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# Basic Formulas

INDICES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14

3 n n n n

## = am = 1 am = am+n = am n ( m > n ) or 1 am n = amn = am x bm = am bm =1 =a

(1/2)

(m<n)

a a ab a b a m

= a(1/ 3) = a(1/ n) = =
n n

a x a

n n

b b

## = a(m / n) = (a(1/ n))m

ALGEBRA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ( a + b )2 ( a - b )2 (x+a)(x+b) (x+a)(x-a) ( a + b )2 + ( a - b ) 2 ( a + b )2 - ( a - b )2 a2 + b2 a2 + b2 (a + b )3 (a - b )3 a3 + b3 a3 - b3 a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 - 2ab + b2 = x2 + ( a + b ) x +ab = x2 - a 2 = 2 (a2 + b2) = 4ab = (a + b)2 - 2ab = (a - b)2 + 2ab = a3 + b3 + 3ab ( a + b ) = a3 - b3 - 3ab ( a - b ) = ( a + b ) (a2 - ab + b2) = ( a - b ) (a2 + ab + b2) = ( a + b + c ) ( a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca ) = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca ) = ( a + b + c )2 - 2(ab + bc + ca ) = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

14 (a + b + c )2 15 a2 + b2 + c2 16 if a + b+ c

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Basic Formulas
Basic symbols: i) A + B = = Logarithms
1 logamn 2 logam/n 3 loga(m)n 4 log101 5 log1010 6 logaa = logam + logan = logam - logan = n logam = 0 = 1 = 1

ii) A +

=X

iii). A B = ?

iv). A B

GEOMETRY
1 Area of triangle 3 Area of square 4. Perimeter of rectangle 5 Area of rectangle = x base height (or) (1/2 bh) Unit2 = (side)
2

2 Perimeter of a square = 4 x side (or) (4a) (or) a2 (or) d2/2 Unit2 = 2 (length + breadth)(or) [2 (l+b)] Unit2 = length breadth (or) (l b) Unit2

6 Area of parallelogram = base height (or) (bh) 7 Area of trapezium them) 8 Area of quadrilateral = x (diagonal) (sum of internal perpendiculars on it) = x (sum of parallel sides) (distance between

## IF RADIUS OF CIRCLE IS R THEN

9 10 11 Perimeter of the circle Area of the circle Area of the Hollow Circle = 2r (or) D = r2 (or) d2/4 Unit2

## IF RADIUS OF SPHERE IS R THEN

12 13 Lateral Surface area Volume = = 4r2
4

/3 r3

Unit3

## IF RADIUS OF [ 1/2 (or) HEME] SPHERE IS R THEN

14 Surface area Page 2 of 31 = 2r2

Basic Formulas
15 16 Total Surface area Volume = = 3r2
2

/3 r3

Unit3

## IF VOLUME OF HOLLOW SPHERE

17 Volume of hollow sphere =
4

## IF RADIUS AND HEIGHT OF A CYLINDER ARE R AND H THEN

18 19 20 21 Lateral Surface area Total surface area Volume Volume of Hollow Cylinder = 2rh Unit2 Unit2 = 2r (h + r) = r2h Unit3

## IF RADIUS IS R, HEIGHT IS H AND SLANT HEIGHT IS L OF A CONE THEN

21 22 23 Curved Surface area Total surface area Volume = rl = r (r + l) =
1

/3 r2h Unit3

## IF SIDE IS A, OF A CUBE OF SIDE, THEN

24 25 26 Total Surface area Lateral Surface area Volume = 6a2 = 4a2 = a3 Unit3

## IF L, B, H ARE THE SIDES OF A RECTANGULAR PARALLELOPIPED THEN

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Surface area Volume Diagonal of a cube of side a Area of regular hexagon A Area of regular octagon A Height of a equilateral triangle Area of a equilateral triangle Area of isosceles triangles = = = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = lb h = 3 a = (33 2 ) (side)2 = 4.84 (side)2 = (3 2) (side)

## HEXAGONAL 32 Area of the Hexagonal = 6 3 4 a2

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Basic Formulas

TRIGONOMETRY
1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 sin2 + cos2 sin2 Sec2 tan2 Sec2 tan2 Cosec2 -Cot2 Cosec2 Cot2 tan Cot sin( A + B) sin( A - B) cos( A + B) Cos( A - B) Sin( A + B) + sin( A - B) Sin( A + B) - sin( A - B) Cos( A + B) + cos( A - B) Cos( A + B) - cos ( A - B) Sin( A + B) Sin ( A B) Cos (A+B) Cos(A-B) Sin2A Tan(A+B) Tan(A-B) Tan 2A Tan2A = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1 1 - Cos2 1 1+ tan2x Sec2 -1 1 1 + cot2 Cosec2 - 1 Sin Cos Cos Sin SinA. CosB + CosA. sinB SinA. CosB - CosA. sinB cosA. CosB - sinA. SinB cosA. CosB + sinA. SinB 2sinA cosB 2cosA sinB = = = 2cosA cosB -2sinA sinB Sin2A Sin2B

Cos2A Sin2B 2SinA CosA tanA + tanB (1- tanA . tanB) tanA - tanB (1+ tanA . tanB) 2tanA 1-tan2A 1-Cos 2A 1+Cos 2A

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Basic Formulas
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Cos2A Cos 2A Cos 2A Sin 2A Cos 2A SinC + SinD SinC - SinD CosC + CosD CosD - CosC Sin x . Sin y Sin x . Cos y Cos x . Cos y = Cos2ASin2A (or) 2Cos2A-1 (or) 1- 2Sin2A = = = = = = = = = = = 1-2Sin2A 2Cos2A-1 2 tanA 1+ tan2A 1-tan2A 1+ tan2A 2Sin [(C+D)2] Cos[(C-D)2] 2Cos [(C+D)2] Sin[(C-D)2] 2Cos [(C+D)2] Cos[(C-D)2] 2Sin [(C+D)2] Sin[(C-D)2] [ Cos (x-y) Cos (x+y) ] [ Sin (x+y) + Sin (x-y) ] [Cos (x-y) + Cos(x+y)]

## A + B = C & A - B = D (or) 2A = C +D(or) A = C+D/2(or) A= C-D/2

SINE FORMULA
40 a /sinA = b / sinB = c/sinC = 2R

NAPION FORUMLA
41 42 43 Tan (A-B 2) Tan (B-C 2) Tan (C-A 2) = = = [ (a-b) (a+b) ] Cot C/2 [ (b-c) (b+c) ] Cot A/2 [ (c-a) (c+a) ] Cot B/2

COSEC FORMUL
44 45 46 47 48 49 50 a2 b2 C2 Sin A/2 Sin B/2 Sin C /2 Cos A/2 = = = = = = = b2 + c2 2bc cosA c2 + a2 2ca cosB a2 + b2 2ab cosC [ ( S-b) (S-c) bc ] [ ( S-c) (S-a) ca ] [ (S-a) (S-b) ab ] [ S (S-a) bc]

CALCULUS
LIMITS
IMPORTANT LIMIT:

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Lt x 0 Lt x0 Lt xa Lt Xa Lt x a Lt Xa

xn - an xa sin

Basic Formulas
= na
n-1

3 4

f (x) (U V) (U. V)

= = =

f (a) Lt U Lt V xa x a Lt U Lt V xa x a Xa Lt V X a

U/V

Lt 7 ` 8 h0 Lt xa

DIFFERENTIATION
f (a + h) = f (a)

f (x)

f (a)

Y/n xn Constant ex ax x Log ex Log x Log a Log ax Log e x Log x Sin x Cos x Tan x
cot x

Dy / dx
n xn-1 0 1 diff(x)

ex diff(x) x a (loga) 1 1 1x diff(x) 0 Log ae x 0 1 2 x diff(x) 1 2x Cos x -Sin x Sec 2 x diff(x) diff(x) diff(x) diff(x) diff(x)

-Cosec 2 x

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Basic Formulas
Sec x cosec x Sin-1 x Cos-1 x Tan-1 x Cot-1 x Sec-1 x Cosec-1 x dy/dx [K. f (x)] Constant function dy/dx [ f (x) g (x)] dy/dx f ( g (x)) A Log e = 0, (or) [(A= e0 )=1] Sec x tan x diff(x) -Cosec x cot x 1 / 1- x 2 diff(x) - 1 / 1- x 2 diff(x) 2 1 / 1+ x diff(x) 2 - 1 / 1+ x diff(x) x x21 1/ diff(x) -1/x
x21

diff(x)

K .f ' (X) K, C, etc. F (x) g' (x) + g (x) f ' (x) f ' (g (x) ) .g ' (x) Any Base & Power 0, the value =1 (or) Constant =1

## DIFFERENTIATION FORMULAS Log Using Method

1. 2. Y=U V Y=U V VU' - UV'
V 2

= = (or) = = =

V 2

3.

Y log y dy/dx

4.

uv

## = vuv -1 u ' + uv (logu)v '

d[c f (x)]
5 6 7 dx y y = c f ' (x) = f [g(x) ] = f (u)

INTEGRATION OF FORMULAS
1 xn .dx = X
n+1

- n+1

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Basic Formulas
n+1 n+1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

## ex .dx ax dx dx d dy K dx 3 dx 1x .dx [d/dx (log x) [d/dx -(log x) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

ex + C diff(x) +C +C +C +C +C +C +C

## ax log a x y kx 3x log (x)

1/x ] Differention Forms 1/x ] Differention Forms -cos x = sin x +C +C log (Sec x) log sin x +C +C

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

sin x . dx cos x . dx Tan x .dx Cot x .dx Sec x .dx Cosec x dx sec2 x .dx cosec2 x . dx secx tan x. dx cosecx cotx .dx 1 1 x2 .dx 1 1 + x2 1 x x2 1 .dx f ' (x)f(x) .dx (ax + b)n.dx (ax + b)-1.dx dx a +bx dx 4+gx dx a-bx dx px +q

log (Sec x +tan x) + C log (cosec x cot x)+ C tan x = sec x -cosec x sin-1 x tan-1 x sec-1 x log f (x) -cot x +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C

1a [ (ax +b)n+1n+1 ] 1a log (ax +b) = = = = 1b log (a+bx) 1 g log (4+gx) -1 b log (a-bx) 1 p log (px+q)

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Basic Formulas
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 dx7x-5 dx 3-2x Cosec (ax+b)cot(ax+b) dx Sec2 (ax+b) dx 1 (ax + b) dx eax+b dx Sin(ax+b) dx Cos (ax+b) dx Cosec2 (ax+b) dx 1[1+(ax)2] dx 1[1-(ax)2] dx = 1 7 log 97x-5) +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C +C = -12 log (3-2x) = -1a cosec(ax + b) = = = 1a tan (ax+b) 1a log (ax+b) 1a eax+b

## = -1a Cot (ax+b) = = 1a tan-1(ax) 1a Sin-1(ax)

BASIC RULES
41 42 C f (x) dx [ f (x) g (x) ] dx = = C f (x) dx f (x) dx g (x) dx

SCIENCY FORMULAS
1 Mass Density () 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Force Weight Volume Density () Specific Weight (W) Specific Volume (V) Pressure Work Speed (V) = = = = = = = = = = = Density Volume. Mass Volume. (Kg/m3) Mass x gravity (1 N (or) 1 kg-m/Sec2 , Unit Newton ) Mass Acceleration due to Gravity. 1m3 (or)1000 Litter.

Mass Volume. Weight Volume . Unit N/m3 (or)KN/m3. Volume Mass . M3/kg . Force Area . N/m2 (or) KN/m2 (or) MN/n2 . Force Displacement. N meter.

## Distance moved Time Taken . Km/hor.

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Basic Formulas
11 12 13 Power (p) Stress Strain = = = Work time . N m /Sec. (or) Watt Load Area (or) (P/L) N/mm2

Change in dimension Original dimension (or) (l l) (No unite) = = = = Stress Strain 2NT60 Kw (or) W (N/mm2)

14 16 17 18

## Rate of Change of Velocity. M/Sec2 Displacement Time taken. m/Sec

ANGLE IN TO RADION 180 1. 180 30 180 45 180 60 180 90 180 120 180 135 180 150 180 180 = = = = = = = = = = = = ? ? ? ? ? ? = Radion 2 2 x x =2 =x

Ans :- 30 180 Ans :- 45 180 Ans :- 60 180 Ans :- 90 180 Ans :- 120 180 Ans :- 135 180 Ans :- 150 180 Ans :- 180 180

6 4 3 2 7 6 3 4

2.

2 2 2 2 2 2

=1 2 = 2 2

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

= = = =

? ?

5 6 1

8.

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Basic Formulas
9. 180 210 180 225 = = ? Ans :- 210 180 Ans :- 225 180 2 3

10.

= =

5 4

11.

180 240 180 270 180 300 180 315 180 330 180 360

= = = =

? ?

Ans :- 240 180 Ans :- 270 180 Ans :- 300 180 Ans :- 315 180 Ans :- 330 180 Ans :- 360 180

4 3 3 2

12.

13.

= = = =

? ?

5 3 7 4

14.

15.

= = = =

? ?

11 6 2 1

16.

## RADION IN TO ANGLE 1. 5 2 3 2 = = = = 180 ? 180 ? Ans :3 Ans :5 2 180 = 180 Angle

= 450

2.

180

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Basic Formulas
2 3. 7 4 = = 180 ? Ans :7 4 180 = 270

= 315

Special Polygons Special Quadrilaterals - square, rhombus, parallelogram, rectangle, and the trapezoid. Special Triangles - right, equilateral, isosceles, scalene, acute, obtuse. Polygon Names Generally accepted names Sides n 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 Name N-gon Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Decagon Dodecagon

Names for other polygons have been proposed. Sides 9 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 50 60 Name Nonagon, Enneagon Undecagon, Hendecagon Tridecagon, Triskaidecagon Tetradecagon, Tetrakaidecagon Pentadecagon, Pentakaidecagon Hexadecagon, Hexakaidecagon Heptadecagon, Heptakaidecagon Octadecagon, Octakaidecagon Enneadecagon, Enneakaidecagon Icosagon Triacontagon Tetracontagon Pentacontagon Hexacontagon

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Basic Formulas
70 80 90 100 1,000 10,000 Heptacontagon Octacontagon Enneacontagon Hectogon, Hecatontagon Chiliagon Myriagon

To construct a name, combine the prefix+suffix Sides Prefix 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Icosikai... Triacontakai... Tetracontakai... Pentacontakai... Hexacontakai... Heptacontakai... Octacontakai... Enneacontakai... + Sides Suffix +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 Examples: 46 sided polygon - Tetracontakaihexagon 28 sided polygon - Icosikaioctagon However, many people use the form n-gon, as in 46-gon, or 28-gon instead of these names. ...henagon ...digon ...trigon ...tetragon ...pentagon ...hexagon ...heptagon ...octagon ...enneagon

pi = = 3.141592...)

90
II Qdt (90+ ) (90- )
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I Qdt

Basic Formulas
(90 To 180 )

## {(Sin & Cosec(+ Ve))}

(180- )

(0 To 90 ) {All+ Ve}

(0+ ) 0,360

OPP

HYP

180
III Qdt (180+) (180 To 270) {(Tan & Cot (+ Ve))} (270- ) (270+ )

## IV Qdt (360-) (270To 360) {(Cos & Sec (+Ve))}

1. All Silver Tea Cups

270

## (or) 2. Annai Sathiya Transport Corporation

1. For an angle either (90 , I Qdt) & (270 , III Qdt) The Following Change Aer to be Taken Place. RULES:I ( 90 ) & III (270 ) Sin Cos Cos Sin Tan Cot Cosec Sec Sec Cosec Example:(180+30)IIIQdt 1.( +)vd;why; mLj;j Qdt ia ghHj;J (+ ,-) Nghl Ntz;Lk;. Example:- (180-30) II Qdt 2. (- ) vd;why; mNj Qdt ia ghHj;J (+ , -) Nghl Ntz;Lk;.

Cot Tan RULES:2. I .In first Qdt All ( Sin , Cos , Tan , Cosec, Sec, Cot) are (+Ve). ii. In Second Qdt Only (Sin & Cosec) are (+Ve) & Remaining Things are (- Ve). iii. In Third Qdt Only (Tan & Cot) are (+Ve) & Remaining Things are (-Ve). iv. In Forth Qdt only (Cos & Sec) are (+Ve) & Remaining Things are (-Ve).
3. Example : i. Sin (90+ ) = +Cos ii.Cot (360- ) = -Cot iii. Tan 210 iv. Cot 420 v.Cosec 300 vi.Sec 210 (180+30) (360+60) (270+30) (270-60) = = = = +Tan 30 +Cot 60 -Sec 30 - Cosec 60

- Sec 30

## 1. The Circle Is Divided in to four Quitrents namely I , II , III , IV, respectively.

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Basic Formulas
2. In the I they angle liese in between 0 to 90 , in the II end Qdt 91 to 180 , In the III ed Qdt 181 to 270 , and ends with IV th Qdt 271 to 360 .
qdt

3. For an angle either { 90 I st Qdt} & {270 III Ed Qdt} the following changes are to be taken place. ( 90 I St Qdt ) & ( 270 III Th Qdt) Sin Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot Cos Sin Cot Example:- (180+30) III Qdt 1.( +)vd;why; mLj;j Qdt ia ghHj;J (+ ,-) Nghl Ntz;Lk;.

Sec 2. (- ) vd;why; mNj Qdt ia ghHj;J Cosec (+ , -) Nghl Ntz;Lk Sec Example:- (180-30) II Qdt

4. For getting sign of the trigonometrically functions the following rules are followed. Sin (90 - ) Here the angle in 90 & also (-) is occurred . So it lies in the I
Qdt

Apply I

Qdt

Rule.

## i. Sin (90+ ) = +Cos ii.Cot (360- ) = -Cot

iii.Tan 210 iv.Cot 420 v.Cosec300 vi.Sec 210 (or) Sec 210

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Basic Formulas

## r2 ( =constant=3.142(approx), and r = radius) RECTANGLE:

ab (a = width and b = height of rectangle)

## TRIANGLE: 1/2(bh) (b = base width and h = height of triangle)

SURFACE AREA
CYLINDER: 2( r2 + rh) height) CUBE: 6a2 (a=length of each side of the cube) RECTANGULAR PRISM: 2(ab + ac + bc) (a, b, and c are the lengths of the 3 sides) SPHERE: ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h =

4 r2 ( =constant=3.142(approx), and r = radius) VOLUME FORMULAS CUBE: a3 (a = length = width = height of square, all sides equal) CONE: 1/3 r2h CYLINDER: ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h = height)

## r2h ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h = height) PYRAMID:

1/3(bh) (b = base width and h = height of pyramid) RECTANGULAR PRISM: abc (a = length, b = width and c = height of rectangular prism )

PERIMETER:
CIRCLE: ( =constant=3.142(approx), d = diameter and r = radius)

d or 2 r

## RECTANGLE: 2(a + b) or a + b + a + b (a = length, b = height of rectangle)

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Basic Formulas
What is a Polygon? A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together. The sides do not cross each other. Exactly two sides meet at every vertex.

Types of Polygons Regular - all angles are equal and all sides are the same length. Regular polygons are both equiangular and equilateral. Equiangular - all angles are equal. Equilateral - all sides are the same length.

Convex - a straight line drawn through a convex polygon crosses at most two sides. Every interior angle is less than 180.

Concave - you can draw at least one straight line through a concave polygon that crosses more than two sides. At least one interior angle is more than 180.

Polygon Formulas (N = # of sides and S = length from center to a corner) Area of a regular polygon = (1/2) N sin(360/N) S2 Sum of the interior angles of a polygon = (N - 2) x 180 The number of diagonals in a polygon = 1/2 N(N-3) The number of triangles (when you draw all the diagonals from one vertex) in a polygon = (N - 2) Polygon Parts

Side - one of the line segments that make up the polygon. Vertex - point where two sides meet. Two or more of these points are called vertices. Diagonal - a line connecting two vertices that isn't a side. Interior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides inside the polygon. Exterior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides outside the polygon.

Special Polygons Special Quadrilaterals - square, rhombus, parallelogram, rectangle, and the trapezoid. Special Triangles - right, equilateral, isosceles, scalene, acute, obtuse.

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Basic Formulas
Polygon Names Generally accepted names Sides N 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 Name N-gon Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Decagon Dodecagon

Names for other polygons have been proposed. Sides 9 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,000 10,000 Name Nonagon, Enneagon Undecagon, Hendecagon Tridecagon, Triskaidecagon Tetradecagon, Tetrakaidecagon Pentadecagon, Pentakaidecagon Hexadecagon, Hexakaidecagon Heptadecagon, Heptakaidecagon Octadecagon, Octakaidecagon Enneadecagon, Enneakaidecagon Icosagon Triacontagon Tetracontagon Pentacontagon Hexacontagon Heptacontagon Octacontagon Enneacontagon Hectogon, Hecatontagon Chiliagon Myriagon

To construct a name, combine the prefix+suffix Sides Prefix 20 30 40 50 60 70 Icosikai... Triacontakai... Tetracontakai... Pentacontakai... Hexacontakai... Heptacontakai... + Sides Suffix +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 ...henagon ...digon ...trigon ...tetragon ...pentagon

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Basic Formulas
80 90 Octacontakai... Enneacontakai... +6 +7 +8 +9 Examples: 46 sided polygon - Tetracontakaihexagon 28 sided polygon - Icosikaioctagon However, many people use the form n-gon, as in 46-gon, or 28-gon instead of these names. pi = = 3.141592...) Area Formulas Note: "ab" means "a" multiplied by "b". "a2" means "a squared", which is the same as "a" times "a". Be careful!! Units count. Use the same units for all measurements. Examples ...hexagon ...heptagon ...octagon ...enneagon

square = a 2

rectangle = ab

parallelogram = bh

## trapezoid = h/2 (b1 + b2)

circle = pi r 2

ellipse = pi r1 r2 one half times the base length times the height of the triangle

triangle =

equilateral triangle =

cube = a 3

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Basic Formulas
rectangular prism = a b c

irregular prism = b h

cylinder = b h = pi r 2 h

pyramid = (1/3) b h

## cone = (1/3) b h = 1/3 pi r 2 h

sphere = (4/3) pi r 3

ellipsoid = (4/3) pi r1 r2 r3

## (r is radius of circle) Surface Area of Any Prism

(b is the shape of the ends) Surface Area = Lateral area + Area of two ends (Lateral area) = (perimeter of shape b) * L

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Basic Formulas
Surface Area = (perimeter of shape b) * L+ 2*(Area of shape b) Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism = 2ab + 2bc + 2ac

(a, b, and c are the lengths of the 3 sides) Surface Area of a Cube = 6 a 2

## (a is the length of the side of each edge of the cube)

CIRCLE.

Definition: A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a central point. a circle

Definitions Related to Circles arc: a curved line that is part of the circumference of a circle chord: a line segment within a circle that touches 2 points on the circle. circumference: the distance around the circle. diameter: the longest distance from one end of a circle to the other. origin: the center of the circle pi ( ): A number, 3.141592..., equal to (the circumference) / (the diameter) of any circle. radius: distance from center of circle to any point on it. sector: is like a slice of pie (a circle wedge). tangent of circle: a line perpendicular to the radius that touches ONLY one point on the circle. Diameter = 2 x radius of circle Circumference of Circle = PI x diameter = 2 PI x radius where PI = = 3.141592... Area of Circle:

area = PI r2

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Basic Formulas
Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees, then length = x (PI/180) x r if the angle is in radians, then length = r x Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees, then area = ( /360)x PI r2 if the angle is in radians, then area = (( /(2PI))x PI r2 Equation of Circle: (Cartesian coordinates)

for a circle with center (j, k) and radius (r): (x-j)^2 + (y-k)^2 = r^2 Equation of Circle: (polar coordinates) for a circle with center (0, 0): r( ) = radius for a circle with center with polar coordinates: (c, r2 - 2cr cos( - ) + c2 = a2 Equation of a Circle: (parametric coordinates) for a circle with origin (j, k) and radius r: x(t) = r cos(t) + j y(t) = r sin(t) + k

) and radius a:

square = 4a

rectangle = 2a + 2b

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Basic Formulas

CIRCLE:

## r2 ( =constant=3.142(approx), and r = radius) RECTANGLE:

ab (a = width and b = height of rectangle)

## TRIANGLE: 1/2(bh) (b = base width and h = height of triangle)

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Basic Formulas
SURFACE AREA CYLINDER: 2( r2 + rh) CUBE: ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h = height)

6a2 (a=length of each side of the cube) RECTANGULAR PRISM: 2(ab + ac + bc) (a, b, and c are the lengths of the 3 sides) SPHERE:

4 r2 ( =constant=3.142(approx), and r = radius) VOLUME FORMULAS CUBE: a3 (a = length = width = height of square, all sides equal) CONE: 1/3 r2h CYLINDER: ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h = height)

## r2h ( =constant=3.142(approx), r = radius, h = height) PYRAMID:

1/3(bh) (b = base width and h = height of pyramid) RECTANGULAR PRISM: abc (a = length, b = width and c = height of rectangular prism )

PERIMETER: CIRCLE:

d or 2 r

## ( =constant=3.142(approx), d = diameter and r =

4a or a + a + a +a RECTANGLE:

## (a = length of each side of square )

2(a + b) or a + b + a + b

## (a = length, b = height of rectangle)

What is a Polygon? A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together. The sides do not cross each other. Exactly two sides meet at every vertex.

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Basic Formulas
Types of Polygons Regular - all angles are equal and all sides are the same length. Regular polygons are both equiangular and equilateral. Equiangular - all angles are equal. Equilateral - all sides are the same length.

Convex - a straight line drawn through a convex polygon crosses at most two sides. Every interior angle is less than 180.

Concave - you can draw at least one straight line through a concave polygon that crosses more than two sides. At least one interior angle is more than 180.

Polygon Formulas (N = # of sides and S = length from center to a corner) Area of a regular polygon = (1/2) N sin(360/N) S2 Sum of the interior angles of a polygon = (N - 2) x 180 The number of diagonals in a polygon = 1/2 N(N-3) The number of triangles (when you draw all the diagonals from one vertex) in a polygon = (N - 2) Polygon Parts

Side - one of the line segments that make up the polygon. Vertex - point where two sides meet. Two or more of these points are called vertices. Diagonal - a line connecting two vertices that isn't a side. Interior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides inside the polygon. Exterior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides outside the polygon.

Special Polygons Special Quadrilaterals - square, rhombus, parallelogram, rectangle, and the trapezoid. Special Triangles - right, equilateral, isosceles, scalene, acute, obtuse. Polygon Names Generally accepted names Sides N 3 Name N-gon Triangle

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Basic Formulas
4 5 6 7 8 10 12 Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Decagon Dodecagon

Names for other polygons have been proposed. Sides 9 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,000 10,000 Name Nonagon, Enneagon Undecagon, Hendecagon Tridecagon, Triskaidecagon Tetradecagon, Tetrakaidecagon Pentadecagon, Pentakaidecagon Hexadecagon, Hexakaidecagon Heptadecagon, Heptakaidecagon Octadecagon, Octakaidecagon Enneadecagon, Enneakaidecagon Icosagon Triacontagon Tetracontagon Pentacontagon Hexacontagon Heptacontagon Octacontagon Enneacontagon Hectogon, Hecatontagon Chiliagon Myriagon

To construct a name, combine the prefix+suffix Sides Prefix 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Icosikai... Triacontakai... Tetracontakai... Pentacontakai... Hexacontakai... Heptacontakai... Octacontakai... Enneacontakai... + Sides Suffix +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 Examples: 46 sided polygon - Tetracontakaihexagon ...henagon ...digon ...trigon ...tetragon ...pentagon ...hexagon ...heptagon ...octagon ...enneagon

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Basic Formulas
28 sided polygon - Icosikaioctagon However, many people use the form n-gon, as in 46-gon, or 28-gon instead of these names. pi = = 3.141592...) Area Formulas Note: "ab" means "a" multiplied by "b". "a2" means "a squared", which is the same as "a" times "a". Be careful!! Units count. Use the same units for all measurements. Examples

square = a 2

rectangle = ab

parallelogram = bh

## trapezoid = h/2 (b1 + b2)

circle = pi r 2

ellipse = pi r1 r2 one half times the base length times the height of the triangle

Triangle =

equilateral triangle =

cube = a 3

rectangular prism = a b c

irregular prism = b h

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Basic Formulas
cylinder = b h = pi r 2 h

pyramid = (1/3) b h

## cone = (1/3) b h = 1/3 pi r 2 h

sphere = (4/3) pi r 3

ellipsoid = (4/3) pi r1 r2 r3

## (r is radius of circle) Surface Area of Any Prism

(b is the shape of the ends) Surface Area = Lateral area + Area of two ends (Lateral area) = (perimeter of shape b) * L Surface Area = (perimeter of shape b) * L+ 2*(Area of shape b) Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism = 2ab + 2bc + 2ac

## (a, b, and c are the lengths of the 3 sides)

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Basic Formulas
Surface Area of a Cube = 6 a 2

## (a is the length of the side of each edge of the cube)

CIRCLE.

Definition: A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a central point. a circle

Definitions Related to Circles arc: a curved line that is part of the circumference of a circle chord: a line segment within a circle that touches 2 points on the circle. circumference: the distance around the circle. diameter: the longest distance from one end of a circle to the other. origin: the center of the circle pi ( ): A number, 3.141592..., equal to (the circumference) / (the diameter) of any circle. radius: distance from center of circle to any point on it. sector: is like a slice of pie (a circle wedge). tangent of circle: a line perpendicular to the radius that touches ONLY one point on the circle. Diameter = 2 x radius of circle Circumference of Circle = PI x diameter = 2 PI x radius where PI = = 3.141592... Area of Circle:

area = PI r2 Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees, then length = x (PI/180) x r if the angle is in radians, then length = r x Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees, then area = ( /360)x PI r2 if the angle is in radians, then area = (( /(2PI))x PI r2

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Basic Formulas
Equation of Circle: (Cartesian coordinates)

for a circle with center (j, k) and radius (r): (x-j)^2 + (y-k)^2 = r^2 Equation of Circle: (polar coordinates) for a circle with center (0, 0): r( ) = radius for a circle with center with polar coordinates: (c, r2 - 2cr cos( - ) + c2 = a2 Equation of a Circle: (parametric coordinates) for a circle with origin (j, k) and radius r: x(t) = r cos(t) + j y(t) = r sin(t) + k

) and radius a:

square = 4a

rectangle = 2a + 2b

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