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Technical proposals for the treatment of wood ammonia batch process

AI Brunkin Contact the author: brunkin @ Yandex . RU Chemical wood lamination The mechanism of interaction of wood with ammonia has a chemical nature, as indicated by the temperature coefficient of the rate of interaction equal to 2.0-2.2, whereas in the case of the physical nature of the temperature coefficient was to fluctuate around unity. One can assume that the basis of the chemical process is to break the links between macromolecules wood components. Active alkalinity. There is also an almost complete deacylation hemicellulose to form ammonium acetate. Part of the lignin and hemicellulose into solution. The basic weight loss of timber (up to 6-10%) in the treatment of its aqueous ammonia formed by the cleavage of the acyl groups. A small portion of the lignin is condensed. When exposed to the last timber of liquid ammonia enters between macromolecules components of cell walls and breaks the hydrogen bonds. After removal of ammonia is the creation of new, even more powerful, hydrogen bonds. When kneading with aqueous ammonia or ammonia gas in the presence of water changes the structure of the cell walls. Longer treatment of wood because of the gap leads to an increase in cross-linking degree of swelling of the cell walls, the amount of water in the maximum swollen cell walls increases from 30-38% and 70-100%, internal surface increases from 100-150 to 350 - 400 m 2 / g (PP Erinsh). Changes in the structure of the sub-microscopic capillaries in the cell walls suggest splitting the elements of the structure of cell walls into smaller units, in particular the splitting of microfibrils of cellulose into elementary fibrils. Facilitated by the ability to move individual layers and cells relative to each other. At temperatures above 100 C in ammonia plasticized wood are the condensation and polymerization of macromolecules between wood components and within them. As a result, the strength of the material increases. All these reactions are, of course, depend on the concentration of ammonia, the duration of its effects, temperature and other factors. With increasing concentration of ammonia in the solution of 1 to 34% (at a temperature of about 20 C), the process time is reduced accordingly kneading about 13 times , increasing the pressure in the cylinder impregnating from 0 to 7.5 kg / cm 2 reduces the time required to plasticize timber with ammonia gas, 11 times. Even greater acceleration process is achieved by increasing the temperature of plasticization. Experimentally proved that the wood processing or gaseous ammonia dissolved in water at elevated temperatures and pressures to chemical attack on the wood is enhanced so that it becomes possible to not only significantly reduce the amount of ammonia and duration of treatment, but also to handle the ammonia dry wood, which corresponds to the equilibrium moisture content moisture content of finished products in the field. Plasticization of wood steaming ammonia more efficiently: this wood can be bent at a smaller radius for thick veneer, with more massive detail. Can be freed from the effects of stress immediately after the desired shape changes. A new form of ammonia plasticized wood retains even after treatment with water at a temperature of 100 C (as we know, is not chemically treated particle board after immersion in water at room temperature and becomes raspressovyvaetsya original size and density). Can be made of wood plasticized soft deciduous trees, seal coating for facial floor boards and panels, which is feasible because the chemical treatment with ammonia and dry density of birch increased to 700 - 800 kg / m 3 , and the density of aspen - up to 600 -750 kg / m 3 . This dramatically improves decorative properties, and physical and mechanical properties are not second to that of oak. The service life of

plasticized parquet wood increases by 2-3 times, and the cost of it is reduced by 20-25% compared to hardwood flooring. Possible use of a modified wood for musical instruments and sports equipment. The new material has very good acoustic properties, and the flow of valuable wood in the manufacture of resonant violins cut in half. Ammonia can also plasticize chopped wood, spending with only 3-5% (by weight of the wood) of ammonia. Ammonia use in conjunction with the primary products of the condensation of phenol-formaldehyde resins (phenol) in the production pressmass gives a new kind of plastic, wood, and improve the technological parameters of the process: to reduce the temperature, pressure and pressing time, reduce the amount of binder in the manufacture of parts. Technological possibilities of production of modified wood (CBM) allows the final product with a wide range of decorative, structural, mechanical and performance properties that can be changed depending on the requirements of the consumer or producer. Gets the properties of the modified wood depend on many factors: the chemical nature and the mechanism of hardening of the impregnating resin impregnation them from the steppes of wood. Most benefits observed in the modification of low-grade wood and low-value wood such as birch, aspen, alder and others. The resulting final product retains existing properties of the original wood and acquires technology-defined range of new properties, such as, high hardness and low friction, density and strength, bio-moisture-fire, new decorative features. At a certain impact on the natural resource it is given the necessary performance. The technological process is a chemical-mechanical modification of wood, which produces a new material, which has a distinct texture and gets your interest color from light yellow to dark brown. One of the highlights of the modification process, the wood acquires the ability to pressed (to a density of 1500 kg / m 2 or more) and to bending, which is the possibility of using non-traditional methods of machining with the release of the final product. When you modify the wood can get unique images of "psevdogolografii" and intarsia mimic valuable species, to produce images without the use of multi-level threads, producing parts of complex curved shapes. Production technology provides a unique product, the production of which can not be otherwise.Modified wood is used in the following industries: -Wood; Construction materials (decorative panels, flooring, profile elements, doors and windows, railings, moldings, etc.) -Furniture and furniture components (cabinet and upholstered furniture, furniture, etc.) Decorative-applied products Light industry, souvenirs, jewelry, musical instruments and sports equipment. -Machine-and instrument-housing elements, bearing inserts, shuttle looms. As a result of modifying the mechanical strength of the timber is increased by at least 3 times, water resistance - in 2-3 times, chemical resistance - in 3-4 times. Modification was treated by the blank (boards, beams, plates, rollers, bushings, rings, etc.), dried to moisture content 8-25%.

Seal exercise pressing at a pressure of 50 MPa in one or in two directions or contour compression (eg, punching through the cone), and the method of rolling. Then the workpiece is subjected to heat treatment in the chamber at 100-200 C to reduce the moisture and stabilize their size. Duration loop bars 50-60 mm thick in the press is 3.5-4 h; seal blanks m b. to 50%. Lignamon receive workpiece gaseous NH 3 for 2 days in an autoclave with the latter. seal in the press at 135-145 C and 3.2 MPa (1.5 min for 1 mm thickness of finished material), cooled to 30-50 C (0.5 min for 1 mm thickness) and staying indoors during 5-10 days.

When processing ammonia , wood darkens, thus improving and decorative properties. Workpiece humidity 8-12%, sealed in a pressure chamber, evacuated about 30 minutes to a residual pressure of 2 kPa, then soaked for 2-3 hours monomer (eg methyl methacrylate) or oligomer . After removing the excess impregnating composition, the container is filled with the work carried out with ammonia and polymerizing the monomer .