect,
againstwhites
. TheunequaljusticesystemofwhiteAmericaencourages
BlackstocommitcrimesagainstBlacks,andevenrewardsthemwith
lightersentencesifconvicted. Blacklifeischeap . Blackwomanhoodis
nothonored
. Onemaydestroyeitherwithbotheaseandrelative
protection
. Allthiscouldberadicallychangedbyanation-wide
organizationoftheracewitha newoutlook programofanewkindof
educationalsystem,trainingwhenneededand,aboveall,enterprisesas
ajob-creatingsystem-theveryfirstmovestowardthecreationofthe
kindofsocietythatwillgivebothprideandinspirationtoblackyouth,
andthekindofsocietythatwillhavepositivealternativestocrimes,and
onetowhicheveryprisonercanreturnwithhope
. Insuchasocietythe
veryexpression"excon"or"ex"anythingelsewouldberigorously
banned
. ThiswouldbeapartoftheneweducationaboutwhichIhave
spoken
. Alltalkabout"reform"and"rehabilitation"isjustsomuch
nonsenseuntilsocietyitselfisreformed,foryoucanneverrehabilitate
menandwomenwhohaveneverbeenhabilitatedinthefirstplace .
Youcannever re-form thosewhohaveneverbeenallowedtobe
formed.
Blacksocietystillhasthespiritualqualitiesforthetask. Whatis
needednowisanhonest,andunselfishcollectiveleadership .
Ihavegoneintosomedetailsinbothoutliningthemostdisturbing
spotscastbythedarkeningshadowsofhistoryandalsotryingto
pinpointwhatthepossiblesignsofpromiseare
. Fortheblackworld,
history'sWatchmancouldseenosignofpromise,nosignofhope
outsideofapositionofstrengthwhichunityalonecanprovide
. But
therewillneverbearealunitywithouta
planandaprogram tosustain
it
. Pettypowerstruggles,bickeringandattackingeachotherareallsigns
ofadeathwishasarace
. "Whichway,then,youstillenshackled
326
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Blacks?"Sixthousandyearsoftheirhistoryhasanswered :Uniteor
perish
. Thetragedythatbloodiedthepagesineveryperiodoftheir
historybecauseofdisunityshouldbewarningenoughfortheBlacksof
Africa,theCaribbean,andelsewhere. But,beingtheonepeoplewho
aregenerallyignorantoftheirhistory,itmaywellbethatmanywillnot
seeunityasaquestionoflifeordeath
. However,therehasbeenso
muchhistoryduringthetimeofthosenowlivingthattheprecarious
situationoftheblackraceshouldbeobvioustoall
. Onlyalargelyunited
peoplecansuccessfullyconfrontoppressorsand,withoutprayingon
bendedknees,orevenpleading,securetheremovalofallshackling
chains
. Thechoiceisbetweenunityofactionincalm,carefulthinking
andplanningthecoursesofactionthroughonevastorganizationof
millions-eitherthisorultimatedamnation
. Iftheraceisincapableof
unity,itisincapableofsurvivalasafreeandequalpeople,andwill
deservealltheiniquitiesimposeduponit,foritwillhaveproved
beyondallquestionthatitisindeedunfittosurviveasapeoplefreeand
equalineveryrespectwhatsoeverwiththeotherpeoplesoftheearth .
Whatisproposedhereisamoratoriumonfutilerhetoricandthe
beginningofrealracialunitythroughanactionprogramneverattempted
before
. Therefore,blackleadershipobstacleswillstillbewithus,andfor
thesameancientreasons. Amassorganizationexpresslyplannedto
enrichthelivesofthepeopleonallfronts,anddirectlythroughthe
peoples'ownershipof,andprofit-sharinginalleconomicenterprises-
thiswillbetoomuchformanyleaderstoadopt,except"inprinciple . "
Andanysuchall-AfricaracemovementintheUnitedStateswill
certainlybebitterlyopposedbyallNegrointegrationistsbecauseno
whiteswouldbeinit
. This,intheirskewedminds,means"black
separatism. "
BLACKSEPARATISTS-
WHOARETHEY?
ThesimpletruthisthattheAfricanpeopleintheUnitedStatesand
throughouttheworldarenot,andneverhavebeen,
separatists infact.
Perhapsthishasbeentheirweakness
. Theyhaveneverreallyhatedthe
whites,andtheydonotreallyhatewhitesnow
. Whatistakenfor
"hatred,"whenappliedtoBlacks,istheirreactionagainstbeinghated,
rejectedandoppressed
. Andthethinkingwhitesknowthisverywell
.
OrganizingaRaceforAction

327
Whentheycry,"racisminreverse!"or"reversediscrimination"and
"reversesegregation,"theyaresaying,ineffect,that"Onlywewhites
maydiscriminateorsegregate-butnotyouBlacks!"All-whiteorganiza-
tionsthatexcludeBlackseverywherearenormalandproperfromthe
whiteperspective,butanall-Blackorganizationexcludingthewhites?
Perishthethought!Whitesflee enmasse fromcitiesthroughoutthe
nationtoavoidintegratedschoolsandfairhousinglaws
. Thesearethe
realseparatists,
nottheBlackswhoneverfledfromthewhitesatall
. Yet
thoseBlackswhosaid,"Letthemgo!Letus not pursuethem . Letusstay
whereweare,standonourownfeetasmenandwomen,andbeginto
buildandimproveourownschoolsandcommunities
. "These, notthe
whites,
aredenouncedas"separatists"or"BlackNationalists . "
ThequestionwhichBlacksmustanswerandacton,orremainforever
exactlywheretheyare,ishowcanaminoritygroupinasituation
distinctlydifferentfromthatofanyotherminority,successfullyliveand
develophappilyinanoverwhelminglywhitesociety?Thisisthequestion
thatfacesussquarelyinthecriticaltimesattheCrossroads . Andthe
decisionmustbetakenas arace, andby therace, ratherthanbyself-
appointedleaders.
Theterm"crossroads"heremustbetakenmoreseriouslythanamere
metaphor
. Forapeoplemayreachthatintersectioninlifewherethe
routescross,leadingindifferentdirections . Weonlyknowtheroadover
whichwehavejustcome
. Soatthecrossroadswemustpause,uncertain.
Whichwaynow?Whichwayshouldwego?Thenumerousmovements,
ledbycharismaticleaderswithcatchysloganstoshout,areroadsmany
willtake
. Thebiggestcrowd-drawingroutewillalwaysbebaitedwith
somekindof"religion,"ledbysomeprophetormystic
. Forreligion,any
kindofreligion,hasbeenthemeansbywhichhopewasmaintainedby
apeoplewithoutanybasisforhope
. Andthesearchforrealleadershas
alwaysbeensodesperatethatthepeopleflocktothisorthatpromoter's
movement,hopingthatatrueleaderhasbeenfoundatlast
.
Thepersonalwealthamassedbytheseleadersisamatterofpridefor
manyoftheirfollowers-tothepoorandignorantwhoarebeing
fleeced,eventhepalatialmansionwithcolorfullyuniformedservants
reflectthepowerandgloryoftheirleader
. Criticismissilenced. For
theseleadersareshrewd,"natural"psychologists
. Theyknowexactly
whatappealstothedeprivedmasses,whatwillgivethemafeelingof
being"somebody"anduplifted
. Thousandswillcontinuetobeexploited
bythesmarteroneswhoknowallthetricksthatstirtheemotionand
328

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
emptypocketbooks. And,apparently,thesecountlessthousandsof
faithfulfollowerslikeit. Thereareseveralbigorganizations,each
concernedwithdifferentaspectsoftheracialsituation,whichcarryon
successfulandmuchneededworkintheirrespectivefields . Somewere
onthebattlefrontfortheracewhennooneelsewasthere. Without
them,thesituationofBlacksinAmericawouldbefarworsethanitis . If
wehenceforthadvanceatall,nomatterinwhatdirectionorhow
different,itwillbefromthefoundationsthebestoftheseorganizations
havealreadylaid.
Howlongtheblackracewillstandatthecrossroads,uncertainwhat
todo,confused,and,infactactuallyafraid,howlong,onlyfuture
historywilltell . Butonethingiscertain :Thereisawayout;thereisan
open,UNTRIEDroad. Thatuntriedroadto actualunity andthe actual
improvementofthelivesoftheblackmasseseverywhereisexactlywhat
isproposedinthesepagesinclear,concrete,andspecificterms .
THEDIRECTIONOFCIVILIZATION
Since,bytheactualnatureofthings,racismwillneverbewished
away,thehumanracecouldescapethepredictedgeneralwarbetween
racesandreacharealstateofcivilizationatlastthroughasymbiotic
society . Therewouldbenopretenseof"loveandbrotherhood"which
didnotexistinfact. Thefierceandincreasingbattlesofthewhites
against"integration"illustratethepointmostclearly . Andthisiswhy
peopleoftheAfricanracewillhavetoaccepttheharshfactthattheyare
rejectedbythewhites,backup,andbegintoreorganizeforapositionof
powerthatcommandsrespect,notlove,andonethatwill,therefore,
bringaboutthekindofcooperationandopportunitiesthateventuatein
realequalityandequaljustice. Equalitysimplymeanstheremovalof
everybarrierthatpreventsahumanbeingfromrealizinghisfullest
potential. '
1 . Thedoctrineofhumanequalityhasnevermeantthetriumpof
ignoranceandincompetenceoverintelligenceandindustry . Itnever
meantforcingthoseatthebottomtothetopregardlessofinabilityor
lackofwill. Butitdoesmeanthattheladderofopportunityshould
alwaysbethereforeveryonetoriseashighasheisabletoclimband
willingtogo.
OrganizingaRaceforAction

329
Toachievethegoalofsurvivalandself-actionprogresstheBlacks,do
nothavetowithdrawanywheretoformaseparatistsociety,forthe
whitesthemselveshavecreatedanevenmorecompletelyblackseparatist
societyintheirmadflightstothesuburbs. Herewehaveallthatis
meantbysymbiosisbeforeourveryeyes-living,concreteandalmost
complete
. For,havingthuswithdrawntomaketheirownseparatist
communitymorecomplete,thewhitesmustnotbeallowedtoperpetuate
thelowerstatusofBlacksbyalsocontrollinganddominatingtheblack
communityfromwhichtheyfled.
Butthiswillmeansomethingfarmorethantheblackpeople's
fragmentedprogramsofthe1 960s-marchingdemonstrations,singing,
prayinginpublicsquares,shoutingprotestsandslogans,oreventhe
franticscreamsof"Burn,baby,burn!"Self-destroying,uncontrolled
emotionaloutburstsmustbecheckedpreciselybecausetheybecloud
themind,makeyoujusttheeasytargetstheenemyiswaitingfor,and
therebypreventthekindofdeliberateandrationalthinkingand
planningthatcannotonlydefendandadvancethelifeofthe
community,butcanhelpcivilizationitselftosurvive.
Nowitmaywellbethatperceptivewhiteswillbequicktosee,
probablyevenbeforeBlacks,thatmyreferencetothemasthetradi-
tionalenemyoftheraceisnotatallacallforincreasedhatred,tensions
andendlessconflictsbetweentheraces
. Forthosewhiteswhohaveread
eventhehighpointsoftherecordpresentedinthisworkwillseewith
notroubleatallthatIhavesingledouttheexactroutestothekindof
organizedpowerandinfluencewhichwillengageasubordinatedpeople
inself-improvingactivitiesthatdemonstratevisiblytheirequalityas
menandwomenthroughouttheworld.
Theperceptivewhiteswillalsoseequicklyenoughthatreferenceto
themasenemiesoftheracewillbeathreattotheirabsolutesupremacy
onlyifitcausestheBlackstowakeup,begintorealizehowfragileisthe
basisfortheirpresentfaithintheultimatejusticeofthewhiteman,and
begintounitetoplanadifferentcourse,somethingtheyhavenever
donebefore. Aboveall,theycanseethegreatdifferencebetweenthe
powerfulforceofamassivebodyorganizedonsuchascalethatitwill
actuallyrepresentthevoiceandwillofBlacksinAmericaandthe
relativepowerlessnessofindividualorganizationsandblackcapitalist
groups,importantanddesirableaseachmaybeinitself. Fortheyknow
thatboththerealeconomicandpoliticalpowerintheUnitedStatesis
silentlyexercisedbythethoroughlyorganizedgiantcorporationswhich,
3 30

TheDestructionof Black Civilization


supportedandfinancedbythetax-payingpublicwithgovernment
grantsandsubsidies,operaterealisticsocialismatthetop . Howwasall
thispowerachieved?Thisistheimportantquestionhere. Studytheir
stepstounityandbeamazed,becausenomatterhowdiverseand
"competitive"thegiantcorporationswere,theyformed,stepbystep,
themostthoroughgoingsystemofoverallunityintheworld . Atthe
summitofworldcorporatepower,itisneither"private"nor"free"
enterprise. Smallbusinessenterprisesareindeedprivate,buttheyare
"free"onlyinimagination. Theyarethedependentsatellitesoftheall-
powerfulinterlockingcorporationsandconglomerates. Thisquietcapi-
talisticsocialismisinterestingtostudyandcomparewiththeopenly
proclaimedMarxistorstatesocialism . Ifweignoretheideological"prin-
ciples"andslogansthatinfluencethemasses,allappearasactuallyanti-
peopleand,therefore,anti-civilization.
Themainthrustofcivilization,likereligionitself,wastowardamore
humanesociety,pilotedandguidedbytheupwardmarchofthehuman
spiritasmanslowlyadvancedfrombeasthoodtoahigherandhigher
levelofmankind. Blessedwithamindthatenabledhimtothink,
analyze,discoverandinvent,hecouldnowevolveeducationand
promotethedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologytofurtherthe
advanceofthewholehumanspecies. Themediumofexchange,which
inrelativelyrecenttimesbecamemoney,wasexpandedtofacilitatethe
spreadofnecessitiesoflifeforthecommonwelfare . Butsomewhere
backthroughtheyearsthewholeupwardtrendwasreversedas
aggressioninspiredbygreedledtotheeasyacquisitionofbothwealth
andpoliticalpowerbythedaringfewattheexpenseofthemany . Mass
poverty,andtheignoranceanddiseasewhichareitsinseparable
companions,spreadasthewealthbelongingtoallthepeoplecametobe
ownedorcontrolledbythefewinevercountry,nomatterwhatsystem
orideologyitclaimed . Thisisnotthedirectioncivilizationissupposedto
take. Wehavewhatshouldbeitsreflection:advancesinscience,tech-
nology,greatskyscrapercities,skiesfilledwithaircraft,moonflights-
improvementsineverythingbutmanhimself,hismurderous,greedy
soulbeingstillagesbackthereinthecavesofhisancestors .
FortheBlacks,whoaremostvictimizedeverywhere,theirown
situationcanberadicallychangedinaprogramthatregardsmoneyonly
asthemeansbywhichtheycandothethingsthatmustbedone
throughcooperation. ForthekindofNEWCooperativeorganizationwe
havebeendiscussingwillbedifferentfromthosenowexistinginfunda-
Organizinga Race forAction
331
mentalaimsandobjectives. TheconcepthereisCooperationasthe
humanelawoflife,totalandactualunity,brotherhoodandsisterhood
throughouttheorganization,andnotjusteconomiccooperatives,such
asstores,markets,housing,farms,etc
. ,importantasthesewillbe . And
wesaythisunitedmovementtowardamorehumaneeconomicsystem
inthemidstofadog-eat-dog,money-mad,competitivesocietywillbea
movementinthedirectionofrealcivilization
. Thechallengingquestion
iswhetherBlacksofthe20thcenturycanrecoverenoughofthevision,
strengthandwilloftheirforefatherswhobuiltthegreatpyramidsto
undertakethetasksofthispresent.
THELIBERATIONOFOURMINDS
ThisisTaskNumberOne. Itwillnotbeeasy,andwillnotbeeasily
achievedinasinglegeneration. Thereasonshavealreadybeenrather
clearlysetforth. Thepresent-dayconfusedoutlookoftheAfrican
people-istheresultofcenturiesofCaucasianacculturation,aquite
naturalprocesswhereveronepeoplecomeundertheeconomic,political
andsocialdominationofanotherpeople. Theideologiesandvalue
systemoftheoppressorsquiteunconsciouslybecomethoseofthe
oppressed,evenwhentheresultisdemonstrativelyagainstthemselves.
Butallotheroppressedpeoples,whetherIndian,ChineseorJapanese,
wereabletoholdondoggedlytotheirownracialprideandcultural
heritageasthelastresourceforsurvivalasapeople . UnliketheBlacks,
theywerenevercompletelycutofffromthissustaininglife-lineofevery
people.
Inordertoclearawaysomeoftheconfusingcobwebsfromour
minds,wemaybehelpedbyre-thinkingthroughthefollowingproposi=
tions:
1 . BlackAmericansenmassearenotgoingtoemigratetoAfricaor
anywhereelse
. Thisisafactequallytrueofalllargeblackpopulations
elsewhereoutsideofAfrica. The real spiritofracialidentitywiththe
landofourforefathers,and areal PanAfricanismwillemerge only in
thoseblackpopulationareaswhich,throughtheirownunified
developmentprograms,havereachedthelevelofstrengththatenables
themtomaintainapermanentsystemofexchangeinvisits,goodsand
serviceswiththemotherlandandotherareas .
332

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
2. Nobodyisgoingto"destroy"theAmericansystem . Andnobodyis
goingto"destroy"eithercapitalismorcommunism. Therewillbeno
attemptheretogointodetailedanalysistodemonstratewhyneither
capitalismorcommunismcanbeacceptablewhollybytheAfrican
people. Drawonanybeneficialelementsineach?YES. Accepteither
oneasourtotalsystem?NO. Thosewhohavebeensobrainwashedinto
ideologicalblindnessthattheycannotseethattheactualpolitical,
economicandsocialstructuresofcapitalismandcommunismaresub-
stantiallythesame,withthesameupperrulingclasses,sameelite
classes,andthesamecontrolledandexploitedmasses. Thoseunableto
seethisoperatingovertheworldbeforetheirveryeyes,will,ofcourse,
beunabletoseewhatispresentedhere.
3. SincemostBlackslivewithinwhatisessentiallyacapitalistsystem,
whentheyfaceuptothefactthatneithertheynoranyothershouting
grouparegoingto"destroythesystem,"thentheywillbeinaposition
toplanhow-todealwiththesystem. Theynotonlyneedwhollyaccept
it,buttheyshouldreject"blackcapitalism"asasolutionoftheeconomic
bondageproblemsofthemasses ;for,itmustcertainlybeclearbynow
thatmywholefocusisonasystemthat directly benefitsthe,people
lowerdown,thegreatcommonpeople,andnotjustthefurtherenrich-
mentofBlackswhoarealreadywell-offandfarahead . AndAfricansin
acapitaliststatehavethefreedomtoorganizeanddoforthemselves
thingstheywouldneverbeallowedtodoinanycommuniststate. This
all-importantfactmustbeacknowledgedevenbybitterenemiesofthe
systemsimplybecauseitisafact . Fromthisfactcomestheopportunity
forBlackstouniteanddevelopamorehumaneeconomicsystemofa
newkindofcommunitycooperatives,ownedandcontrolledbythe
peopleineachcommunity.
4. ThewhitemanasanenemyofBlackswillbecomelessandlessa
factandhishostileorcontemptuousattitudewillchangetomoreand
morerespectifandwhenthisracebeginstomoveforwardonthree
fronts:(a)Thefirstisthekindofmassiveorganizationtheveryexistence
ofwhichmeansthepresenceofanorganizedPOWERtobereckoned
with. (b)Thesecondisanationwideeconomicdevelopmentprogram,
promotedbytheunified"raceorganization"asenterprisesofaunited
people,asdistinguishedfromthoseofprivateindividualsandcorporations .
Theaimswouldbethecreationofcareerandgeneralemployment
opportunities,anationalfoundationandcentralbankingsystemto
maintainandsafeguardthefinancialresourcesrequiredtocarryonthe
OrganizingaRaceforAction

333
workoftherace-andwithoutwhichwecanonlyremainapleading
andbeggingpeople. (c)PoliticalAction:Thereisnoquestionabout
betterracerelationsdevelopingasmoreandmoremembersoftherace
registerandvote,andthenumberofblackofficialselectedtooffice
increases. Therecentnotableincreaseinthenumberofblackelected
officialsintheUnitedStates,beitremembered,resultedalmostentirely
fromtheexistenceofpredominantlyblackcommunitiesafterthewhites
hadwithdrawntothesuburbs
. Thebitterironyinthissituationisthat
thousandsofNegrointegrationistsquicklytookadvantageofthiscon-
centrationofblackpoliticalpowertobeelectedtolocal,stateand
nationaloffices(Congress)
. Iftheirprogramtobreakupallblackcom-
munitiesand"scatter-site"thepeopleamongthewhiteshadsucceeded
theywouldneverhavebeenelectedtooffice. Thefewwellknown
exceptionsdonotchangethepicture
. Yetthegreatfocusoftoday's
blackleaders,youngandold,ison"Politics. "Thatisunderstandable,
forwearestillinthetalkingstage,andpoliticsisaprofessionoftalkers
.
Thedrivetoincreasetheblackvoteshouldgoon. Theelectionof
Blackstoofficeshouldbeaccelerated . Stillthecentralquestionswill
demandanswerssoonerorlater:Whatkindofpersonsareweelecting?
Afterthepoliticiansareelectedtothevariousoffices,who,besides
themselves,actuallybenefitfromallthecampaigningandvoting?How
much real differencewoulditmakeinthesituationofBlacksinthis
countryifweelected1 5U. S. Senators,1 00Congressmen,5,000state
legislators,mayors,etc. ?Forwhatiswellknownisthatsome"black
officials,"onceelectedtooffice,turnouttobeasconservativeandreac-
tionaryasanyCongressmanfromthebackwoodsofMississippi . Yet
politicsistooimportanttobeleftforeverinpresentsituations . Blacks
needmorepoliticaleducationonhowtochoosewhom,orevaluating
guidelinesabovetheprevailing"giftofgab . "Therespectoftheewhites
(whichwasthepointofdeparture)intherealmofpoliticsmaybevery
superficialindeedandtentative
. Hereheisseekingtheblackvote,
seekinghelpinsecuringabetterjobandabetterpositionofpolitical
power. Blackpoliticalpowercansupport,butneverreplaceanorganized
economicpowersystem withintherace itselfthatgivesittheresources
todowhathastobedone,theonlymovethatwillcommandtherespect
forBlacksas apeople, throughouttheworld.
5. Thefifthbarriertotheliberationofourmindswouldhavebeenset
forthfirstifwewereproceedingintheorderofimportanceofdifficulty .
Foritis,perhaps,themosttragicandformidable . Thatmentalblockage
334

TheDestructionof Black Civilization


oftotalliberationdevelopedfromthewayreligionhasbeenusedto
capture,enslaveandexploittheblackpeopleoftheworldforovera
thousandyears. FortheAfricanpeopleare,andalwayshavebeen,a
veryreligiousandhighspiritualpeople. Butwewerealsoareligiously
gulliblepeople,believingthatthereligionoftheforeigners,withtheir
beliefinonesupremeGod,thoughcalledbydifferentnames,was
essentiallythesameasourown. Andthiswasright. WhattheBlacksdid
notknow,however,wasthatwhilebothChristianityandIslamwerein
themselvesgreatandacceptablefaiths,theywerebeingusedbymen
whosemainpurposeswereconquestandenslavementinpursuitof
economicandpoliticalpower . ThewholecontinentofAfricawastaken
over,itswealthexploited,anditspeopledehumanizedthroughenslave-
ment,allinthenameofJesusChrist,Allah,andCivilization . Their
successisalwaysassuredbecause,whenthespotlightsofhistoryare
turnedonandrevealthatthoseconquestaimswereforpoliticaldomi-
nationandeconomicexploitationunderthecoverofreligion,they
screamthattheirreligionitselfisunderattack,andtheirfaithful
followersbelieveit!ThusthegreatreligionsofbothIslamandChris-
tianityhavebeendisgracedbyevilmenwithbloodcurdlingcriesof
"Jihad!",or"HolyWar"againstblackunbelievers("pagans"),orthe
ChristianmissionsofcivilizationthatrationalizedEuropeanconquests.
ThefuturetaskbeforeBlackMuslimsandblackChristiansisdisting-
uishingtheirtruereligionfromhowevilmenhaveusedittoservetheir
ownnon-religiouspurposes. Thiswriter,forexample,isadevoutChris-
tian,butthatfactdoesnotblindhimtothechainsofbondage
hammeredonhisraceinthenameofChristianityorcausehimtotryto
glossoverorsoftentherecordsofhistorywhenhisownreligionis
unfavorablyexposed.
6 . Toescapeatlastfromourmentalhouseofbondagewemustsee
thiscolor-crazyworldinaclearerperspective,for"color-crazy"itis . We
shouldbeginbydrawingavastAfricanCircleofHonoraroundallthose
millionsofAfricansofmixedbloodoftenreferredtoasMulattoes,who
fromtheearliesttimestothepresenthavestoodsteadfastandloyally
identifiedwiththeraceoftheiroriginallyblackmothers . Theydeserve
specialhonorexactlybecausetheydidnothavetodosowhenamalga-
mationoftheracesspreadoverEgyptandtheArabicworld,andthey
hadcompellingreasonsfornotbeingidentifiedwithblack-skinned
Africans. Fortheywereclassifiedas"white"and,therefore,notsubject
toenslavement. Thisfactisofthegreatestimportanceinunderstanding
Organizing aRacefor Action

335
thehistoryofthisrace,forifskippedoverasitalwayshasbeen,that
historywillremainconfused
. Therefore,wehavepointedoutthatwhen
thegeneralenslavementofwhitesandMulattoesendedandslaverywas
confinedtothosewithblackskins,thecolorofblackitselfbecamethe
trademarkofslaveryand,therefore,anathema,evil,andtheworstthat
couldhappentoahumanbeingwastobebornblack
. Andthisiswhy
wehavedrawnanAfricanCircleofHonoraroundthoseofmixed
bloodwho,inspiteofallthis,eventhroughthemostfrightfulcenturies
splitDfffromtheirpro-whiteandanti-blackbrothersandsistersto
remainwiththeunfortunateBlacks.
Wherethefutureofanentireraceistheconcern,theimportanceof
beingfullyawareofthegreatdifferenceinracialattitudethathasalways
existedamongthoseofmixedbloodshouldbeself-evident
. Thecourse
ofthatfuturewillbedeterminedbyagrowingmassofintelligenceand
alertnesswhichenablespeopletousequitedifferentcriteriainthe
searchforhonestandreliableleaders
. Atpresentourmentallaziness
permitsanysmoothandfast-talkertoassumeleadership
. Justknowing
aboutanti-blackmulattoeswillnotremoveneedtoknowwhateach
individualstandsfor
. "Color"isnoguide,fortheblackestoftheBlacks
maybeanarchtraitor
. Thebestrouteemergesbeforetheeyesinevery
race-widesituation
:arace-wideorganization,inthiscasetoprovide
masseducationinthehomes,thekindofcommunity-wideinformation
thatwillenablethepeopletochoosededicatedandcompetentleaders
andotheressentialworkers,andferretouttheexploiterswhoworm
theirwayintokeyofficeswhichenablethem,asrepresentativesofthe
whiteman,todefeatorcheckanyorganized,all-blackeffortsto
advance.
7
. Inviewofthefactsalreadysetforth,itshouldnotbesurprising
whysomanyAmericanNegroesareidentifyingthemselveswiththe
ArabicMiddleEastorAsiaratherthanAfrica
. Thefactthatinthe
UnitedStatesallAfricansandpersonswithanydiscernibleAfrican
bloodwerelegallyclassifiedasNegroesmadeamostimportantdifference,
andcontrastedsharplywithotherpartsoftheworldwhereMulattoesare
eitherclassifiedaswhiteorgiventhelegalstatusofaseparateethnic
groupwithaprivilegedstatusabovethosewithdarkorblackcomplexion
.
EvenMulattoesarrivingfromsomeoftheWestIndianislandsareoften
shockedtofindtheAmericanpracticeofclassifyingallofthemas
Negroes
. Theyresentit,andmanywillnotliveintheUnited . Statesfor
thisreason
. Bycontrast,theanti-blackMulattoesintheUnitedStates,
3 36

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
whileresentingtheindiscriminategroupingalso,haveacceptedboth
"Negro"and"Colored"aspropernames(and"Black"tentativelyfor
strategicleadershipreasonslhavesoughtabreakthroughbyspear-
headingdrivesforintegraticn,forcedbusingfor"racialbalance,"and
scatter-sitehousinginwhitesuburbia. Mostimportant,duringthepast
twentyyears,increasedtrave. enabledthemtolearnwithcertaintythat
Mulattoesareindeedconsideed"white,"throughouttheMuslimMiddle
EastandMuslimNorthAfri(a-Egypt,Algeria,Tunis,Morocco,Syria,
Jordan,IraqandtheHolyLaidofIslam,SaudiArabia .
Nowanyonewhoisevennoderatelyacquaintedwiththehistoryof
theArabslavetradeforthe)asttwothousandyearswouldknowthat,
asaresult,therearenotonlymillionsofMulattoesthroughouttheArab
states,butcountlessthousandsofjet-blackAfricanswhoseancestors
werealsobornthere. AllpeakArabic,areMuslims,andconsider
themselvesArabsforexactl'thesamereasonsasemphasizedbefore,
thatBlacksbornintheUnitedStatesconsiderthemselvesAmericans.
OnecanveryreadilyunderstandwhythoseNegroeswhowishtoescape
BlackorAfricanidentityarepushingforanidentityofcolorwiththeir
kindinthosecountrieswhentheyare"white"and,therefore,inaclass
distinctlysuperiortothestillmslavedorsubordinatedBlacksstillliving
there. Andtheyhaveeveryright,naturalorotherwise,tofollowtheir
owninclinations.
Indeed,theracewouldexperiencethejoyfulreliefthatcomeswitha
newbirthoffreedomiftheparticulargroupwouldstoptryingto
operateinboththewhiteandblackworlds,stopstraddlingthefence
andgetdowndecisivelyondesideofitschoice . Theywillneverdothis,
ofcourse,becausetheyenjoythesamedoubleadvantageofamost
famousancestor,LeoAfricanus,who,whenpressedinRometosay
whetherheconsideredhimsdfAfricanorwhite,repliedthatheshifted
towhateversideitwasexpedenttobeonfromtimetotime . "Whenthe
African'sareontop,IamanAfrican,"hesaid. Thisclassofmixed
bloodswillalwaysbeanemlarrassingthreat-totheothermillionswho,
althoughalsoofmixedblow,arewhollyAfricaninspiritandpride.
TheselatteraretheAdamChytonPowellsoftheracewhoarenotonly
abovesuspicion,butareregardedbytheblackmassesasinseparably
theirown.
Thata"littlelearningisadangerousthing"isalsoindicatedamong
therelativelyfewwhopreachabouttheJewsbeinga"blackpeople,"
JosephandMarybeing"Black"andJesusChristalso"Black,"etc . A
OrganizingaRaceforAction

337
groupofAmericanNegroesrecentlywenttoIsrael,claimingthatthey
werethe"original"Jews,the"LostTribeofIsrael,"andthat,therefore,
thecountrybelongedtothem. Movementsofthiskindwouldnot
deserveevenasentencehereiftheywerenotindicativeofthefrustrations
andconfusion,andthefranticpullingindifferentdirectionswhich
furtherbindtheraceinchainsdifficulttobreak . Theyarementalchains
aswellasblinders.
Nowthe-confusionabout"BlackJews"derivesfromthesamehistoric
developmentswhichhavebeenexplainedaboutwhiteandblack
Arabs,exactlythesame. ForwehaveshownthatJewswereinAfrica
fromtheearliesttimesandthatAfricanswereinPalestinefromthe
earliesttimes. AndjustastheJewsruledinAfricanEgyptforseveral
centuries,soalsotheAfricansruledoverPalestineforseveralcenturies .
But,unliketheArabs,theJewsneverengagedinthegeneralenslavement
ofBlacks. Incasesofwarfareeithersidemightcapturesegmentsofthe
populationtobemarchedofftoworkinthevictoriousnation,anotable
instancebeingtheJewishcaptivityinEgyptandtheirlateremancipation
andreturnundertheleadershipofMoses . Notonlydidmanycoloured
JewscrosstheRedSeawithMoses,butdoubtlessmanyconvertedjet-
blackJews,suchasthewifeoftheLawgiverhimself . Furthermore,asin
thecaseoftheArabs,weoftenconfuseracewithreligion. Thepeople
wecall"Jews"indiscriminatelyareHebrewsbyraceandJewsby
religion. AnyonecanbeaJew,butnotaHebrew. TheHebrewsandthe
ArabsarebothwhiteSemiticpeoples,andnonumberofoffspringsby
non-Hebrewsandnon-Arabs,oradherentstoeitherreligion,willever
changethisabsolutefact. Afterallthosecenturiesofracialmixing,
therewasnothingunusualabouttheappearanceofgreatcoloured
leadersinPalestineoranywhereelseinAsia,including,fromtimeto
time,theirrisetokingshipinIsrael,Syria(Aram),Mesopotamia,etc .
ButthewhiteJews(Hebrews)andwhiteArabsremainexactlywhat
theyalwayswere-white;andthisiswhy(andwhopretendsnotto
kaowit?)thatthereisaracialcrisistodayinIsraelbetweentheruling
whiteJewsandthecolouredJewswhohavemigratedtherefromthe
abovementionedlands. ThesearethecolouredadherentsofJudaism
fromArabcountries,butwhoneverbecameMuslims
. Itwillbegoing
overboardtodrownifwefollowfanaticsinattemptingto"blackize"
everythingandeverybodythatsuitstheirfancy . Itisquiteuselessand
unnecessarytotrytomakeeitherJesusChristortheProphetMohammad
"black"oreven"coloured
. "However,themostimportantpointtobe
338

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
notedinreferencetotheAmericanNegrogroup,the"LostTribeof
Israel"whichlandedthereonlytoberejected,isthatitillustrates
dramaticallyallthathasbeenpresentedinthesepagesaboutthose
groupswithintheAfricanracewhoaretryinghardtoescapefromit,
seekingtheiridentitywithawhitepeople-anywhitepeople . Andwe
havesaid,"Letthemgo!"Theonlythingweobjectto,andwillfightto
theend,istheattempttoprogramthewholeraceagainonamarch
awayfromitselforallowthemtoremainasleadersofthesamepeople
fromwhichtheywishtoflee.
8. Finally,anothermajorobstacletounityandprogressthatishardly
everopenlydiscussedmustnotonlybediscussedbutattackedina
nationwideprogram inthehome. Obviously,onlyamassivenationwide
organizationcandealsuccessfullywithanyofour"massive"problems.
Thisoneconcernsaninheritancefromslavery . Itistheattitudeof
indifferenceanddisrespectofBlackstowardBlacks . Totheaverage
Black,anotherBlackisnotasimportantassomeone,anyone,ofanother
race. Therefore,blackclerksorsalespersonswillservewhitesmore
quicklyandpolitelythantheywillservemembersoftheirownrace .
Thisevilspiritfromslaverypervadesall"classes,"whetherlawyers,
carpenters,doctors,painters,nurses,shopowners,schoolheads,teachers,
repairmen,garbageamdtrashmen,paperhangers,taxidrivers,movers
andhaulers,employeesinhomes, etal. Theonlythingyoucancounton
beingfirstclassarethecharges-whichareoftenhigherthanwhatthe
whitespayfortheservicesthesesameBlacksgiveatthehighestlevelof
theircompetence. Theexceptionstothisgeneralrulearenotenoughto
affectsuchadamagingsituation. Thisiswhy,inproposingspecificsteps
inorganizingawholepeople,emphasisisplacedontrainingatthevery
outsetfor all personsinvolveddirectlyinthework . Forthegreattaskof
developingrealmutualrespectmustbeundertakenbypeoplewho
haveitthemselves. Wearenolongerinterestedintheoftenhypocritical
rhetoricof"brothersandsisters . "Toooften"brothersandsisters"are
mouthedbysomewiththebiggest"Afro-bush"whilemugging,raping
orkillingthesesame"brothersandsisters. "
Outofthisgeneralattitude,whichservesthewhitesupremacy
positionsowell,developsanindifferencetohighstandardsofexcellence
inall-blacksituations,andthatstrictbusinessmethodsintheareasof
auditing,accounting,orstrictfinancialproceduresinthecollection,
depositandmanagementofotherpeople'smoney-thesesafeguards
arethoughtbymanytohavenoplaceintheblackcommunity . Herewe
OrganizingaRaceforAction

339
haveacontradictorymentaltwistamongBlacks
. Forwhiledistrustof
oneanotherischaracteristic,whenitcomestothethousandsofdo-good
organizationsintowhichwepourmillionsofdollars,theideaisthatone
shouldtrustthebrothersandsisterswhocollect,holdandcontrolthe
people'smoney. Re-educationwillberequiredforthetwomandatory
changesinattitude :onetowardeachotherintermsofmutualrespect,
andtheother,achangeinattitudeaboutefficiency,expertisein
businessmanagementandfinancialresponsibilityandadministration.
Unlesswebegintodevelopandexpandthese first, agreatsurvival
movementwillfailjustasmanyothernobleeffortsfailedbecausethe
rushneglectedthenecessaryfoundation.
CHAPTERXV
TheShapeofThings
ToCome:AMasterPlan
ITHASBEENPREVIOUSLYSTATEDINSUBSTANCETHAT
althoughtheAfricanpeoplemaycontinuetheirpresentcourseof
weaknessonintothefuturewiththousandsofununifiedorganizations,
powerlessand,thereforeforeverdependentlikehalf-menandhalf-
womenunabletousetheirownbrains,althoughthistragicsituation
maycontinueintoanuncertainfuture,wesay,itcanneverbesaidagain
thatsuchahopelesssituationpersistsbecausenomemberoftheraceor
anygrouphaseverstudiedtheprincipalproblemsandtheobstaclesto
theirsolutionsbasedonhistory,andthenofferedanoverallplanasone
ofthepossiblelinesofmarchoutofthemorass. Fortherehavebeena
numberofplans
. Theweaknessofsomeisthatinsteadofbeing
presentedasaproposal,apointofbeginningfortheexpresspurposeof
makingsuchrevisionsofamendmentsasthepeoplethinkbest,theyare
toooftenpresentedauthoritativelyas fait accompli,areflectionofthe
leader'sego,infalliblewisdomandpower .
Inthissectionarethespecificsofa MASTERPLAN. Itistobethe
functioningframeworkofaunifyingRaceOrganizationofakindnever
presentedtotheblackracebefore. Tomakeallofthis"crystalclear,"
whatismeantbyraceorganization,howitwilldifferfromanything
342

"heDestructionofBlackCivilization
attemptedbefore,andwhatshouldbesomeofitsguidingprinciples
andunderstandingsareenumeratedbelow. Foremphasis,afewofthe
mostimportantpropositionsarenecessaryrecapitulationsofpoints
alreadypresentedinprecedingpages .
ThemainfocushereisonBlacksintheUnitedStatesbecause,
whethertheyknowitornot,theyweintheverybestsituationtobethe
lead-offexampleforthewholeAfricanworld.
I.
"RaceOrganization"heremean;anationwideorganizationofBlacks
only. Butitmeansmuchmore:theorganizationshouldbesostructured
throughallelementsoftheblackpopulation,andonanactive
membershipsovastthatitwould ;ofarbeyondtheacceptedscientific
criteriafordeterminingthewishe,ofawholepeople
. Inotherwords,
thefirstobjectivewouldbetohavearepresentativeschemeoforganization
thatwould,beyondalldoubt,bethevoiceofBlackAmerica
;andto
keepthisanactualfactbyperiodicpollsascrucialissuesaffectingthe
raceasagrouparise
. Nosuchorganizationeverexistedamongus;
hence,norealunityexistsamongus.
Farfrombeinga"separatist"movement,asthesetermsaregenerally
understood,theorganizationwoudbe cooperative inthefullestand
mosthumanemeaningofthatword . Fortheblackmassesarenotgoing
togiveuptheir400yearsofinvestmentinAmerica-400yearsof
investmentsinbloodandlabortob . rildupitspresentgreatwealth-they
arenotaboutto"separate,"migrateanywhere,leavingallthosecenturies
oftoilasafreegifttothewhites. Thismeansthatweshallcontinueto
battleforequalemploymentandadvancementthroughouttheUnited
Statesandineveryareaofthenation'slife,theexpansionofvotingand
electionstopublicofficeand,ingereral,theexercisewithoutexceptions
ofalltherightsanddutiesofothercitizens.
Thisalsorepresentsourconvicti)nthattheblackmasseswillnotbe
seriouslyinfluencedbythepipedreamofaseparate,independent
"Nation"or"Republic"withintheterritorialconfinesoftheUnited
States. Theyhavetoomuchcomrronsenseforthat,andwouldreject
TheShapeofThingstoCome

343
suchmovementsinsheerself-defenseevenifthewhiteswithdrewand
turnedoverfiveSouthernstatesforsuchapurpose .
Negrointegrationistswouldopposethis,ofcourse,butforanobviously
quitedifferentreason. Theirdriveistobreakup existing black
communitiesandscatterthepeopleamonghostilewhites .
AgreatnationwideorganizationsofBlacks,therefore,wouldbein :he
onlypossiblepositiontocooperateandworkoutcommonproblems
withwhitesasequals,andthisisfromapositionbackedbyorganized
power,theonlypositionrespectedatthisstageofhumandevelopment .
Itwasstatedabovethatwewouldcontinuetopushforequalemploy-
mentandpoliticalopportunitiesonallfronts. Thesadlymissinglink,
however,isthatweourselveshavedonelittletocreateemployment
opportunities. Ifwesaythat,asarace,wearetoopoortoengagein
productiveactivitiesthatwouldcreatethousandsofjobsforouryoung
people,ifwecontinue"traditional"pleasofpoverty,ourtotalspending
ofnearly200billiondollarseachyearrisesuptocallusliars! Weare
able.
Thosewhowishtoengageinprivateenterprisefortheirownpersonal
benefitwillalwaysbefreetodoso ;andtherewillalwaysbesomepride
inpointingoutthisorthatrichblackcapitalist. Whenweconsiderthe
welfareofthewholecommunity,however,wearegettingbacktoa
basicAfricanideology,whichisthatoftheindividual . TheOrganization
willbeanationalcommunitymadeupofthenumerousblackcommunities .
Indemandingrightsitwillalsoassumetherace'sresponsibilityfor
creatingsomeoftheopportunitiesitself. The,mostcrucialpointtobe
consideredandrememberedisthevastdifferencebetweenwhatthe
Blacksdoasarace,fromtheviewpointofworldopinion,andwhata
blackindividualdoes.
IV.
Not"unityjustforunity,"butunityforgreatachievements,notoneof
whichcanberealizedwithoutit.
Thefirstgreatunderstandingshouldbethat theunityweseekcannot
beachievedbyorganizationalone. Evenanorganizationofseveral
millionmemberswillhavenolastingbasisforexistenceunlessthetotal
344

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
membershipismutuallyandindividuallyinvolvedinactivitieswhich
eachfeelsisimportantandwillbedirectlybeneficialtohimallinhis
ownlifetime. Directmembershipbyfamiliesmayturnouttobemore
importantthanonebasedonafederationofexistingorganizations .
Actualunitywillbeachieved,notbypreaching,pleadingorexhortations,
butalmostunconsciouslyaspeopleworktogetherformutualbenefitsto
eachotherandtheadvancementoftheraceasawhole . Meaningful,
practicalactivitieswhichinvolveevenchildreninattackingtheproblems
oftheirracewillbethecementwhichwecallunity.
Thesecondgreatunderstandingshouldbethateconomicactivities
aresofundamentalinanytrulyupwardmovement,soclearlyindispensable
atthisstageinhistory,thatitshouldbeunnecessarytostateiteven . The
stillexistingslavementalitycausesmillionsofustoshyawayfromthis
basisoflifeitselfbecauseitrequiresmoreinitiative,trainingandwork,
andlesstalkthanpolitics. Consequently,theoverallpicturewepresent
totheworldisthatofaraceofdependentjobseekers,ourselvesunable
toengageinthelarge-scaleproductionofanyofthenecessitiesoflife,
whethertheyaretheshoesandclothingwewearorthefoodweeat .
Hence,thebillionsofdollarswespendeachyear,justinthesecategories,
weeagerlygivebacktothewhitestostrengthentheirpoweroverus
whilebecomingricherandricheratthesametime.
Economicdevelopmentactivitiesaredirectsurvivalactivities,the
meansofexistence-helpingtoprovidethemeansofexistence . Itisas
simpleasthat. Themaingoalsofagreatunitymovementcanneverbe
reachedunlesstheOrganizationhasitsownself-generatingfinancial
resourcestoprotect,defendandpromotetheinterestsoftherace .
Organizationswhichmustbesubsidizedbygovernmentandfoundation
grantstoexistarenotinanindependentposition.
Thethirdunderstanding shouldbeclearthatallcommunityenterprises,
contrarytocapitalism,willbeownedandoperatedbythepeopleinthe
community,thattheywillbetheshareholders,thatallthetrained
personnelineachstore,plantoranyotherenterprisewillbeshareholders
(and,therefore,partowners)ofsuchestablishments,thatallprofitswill
belongtothepeople,butfullresponsibilityforthefirstclassservice,
efficiencyandgeneralbusinessmanagementwillbethatofelected
managers,andnotthegeneralmembership.
Finally,thescopeandnatureoftheproposedDivisionsinthelast
sectionofthisworkwilldoubtlessmakeevenclearertherealsignificance
ofanationwideorganization. For,inadditiontotheworkinvolvedin
TheShapeofThingstoCome

345
raisingnotjustthehopes,buttheleveloflifeofthoselowerdown,
equallyimportantwouldbewhatthismassiveconsolidationofunused
powercandointhefollowingareas :
1 . ItcaninfluenceAmericanforeignpolicyandactionsinregardto
crucialmattersaffectingAfricannationsjustaseffectivelyasAmerican
Jewscaninfluencethiscountry'srelationswithIsrael . And,asanother
example,itcouldhavestoppedtheuseofmillionsofblacktaxpayers'
dollarstohelpPortugalsuppresstheFreedomFightersinitsAfrican
empire
. Ifadeafearisturnedtosuchprotests,severalmillionBlacks
couldpledgetowithholdthepaymentoftaxesuntilallarmedassistance
forthewaragainstAfricansceases-somethingadisunitedpeopleare
helplesstodonow. ThiswouldberealPanAfricanism.
2 . Anoverallraceorganizationcandealmoreeffectivelywithsome
importantproblemsathomeandmoreeffectivelythananysmaller,
independentgroupcandonationwide. Thehigherrentsandhigher
pricespaidforgoodsandservicesin"innercities"thanthosepaidinthe
affluentwhitesuburbs-thisopenyetsilentwaragainsttheBlacksis
beingacceptedbecausewearehelplesslydisorganized . Thestudies
havealreadybeenmade. Thefactshavebeenestablished. Whatthe
peopleneedisanationaldefendertofurtherexposeandattackthisand
otherfrontsofthesilentwarthatarequietlybeingcarriedoneachday
againstanowhelplesspeople,manyofwhomarenotreallyawareofits
extent.
3.
Itcancarryonanationwideeducationprogramdirectlyintothe
homes,reversingthe"pooranddeprivedhomes"negativeoutlooktoa
positiveone. Headingtheinformationagendawouldbeafocuson
thosedeath-dealingdiseaseswhichimpairbothmindandbodyinthe
diseasedwombsofmothers. Thewidestinformationshouldbegivenon
thefactthatignoranceorindifferencetopersonalhealthcanresultin
childrenbeingbornmentallyandphysicallyretarded,andthushandi-
cappedforlifenotbygeneticpreconditionsbutbytheactsoftheirparents .
Homestudiesfortheentirefamilycanbepromoted,andthe Home
Beautiful canbecomeaprincipalaimineveryblackcommunity .
4.
Itcanoverseethewelfareoftheracebymaintainingacheckonthe
extentBlacksaresecretlyusedexclusivelyasguineapigsindangerous
experimentsbyvariousmedicalprojects . NeithertheTuskegeeexperi-
mentsnorthenumberofourpeoplewhoneedlesslysufferedanddied
fromthemmustbepassedoverasanunusualandisolatedincident.
Themanyyearsthegovernmentandthedoctorswereabletokeepthis
346

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
particularsecretshouldbeamatterofgraveconcern . Itisalsoimportant
toknowtowhatextentNegrophysiciansparticipateinsuchexperiments .
For,ofcourse,nooneshouldbeaskedtobelievethatsuchexperiments
couldbecarriedoutonBlacksinsuchlargenumbers,andoversucha
longperiodwithoutanyblackdoctorsknowingaboutthem .
5. Sucharacemovementwouldbesuperficialindeedifitproceeded
withoutitsprincipalfoundation,whichistheownershipofvasttractsof
farmandtimberlandinvariouspartsofthecountry . Thecurrentideo-
logicalcryof"Wemusthaveland!"isvalidonlyifweanswerthe
question,"forwhatpurpose?"or"towhatend?"Oursloganeersrarely,
explaintheslogans. Butlandisforproduction. Anditsownershipand
usewillbecomemoreandmorenecessaryforsurvivalsinceevennow
75percentoftheAmericanpopulationisconcentratedononly2
percentofthelandincitiesandtowns .
Landshouldbeforamoreabundantlife,carriedoninlarge-scale
productionprogramssuchascattleranchesforbeef,hogfarmsforpork
products,turkeyfarms,poultryandeggs,vegetablesofallkinds,corn,
rice,wheat,etc. ,etc.
6. Itcanhave,onbehalfoftheraceitrepresents,aCentralNational
Bank,asthepeople'snationaldepositoryandcentralfinancing . agency;
anationalauditingandaccountingservice ;ageneralinsurancesystem
coveringespeciallythosecategorieswhereBlacksarearbitrarilydenied
protectionorchargedmuchhigherratesthanthosepaidbywhites;
homeimprovement,buildingandsmallloanscouldallbehandledby
communitycreditunions,organizedonasomewhatdifferentbasisthan
existingcreditunions. Foronething,allcommunitycreditunionsin
varioussectionsofacitywouldbeunitedasonetoreinforceeach
other'sserviceswhenneeded.
7. Itcangivenewhopeandanewsenseofdirectiontothethousands
behindprisonwallsand,intime,practicallyemptytheprisonsofthose
convictedofcrimesforwhichthewhitesgofree. Theimportantthing,
however,isthattheyouths,menandwomencomingoutofprisons,
wouldhavesomethingtocometo:trainingandretrainingfortheir
muchneededserviceinhelpingtobuildandadvancethemselvesas
theybuildandadvancetheirrace. Theyhaveneverhadsuchan
opportunity.
8. Thegreatchangeinoutlookandthenewinspirationthatwould
cometoblackchildrenandyouthareimmeasurable. Justtoknowthat
theirparentsareengagedin,andactivelyapartofagreatmovement
TheShapeofThingstoCome
347
willgiveanewsenseofworthanddignity . Nolongerwillitbenecessary
toshoutinunison, "Iam somebody!"Forthechildrenofjanitors,trash
haulers,maidsandparentsinsimilaroccupationswillregardthemwith
prideandinanewlight
. Wearegreatifweareanactivepartofagreat
movement.
Uptonowblackchildrenhavebeenbadlycheated
. Theyhavenever
hadtheinspiringreasonstostudyandadvancewhichareconstantly
beforetheeyesofwhitechildren
. Andthiscentralfactofdifferencehas
ledmetosupposethatsomeProvidentialfavormusthaveenabledthe
blackstudentsoftheworldtodosowellinthefaceofitall
.
Finally,andobviously,noneoftheabovecanbeachievedona
nation-widescalewithoutanation-widemovementofseveralmillion
members,organizedasarace,working asarace foritsinterestsasfull-
fledgedAmericancitizens.
HOWTOBEGIN-ANDBYWHOM?
Inthe-sectiontitled"TheLiberationofOurMinds,"thevarious
factorswhichexplainthegenerallydependentdispositionofAfrican
peopletodaywereoutlinedinsomedetail. Theyrevealthetragicextent
towhichadominantgroupcanshapeandcontroleventhethinkingof
thesuppressedgroup
. Thismeantthat,unlikeotherpeoples,theBlacks
voluntarilyremainedmentallyenslavedevenaftertheirphysicaleman-
cipation
. ThatCaucasianzationoftheBlackswassowelldoneoverso
manycenturiesthatitisdoubtfulifrealliberationofourmindswillbe
achievedinthisgeneration
. Yettheblackyouthinthe 1 960s brought
aboutthegreatestreversaloftherace'sattitudetowarditselfthathad
everbeenachievedbefore
. Thereis,therefore,nogroundsfordespair
andmuchgroundforfaithifweunderstandthattotalliberationnwillbe
slowevenwiththebesteffortsandthattherewillalwaysbethosewho
havethewhiteviewpointonraceandwillneverabandonit. These
cannotstoptheonwardmarchofthewholepeopletohumanequality
anddignity.
Butwhowillbegintolaythefirststoneinthefoundationofthe
greatestmovement,forracialunityandpowereverundertaken?And
howmightsuch-ataskbegin?
Someofus,whowouldotherwisebenaturallyexpectedtoleadoff,
havealreadyspentsomanyyearsinstudyingthehistoryofthecrisisand
348

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
analyzingtheproblemsthatwearenowneartheendofourjourney,
andmustpasstheundertakingtothosemoreabletocarryon .
This,likeeverygreatmovement,will beinitiatedbyjustoneindividual.
Nogreatgatheringorcrowdstartsamovement. Quitethecontrary,
whenthemanyassembleitisbecausesomeonehasalreadybegun. One
person hasalreadythoughtmattersthroughandresolvedthata
beginningmustbemade. Heshouldnotbetheusual"leader"whose
fierydenunciationsofwrongsagainstBlacksmaybecountedontostir
emotions-andthatisall. The oneperson neededissimplyonewhois
dedicatedwithasenseofmissionforhisrace,seekingnothingbutthe
opportunitytoserveit. Therearedoubtlesscountlessthousandsofsuch
sonsanddaughtersoftherace,willingandready,buteithernot
knowingwhattodoorafraidoftheirowncapabilities,and"leavingitto
somebodyelse. "
Yetall oneperson hastodoistoaskfiveorsixotherpeopletostudy
THEPLAN,andthenmeetlatertodiscussit,justfiveorsixpersons,not
oneofwhomneedtobea"bigname. "
Thissmallinitialgroupofsixcouldhaveeachmemberbecomea
committeeofone,eachtonominatethreeotherpeopletostudyThe
Planbeforethenextmeeting,atwhichtimethe 1 8 memberscould
becomethenucleusforageneralorganizingcommittee . Furthernomi-
nationstotheOrganizingCommitteeshouldberepresentativeofall
groups,students,laborers,clerks,etc. ,aswellasprofessionals. The
representativesontheOrganizingCommitteemaybefromnational
organizations(allBlack),orsmallerorganizations,lodges,clubs,etc.
Thiscorecommittee,afteraseriesofmeetingsduringwhichThe
MasterPlanhasbeenstudiedindetailandrevisionsoramendments
havebeenproposedforfutureaction,couldthenproceedtodevelop
andcarryoutplansfortheformationofanationalorganizingcommittee
composedofrepresentativesfromvarioussectionsofthecountry . (Note
thatevenattheoutsetoforganizing,somefundswillberequiredif
effectiveworkistobedone. )
TheworkoftheNationalOrganizingCommitteewouldbecrucial :It
wouldhaveto:
1 . SummarizethemainfeaturesofThePlanandoutlinetheminthe
simplesttermsforpublication,distributionandbroadcaststotheblack
world.
2 . Determinewaysandmeansoffundingtheorganizingprocedures.
TheShapeofThingstoCome

349
3
. Determinethebestgeneralmembershipenrollmentprocedures,
suchasmovingstatebystate,settingaone-yearmembershipgoalfor
eachstate,insteadofattemptingtoorganizethroughoutthenationallat
once.
4
. Divideeachstateintodistricts,eachwithanorganizingcommittee
withachairman;thesamedivisionalschemefortownsandcities,each
sectionhavingacommitteeandchairman.
5
. Drawheavilyonyoungpeople,whoreallystartedthemovement
andwhoshould,therefore,beamostpowerfulforceincarryingiton
.
6
. Conductinadvanceanationwidepolltodetermine(a)howmany
blackpeopleinAmericadesiretheproposedoverallorganizationofthe
raceand(b)howmanyagreetoparticipateinitsactivity .
7
. Clarifytheschemeoforganizationtoemphasizetheindividualityof
membership, i . e. , anassociationorunion,etc. ,mayjoinassuch,butits
mainrolewouldbesettingtheexampleforitsmemberswhomayor
maynotwishtojoin;theorganizationwouldhaveitsownmembership
card,andeachofitsmemberswhojoinedwouldhavehisorherown
membershipcard
. Inthecaseoforganizationbyfamilies-themost
significantinnovation-eachfamilywouldhaveafamilymembership
card,andeachmemberofthefamilyfromage5onwouldhavehisor
herownmembershipcard.
8
. Setthenationalmembershipgoalsas2-yearplans,3-yearplans,5-
yearplans,etc
. ,butalwaysintermsofmillions .
9
. Determinetimeandplaceforthefirstgeneralassemblyforthe
formalratificationandlaunchingofaction-program
.
1 0
. HaveanInformationandPublicityCommitteemaintainvarious
mediatokeepconstantlybeforethepeopletheplans,purposesorgoals
ofthemovement,whoisdoingwhat,andtheprogressbeingmade
.
1 1
. Proposeannualawardstoindividualsandgroupsthathavebeen
outstandingintheirworkforracialunitythroughorganizedaction
. (See
NOTE. )
Everythinginthisfinalchapter,then,isaguidelineforthinkingand
rethinkingabouthowtodealwiththesituationinwhichwelive
. The
Planitselfisaproposal
. RevisionsandAmendmentswillbeproposals,
alltentativeuntilapprovedbythepeople
.
Thefunctioningorganizationwouldbeundertheoveralladministration
ofaNationalCouncilofLeaders,headedbyaNationalChairman
(followingtraditionalpatternsofAfricanCouncilofElders)
. Everystate,
cityorcommunitydivision,wouldalsobeorganizedundercouncilsof
leaders.
350 TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
TheorganizationalstructureoftheMovementshouldbebymajor
divisionsforthemajoractivities,eachdividedintodepartmentsfor
carryingontheirrespectiveprograms . Specialstudyandanalysisshould
begiventoeachDivisionandeachdepartmentcomingunderit,for
therecouldbenobetterwaytounderstandthescopeandsignificance
ofwhatispresentedhere . Thisshouldbeeasyforall,becauseIhavenot
beendealingwithidealistic,unattainabledreamsormereacademic
theories,butverypractical,day-to-dayproblems . Insodoing,Ihave
deliberatelyavoidedtheacademicandoftenesotericlanguageofschol-
arship .
STRUCTUREBYDIVISIONS
I.
THEDIVISIONOFECONOMIC
PLANNINGANDDEVELOPMENT
TheDivisionofEconomicPlanningandDevelopmentshouldbethe
foundationoftheorganizedeffortsandaprincipalsourceofsupport
andpromotionofthemostimportantactivitiesofthewholerace . A
guidingprincipleshouldbethatallpromotedcommunityenterprises
shallbecooperativelyownedandcontrolledbythepeopleofthe
communityandthateachenterprisebeunderhighlytrainedmanage-
mentandcompetentservicepersonnel .
DEPARTMENTS:
A
. DepartmentforPromotionofCommunityCooperativeenterprises.
(1 )Toconductsurveystodeterminewhatthepeoplewantandneed .
(2)Soundnessofproject.
(3) Waysandmeansofcommunityfinancingandsecuringtrained
personnelandmanagement.
Thecommunityenterpriseswouldbenationwideand,while
ownedandoperatedbythepeopleinthevarioustownsand
cities,wouldoperateasanationwidechainofstoresandmarkets
formassbuyingpoweranddistribution . Thiswouldbethe
systemwhethertheenterprisesarefoodmarkets,shoestores,
departmentstoresoranyotherundertakingwhichcanbe
developedasachainstoresystem .
TheShapeofThingstoCome

351
B
. TheDepartmentofFinance,Banking,andCreditUnions .
(1 )Forpromotingaconsortiumofbanksoperatedbymembersofthe
raceandtheexpansionoffinancingandbankingsystems
. These
wouldbebranchesofaCentralNationalBankoftheorganization
.
(2)CreditUnionsforindividualassistanceandbuildingandloan
services. Primarilyforcommunitieswithoutneededbuildingand
loansservicesforBlacks.
C
. TheInstituteofTechnologyandPersonnelTraining
. Thiswouldbe
a Key programofthemovement. Forwhileitwouldengageinthe
trainingofexperttechniciansforthevariousfieldsofoperation
underthePLAN,aprincipalobjectivewouldbethekindofcreative
expertiserequiredforlargescalemanufacturingoperations-shoe
manufacturing
;men,womenandchildren'sclothes,hats,underwear,
canning;frozenfoods,furniture
;mattress-making,andother
products.
Thepersonneltrainingsectionswouldhaveanimportanceforthe
racebeyondtheordinary . Blacksaregenerallystillquickerandmore
polite. whenservingwhitepeople
. Theirattitudetowardmembersof
theirownraceisoneofindifferenceandofteninsulting . Thisis
knowntobetruebothinAfricaandAmerica
. Yetthiscrucialques-
tionisnotmentionedevenindiscussionofwhy"Negro"business
fails
. Thisnegativeandessentiallyanti-blackattitudeofBlacks
towardsBlacks,aleft-overfromslaveryandourhistory,mustbe
uncompromisinglyandevenruthlesslydealtwithinbothtraining
andday-to-dayadministration.
D
. CentralOfficeofAccountingandFinanceControl
HereagainisanareainwhichBlacksareweak
:moneymanagement
andcontrol
. ThisCentralOfficeofAccountingandFinanceControl
wouldkeeparigorouscheckonallincomeandexpendituresofthe
Nationalorganizationandprovidesimilarauditingandaccounting
unitsforthelocalcommunityorganizationsandenterprises .
E
. DepartmentofLandReclamationandFarming .
PrincipalAim:To
securelargetractsoflandinvariouspartsofthe
countryto(1 )raisevegetablesofallkindsforthevariouscommunity
markets,(2)hogs,beefcattle,poultryandeggs, (3) farmhomesfor
personswhowouldworkonthefarmand(4)countrycampcenters
forrestandplay .
352

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
SpecialNote: Withoutthefarmlandswemayaswellforgetabout
canningandfrozenfoodindustriesorreducingthecostoflivingfor
ourpeoplebysupplyingtheircommunitystoreswithfreshvegetables,
meats,butterandeggsfromtheirownfarms . Vastlandholdingisthe
cornerstoneoftheMasterPlan .
F. TransportandDistributionAgency .
Thisdepartmentwouldbeprimarilyconcernedwithlongdistance
shippingfromfarms,plantsandotherpoints,andmaintainingthe
trucks,shippingvansandrequiredmaintenanceservices.
G. CentralPurchasingandSupplyAgency .
Inadditiontoitsobviousfunctionsthisdepartmentwouldbe
responsiblefortheproperlocationandsupervisionofthevarious
warehousesrequiredasthecommunityenterprisesexpand.
[Allofthedepartmentsandagencieslistedabovewouldbeinthe
DivisionofEconomicPlanningandDevelopment] .
1 1 .
DIVISIONOFPOLITICALACTION
(1 )Promoteandassistvoterregistration; (2) provide"profile"ofcandi-
dates-local,stateandnational ; (3) preparebillsandothermeasures
affectingthegroupforstatelegislaturesandtheU. S. Congress;(4)liaison
withWhiteHouse;and (5) allactionsthatcanbetakenthroughthe
politicalprocesstoprotectandpromotethewelfareofBlackAmericans .
DIVISIONOFPUBLICEDUCATION
Purpose:To achieveahigherstandardofteachingandstudentachieve-
mentoneverylevelinvolvedintheeducationofBlackchildrenand
youth;andtodevelopabettersystemofgeneraladulteducationinall
Blackcommunities. ThisDivisionwouldinclude :
A. Foundationfordirectedresearch,fieldstudiesandthetrainingof
scholarsforneglectedareasinvariousaspectsofAfricanlifeand
history .
B. AGeneralPublishingBoard:(1 )Textbooksandotherworksrelated
toprogressoftherace; (2) newspapersandmagazines,aprofessional
journal,community-actionnewsletters,etc .
TheShapeofThingstoCome 353
C. CommitteeofVisitors.
Theseshouldbeineverycommunityto(1 )becomeacquaintedwith
teachers,studentsandthetextbooksandotherlearningmaterials ;
(2) todeterminetowhatextent,ifany,theanti-Africanoranti-black
feelingonthepartofmanyteachersofblackyouthmaybeahidden
obstacletotheirprogressinschoolwork .
EveryCommitteeofSchoolVisitorsshouldbeelectedbythe
peopleofthecommunityandshouldreportdirectlytothem . But
"education"heremeansfarmorethan"school"education . Itmeans
spreadinglightthroughacomprehensiveprogramintothedeprived
areasofthecommunity :Newstandardsforbetterhealth;better
homesandgardens;neighborhoodimprovementactivities;andspon-
soringneighborhoodconferencesonquestionsofmutualcommunity
andeducationalinterest.
ADivisionofEducationwouldjustifyitsexistenceifitdidnothing
morethanconductstudiesasabasisforproposingcertainguidelines
fortheraceintheUnitedStates. Thegeneralconfusionandmess-up
intheBlackStudiesMovement,forexample,couldhavebeen
avoidediftheyoungpeoplehadhadsomewheretoturnforhelpin
determiningproceduresandpriorities . Whatunitedguidingvoice
wastheretoadvisethemthatallfieldscouldnotpossiblyorsensibly
bestartedatonce;thattherewereneitherafractionofthetrained
teachersrequirednorsuitablebooksorotherneededteachingand
learningmaterials?Onlythreeorfourcoursescouldhavebeen
profitablystartedwhileresearchandtrainingpreparedthewayfora
realeducationalexperienceinotherstobestartedlater . Eventhen,
commonsensewouldhavedictatedthatBlackStudiescanonlybe
carriedonincertainschoolsbycertainteachers . Toforcetheminto
whiteschoolsonlybecausetheyare"integrating"andfinditan
expedientpolicyforthemomentisoneofthoseblackillusionsof
achievementthatstillleadusastray . Equallyridiculousisthe
assumptionthatunwillinganduncommittedwhiteandNegro
teachersaregoingtonowdealfairlywiththeveryaspectsofcivilization
whichtheyhavesystematicallyexcludedfrominstructionallalong . If
thiswerenotthecase,ofcourse,therewouldbenosuchphenomenon
todayas"BlackStudies. "
354

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
IV.
DIVISIONOFCOMMUNITYSERVICES
A. DepartmentofHealthandSanitation
1 . CouncilofPhysicians,Dentists,Nurses,MedicalAidesandlaymen
andHomeVisitingNurseService .
2. CommunityClinics.
3. Communitycleanblockandalleyprogram .
4. BetterHomelifeCounselingService.
5. A"Home-Beautiful"Program
B. LegalAidServices:Allmattersofinjusticebecauseofrace,andthe
legalworkoftheMovement.
V.
DIVISIONOFYOUTHACTIVITIES
Toassumeleadershiprolesinallareasandundertakingsforwhichthey
arecapable. Studentsandnon-studentsshouldjoinhandsintherace-
buildingefforts. Oneoftheirpreciousresponsibilitiesshouldbethe
DepartmentofChildrenAffairs(ages 5 to1 2)whichisintheirdivision .
(Theunderlyingideahereistohavespecificandimportantrolesforall
childrenandyouth) .
VI.
DIVISIONOFPANAFRICANAFFAIRS
ThisDivisionwouldmaintaindirectcontactsandtheclosestrelationship
withthepeopleandstatesofBlackAfrica,theCaribbeanandtheother
blackpopulationcentersaroundtheworld. Thepurposeswouldbe
specific:(1 )Tokeepthemfullyinformedonwhatwearedoing-and
how;(2)tolearnfromthemwhattheyaredoingandhow ;(3)tofind
outwhattheobstaclesareineachblackarea,includingourown,andto
counseltogetheronwaysandmeansofovercomingtheseemingly
impossible;(4)toexplorefor,andthenactuallydeterminedefiniteways
formutualassistance. Whenthisisdone,wewillhavemovedfromthe
caseofPan-AfricantalktotheworkofPan-Africainaction; (5) totrade
intheexchangeofgoodsandservices,scientificandtechnicalknow-
ledge.
TheShapeofThingstoCome

355
VII.
DIVISIONOFINTELLIGENCEANDSECURITY
ThisDivisionwouldmaintainhighlytrainedintelligenceagentsto
(1 )checkinternalsubversionandactivitiesofagentsplacedwithinthe
organizationbyothers,(2)securecompleterecordsofallpersons
employedbyorconnectedwiththeorganization, (3) promoteformation
andtrainingofself-protectionunitseverywheretodefendthecommunity
againstunlawfulandunjustraidsandotherformsofmurderousattacks
shouldtheyoccur . Thissimplymeanspreparednessfordefenseagainst
attacksbywellknownandwellorganized"Citizen's"paramilitary
groups.
VIII.
THECOMMISSIONFORSPIRITUAL
LIFEANDASSISTANCE
Thisshouldbetherace's"GreatCommission . "Itsmajortaskswouldbe
(1 )todeterminethedirectionofcivilization;(2)tointerpretthe"spiritual"
asmenandwomenworkingonthehighestlevelofhumaneendeavors
tounderstandthemeaningoflifewhiletryingtoimproveit; (3) toenlist
thecooperationofwhite,brown,yellow,redandanyandallother
peoplesofgoodwillinanall-outdriveforabetterworld; (4) tomaintain
anemergencyassistanceprogramforfamiliesorcommunitiesindistress;
(5)
andtoassumetheinitiativeinseekingtheactivecooperationofany
andallreligiousfaithsandallinstitutionswhichareconcernedwith
improvinghumanrelationsand,therefore,lifeitself.
IX.
IDEOLOGYANDGUIDELINES
Withthedevelopmentofamovementofthismagnitude,theblack
peoplemaybegintolearnatlasthowutterlyfutileitistograspastheir
owntheideologiesdevelopedbythewhiteworld forthepeopleofthis
whiteworld.
They,theblack"leaders"ofastillleaderlessyethopeful
peoplehavebeen,andstillare,expectingthesolutionoftherace's
problemstobehandedtothemonthesilverplattersofeithercapitalism
orcommunism. ElementsofbothofthesesystemsprevailedinAfrica
severalthousandyearsbeforeeithercapitalismorMarxismwasbornin
theWest. Blackpeoplegenerallycouldnotbeexpectedtoknowthis
356 TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
because,unlikeotherpeoples,theyhavebeencompletelycutofffrom
theirpasthistoryand,therefore,areignorantoftheirownphilosophyof
life,ancientreligion,institutionswhichwereborrowedbyothers. What
theneednow,therefore,isneither"BlackCapitalism"nor"Black
Communism"-bothofwhichbenefitthoseatthetopandexploitthe
masses-butwhatisneededisanideologyof"BlackAfricanism,"
operatingwithintheframeworkofthetraditionalAfricanPhilosophyof
lifeandthebestofitsvaluesystem .
X.
GUIDELINES'
A. TheMovementwillseektoachievethelargestpossiblemeasureof
Unityinorder(1 )toformthepowerbaseastheorganizedvoiceof
theblackpeopleinaparticularregionornation;(2)todevelopfrom
this"positionofstrength"themuchneededeconomicenterprises
thatwillnotonlycreateemploymentopportunitiesbut,beingowned
directlybythepeopleinthecommunity,willlowerthecostandraise
thestandardoflivingforall.
B. Financing
Therewouldbeageneralmembershipfee. Eachcommunity
enterprisewouldbefinancedinitiallybythepurchaseofsharesof
participatingowners. Eachsharewouldbeatapurchasepricein
reachofthepoorest. Indeed,aspecialprogramforshare-holdingby
childrenshouldbeanimportantpartofthemovement. Eachshare
drawsafixedinterestasaloan. But,unlikecapitalism,membersdo
notvotebyshares. Thememberwhomaybeabletobuy1 00shares
hasonly one votelikethememberwhocouldbuyonly one share.
Theobjectiveisamassmembershipandamasspatronageoftheir
ownenterprises. Theadditionaldirectbenefitsarethepatronage
dividendsreceivedaccordingtotheamountpurchasedinagiven
period. Inprivateenterpriseor"blackcapitalism"thiswouldbe
profitthattheownermakes. Undercommunism,itgoestothe
"state. " UnderourCommunityCooperativeSystem, the"profit"
belongstothepeople;forthereasonforitallistobenefitthepeople
andnottoenrichanyonepersonorsmallgroup .
1 . Fora"refresher"readChapterVIagain :TheAfricanConstitution :
BirthofDemocracy.
TheShapeofThingstoCome

357
C. Administration .
TheorganizationwillbebaseduponthetraditionalAfrican
ConstitutionalSystem.
(1 )Therewillbenoauthoritarianpresidentsorheads . Asin
traditionalAfrica,thekingorchiefwasthespokesmanofthe
previouslyexpressedwill ofthepeopleandtheinstrumentfor
carryingoutthatwill;thenationalheadorheadsoftheorganization
andtheheadofeveryunitthereofwillfunctioninlikemanner :
issuingnoimportantordersorpublicstatementsonbehalfofthe
organizationortheraceitwillrepresentwithoutconsentofthe
Council.
(2)TheOrganizationwillmodernizetheancientAfricanCouncil
ofEldersonlytotheextentofchanging"Elders"to"Leaders"in
ordertoadmitoutstandingyoungpeopletomembership . The
CouncilofLeaders,therefore,becomesthehighestgoverningauthority
oneachlevel-localcommunity,stateandnational-eachleader
beingtheelectedrepresentativeofaconstituencytowhichheis
responsibleforhisactionsontheCouncil . Thismeansthatonall
highlyimportantmatterstheleaderontheCouncildoesnotvote
independentlyaccordingto his individualjudgment,butmustdeter-
mineinadvancethecollectivewillofthepeople.
(3) The"highest"officeroneachlevelistheChairmanofthe
Council. (IntraditionalAfricathiswouldbetheKingorChief,who
couldneithervotenoractivelyparticipateinthediscussions,sincehis
principaldutywastoproclaimandexecutethewillofthepeopleasit
hadbeendeterminedbytheirrepresentativesontheCouncil . )
Withinthispeople-controlledframeworkheisstillthechiefexecutive
officer .
(4)Toenablethepeopleofthecommunitytohaveanintelligent
or informedopinionaboutmattersofimportance,theprincipalrole
ofleadersisto study andto institutestudies uponthebasisofwhich
plansaredevelopedandproposalsaresubmittedtothegeneral
membership. Theleaderspropose. Theydonotorderordirectupon
theirownauthority. Adirectmediumofcommunicationwiththe
peopleshouldbethe"CommunityNewsletter. "
(5)
Allofficers,eventhoughelectedforaspecifiedtermofyears,
shouldbesubjecttoremovalforcauseatanytimebythepeople
(anotherAfricanconstitutionalprovision) .
358 TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
(6)Theorganizationitselfwillbeonevastunion,andnooutside
organizationorunionwillbeallowedtodetermineitspolicies,
programsordestiny,nomatterunderwhatguiseorbywhatapproach
theeffortsaremade.
(7)Thereshouldbearigidpolicytoavoidthedevelopmentofa
top-heavybureaucracyofhighsalariedexecutives . Thesuccessofthe
Movementisgoingtodependveryheavilyonthenumberofpeople
willingtosacrificeingivingsomeunpaidornotfullypaidservice . For
atleast'thefirsttenyearsthiswillbeasacrificetrain . Thebigsalary
boysshouldnotgetonboard.
(8) ThehighestlegislativebodywillbeaHouseofDelegates,
representingthevariousmajorareasorstatesaccordingtomembership .
TheHouseofDelegateswouldmeeteveryfiveyears,butsubjectto
specialsessioncallbytheChairmanoftheCouncilorLeaders,acting
underCouncil'sinstructions;oritcouldbecalledbythepeoplebya
referendum. (Thislatteremergencywouldneveroccurunlessthe
peoplelostcontroloftheirleadersontheCouncil) .
D. Everyundertakingistobeprecededby study, training andcareful
financialplanning. Thereshouldbelong-rangeandshort-range
goals. Somegoalscanbeachievedinarelativelyshorttime;;someof
alargermagnitudewillrequireseveralyearsevenafterthefirstfive
millionmembershipgoalisreached;andstillotherscan,likethe
eternalpyramids,onlyhavetheirfoundationssosolidlylaidbythis
generationthattheBlackswhofollowuscancontinuebuildingon
thosewelllaidfoundationsatthepointwhereourownlaborswere
endedbytime.
AndsomethingalongthislinemustbethePLAN. Thismustbe
thevision. Itisobviouslynotforthe"Overnight""quick-upand
quick-down"boys. Thisisforblackmen,womenandtheirchildren
whoseektofindthelostpathoftheirforefathersandstartthe
upwardmarchonceagain.
TheShape of ThingstoCome 359
Thefinalgreatissue,then,involvestheAfricanracealone . The
dismal"ViewfromtheBridge"wasreachedafteralongjourney
throughthecenturies. Theoutlookisdistressingbecausesomewhere
backdownthelineoftimetheefforttoadvancetowardahigherorder
oflife,insomethingcalled Civilization, byeverwideningthegapthat
separatesmenfrombeasts-thiseffortfailed. Anditfailedbecausein
hissuddenandamazingsuccessesinscienceandtechnologyman
outsmartedhimself,concentratingalmostentirelyonhis mindpower at
theexpenseofhishumanizingspiritualpower,becomingnotthemaster
ofhismachinesbuttheirservant;and,intheprocessofacquiring
seeminglylimitlesspower,thissegmentofthehumanracebecameas
soullessasitsmachinesandbegantodestroyorconquerotherpeoples,
seizingtheirlandsandtheirwealthwhilereducingthemasnearlyas
possibletoastateofperpetualdependency . Inallthistheblackpeople
oftheworldstillfindthemselvesintheworstsituationofall . The
questionoftoday, now,iswhataretheblackpeople themselves goingto
do?
Thosewhomakeapfofession,andmoney,byplayingontheemotions,
screamingutterlyfutileinvectivesanddenunciations,thesewillcontinue
todoso. Andthosewhostillpreach"integration"and"brotherhood"
withthewhiteswillkeeponmarching,singingandpraying,nottoGod,
buttothewhiteman,fortheyarestillunabletounderstandthatwhite
Americahadgenerallycondemnedandrejectedthispeace-loving,
brotherlyapproachofMartinLutherKinglongbeforeitmurdered
him. 'Thispresentcourseofafragmentedandunorganizedpeople,if
followed,willfindthesucceedinggenerationsofBlacksasweak,
leaderlessandpowerlessastheyaretoday.
Fortheirpresentroadistheeasyroad :massmeetings,bigconven-
tions,protestresolutions,andsplittinguptofollowthisorthat"leader"
withthegreatest"giftofgab,"allleadingexactlynowhere . Buttoget
downtothehardandpersistentworkofactuallydoingsomething-oh,
nowwewillcometothepartingofways-themeretalkermayretreat .
2 . Itseemstobethegeneralviewthroughouttheblackworldthat
pollsandotherdatashowthatwhitesarehostiletoanykindof
movementbyBlacksforequality,peaceful,non-violentorotherwise;
andthatthishostileanti-Kingclimateproducedhismurderer'asits
representative.
360

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Alltalkabout"BlackPower"isemptyuntilwebegintomakeBlack
Powerarealityintheonlywayitcanbedone,andthatisbybuilding,
stepbystep,araceorganizationsogreatthatitwillnotonlybethevoice
ofaunitedpeoplebutwillcarryon efficiently aneconomicdevelopment
programtoassisttheiradvanceonallotherfronts .
Theorganization-for-unityPLANpresentedinthisfinalchapterisan
efforttoanswerthequestion,"Whichway,youstillenshackled
Blacks?"-toanswerinspecifictermsandinsomedetail . Itsetsforth
ratherclearly onewayout. Itwillbesimplygreatifsomeonecomesup
withanevenbetterplanforracialunitythroughaction. Whateveris
proposedmustbeagranddesign. Nothingelsewillserve . Itmustbe
bold,daring;aneffortofunheard-ofaudacitybyBlacks,andonethat
willbringforththeenemy'sscreamof"Utopian,""toounrealistic,"or
"justanothergrandiosedream. "Thisenemy,andletusnotforgetitfor
asingleminute,isdeeplyentrenched within theraceaswellasoutside .
Thismeansthatwemustfaceuptothefactthatwehaveproblemsofa
kindandobstaclestoovercomewhichnootherpeoplehave.
Thetaskswenowfacewilltestthisgeniusoftheblackrace . The
BlacksintheUnitedStatesareinthebestpositionasalead-offexample
fortherestoftheAfricanrace. Forsuchamovementwouldfurther
changethecourseofhistoryandinspireblackyoutheverywhere,along
withtheirelders,withanewvision,asenseofdirection,andthekindof
outlookthatgivesmeaningtostudyasthesourceofinventionsandnew
discoveries. ThechallengetotheBlacksonthiscontinentistoovercome
thecenturiesoftheirownAmericanversionoftribalismanddisunity . It
istheirgreatestchallengeinthiseraofperpetualcrisis. Theywillaccept
itiftheyhavecometounderstandatlastthatequalrightsandequal
justicewillnevercomefromappealstothemighty,andgrantedasan
ActofGrace,butonlyfromtheirownpositionofpowerandinfluence
whichdevelopfromaunitedpeopleengagedingreatandvast
undertakingsoftheirown. Ifwefailtoacceptthischallengeatthis
criticalturningpointinourhistory,wewillhaveprovedourselves
unworthyofhavinganydescendants,andourverynamesshouldbe
forgottenbythem-orcursedbythefarthestgeneration .
BiographicalNotes
Standingaloneandisolatedinthefieldforoverthirty-fiveyears,
WilliamLeoHansberrywastheteacherwhointroducedmetothe
systematicstudyofAfricanhistoryand,ofequalimportance,tothe
ancientdocumentarysources. Hismassivedocumentationofearly
GreekandRomanhistoriansandgeographersofAfricacoveredseveral
yearsoflabor,leavingonetowonderhowtheutterlyfalseteachingthat
Africahadnowrittenhistoryspreadovertheworld . For,entirelyapart
fromtheremarkablecontributionsofarchaeologyinthe1 9thand20th
centuries,therehavealwaysbeenmorethansufficientwrittenrecords
toreconstructthehistoryoftheBlacksfromtheearliesttimes .
AndIamfullyawarethatmostofthewrittenrecordshavebeenlost .
TheworksofHecataeus,forexample,werelost . Hewasoneofthefirst
GreekstostudyandwriteinEgypt. Whilemuchofthemostsignificant
dataarefragmentsscatteredhereandtherethroughoutmanylarger
works,asthoughtheywerethrowninincidentally,thereweresome
worksdevotedwhollytoancientEgyptandEthiopia . Theonetowhom
weprobablyowethegreatestdebtisthe"FatherofHistory"himself.
Herodotus' History wascomprehensiveinasensenotequalledbyany
oftheotherearlywriters . Diodorus,however,ifnotquitetheequalof
theMaster,ranaclosesecond . His GeneralHistory maynothave
equalledthatofHerodotusinlucidityandstyle,neitherofwhichisa
matteroftoomuchconcernfortheresearcher,butitisrepletewiththe
kindofhistoricaldatawithoutwhichwewouldnothavetheadditional
sidelightsonthedarkenedpagesofblackhistory .
361
36 2

TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
BothHerodotusandDiodoruswereoutstandinginsettingforthfor
posteritytheattitudeofthewhiteworldoftheirdaytowardtheblack
world-theextremereverseofwhatitistoday . Thereasonisplain:The
earlyBlackswerethemostadvancedofallthepeoplesknowntothem .
Thistheydidnothesitatetodeclare,andtoacknowledgethattheirown
EuropeancivilizationhadborrowedheavilyfromAfrica,andborrowed
evenmoreheavilyinthefieldofreligion. ForthislaterWestern
historianshaveneverforgiventhem .
Pliny,theElder,isafairexampleofwritersonAfrica,referredto
above,whereonemustwadethroughamassofirrelevantmattertofind
thebitsandpiecesofdatascatteredthroughoutlargevolumes . Yet
thesefragmentsareoftenofthehighestimportance,astheyareinthe
caseofPliny's HistoriaNatural. InthisregardHomer's Iliad and
Odyssey areinaclassbythemselves. Likemanyotherworksthatgive
insightsintotheearlyhistoryofAfricans,theyalsohavenosuch
purpose. Moreover,the Iliad and Odyssey are"non-historyhistory,"a
mythcombiningfantasywithfacts . Homer'simportanceinAfrican
history,however,haslittletodowiththeprecisetruthofanyparticular
story. Rather,asinthecaseoftheworksofHerodotusandDiodorus,
Homermirrorstheveryhighstatusoftheblackworldofhisdayandthe
unmistakabledeferenceofthewhiteracetothatworld .
InmystudiesunderProfessorHansberry,Ihadreadtheworksofthe
writersdiscussedaboveandmostofthosementionedinthissection
below. Buttheadversecriticismofawholeschoolofeminentmodern
scholarsledmebackforamorepainstakingre-studyandcriticalanalysis
ofallthequestionsunderattack . Interestinglyenough,almostallofthe
statementsmadebytheancienthistoriansthathavebeenchallenged
concern,directlyorindirectly,theroleoftheBlacksinhistory . My
secondapproachtoHerodotusandtheotherswaswiththecertainty
thatIwasjustascompetenttoevaluatetheirworks,see"exaggerations,"
andascapableofseparatingfactsfromfictionasSirAlanGardineror
anyofthemembersofhisschoolofthought.
Amongotherwriterswhomadenoteworthycontributionsinvarying
degreeswasStrabo,whose Geographica includedhistoryalongwithits
mainsubjectmatter. PlatoandPlutarcharereferencesources,the
latter's DeIsideetOsiride beingmoredirectlyrelevant. Quiteanumber
ofthehistoriansandgeographersneartheendoftheB . C. eradrew
heavilyontheworksofsuchearlywritersasHecataeus,Argatharchides,
HerodotusandManetho.
BiographicalNotes

363
IfithadbeenmypurposetomentiontheearlyhistoriansonAfricain
orderofimportance,Manetho,theAfricanhistorian,wouldhave
headedthelist;fortherecordsofthisGreek-speakingnativesonofthe
4thcentury B. C. , areauthoritativesourceswhichnoscholaronEgypt
ignores. His Annals differinmanyrespectsfromotherrecords, e. g . ,
thoseofthegreatJewishhistorianoftheperiod,Josephus,theKing-lists,
theTurinCanon,etc. Thesedifferencesinnames,spellinganddates
aboutwhichsomanyscholarssweatandwrangleneverdidseemtome
tobeofearth-shakingimportance. Quitethe . contrary,itwouldhave
beenstrangeifallofthesedifferentchronologieshadbeenuniformly
thesame. ItshouldberememberedthatallQfthese4thand5thcentury
historianswerecoveringeventsextendingbackfromfourtosixthousand
yearsbeforetheirtime. Thenumerousdiscoveriesofrelativelyrecent
archaeologyhavesubstantiallyconfirmedtheirwork . Examplesarethe
inscriptionsfoundonnumerouspalettes,stelae,thewallsoftombsand
templesandthePalermoandRosettaStones .
Someofthebesthistoriesoftheearliestperiodswerewrittenby
archaeologistssuchasPetrieandothersappearingintheformal
Bibliographybelow. Comingonthesceneovertwothousandyearsafter
Manetho,Herodotus,Diodirus,Strabo, etal. , theysupplementedthe
worksofthesefirstscholarswiththeadditionalevidencethathadbeen
leftinthekeepingofthelong-sincedeadandforgottenorrecovered
fromthesands. Petrieheadedalineofinvestigatorsandwriterswithout
whoseworkstheworldwouldbeintellectuallypoorer-Breasted,Budge,
Arkell,Africanus,Baikfe,Boas,Delafosse,Garstand,Griffith,Nimsand
others. Theillustriousroleislong . The Bible is oneofourrichestsources
formanydifferentsidelightsontheblackworld .
WiththespreadofIslaminAfricaandtheentranceofFrance,Arab
andFrenchwritersdominatedthescenesuptoandthroughthe1 9th
century. FrenchandArabsources,therefore,becameindispensablein
Africanresearch. Indeed,thesamemaybesaidofinvestigatorsand
writersfromalltheinvadingcountries . ThefactthatIrejectmanyof
theirunspokenpre-suppositionsandtheinevitableconclusionsthey
reachtherefromhasnothingtodowiththeusefulnessoftheirworksor
thebrillianceoftheirscholarship . Evensomeoftheauthorswithwhom
Imostbitterlydisagree,nevertheless,ledmetorewardingsourcesIhad
neitherseennorhadbeenawareof .
364

TheDestruction ofBlackCivilization
Itisalsorewarding,thoughinanunhappyway,toseenoendtothe
accumulationofexamplesthatfurtherconfirmviewpointsIactually
wishwereuntrue. Butasthefinalchaptersherewerebeingwritten,
ProfessorRobertW. July'sbig650pagesofAHistory oftheAfrican
Peoplecameoffthepressasthelatestjustificationofmyindictmentof
Westernhistorians. Irecommenditforreadingbecauseitisa1 970
editionofscholarshipskillfullycarryingoutitstraditionalworkonthe
Blacks. PartOne:"AncientAfrica"rearranges,omitsandmisrepresents
manyofthewell-knownfactsinordertofitthemainracialtheory . The
largenumberofpictures,likethemassoffactualdatainthebook,can
easilydisguiseitsmainthrustandtheme:Theblackraceisinferior .
IntheBibliographythatfollowsIleftoutquiteanumberofsecondary
worksusedbecausesomanyofthemseemedtobelittlemorethan
repetitionsofthoseselected . Mydecisiontoeliminatealmostallofthe
periodicalliteratureusedwasnoteasy,especiallyasregardsthespecial
studiesinprofessionaljournals;however,thereisapointwherean
enough-is-enoughconclusionisreached. Thosewhohaveamaniafor
thelatestworkspublishedastheirguidewillmisstheboathere,for
someofourmostvaluablesourcesweretheoldestpublications . Some
canbeseenonlyinlibrariesandspecialmuseumcollections,othersare
microfilmed. Researchsourcesarenolongeraproblem . Duringthelast
fewyearstherehavebeenmanylargeandcomprehensive"Africana"
bibliographiespublishedinEuropeandAmerica .
ThenewinterestandworkinthefieldofOralhistoryareamongthe
mostsignificantdevelopmentsinrecenttimes. Myownfieldstudies
werelargelyinvolvedwithoraltradition . Thisfactshouldberepeated
finallyinconnectionwiththediscussionofsourcesbecausetheoral
recordsplayedanimportantroleinmanyaspectsofthiswork.
SelectedBibliography
D. P. Abraham,"Maramuca:AnExerciseintheCombinedUseof
PortugueseRecordsandOralTradition," JournalofAfrican
History,Vol. II,No . 2,1 961 .
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366

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368

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A
Aaron,1 35
Abdullah,ViceroyofEgypt,
1 40,1 52,278,279,298
Abraham, D. P. , 278,279,298
Abraham,theprophet,1 35
1 39
Abraic,1 34
"Absolutepower,"230
AbuHamed,1 31
AbuSimbel,1 74
Abyssinia,44,88,1 84,1 1 5
1 29,1 39,1 54,Arabruleof,
243,Ethiopia,273
Ad-Dawalah,ChiefKing,1 52,
1 54
Addis Ababa,29
AfricanChristianity,1 82
Africanus,363
AfricanConstitution,1 02
1 35,1 61 -1 75
AfricanCouncil,1 47
INDEX
371
Africandemocracy,originsof,
1 62-1 68
African-Asian,1 02
AfricanGod,1 36
African History,85
Africanideology,31 7,355
African-Indian,development
ofempire,245
Affonso, 257-258
Affonsos, 248
Afro-Americans,255
Afro-Arab,1 79,slavetrade,
243
Afro-Asian,1 00,1 02,1 05,
1 07,1 1 2,1 1 5,1 20,1 23,1 32,
1 37,1 81 ,1 99
Afro-European,1 79
Agegrades,1 63,1 65,21 8
Agriculture,1 00
Ahmad,Mullay,209
Ahmose1 ,1 06,1 07,1 09,1 1 2
Aidi,King,271
Aidi,Kiluanji,267
Aigyptos,65
372 TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Index 373
Alas,GeneralAmribn, 1 20, Arab-African, 1 44
Avaris, 81 BlackMuslims(BlackArabs),
1 42 Arab-Bepbeo,tribalstates,
Axum, 21 ,1 39,1 84 1 83
AlFayyuni, 84 202
Axum,Kingdomof, 259 BlackNationalism, 327
Ali,Muhammad, 1 59 Arab-Hebrew,Abyssiania
Axumite, 1 41 "BlackNoba," . 1 40,1 84
Allah, 1 55 rule, 243
BlackParadise, 1 93
AlbionSea, 1 86 Arab-Islamic, 1 20
BlackPortuguese, 248
AlexandertheGreat, 1 1 8 ArabMuslims, 202
B BlackPower, 1 1 7,1 41 ,1 57,360
1 1 9,1 80 Arabia, 1 50
BlackSeparatists, 326
Alexandria, 1 20 Arabic, 7. 7,1 34 Babo,Ahmad, 204
Blacksouth, 1 99
Ali,Sunni, 204 ArabicLanguage, 205-206
Babylon,' 61
BlackUnity, 30
Almoravides, 203 1 38,1 39,1 42,1 44 BahrElGhazal, 1 93
BlackWomen'sArmyCorps,
AlNasir,Sultan, 1 96 1 45,1 53,1 58,1 91 ,206 Bailars,Sultan, 1 51
1 90
Alvares, 248 21 0,243-245 Baikie, 363
BlackNile, 1 57
Alwa, 1 35,1 39,1 40,1 42,1 47 Araba,MonomopataEmpire,
Baker,Samuel, 1 50
Bojador, 245
1 55,1 56,1 57,1 58,1 59,1 60 277-285
Bakuba, 285,289
Brazil, 270
Amai,King, 1 52 Arabs,religiousinfluence, 251
BaniKanz, 1 96
BritishinSouthAfrica, 288
AmarDunquas, 1 57 Archaeologists, 1 21
Bantu, 29-
Bronze, 275
Amenhotep1 , 1 06,1 09 Arfur, 1 95
Baqt, 1 51 ,1 55
BrothersofIslam, 1 93
Amenhotep1 1 , 1 06,1 07 Argatharchides, 363
Baranmindanah,Emperor,
Breasted, 268
AmenhotepIII, 1 06,1 1 0 Aristotle, 1 41
203,204
Boas, 223
AmenhotepIV,1 1 0 Arkel, 363
Barbarism, 230
Boats, 1 05
Americans, 1 91 Ashurbanipal, 1 1 7 BarkalHill, 1 67
Bocchoria, 1 1 4
AmericanEmbassy, Asia, 1 1 5,1 37,1 41 ,1 55,1 58 Baru,Sunni, 209
Boston, 1 27
Khartoum, 28 1 60 Barwe, 282,288
Bowe,goldminesof, 201
AmericanIndians, 31 1 Asia,Muslim, 1 33 Basaa, 1 31
Budge, 363
Amon, 91 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 4,1 27 Asianimperialism, 34 Beki, 229
Buhastis, 1 1 3,222,223,224
Amribn-al-As, 1 20,1 42 Asians, 1 78
Belgium(Kubacolonizer), 241
226
Amtalka, 1 27 Asiansettlements, 277 Berbers, 223,1 1 2,1 85,1 97,1 85
Bushoongs,assimilation, 228
AncientEthiopians, 1 21 AsiaticCaucasians, 1 80 1 99,203
migration, 222-23, organi-
Angola, 245-272 AskiaIssiahask, 209 Beieng(Byeeing), 21 5
zationof, 223-24, warswith
Angola,independencedeclara- AskiatheGreat(Muhammad
Bible,89,31 6
Juga, 223, federaldevelop-
tion, 265,266, Kingof Ture), 209
BiladasSudan, 44
ment, 224-25, industry,
Ndongo, 258 Aspalea,KingofKush, 1 67,1 68
Bingle,Louie, 21 6
282, leadership, 291 , rulers,
Angolans, 222 1 35
Blackcapitalism, 356
281
Annals, 363 Aspalta, 1 67
Blackcommunism, 356
Byeeny, 224
Animism, 230 Asselarman, 207
"Black,"definitionof, 24
Anlaman, 1 27,1 56-57 Assuan, 1 1 8,1 74
BlackEgypt, 1 06,1 09,1 54
AnnNzinga, 273-274, inPor- Assyria, 1 1 6,1 20
BlackEgyptians, 1 37
C
tuguesepeaceconference, Assyrians, 1 26,1 94
BlackJews, 238
263-264 AtbasaRiver, 1 29 Cadornega,Antoniode
BlackLand,1 01 , 1 95
Antioch, 67 Athens, 61 Olivera, 261
BlackMakuria, 1 90
Apartheid, 56 Athothes,1 00 Cairo, 1 96
BlackMuslim, 93,1 52,21 8
ApostlePeter, 246 Atothones, 94
374 TheDestruction of BlackCivilization Index
375
Caliph, 1 94
Cambyses, 91 ,1 37
Christianity, 25,86,99,1 35
1 36,1 48,1 82,1 93,21 2,333
Darius,theGreek, 1 1 8,1 37
Darius II,1 37
Euphrates, 1 06
Europe, 1 37,1 55,1 60,297,
Canaanites, 67 334 David,KingofMakuria, 1 95 299,308
Candace,Queen, 1 1 8,1 1 9
Capitalism, 43,31 7,31 8,332,
Christianity,appearancein
Africa, 247-251
DeCastro,Joseu, 52
DeisiveetOsirio, 363
344 "CityofaHundredGates," 87 Delafosse,Maurice, 201 ,363 F
Cardoso,Bento, 261 ,263 Civilization,directionof, 330, Delta, 1 03,1 1 3,1 1 4
Fada,Gurma, 21 0
Carthaginians, 80 355 Dembopeople, 269
Faris,Eparchof, 1 94
Castro,Josuede, 81
"Cathedralcities," 1 40
CatholicChurch, 1 82
Cleopatra, 1 20
CodedeKongo, 252
Colonialization, 1 20
Democracy,African, 26-27
Diamonds, 54
Diara, 201 ,203
Farming,MossiStaks, 21 5
Ferguson,GeorgeEkem, 21 8
FifthDynasty, 1 1 2
Caucasianization, 1 38,1 59 "Coloureds," 75,1 03,1 05 Diogo 1 ,249,258
FirstCataract, 45,65,66,82
Caucasianpower, 1 52 1 07,1 37,256,207,208,243 Djenne, 1 98,204,205
84,99,1 03,1 06,1 1 2,1 1 3
Caucasians, 79,1 40,1 45,1 55 304 DomPedros, 248
1 1 8,1 1 9,1 20,1 21 ,1 22,1 27
1 57 ColouredChristianHebrews, Domingos,Emperor, 286
1 36,1 37,1 38,1 42,1 51 ,1 54
Cavazzi,JoaoAntonia, 261 231 ,31 6 Dongola, 1 33,1 39,1 87,1 88,
1 55,1 59
CentralAfrica, 220-242 Communism, 71 ,31 6,31 7 1 96
Fostat, 68,69
Chad, 1 46 31 8,332 Drogo,KongoKing, 258,259
FourthCataract, 1 06,1 21 ,1 25
Changa,Matopelsgeneral,
281 ,283,284
Communitycontrol, 31 5
Communityservices, 354,355
Duanib, 1 31
Dungas,AmoraKing, 1 57
FourthDynasty,1 01
Fulani, 1 83,203
Changamire, 284,286,287 Congo, 284 Dutch, 1 21 ,265,269,287,288
FundamentalRightsofthe
Chem(Chemi), 65 Constitution,Kubachangeof, 289
AfricanPeople, 1 70
Chen, 87 235
Funji, 1 57,1 59,1 83
Chidima, 282 Copper, 54,1 04,1 62,1 65,1 70
Chief, 96 275,276,279
E
Chiefelder, 96
Chiefpriest, 96
Chieflesssocieties, 1 63
Cotton, 1 48
Coufa, 224
Councilofelders, 96
Earlyeducation,traditional,
1 66-1 68
G
"ChildrenofIsrael," 1 06
"ChildrenoftheSun," 1 22
1 23
Councilofleaders, 357,358
CreatoroftheUniverse',1 1 0
Crime, 323-325
EasternSudan,Arabrule, 243
Ebong, 1 22
EgyptianGreeks, 1 38
Gadiaro, 1 97
Galam, 1 97
Garantel, 1 97
Chindo; 1 23
Chinese, 277,31 1 ,320,332
CuanzaRiver, 266
Curtin,ProfessorPhilipD . , 38
"Egyptianinfluence," 98,1 33
EighteenthDynasty, 1 06,1 07
Garcia II,270
Gardiner,SirAlan, 362
Chioko,Dambamupute, 289 Cush, 84,88,99,1 05,1 35 1 1 2,1 23 Garstand, 363
Chosenpeople, 1 36
Christian, 1 41 ,1 55
Cushites, 33,37
Cwa, 1 78,224,285
ElBekri, 1 98
Elephantine, 1 33
Geographyofhunger, 82
German,Kubantrade, 239
ChristianArabs,Abyssinian
rule, 251
Cyriacus, 1 48 EleventhDynasty, 1 04,1 06
Emeralds, 1 22
Gezira, 1 31
Ghana, 1 95-21 9
Christianera, 1 20
ChristianEurope, 1 33,1 90
1 82
D
Enslavement,Caucasian, 35
EparchofFaris, 1 94
Equatoria, 1 93
Ghana,imperialarmy, 1 98
Gileanes, 245
"GloriousEighteenth,"1 1 1
ChristianHebrews, 251
Christiandom, 1 83
Dambamupute,Chioko
Emperor, 289
Erastosthenes, 89,94
Esarhaddon, 1 1 5
Goddala, 1 97
Gods,Mwari, 282-284
376
Gold,54,1 05,1 61 ,1 33
275-276,279
"GoldenAge,"1 05
GrandCaucasianConsensus,
defined,254,258,283
"GreatAgeofBlackCiviliza-
tion,"1 37
"GreatBeyond,"1 29
"GreatIssues,"1 05
"GreatProphesy,"; 21 5
"GreatZimbabwe,"286
Greece,64-65,1 20,1 38
Greek,1 38,1 40,1 79,206,21 5
296-297
Griffith,223
Guhayna,1 58
Guidelines,31 8
GulfofGuinea,1 90
Guniuwas,282
Guns,influenceon, 252-253,
255,after1 400 A. D. , 1 92
H
Half-breed,33,74
Halfa,1 21
Hamites,37,79
Hansberry,WilliamLee,361 ,
362
Hatshepsut,Queen,1 06-1 09
HausaStates,21 8
Hayden,ReverendCarketibj,
28
HeartlandoftheBlacks,1 86
Hebrew(Hyksos),35,40,77
1 06,1 1 2
Hecataeus,362
Heracleopolis,1 02,1 1 5,1 33
Hieroglyphics,1 27
HighPriest,1 51
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Hikupatah,65
Hittites,1 31
HistoriaNatural, 361
Holt, P. M. , 1 57
HolyCityofNapata,1 06,1 26
1 29
"HolyofHolies,"1 25
Homer,1 02,362
Hordan,1 71
Horus,61 ,1 1 7,1 21
Hyksos,40,84,85,1 06
I
Ikhnaton,(AmenhotepIV),
87,1 06,1 1 0,1 1 1
Ilebo,280
Iliad, 280
Imhotep,1 00
IndianOcean,1 21 ,1 31 ,1 94
274,277,279,282
Indiansettlements,277-282
Industrialdevelopment,1 00
Integration,302,303
"IntegrationistBlacks,"1 1 3
Intelligenceandsecurity,355
Iyanga,275
Iron,1 26,1 31 ,1 33,1 40,1 82
275,276,279
Islam,23,86,99,1 50,1 97
1 82,1 93,203,21 8,333,334
Israel,337
Israelites,84
Issihak,Askia,21 7
Ivory,84,1 04,1 22,1 32
Iyool,plainof,223
J
Jaga,1 78,223,254,255
261 -262
Index
Jalak,Mari,203
Japanese,31 1 ,320,332
Jerusalem,61 ,85
Jesus(Christ),1 20,1 35,1 36,
1 55,334,336,337
Jenne,1 98,204,205
Jews,1 35,1 36,1 38,1 39
1 58
JoaoI,245
Joseph,1 35
Josephus,28,84,363
Judicialsystem,earliest,
1 68-1 75
July,RobertW. ,364
K
Kaam,224
Kabasa,fallof,263
Kalahara,274
Kalydosos,KingofMakuria,
1 43,1 44,1 47,1 49,1 52
Kamose,1 06
Kangoba,201
Kaulga,201
Karima,1 25,203
Karnak,92
Kasai,223
Kasanji,265
Kashta,1 29
Katanga,Northern,281
Kati,Mahmud,204
206
Kawa,1 35
Kayilweeng,224
Keita,Sundiata,203
Kel,224
Kerembes,King,1 52,1 54
Kerma,1 33
Kete,1 78,224,255
Khafre,67,81 ,1 00
Khaldum,Ibn,1 54
Khartoum,1 57
Khasekhem,1 00
Kheti1 ,1 02,1 03
Khufu,67,1 00
Kiehefner,DonaldW. ,28
Kilimoni,282
Kilwa,277,278
KingdomoftheKongo,
246-251
Kingdoms,47
Kingdom,Old,1 01 ,1 22,1 23
KingofKings,1 47,1 48,1 49
1 50,1 51
KingSolomon,273
KingsofEgypt,1 02
Karima,Battleof,203
Kolle~,21 6
Kongo,economicsystem,246
Kongo-Angola,Portuguese
arrival,245,259
KongoKing,265
KongoKingdom,241 ,250
Kongolese,222
KongoleseKings,251
Koran,203,206
Kossoi,Dia,204
KotaPe,KubaKing,241
242,281
Krause,21 6
Kuba,220-283
Kukya,204
Kumbi,201
Kumbi-Kumbi,1 97,1 98
KumbiSaleh,203
Kurru,1 26
Kurusku,1 33
Kush,1 28
Kwango,lowersettlement,
223
L
LakeNyanza,50
377
378
LandoftheBlacks,44,50,85,
1 05,1 20,1 22,1 35,205,304
LandoftheBlackGods,1 49
LandoftheGods,1 04,1 27
Languagedialects,46
Leengs,227
Lemtuna,1 97
Liberationofthemind,331 ,
347
Libya,80,1 1 2,1 1 3
Libyandynasties,1 1 2
Limpopo,288,274,279,281
Lisbon,247,252,258,259,263
Lisbon,Treatyof1 622,269
LordoftheMountain,1 50,
1 51
LowerEgypt,61 ,80,81 ,82,
83,98-1 04,1 1 1 ,1 1 3,1 1 4
1 1 5,1 37,1 40,1 46,1 48,1 52
LowerGesira,1 57
LowerNubia,1 67
LoyalAsians,1 07
Luanda,258,265,260,267,
271
Luba,224
Lulua,224
Lunda,empire,1 64
Macedonian-Greekrule,1 20
Madden,Professor,26,27
Madonda,282
Magic,religion,293
Makuria,1 35,1 39,1 40,1 41 ,
1 42,1 44,1 46,1 54,1 55,
1 57,1 59
Malakai,29
Malenakan,1 27
Mali,200,201 ,203,204
MaliEmpire,202,21 0
Malnutrition,52,83,84
Maluk,224
Mamelukes,1 51 ,1 52,1 53
1 54,1 57
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
MampoussiKingdom,21 0
Mandinkapeople,201
Manetho,28,363
Mani,249
MansaMansa,202
MansaMusa,202,203,204
Manuel,PortugueseKing,
251 ,252,258
Manyika,282,286
Marxist,330
Masangano,270
Masapa,286
MasterPlan(forraceorganiz-
tion),341 -346,348-362
Matabele,288
MatambaQueenNzinga,268
269
Matope,Emperor,281 -283
Matrilineal,1 1 4
Mauura,Emperor,285
Mbal,KingLashyaang,282
285
MbeengiNgonga,280
Mbire,281
MboMboosh,KubaKing,
285,294,296
MboongAleeng,283,293,294
295
MbopAMabuncMaMbul,
KubaKing,296,298
MediterraneanSea,99,1 1 5,
1 1 6,1 21 ,1 26,1 29,1 30
Mekheb,57
Memphis,64-66,67,81 ,94,
95,1 00,1 01 ,1 02,1 1 5,1 1 7,
1 1 8,1 31 ,1 42
Memphites,33
Menes,39,44,63-65,78,80,
88,94,99-1 00,1 03,1 1 5,
1 46,1 52
Mentuhotep,83
Mentuhotep1 1 ,83,1 41 -1 42
Index
Meroe,45,95,1 1 7,1 23,1 27,
1 29-1 33,1 35-36,1 38,1 42,
1 47,1 98-1 99,274
Mertitefs,Queen,,69
Mesopotamia,68,1 06,337
Messufa,1 97
-Meziezs,Bonnelde,1 98
Middleclass,305-306
MiddleKingdom21 33 B. C. ,
1 02
Midianitepriest,1 35
MisheMaTuun'sDay,229
Migration,purposeof,237
379
Muslim,1 20,1 40,1 45,1 46,
1 48,1 50,1 52,1 56,1 58,204,
335
MuslimAsia,1 47
Muslims,Black,208,21 5
Muslims,white,21 5
MuseumofFineArts,1 27
Mut,91
Mutota,1 91 ,21 7,21 8
MutotaKing,278-281
Mt. Sinai,1 35
Mwari,MonomotapaGod,
282-284
238,274
MnemotechnicalSystem,288
ModernHistoryoftheSudan,
N
1 57
MohoNaba,KingofKins,
265,266
Na-Amun,89
Naba,21 1 ,21 4
MoghoNabaWobogo,21 8
Mohammad,337
Naga,1 29
Nam,21 1
Monomotapa,Empireof,
Napata,45,61 ,95,1 04,1 1 5,
273-285
1 1 6,1 1 7,1 25,1 26,1 29,1 33,
Moors,51 ,1 03,201 ,207,208
1 42,1 55
Mongo,224
Mongolian,77,1 1 2
Moses,85,1 35
Narmer,1 47
Nationbuilding,53
Mossi,21 1 ,21 9
Ndebele,288
Ndongo,267-268
MossiStates,209,21 0
Necho,1 1 7,1 1 8,1 37
MossiStates,209,21 0
"MotherEmpire,"1 48
Motherland,1 33,1 54
Neferefre,1 00
Nefertari,Queen,1 06,1 07,
1 09,1 1 2
"MotheroftheBlacks,"1 33
"MotheroftheRace,"1 05
Mozambique,274,276,288
Mpinda,Portuguese-Dutch
War,265
Negroid,1 80
Nekheb,64,1 33
Nemadi,201
Neolithic,1 22
"NewBreed,"1 02
Mulattoes,1 39,1 51 ,1 78,1 86,
"NewBrotherhood,"1 00
208
"NewEmpire,"1 06
Mulattoproblem,71
Murdock,GeorgePeter,1 81
Musawarat,1 31 ,1 33
Ngeende,224,229
Ngokady,Queen229
Ngoni,1 78
380
Ngoombe,224
NigerRiver,1 98
Nile,99,1 1 5,1 1 7,1 21 -1 26
1 27,1 33,1 47,1 58
NineteenthDynasty,1 1 1
Nims,363
Nkrumah,Kwame,29
Nobadae,Moniphiste,1 40-1 42
Nobadaen,1 44
Nomads,Arabs,1 87,Berber,
1 87
Nomarchs,80,81
NorthernEgypt,1 1 7
NorthernSudan,1 52
Nowe,39,66,89,90,92,93,
1 04
NubaHills,1 92
Nubia,79,82,84,88,99,1 04,
1 05,1 21 ,1 23,1 33,1 34,1 39
Nubialand,1 22
Nubians,33
Numidians,33
Nuri,1 26,1 33
Nyahuma,285
NzingaKuwu(Joan1 ),248
Nzinga,Queen, 256-257, 258-
271
0
Oau,1 03,1 94
Odyssey, 362
Omar,1 48
Omnos,61
Oralhistory,26
"OrientalDictator,"98
OrganizationofAfrican
Unity,29
OttomanTurks,1 57,1 59
Oubai,21 1
OuidiNaba,21 2,21 4
OxfordUniversity,24
TheDestructionofBlackCivilization
Ouedraoga,21 1
P
Paganism,287
PalermoStone,63,363
PalermoStoneAnnals,1 01
PanAfricanaffairs,354
PanAfricanism,345
Panopolis,1 33
Paper,inventionof,1 04,1 22
Papyras,1 04,1 22
Paramountchiefs,226,227
PatriachofAlexandria,1 40
PaxRomana,1 38
PedroII,265
Petrie,363
Pelusium,1 20
PepiII,82
Peribsen,1 00
Persia,1 20,1 38,243
Philae,1 33
Piankhi,95,1 1 4-1 1 6,1 1 7
1 31 ,1 52
Plato,362
Pliny,89,362
Politicalaction,352
Politicalorganization,249
Portuguese,1 34,245-247,251 ,
252,269,270,277,285,286,
287,290
Powell,AdamClayton,368
Prester,John,251
Ptolemy,1 1 5,1 38
PtolemaicPeriod,1 20
Pyaang,224, 229,235
Pygmies(Cwa),229
PyramidsofGiza,70
Pyramids,theGreat,1 1 7,1 23
Pyrrhicvictory,1 46
I
I
Index
"QualityofEducation,"301
Quelimane,277
R
Racism,1 79,1 88
Raids,Arab-Berber,200
RamesideKings,1 1 1
Rameses,40,1 1 1 ,1 1 2
"Red'Men,"1 32
RedSea,1 21 ,1 50
Regimento(Africanconquest),
251
Religion,35,90,92,95,229-
231 ,237,282
Rhodes,Cecil,1 90
Rhodesia,29,1 90,273,274,
294
Riley, (U. S. Johannesburg
ConsulGeneral),30
Romans,1 38,1 40,243,358
RomanEmpire,1 20,1 38
RomanLegions,1 39
Rome,67,1 20,280
RosettaStone,363
RosviChiefs,277,280
"RoyalFamily,"98
"RoyalMarriageRoute,"1 1 2
S
Sadi,Rahman,204,205,206
Sahara,51 ,52,1 40,1 83,1 86
SaharanTragedy,1 83
SaiIsland,1 21
Sais,81 ,1 1 4,1 37
SaiteKings,37
381
Salih,Abu,1 49
Salim,Ibn. 1 49
SalvadordeSa,270
Sama,1 97
Samah,1 33
SanguruRiver,223
Sankore,Universityof,205
Sanum,MoghoNaba,21 7
21 8,265
SaoThome(slavetradeoutlet),
258,267,271
SargonII,1 1 7
Science,1 00
SecondCataract,1 21 ,1 44
1 54
SecretSocieties,276
Selima,1 21
SemiticCaucasianization,1 06
Semiticpeople,1 58
SemeticSolomondi,273
Semites,79,84
Semitic(Arabsas),23
Sena,282
Senkamanseken,1 27
Sennar,1 57,1 59
Set,1 1 1
Sethe,Kurt,61
SeventeenthDynasty,1 06
Shabaka,1 1 5-1 1 7
Shaka,21 5,245,287,288,335,
347
Shakandu,1 95
Shangana,288
SheshonkI,1 1 3,1 52
Shilluk(Funj),1 57,1 59
Shipbuilding,1 00
Shiringoma,282
ShayaamtheGreat,233-236
Silva,Simaode,252,254,271
SixthCataract,1 21
SixthDynasty,1 01 ,1 03,1 1 2
Skinner, E. P. , 21 7
Slavehunters,1 91
382 TheDestruction of BlackCivilization Index 383
Slave

55 raids,
Transvaal,274 Unkanangaimmigrants,274,
Slavetrade,1 94,239,240,
T
Treatyof652,1 50,1 51 278
252-254
Treatyof1 622,264,265,269 Uansinas,223
Smith,Ian,1 90 Taghasa,saltminesof,203 Tribalwarfare,1 64,1 65 Uembe(LimpopoRiver),274
Snefuru,71 ,1 00,1 01 ,1 22,1 23 204 Tribes,1 26
Soba,1 56 Tagiya,1 21 Tuaregs,1 83
Sofala,277,278,279 Taharqa,1 1 7,1 26 Tucolorpeoples,203
Soleb,1 33 Tangasi,1 21 Turincanon,287
"Solominids,"1 39,1 41 ,273 Tamsoba,21 7 Turks,1 33
Songhay,204,205,f06,21 0, Tanutamon,1 1 7,1 1 8,1 27 Turz,Muhammed,209 V
243 Tanzania,31 3 Tutankhamen,1 06,1 1 0
Sorka,people,204 TarikhAlSudan, 21 8-204 TwentiethDynasty,1 1 1
Vakaranga,274,277,278
Soza,1 97 TarikhalFatash, 204-21 8 Twenty-SecondDynasty,1 1 3
Vasina,Jan,220
SouthAfrica,29,30,276,277, Tefnakhte,1 1 4,1 1 5 Twenty-FifthDynasty,1 1 5
Von,Francois,21 8
278,282,289,294, Tegrur,201 ,204 1 1 6,1 1 7,1 34,1 37
Voulet,21 8
SouthernArabia,251 TempleofAmon,1 27 Twenty-SixthDynasty,1 1 8
SouthernEthiopia,1 04,1 07, TenCommandments,1 35 1 37
1 1 3,1 1 4,1 33 Tenkamenin,Emperor,1 98 TwoLands,44,59,61 ,64,80,
w
SouthernSudan,1 52,1 55 Tete,282 99,1 46
Spiritualslife,355 Thebald,88,93,1 1 5
"TwoNiles,"1 29
Sphinx,87 Thebans,33
Tekour,1 97
Wadai,1 83
"Starvingtime,"299,300 Thebes,61 ,63,64,66,80,81 ,
WadiHalfa,1 21
WadiHudi,1 21
Stonequarrying,1 05 83,84,87,90,94,95,
Strabo,28,362 1 02,1 04,1 06,1 07,1 1 4,1 1 5,
U
Wagadu,201
Wagadugu,

of,21 1 people
Sudan,35,44,50,66,80,85 1 1 7,1 1 8,1 33
WagaduguKingdom,21 0
1 21 ,1 45,1 47,1 55-1 59,277 Theoreticalfreameworkfor
294,295 Destruction, 33,35
Uganda,1 31 Wangaragoldmines,200,20
Thines,61
Uli,MausaEmperor,202 Warcouncil,1 1 6
Umm,1 31 Wawa,1 21
Thinis,67
UnitedArabs,1 56 Wawat,88,99,1 04
Thinites,33
Sudd,45
ThirdWorld,31 7
UnitedArabRepublic,1 03 Westernland,1 05
Sulieman-Mar,204
"ThroneoftheSunGod,"1 25
UnitedStates,1 1 7 Westernizationprocess247
Sultan,1 51 ,1 52
Thutmose1 ,1 06
Unity,thenecessityof,341 251
Sumanguru,MandinkaKing,
ThutmoseII,1 06
"UniversityCity,"88 Wezots,304
204
ThutmoseIII,1 09
UniversityofSankore,1 98 Whitedevils,249,250
SunGod,1 23,1 36
Timbuktu,1 98,204,205
205 "WhiteEgyptian,"98
Sunni,204
Tin,1 05,275,276,279
UpperEgypt,61 ,81 -83,98, WhitePower,1 41
SunTemple,1 27
Tippu,1 83,208
99,1 02-1 05,1 06,1 1 2-1 1 5 Wilkinson,SirGardner,86
SupremeGod,1 1 4,1 42
Tiy,Queen,1 1 0
1 1 5,1 1 8,1 21 ,1 46,1 51 - Wobogo,MohhoNaba,21 8
SupremePontiff,246
Togoland,21 8
1 52 Wo'se,89,90,293
Swampland,45
Togwa,281 ,284,285
UpperNile,1 94 Womeninslavery,253,254
Swazi,288
Toynbee,Arnold,1 85
Userkaf,1 00 Woot,223,224
Syria,1 05,1 06,1 1 7
Trading,MossiStates,21 6
Usuda,1 29 Writing,developmentof,93
384
Z
Zakuri,King,1 50
Zambezi,274,279,281 ,282
288
Zambia,225,279,282
ZanzibarRevolution,71 ,208
243
Zenaga,1 97
Zimbabwe,29,30,282
Zongagongos,21 8
Zoser,1 00
Zulu,council,301 ,empire,
287,288
Zululand,21 4
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