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Summary

SUMMARY
Climate 1. There are 15 meteorological stations scattered in the Bengawan Solo River basin. The meteorological observation works is operated and managed by several agencies such as PBS, DPMA, East Java Irrigation Service (EJIS), Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Air Force. The climate of the Bengawan Solo River basin is tropical and is subject to the tropical monsoon. The south-west to north-west winds prevail from November to April in ordinary year and they bring rainy season to the river basin. While in the period from July to October, the basin area is dried up by the south and south-east monsoon. The monthly average temperature is about 27C and it fluctuates from the minimum daily average of 17C to the maximum daily average of 38C. The monthly average relative humidity is about 66 % through a year. The maximum daily average wind velocity is 9.2 m/s, whereas the average wind velocity in the basin is 1.4 m/s. Monthly average evaporation rate over the basin is 4.3 mm/day.
Monthly Average Meteorological Record in the Bengawan Solo basin
unit Temperature Relative Humidity Sunshine Duration Wind Velocity m/sec Evaporation mm/day 1.2 3.4 1.3 3.2 1.2 3.8 1.1 3.9 1.1 4.1 1.2 4.1 1.4 4.5 1.7 5.3 1.8 5.7 1.7 5.7 1.5 4.5 1.3 3.8 1.4 4.3 hours 10.7 10.4 10.7 11.0 10.8 10.6 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 10.6 10.7 10.8 C % J 26.8 71.2 F 26.9 71.2 M 27.3 69.7 A 27.8 70.0 M 27.7 68.3 J 27.1 66.7 J 26.5 64.7 A 26.9 61.6 S 27.6 60.2 O 28.4 60.2 N 28.3 64.1 D 27.5 69.3 Mean 27.4 66.4

Note : Averaged data used observed data at Surakarta, Madiun, Bojonegoro and Surabaya stations, 1975-1999.

Rainfall 2. The annual basin mean rainfall distribution in the Upper Solo, Madiun, Lower Solo and in the whole Bengawan Solo River basin is analyzed based on the data record at selected 27 rainfall stations of the period from 1975 to 1999. The annual basin mean rainfall for the Upper Solo, Madiun, Lower Solo and in the whole Bengawan Solo River basin are 2,165 mm, 1,971 mm, 1,679 mm and 1,928 mm respectively. The monthly and annual basin mean rainfall of the study area is shown as below. -1CDMP Study FINAL REPORT SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1

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Summary

Average
( unit : mm ) Basin Upper Solo Lower Solo Madiun North Coastal South Coastal Lamong J 378 274 322 269 362 314 F 357 236 291 198 302 257 M 312 250 290 192 295 231 A 209 166 228 129 192 157 M 116 86 104 92 90 77 J 78 59 75 60 80 51 J 39 36 37 44 41 31 A 31 22 21 19 27 8 S 42 37 33 30 43 35 O 117 88 99 73 116 70 N 210 182 213 148 211 153 D 276 243 258 239 284 263 Annual 2,165 1,679 1,971 1,493 2,043 1,647

As seen in the isohyetal map (Fig.2.4), annual mean rainfall tends to decrease towards the north and east in the Lower Solo and the North Coastal. The annual mean rainfall in the Lower Solo basin varies from 1,750 mm in northern and eastern area and increasing to 2,250 mm in the southern area. Rainfall is higher in the south-west of the basin, with mean annual rainfall varying from 1,750 mm in the valley to 3,000 mm in the mountain area of Wilis, Lawu and Merapi

Hydrology 3. The runoff data have been collected from a number of sources, the primary one is the PBS office and the other sources are belong to the Irrigation Services, DPMA, and Watershed Management Technology Center of Surakarta (BTPDAS). There are 120 water level stations were installed along the Bengawan Solo River and its tributaries, consists of 42 automatic water level recorders and 78 staff gauges. The oldest station were installed in 1950 at the Karangnongko and Bojonegoro stations. The location of River Water Level Stations is presented on Fig. 2.9. 4. The Bengawan Solo River basin is divided into an upstream basin and downstream basin with a boundary at the confluence of the Solo and Madiun Rivers near Ngawi. Mt. Lawu, located in the center of the upstream basin, further divides the upstream basin into two sub-basins, namely the Upper Solo River basin of 6,072 km2 in the west and the Madiun River basin of 3,755 km 2 in the east. The downstream basin is called the Lower Solo River basin with a drainage area of 6,273 km2. The adjacent areas from the Bengawan Solo River, i.e. the north coastal area facing Java Sea, Gresik and Surabaya metropolitan area, the basin -2-

Nippon Koei March 2001

139732330.doc

CDMP Study FINAL REPORT SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1

Summary

area of adjacent the Lamong River and small river basins in Pacitan facing Indian Ocean shall be included in the Study area.

5. The monthly average discharge was estimated at the major station along the Bengawan Solo River and the tributaries, in the South Coastal basin and Lamong basin as the below table. The pattern of monthly average runoff is high from November to April and relatively low in the period from May to October. The maximum monthly average discharge is recorded in February, whereas the minimum discharge occurs in August or September for all stations. The average annual runoff coefficient between the basin mean annual rainfall and observed runoff at the respective gauges was estimated to be in the range from 0.34 and 0.56.
Monthly Average Observed Discharge at the Major Stations (1975-1999)
(unit : m3/sec)

Station
Jurug Kajangan Ketonggo Bojonegoro Babat Brangkal Arjowinangun Boboh

River
Upper Solo Upper Solo

J
181 435 235 762 818 29 54 37

F
221 561 301 908 1022 31 51 45

M
197 431 220 808 862 29 51 39

A
116 268 161 528 646 21 39 27

M
53 124 57 218 279 6 19 9

J
39 95 37 151 197 5 13 7

J
23 48 16 62 111 4 9 5

A
19 29 8 34 56 2 5 3

S
19 32 11 36 63 2 6 4

O
30 49 14 56 100 3 9 3

N
58 144 41 226 307 12 27 22

D
95 232 88 380 513 20 34 28

Madiun
Lower Solo Lower Solo

Kening Grindulu Lamong

6. The data of sediment load is collected from PBS office for data measured at 19 stations along the Bengawan Solo River and the tributaries. The period of measurement have been started in 1975 in Lower Solo and after 1980 for Madiun and Upper Solo. The annual suspended load sediment yield is estimated by applying the constructed sediment discharge-rating curve to the simulated present condition flow at the selected stations. Assuming the bed load material is 10 % of suspended load, the estimated average annual sediment yield in the Bengawan Solo River basin is around 2,338 tons/km2.

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CDMP Study FINAL REPORT SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1

Summary

Low Flow Analysis 7. The low flow analysis was carried out to estimate the low flow conditions at an arbitrary location in the study area. The estimated low flow conditions are essential for the water demand and supply balance calculation from the viewpoint of water supply assessment. For the low flow analysis, it has been decided to model the hydrological process of the basin using a state-of-the-art simulation model that is called the Physically based Lumped Parameter (PLUMP) model. The simulated daily runoff at the key stations was compiled to the monthly runoff so as to compare with the observed monthly runoff. The estimated annual rainfall loss is summarized below.
Annual Rainfall Loss at Key Stations
Key Station Name Colo Inflow Jurug Kajangan Upper Solo Sekayu A.Yani Ketonggo Napel Cepu Bojonegoro Babat B. Solo Estuary River Basin Name Upper Solo Upper Solo Upper Solo Upper Solo Madiun Madiun Madiun Lower Solo Lower Solo Lower Solo Lower Solo Lower Solo Catchment Basin Observed Area Rainfall Runoff R (km ) 1,548 3,220 5,463 6,072 1,056 2,294 3,755 9,827 10,922 12,804 14,247 16,100
2

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Simulated Runoff R (mm) 947 857 994 996 954 928 899 959 964 955 970 909 0.46 0.40 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.46

(mm) 2,050 2,091 2,163 2,160 1,987 2,005 1,973 2,088 2,058 2,004 2,011 1,948

(mm) 939 850 1,173 697 686 774 928 820 847 911 -

0.48 0.40 0.56 0.37 0.34 0.42 0.44 0.41 0.43 0.45 -

Note: Averaged values from 1975 to 1999 (25 years). " - " : Observed data are not available.

8. A natural runoff is used for the water demand and supply balance calculation. The natural runoff is defined as the river runoff that is not affected by any water uses in a catchment area. The natural runoff was estimated by the calibrated PLUMP model under the condition that no irrigation water uses are considered throughout the Bengawan Solo basin. The estimated daily natural runoff at the key stations were converted into the semi-monthly and 10 days. The estimated natural runoff at the Jurug, Ketongo and Babat stations are summarized below.
Key Station Jurug (upper Solo river) Ketongo (Madiun river) Annual Mean (m3/s) 115 124 Annual Volume (million m3) 3,627 3,910

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CDMP Study FINAL REPORT SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1

Summary

Babat (lower Solo river)

500

15,768

Seepage Analysis of Wonogiri Multipurpose Dam 9. The seepage analysis of the Wonogiri multipurpose dam has been done for the purpose of to make a preliminary evaluation on safety whether the dam body of Wonogiri Dam by means of seepage records so far available. The seepage monitoring records are available at 2 gauging wells installed at the downstream toe of the dam body. According to the data record of reservoir water level and seepage rate in dry season, the relationship is indicative almost linear (see Fig. 4.7). This highlights that no significant change of seepage rate is expected to occur if the reservoir water level is maintained to be the same level as illustrated below.

Resevoir Water Level (El.m)

Normal Relationship

Abnormal Relationship

Seepage Rate (l/sec.)

10. Considering the above, the Wonogiri Dam is evaluated to be safe against the progress of piping at present. However, seepage rate seems to show an increasing trend from 1998 as indicated in Fig. 4.7. In this respect, monitoring of seepage should be carefully continued. The metal v-notch as seepage discharge measuring apparatus at Sta-20 was damaged due to corrosion. Thus no seepage data have been available since 1996. Replacement of this device is strongly recommended in such away that the new metal device will not be damaged by acid.

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139732330.doc

CDMP Study FINAL REPORT SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1