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Concrete Durability Design

Minnesota Concrete Council 21st Annual Seminar

Concrete A Changing Industry By

Donald Meinheit Meinheit, WJE (retired)

Acknowledgements g

Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Portland Cement Association, Association 14th Edition, Edition 2002 Guide to Durable Concrete, ACI 201 Committee Report, 2008 Guide for the Design of Durable Parking Structures, ACI 362, Committee Report 1997 Numerous N mero s ACI technical articles Photos from archives of WJE


Definitions What structures require durability What environmental conditions affect durability What Wh t concrete t mixture i t and d curing i conditions affect durability How can concrete be designed for durability


Objective j

issues that cause concrete durability problems Review what approaches can be taken to provide durability to concrete

Definition of Concrete Durability y



Concrete fit for the purpose for which it was intended, under the conditions to which hi h th the concrete t i is expected t dt to b be exposed, and for the expected life during which the concrete is to remain in service service.
Adam Neville CI July 2000

Definition of Concrete Durability y


201.2R Guide to Durable C Concrete t

Durability of hydraulic cement concrete is determined by its ability to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, b i or any other th process of f deterioration

ACI 201 Deterioration Modes


and thawing Alkali Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) Chemical attack Corrosion of embedded metals Abrasion

Steel Reinforcing g

Structure Types yp

types needing to be durable

Bridge decks Bridge piers, especially when in salt water Parking structures Pavements

Service Life Expectations p


having direct bearing on d bilit durability

Nature of the project
Type of structure Expected service life Exposure conditions

Co Consider s de aspects co concurrently cu e t y to assess level of durability

Attack Mechanisms
Freezing g

and thawing g Carbonation Chloride penetration Cracking Leaking Aggregates Chemical attack Abrasion

Making g Concrete Durable


are two fundamental ways to make k concrete t durable d bl

Address the properties of the concrete Provide protective systems external to the concrete

Concrete Mixture Properties p

Cement C t Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate Water Mixing/Placing

Admixture and Curing

Air entraining W t reducers d Water Other cementitious materials t i l Corrosion inhibitors Curing C i regimes i

Water to Cementitious Ratio


plays defining role for concrete d bilit durability Generally y the lower the w/cm ratio the better the performance

Water to Cementitious Ratio

precast / prestressed concrete

Compressive Strength h

cast-in-place concrete

residential construction

0 20 0.20

0 30 0.30

0 40 0.40

Water - Cementitious Ratio

0 50 0.50

0 60 0.60

0 70 0.70

0 80 0.80

0 90 0.90

1 00 1.00

Mixing g

Extended mixing
Reduces air entrainment Higher concrete temperatures Slump loss

Add water to restore slump

Increases porosity Impacts air void pore size distribution Increases drying shrinkage Reduces concrete strength

Placing g and Consolidation

Excessive Pumping p g

free fall

Reduces the entrained air content

changes g air content Vibration duration

Increased I d vibration ib ti reduces d air i content t t Reduced vibration leaves voids Good vibration reduces permeability

Inadequate q Vibration - Honeycombing y g

Aggregates gg g - Popout p

Aggregates gg g
Alkali Alkali-silica

reaction (ASR)

Involves chemical reaction between alkali source (cement) and reactive silica (siliceous ( ili aggregates) t ) Can manifest itself in 5 to 20 years (i t (internal lt tearing/cracking i / ki of f th the concrete t matrix)

Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR) ( )

Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR) ( )

Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR) ( )

Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR) ( )

Alkali-silica Reaction (ASR) ( )

Silica gel in microcrack

Aggregates gg g
Alkali Alkali-carbonate

reaction (ACR)

Involves certain argillaceous dolomitic limestones Chemical reaction between alkali source (cement) and certain calciumcalcium-magnesium carbonate b t rocks k (dolomites) (d l it ) Not a significant issue in U.S. except Virginia

Aggregate gg g Evaluation

examination ASTM

C295 Laboratory y testing g

Mortar Bar Test ASTM C 227 Accelerated Mortar Bar Test ASTM C1260 Quick Chemical Test ASTM C 289 Concrete C t P Prism i T Tests t ASTM C 1293

measure expansion

Prism Tests

Reducing g ASR in Concrete


nonreactive aggregates Use low alkali cement Use fly ash, ash silica fume, fume GGBFS Use lithium compounds

Concrete Mixture Properties p

Cement C t Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate Water Mixing/Placing

Admixture and Curing

Air entraining W t reducers d Water Other cementitious materials t i l Corrosion inhibitors Curing C i regimes i

Air Entraining g

entraining is the most important aspect, t next t to t w/cm, / for f enhanced h d durability in concrete Air entraining essential in freezing and thawing environments

Freezing and Thawing Deterioration

Air Entrainment

No air entrainment

Entrained air

D-Cracking g

D-Cracking g

Concrete Scaling g

Good Deicer

ice melting rate Minimal scaling Minimal freezing and thawing cracking Minimal Mi i l metal t l corrosion i potential t ti l

Deicing g or Anti-icing g

- an effort to remove ice from surfaces f after ft ice i exists i t Anti Anti-icing g - a surface treatment applied prior to ice formation; facilitates ice removal by reducing bond between ice and surface

Deicing g Chemicals


Sodium chloride - NaCl Calcium chloride - CaCl2 Magnesium chloride - MgCl2 Potassium chloride - KCl


Mono M sodium di phosphate h h t - NaH N H2PO4 Mono calcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)H2O Mono potassium phosphate - KH2PO4

Deicing g Chemicals

Calcium magnesium acetate - CMA Potassium acetate - KC2H3O2

Benzene Alcohol, Alcohol

Glycol Synthetic urea

Deicing g Chemicals

in concrete of 2 4 % cause most t damage d

Lower percentages not as damaging Higher percentages of some deicers damaging


2 - 4% solutions of NaCl in concrete about equivalent to 0.5 1.0 molality

Scaling g Mechanism

Water freezes in capillary pores

Ice I crystals t l form f Develop hydraulic pressures

If available pore space is less than required for all the water (critical saturation), excess is driven off by pressure of expansion If pressure exceed tensile strength of g occurs concrete, local cracking

Scaling g Mechanism - Deicers

Concrete is further damaged by deicing agent

Increase in the osmotic pressure

Deicing agent magnifies f the pressures in the concrete

Increases the potential for surface scaling

Deicer salt scaling gg generally y thought g to be physical rather than chemical

Salt Scaling g

Deicing g Rate

Summary y
Very low concentrations small effect on durability Very high concentrations cause longlongt term scaling li Objective keep water and salt (chlorides) out

Make concrete tighter Low w/cm not the answer Add supplementary cementitious materials

Summary y

NaCl - least expensive

Most M t damaging d i t to reinforcing i f i steel t l

CMA - more expensive

Can chemically damage concrete Does not induce corrosion of reinforcing steel

Use beet juice?

Water Reducers
Water reducers essential to making low w/cm concrete workable Water reducers can effect air content reduces the effectiveness of air entraining e ta g age agents ts ( (AEA) ) Water reducers can cause slight increase in shrinkage Water reducers have no detrimental effects on concrete durability

Supplemental pp Cementitious Materials


are they?

Fly ash (Type C) Fly Fl ash h (T (Type F) Silica fume Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) Natural pozzolans
Metakaolin ( (Calcined clay) y) Calcined shale

Supplemental pp Cementitious Materials

Metakaolin Metakaolin Slag Slag Silica fume Silica fume Fly ash Class F Fly ash Class F

Fly ash Fly - Class ash - C Class C

Calcinedshale shale Calcined

Supplemental pp Cementitious Materials


rid of a waste product (FA (FA, SF SF, GGBFS) Adds a material that has cementing properties p p Reduces permeability
Particle size smaller than cement Fills the voids between cement particles

Fly Ash Particles


Slag Particles


Silica Fume Particles


Metakaolin Particles


Concrete Permeability y
2) Coefficient of Perm meability (cm m/sec x 1012


Maximum w/cm exposed to water Maximum w/cm exposed to freezing and thawing Maximum w/cm exposed to deicing salts, lt chemicals, h i l salt water, seawater, or salt spray






0 0.20







Water - Cementitious Ratio

Permeability y Measurements

methods exist to assess concrete permeability

ASTM C 1202, Electrical Indication of Concretes Concrete s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration - Rapid Chloride Penetration Test ( (RCPT) ) AASHTO T259, Resistance of Concrete to Chloride Ion Penetration 90 90-day ponding test

Rapid p Chloride Permeability y Test

90 Day y Ponding g Test

Permeability y Measurement

Chemical Attack
Carbonation Sulfate

attack Acid attack Corrosion of embedded steel


concrete exposed to CO2 CO2 penetrates concrete and reacts with hydroxides y

Sulfate Attack

Sulfates in soil, usually, react with hydrated compounds in hardened concrete Chemical reactions cause internal pressure
Disrupts Di t th the cement t paste t

Internal compounds formed

Ett i it Ettringite Gypsum B it ( Brucite (magnesium i h hydroxide) d id ) Thaumasite (forms in moist conditions)

Sulfate Attack

Sulfate Attack

Delayed y Ettringite g Formation

DEF - Deleterious formation of ettringite

Form F of f sulfate lf t attack tt k

Ettringite is normal component of cement hydration Late formation causes expansion distress Expansion causes cracking premature deterioration
Found in many precast products

Delayed Ettringite Formation

Ettringite is compound that naturally forms when portland cement sets t up Formation delayed by high initial temperatures (T 160 F) Requires moisture

Delayed Ettringite Formation Examples

Delayed Ettringite Formation Microstr ct re Microstructure




Delayed Ettringite Formation

About 160 oF is critical

Delayed Ettringite Formation

Acid Attack
Some acids dissolve cement paste and calcareous (limestones) aggregates Protection for portland cement concrete is not t feasible f ibl with ith admixtures d i t Need a protection system (coating/surface treatment) ACI code does not cover external protection systems

Paste erosion by acid attack

Level of paste erosion

Corrosion of Embedded Steel

Objective - limit the ingress of chemicals that corrode reinforcing steel (chloride ions) Methodologies to limit corrosion by modifying the concrete
Decrease diffusion rate into concrete U chloride Use hl id i inhibitor hibit admixtures d i t Cathodic protection Eli i t cracking Eliminate ki Increase cover Reduce the w/cm ratio

Corrosion of Uncoated Steel

Fe Fe2+ + 2e -

Chloride and moisture ingress

Fe2+ + 2OHCh

1/ 2O2

2Fe(OH)2 +

Fe2O3 + 2H2O

Fe3O4 Fe2O3

2OHCathode area >> anode area

1/ 2O2

2e 2OHFe3O4 Fe2O3

+ H2O + 2e -



supplemental cementitious materials t i l

Fly ash Silica fume GGBFS Natural pozzolans (Metakaolin)

Diffusion - Fly y Ash

Diffusion - SF & GGBSF

Corrosion Inhibitor Types yp


Nitrite Organic Esters and amines Amino alcohol Alkenly Alkenly-succinic acids

Corrosion Inhibitors

of using inhibitors

Influence on freezing g and thawing g resistance Influence on inhibiting corrosion uncracked concrete

Corrosion Inhibitors Free ing/Tha ing Freezing/Thawing

Corrosion Inhibitors Chloride Ingress

Corrosion and Chloride Ingress g

Corrosion and Chloride Ingress g

Cracking g

exists in reinforced concrete structures t t

Cracking g - Width

ACI 318 Code


318 Chapter 4 Durability R Requirements i t

Exposure Categories and Classes
Freezing and thawing (F) Sulfate (S) Low permeability (P) protection of steel reinforcing g( (C) ) Corrosion p

Exposure Categories and Classes - Freezing Free ing and Tha Thawing ing

Exposure category F

Exterior E t i concrete t Exposed to freezing and thawing Possible P ibl exposure t to d deicing i i chemicals h i l

Four Classes
F0 Not exposed to freezing and thawing (f(f-t) F1 Occasionally exposed to moisture and ff -t F2 Exposed to ff-t and continuous contact with moisture before freezing F3 - Continuous C i contact with i h moisture, i f f-t, and d deicing chemicals

Exposure Categories and Classes - Sulfate S lfate Attack

Exposure category S

Concrete in contact with soil or water containing deleterious amounts of soluble sulfate

Four Classes
S0 Very low exposure S1 Structural member in contact with soluble sulfate (moderate) [seawater] S2 Structural member in contact with soluble sulfate (severe) S3 - Structural member in contact with soluble sulfate : high sulfate content (very severe)


Exposure Categories and Classes - Concrete Permeabilit Permeability

category P
Concrete in contact with water where low permeability is needed



P0 No specific permeability needed P1 Needed where water permeation into concrete might reduce durability [water tank]

Exposure Categories and Classes - Corrosion of Embedded Metals

Exposure category C

Concrete that contains embedded reinforcing and prestressing steel requiring protection (protection by concrete)

Three Classes
C0 Concrete in dry environment C1 Exposed to moisture but no chlorides C2 Concrete exposed to moisture and chlorides (deicing chemicals, brackish water, seawater, seawater spray) [parking decks, bridge decks, piers]

ACI 318 Requirements q

Select concrete mixture based on exposure class

Category g yF

Maximum w/cm<0.45 F0 Minimum fc>2500 >2500 Minimum fc > 4500 E t i d air Entrained i content t t F F3 use For supplemental cementitious materials

Category g yS

Use sulfate resistant cement

Type II yp V Type

Maximum w/cm ratio Minimum fc No chlorides allowed for S2 and S3

Category g yP

Minimal requirements Maximum w/cm ratio

< 0.50

Minimum fc > 4000

Category g yC

Minimum fc> 5000 psi for severe exposure Maximum w/cm<0.40 Control chlorides in mixture Control chloride exposure

Low w/cm concrete effective in controlling chloride ingress Supplementary cementitious can reduce chloride hl id i ingress rate t Corrosion inhibitors can extend service life o Heat curing below 160 F can reduce permeability p y Air entrainment necessary in freezing environments

Summary Durable Concrete Str ct res Structures

External Protection Schemes


sponsored research 1992 Objective

Find costcost-effective coatings g or alternate materials Design life for infrastructure facilities: 75 to 100 years

Corrosion of Reinforcing g Bars


Alternate Reinforcing g Bar Types yp

ASTM A 615 / A 706 black E Epoxy coated t db bars

Bendable Nonbendable

Galvanized bars MetallicMetallic -clad bars

Zinc Copper Stainless

Metallic corrosion resistant bars (stainless)

Wetting g and Drying y g Regimes g

Effectiveness Ranking g

Effectiveness Ranking g

Effectiveness Ranking g

Zone Map p for Parking g Structures

ACI 362 Precast Recommendations

Parking g Structure Design g


use of protective measures

Good design measures

Drainage Detailing for crack control Proper cover Proper finishing p curing g Proper

Parking g Structure Design g


use of protective measures

Internal measures
Air entrainment Corrosion inhibitors Reduced permeability Coated or special reinforcing bars

Parking g Structure Design g


use of protective measures

External measures
Sealers Protective coatings (membranes)

Traffic Bearing g Membranes


reinforcing bar schemes can extend t d service i lif life

Need same type bar throughout Epoxy coating effective Stainless for long g service life in cracked concrete

Summary Durable Concrete Str ct res Structures


cover to 25 30 mm (1 1