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Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana

Proposal for inscription in the World Heritage List (UNESCO)


Island of Mallorca Spain Volume I

Management Ma Llusa Dubon i Pretus. Head of the Territorial Department (Consell de Mallorca) Technical management & coordination Jaume Mateu i Llad. Head of Spatial Planning (Consell de Mallorca) Dr. Joaquim Sabat Bel. Architect Margalida Castells Valdivielso. Historian Technical editorial team Llus Alemany Mir. Architect Tofol Arbona Castanyer. UPC Gabriel Alomar Garau. Geographic expert Jose Antonio Guijarro. Biologist Antoni Bosch Ferragut. Geographic expert Gabriel Horrach Estarellas. Architect Carolina Horrach Mora. Architect Antoni Quetglas Cifre. Historian Collaborators Ma Antonia Alcina Sans. Administrative assistant Margalida Obrador Izara. Geographic expert Beatriz Cerd Roig. Law graduate Antoni Ferragut Llins. Forestry engineer Antoni Font Gelabert. Biologist Miquel Grimalt Gelabert. Geographic expert Maria del Mar Llabrs Torres. Geographic expert Alicia Martnez Serrano. Administrative assistant Gabriel Ordinas Marc. Historian Antoni Reyns Trias. Biologist Raquel Rodrguez Gomila. Geographic expert Esther Rullan Bauza. Geographic expert Jordi Albert Soler Vallespir. Architect Tomeu Trias Prats. Legal consultant Photographs Llus Alemany Mir Gabriel Alomar Garau Jaume Mateu Llad Marcos Molina Jordi Albert Soler Vallespir Agust Torres Translation Rachel Waters Luz Vilanova (Tradunet CB)

Index Volume I nomination format Serra de Tramuntana Cultural Landscape. Executive Summary 6 1. Identification of the property 26 2. Description of property 34 2.a Description of the property 37 2.b History and Development 171 3. Justification for inscription 202 3.a Criteria under which inscription is proposed (and justification for inscription according to these criteria) 203 3.b Proposed Statement of Outstanding Universal Value 208 3.c Comparative analysis (including state of conservation of similar properties) 209 3.d Integrity and/or authenticity 223 4. State of conservation and factors affecting the property 226 4.a Present state of conservation 227 4.b Factors affecting the property 236 I. Pressures due to development 236 II. Environmental pressures 240 III. Natural hazards 241 IV. Visitor / tourism pressures 243 V. Number of inhabitants within the property and buffer zone 246

5. protection and management of the nominated property 248 5.a Ownership 249 5.b Protective designation 250 5.c Means of implementing protective measures 259 5.d Existing plans related to the municipalities and the region in which the nominated property is situated 261 5.e Management plan for the nominated property 263 5.f Sources and levels of funding 299 5.g Sources of expertise and training in conservation and management techniques 300 5.h Visitor facilities and statistics 304 5.i Policies and programmes related to the nominated propertys restoration and promotion 319 5.j Staffing levels (professional, technical, maintenance) 323 6. Monitoring 324 6.a Key indicators in measuring states of conservation 325 6.b Administrative provisions for the monitoring of the nominated property 325 6.c Results of previous reporting exercises 326 7. Documentation 332 7.a Photographs, slides, inventory of images, photograph authorization form and other audiovisual materials 333 7.b Texts related to the protective designation, copies of management plans of the nominated property or documented management systems, and extracts of other plans applicable to the property 342 7.c Form and date of registers or inventories of the most recent assets 378 7.d Address where the inventory, registers and archives can be found 378 7.e Bibliography 379 8. Contact information of responsible authorities 394 9. Signature on behalf of state party 396

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Serra de Tramuntana Cultural Landscape. Executive summary

Se r r a de Tr a m u ntana C ult ur al Landscap e. Ex ecut iv e summar y

State Party Spain State, province or region Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands, island of Mallorca Name of property Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana Geographical coordinates of the property - Geographical coordinates of the central point of the property: N 39 43 51 E 2 41 41 - Geographical coordinates of the northern boundary: N 39 52 17 E 2 58 16 - Geographical coordinates of the southern boundary: N 39 35 31 E 2 27 34 Textual description of the boundaries of the nominated property The boundaries of the nominated property are included within the geographical district of the Tramuntana area of Mallorca, consisting of a mountain range 90 km long and 15 km wide, located on the northwestern coast of the largest island of the Balearic archipelago. For the delimitation of the property, an analysis of the cultural landscape values of the area has been carried out using Geographical Information Systems, based on official topographic cartography (scale 1:5,000) and aerial photography, with the aim of defining the part where these values are best represented and preserved. This analysis has allowed the core area to be defined, the boundaries of which coincide with geographical elements (valleys, mountain slopes, stream beds) or administrative ones (municipal boundaries) and it includes the most characteristic, best-preserved items of the landscape of the Tramuntana area, from its coastal face to inland areas of the mountain range. In turn, the delimitation of the buffer zone practically coincides with the physical boundaries of the area, the conservation of which is guaranteed by different protective designations.

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The geographic district of the Serra de Tramuntana covers a total of 83,500 hectares. The surface of the core area of the nominated property is 30,745 hectares, whilst the buffer zone has a total of 78,617 hectares, 25,800 of which correspond to a protected maritime strip. The literal description of the boundaries of the core area begins at the southernmost point of the delimitation, illustrated on the annexed map as point A. Point A starts at the intersection of the municipal boundary that separates Andratx from Calvi and the southern side of the publicly-owned property called Galatz. From this point it runs along the boundary of the said property to the summit of Puig de sEsclop, near which it moves away from the municipal boundaries of Andratx / Calvi and enters the municipality of Estellencs, seeking out the coastline. It crosses the secondary Ma-10 road at kilometre 98.0 and goes on to reach point B. From this point on, the boundary coincides with the coastline, running northwards, crossing the whole municipality of Estellencs and continuing along the coast of the municipality of Banyalbufar until it reaches the coastal hamlet of Port des Canonge. At this point (C), it withdraws inland from the coastline, passing through the urban nucleus of the small port, and 200 metres further north it rejoins the coastline at point D, which coincides with the coastal edge of the municipality of Valldemossa. Once again the boundary runs northwards along the whole of the coastline of the municipalities of Valldemossa and Dei, entering the coastline of the municipality of Sller and going on to the urban area of the Port of Sller at point E, running round Cap Gros and the Far de Muleta lighthouse. At this point, the line leaves the coastal area once and for all and enters the Sller valley, following the boundary of the Picturesque Site legal designation (Decree 984/1972 March 24th, via which the north-western coast of the island of Mallorca is declared a picturesque site), which surrounds the Sller valley following a line at an altitude of between 100 and 200 metres that runs around the town centre of Sller and returns towards the Port of Sller until it reaches point F, where it coincides with the Ma-2124 road in the valley that forms the bed of the Sa Figuera torrent on its way to the sea in the Port of Sller. At this point the boundary line continues westwards, surrounding the terraced areas of the slopes of Puig de Blitx mountain at an altitude of between 300 and 400 metres, until it coincides with the municipal boundary of Fornalutx in Blitx valley (point G), entering this municipality and leaving the more rugged areas of the coast behind, crossing Montcaire estate and returning to the depression of the Sller valley, gaining in altitude until it reaches the sides of Puig Major mountain, at a point where it reaches a height of 1,000 metres above sea level at Coma de nArbona (point H).

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From here, the boundary line runs along the boundary between the municipalities of Fornalutx and Escorca, through the Serra de Son Torrella mountains, until it coincides with the Ma-10 road at a small tunnel that crosses the Serra de Son Torrella, at kilometre 37.0 (point I). From this point, the boundary enters the municipality of Escorca and continues parallel to the Ma-10 road until reaching the Son Torrella estate. It continues across the southern slopes of Puig Major, coinciding once more with the Ma-10 road at kilometre 32.8 (point J). The line continues parallel to the Ma-10 road until it reaches Albarca valley, where it fans out to include the whole valley floor. Following along the slopes of Puig Tomir mountain, the boundary line resumes its contact with the Ma-10 road between kilometre 14 and 12 (point K). A little later, in the municipality of Pollena, it enters the depression formed by a valley called Den Marc on its way to the Pollena plain between Puig Tomir and the Ma-10 road. The boundary runs through this valley until it reaches the northernmost point of the core area (point L), close to kilometre 5 of the Ma-10 road. From point L the boundary line returns to Den Marc valley along the northern face of Puig Tomir, continuing at a height of 200 metres above sea level until reaching point M which once again coincides with the Pollena / Escorca municipal boundary. From this moment on, the boundary line follows the slopes of Puig Tomir mountain and rises up until it comes close to its summit at a height of 1,000 m. above sea level, when it turns south enveloping the whole of the Lluc valley and entering the municipality of Selva near Alcanella (point N). Once inside the municipality of Selva, the boundary line runs in a south-westerly direction, passing north of the village and town of Binibona and Caimari and crossing the Inca Lluc (Ma-2130) road. It continues in a south-westerly direction to point O, where it crosses over towards the municipality of Mancor de la Vall, leaving the village to the south, and continues forward until coinciding with the municipal boundary of Lloseta, which runs as far as point P. From this point the boundary line crosses the municipality of Lloseta towards the Almadr valley, following the watercourse on the valley floor until coinciding with the municipal boundary of Alar. It then follows said boundary until it penetrates the heart of the municipality of Alar via the southern face of Puig de sAlcadena, continuing towards the slopes of the mountain where Alar Castle is located, skirting it and ascending northwards to an altitude of 700 m. to coincide with the municipal boundary of Bunyola (point R). It enters the municipality of Bunyola via the Orient valley, skirting it on the south side parallel to the Ma-2100 road and then crossing it at kilometre 4, close to Honor estate. Continuing parallel to the Serra dAlfbia the boundary line gradually descends until it coincides

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with the Ma-11 road close to SAlqueria dAvall (point S). From this point on, the boundary line heads northwards towards the Coll de Sller, and near the pass it begins to coincide with the boundary between the municipalities of Sller and Bunyola (point T), following said limit until the municipality of Dei (point U). It then continues along the boundary until the municipality of Valldemossa (point V). It follows the municipal boundary of Bunyola / Valldemossa through the Serra des Cairats, departing from it near Pastoritx (point W). At this point the boundary line enters the municipality of Valldemossa, losing height until it reaches an altitude of 250 m above sea level, where it crosses the Ma-1110 road and runs along the slopes of Sa Comuna, following the southern face of the valley where the village of Valldemossa is located until it reaches Son Ferrandell estate. Near here it crosses the municipal boundary (point X) and enters the municipality of Esporles. Skirting around the foothills of Mola de Son Pacs, the boundary line crosses over to the north of the town of Esporles, continuing towards the Ma-1040 road, which it crosses at kilometre 14.0. Heading south once more, the boundary line follows the slope of the summit of Sa Fita del ram towards the Es Verger area until it reaches the convergence of the municipal boundaries of Esporles, Palma and Puigpunyent (point Y). At this point the boundary line coincides with the municipal boundary of Palma / Puigpunyent for 700 metres until it enters the municipality of Puigpunyent at an altitude of 250 m above sea level. From this point, the boundary line goes towards the Ma-1041 road, and crosses it close to kilometre 12.0, running alongside it until coming close to the municipal boundary between Puigpunyent and Calvi. It then runs parallel to this boundary until it comes near to the village of Galilea, where it once again meets the boundary between the municipalities of Puigpunyent and Calvi (point Z), right at the point where it enters the municipality of Calvi, running around the southern boundary of the Galatz estate. It follows the boundary of this estate and finally rejoins the southernmost point of the core area, point A. Map of the nominated property A DIN-A4 size map of the proposed boundaries is attached.

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Justification Statement of Outstanding Universal Value The cultural landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana is an exceptional example of a Mediterranean agricultural landscape because of its singular combination of water supply systems applied to irrigation, of Islamic origin, and olive and vine growing systems, of Christian origin. Both are conditioned to a large extent by the scant resources the environment offers in the region, due to its climate, orography and insularity. The result of this combination is a landscape modelled by man in an extremely intense fashion, and one which bears witness to the continuous interaction between man and nature over the centuries. This landscape is characterized by the intense transformation of the original natural environment, based on the construction of hillside terraces on mountain slopes for olive cultivation; the extraction, channelling and conveyance of water in order to achieve orchards and irrigated areas; and the consolidation of a whole agricultural system in a mountainous area founded on the use of dry-stone architecture and intelligent management of the land. The landscape of the Tramuntana area is therefore a faithful reflection of the isolation that the island of Mallorca experienced over the centuries due to its remoteness from continental lands and because it was a border region, half way between Africa and Europe, subject to invasion from both north and south, which led to major cultural interchanges. The singularity of the landscape is defined by concepts such as insularity, the orographic layout and climate, water as a means of subsistence and aesthetic value in the form of the sea, Islamic and Christian cultural legacies, admiration on the part of philosophers, travellers, painters, musicians, poets and writers, and a wealth of legends, traditions and festivities linked to the Tramuntana area. Inscription criteria The Serra de Tramuntanas nomination as a World Heritage Site, in its capacity as an essentially evolutionary cultural landscape, is based on the following criteria: (ii) It exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design.

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(iv) It is an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history. (v) It is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, landuse, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change. (vi) It is directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas or beliefs, or with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. Contact information Responsible body: Departament del Territori Direcci Insular dOrdenaci del Territori (Spatial Planning Department) (Mallorca Directorate for Spatial Planning) Consell de Mallorca Address and contact information: C/ General Riera, 113. 07010 Palma (Illes Balears), Spain Tel. 00 34 971 219921 / Fax 00 34 971 173947 Web address: www. conselldemallorca.net www. serradetramuntana.net E-mail: serradetramuntana@conselldemallorca.net jamateu@conselldemallorca.net

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1 Identification of the Property

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1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y

1.a Country Spain 1.b State, province or region Balearic Islands, island of Mallorca 1.c Name of the property Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (hereinafter referred to as the Tramuntana area) 1.d Geographical coordinates to the nearest second Geographical coordinates of the central point of the property: N 39 43 51 E 2 41 41 Geographical coordinates of the northern boundary: N 39 52 17 E 2 58 16 Geographical coordinates of the southern boundary: N 39 35 31 E 2 27 34 1.e Maps and plans showing the boundaries of the nominated property and buffer zone The following maps are attached in the cartographic appendix: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Tramuntana area in the world The Tramuntana area in Europe The Tramuntana area in the Balearic Islands Delimitation of the nominated property (core area and buffer zone) Legal designations for the protection of the property (Mallorca Spatial Plan) Legal designations for the protection of the property (Environment) Legal designations for the protection of the property (European Natura network 2000) 8. Items of heritage catalogued as Items of Cultural Interest 9. Landscape values for the justification of the nominated property 10. Contour map 11. Public property in the core area 12. Geology

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13. Rainfall 14. Map of the hydrographic network 15. Utilization of water 16. Areas of agricultural interest 17. Distribution of terraced areas 18. Location of archaeological sites 19. Mountain paths and trails 20. Items of heritage relating to defensive architecture 21. Dry - stone route and Art - Lluc route 1.e.1 Justification of the proposed boundaries For the delimitation of the property, an analysis of its landscape values has been carried out from which a core area can be defined, where these values are best represented and preserved. A buffer zone has been added to this area, coinciding, broadly speaking, with the whole of the geographical district of the Serra de Tramuntana. An analysis of the Tramuntana area was carried out in order to determine the boundaries of the core area, with the aim of identifying the presence and spatial distribution of the landscapes features, as well as making a quantitative assessment of them. This was done by means of fieldwork an examination of the terrain and consultation of existing bibliographic works as well as a subsequent analysis of the territory consisting of the utilization of layer superimposition techniques, using Geographical Information Systems. The following variables were used in the analysis: Presence of hillside terraces. Presence of traditional water supply systems for the collection and utilization of water resources. Presence of popular systems of engineering for the prevention and control of erosion and floods. Presence of oil presses (oil manufacturing buildings). Presence of items of heritage related to the sale of ice. Presence of holm-oak woods. Presence of publicly-owned estates. Presence of public footpaths, tracks and hiking routes. Presence of archaeological sites. Presence of traditional defensive architecture (towers and castles). Presence of historical gardens. Presence of traditional rural estate houses.

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1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y

After each of these features had been mapped, each of the layers was superimposed in order to pinpoint those areas with the highest density of cultural landscape features. Where the density is higher, the landscape and cultural value of the place is higher. In this way, the area or areas that have the greatest value of this type are defined. These areas are the basis used initially to define the core area. Later these limits were compared with the administrative limits and the legal designations for its protection, with the aim of ensuring effective administration of the whole area. Subsequently a buffer zone was defined that covers the whole of the physical district of the Tramuntana area, also based on existing legal designations for the areas protection, such as: 1. The delimitation established by the Picturesque Site designation, a protective status awarded in the year 1972 (Decree 984/1972 March 24th, via which the north-western coast of the island of Mallorca is declared a Picturesque Site). Subsequently, through Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th; Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna; and Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998, it came to be considered an Item of Cultural Interest within the category of a Historic Site. 2. The boundaries for protection established by Balearic Act 1/1991 of January 30th governing natural spaces and planning regulations for areas of special protection in the Balearic Islands (LEN following its Spanish acronym). Preceded by Act 4/1984 governing the regulation and protection of natural areas of special interest, the LEN is the first act, with regard to the protection of the environment in the Balearic Islands, that specifically defines and delimits areas subject to protection based on their exceptional ecological, geological and landscape values. By way of a novelty it also established planning regulations with specific protection for the land lying within these areas. This act also defined a large natural area under the term Natural Areas of the Serra de Tramuntana within the Tramuntana area itself. Three protective categories are distinguished for the protection of the said areas, all of them subject to restrictive building conditions established by the LEN, as well as by modifications to it or by subsequent legislation: a Areas called Natural Areas of Special Interest, which include and protect places that stand out for their singular natural values. The LEN defines 8 natural areas of special interest in the Tramuntana area.

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b Areas called Rural Areas of Scenic Interest, in general the result of the transformation of the land brought about by traditional activities. Their preservation is justified by their scenic interest. c Settlement Areas in a Landscape of Interest, used to define settlements of an urban nature that, due to their singular scenic values or situation, deserve specific protective treatment. 3. The delimitation determined by Decree 19/2007 of March 16th, via which the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the Tramuntana Area is passed, defined on the basis of Act 5/2006 of May 26th governing the conservation of places of environmental value in the Balearic Islands. The delimitation responded to landscape conservation criteria and the natural and ethnological values existing therein, and the application of the Natural Site designation to this space. At the same time, it has also been deemed appropriate to remove certain areas from the delimitation of the nominated property both from the core area and from the buffer zone. These are places that, due to their recent urban development or the degradation of some of their items of scenic interest, may have a negative influence on the main values underlying the proposed nomination. This is the case of the coastal tourist towns of the Port of Sller (Sller) or Cala de Sant Vicen (Pollena), and also certain periurban coastal and inland areas of the municipalities of Pollena, Andratx or Calvi. Following this same criterion, in the core area, 4 specific zones have been removed from the proposed delimitation: 1 The coastal area corresponding to the fishing port of Es Canonge, in the municipality of Banyalbufar. 2 The coastal area corresponding to the fishing port of Sa Marina de Valldemossa. 3 The former Shangrila housing estate, also in the municipality of Valldemossa. 4 An isolated quarry covering 6.5 hectares located inside the Historic Site of the estates owned by of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. Part of the lands that were included within the boundaries of the Picturesque Site designation in the year 1972, which responded solely to administrative criteria but did not follow any criterion for the preservation of natural or cultural values, has also been excluded, because these boundaries contained the entire physical limits of municipalities in which values to be protected were located, and protection was extended to the very borders of adjoining municipalities. This is the case

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1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y

of the municipality of Campanet, the whole of which is included within the boundaries of the aforementioned designated protection area. 1.f Area of nominated property (ha.) and proposed buffer zone (ha.) Area of nominated property: 30,745 ha. Buffer zone: 78,617 ha. (On-land area: 52,760 ha / Maritime area: 25,857 ha.) Total: 109,362 ha. From an administrative point of view, the area formed by the core area and buffer zone includes 20 municipalities, 1 of which (Dei) is included in its entirety and the rest partially: Andratx, Alar, Pollena, Fornalutx, Escorca, Sller, Mancor de la Vall, Dei, Banyalbufar, Puigpunyent, Estellencs, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Palma, Calvi, Santa Maria del Cam, Lloseta, Selva, and Campanet. This area covers the whole breadth of the Tramuntana Mountains as well as the island of Dragonera, which is the natural continuation of the Tramuntana mountain range towards the south and was declared a Natural Park in January of 1995. 1.f.1 The core area The core has a surface area of 30,745 ha., constituting the geographical area in which the values of the cultural landscape become apparent and are expressed with maximum intensity in spatial terms. Its position, centred between the northern and southern tips of the mountain range, has affected the number of municipalities that make it up a total of 15: Calvi, Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Puigpunyent, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Dei, Sller, Fornalutx, Escorca, Selva, Mancor de la Vall, Lloseta and Alar. Only one of them Dei is included in its entirety in the core area, although the greater part of Puigpunyent, Estellencs, Banyalbufar and Mancor de la Vall is included. The core area contains publicly-owned estates that occupy a total of 6,704 hectares, accounting for 21% of the area. The largest of these estates is Galatz, with a surface area of 1,354 hectares, followed by La Comuna de Caimari, which covers 725 hectares. In total the aforementioned core area contains an estimated resident population of 7,958 people, most of them from the urban nuclei that it includes.

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1.f.2. The buffer zone The central area described above is complemented by the delimitation of a buffer zone designed to guarantee the protection and integrity of the property by creating a perimetral cushion. The aim of this zone is to protect the core area from any possible development pressures and other potential threats in the immediate surrounding area. Because of this, the buffer zone surrounds the core area completely up to the northern and southern boundaries of the Tramuntana area, extending as far as its southern slopes which are less abrupt in orographic terms that is to say, the slopes that border with the islands plain. The buffer zone has a surface area of 52,760 hectares and its boundaries coincide, broadly speaking, with those of existing areas with protective designations, established by virtue of Balearic Act 1/1991 governing natural spaces (LEN): Natural Areas of Special Interest (ANEI) and Rural Area of Scenic Interest (ARIP), added to which we have the so-called Settlement Areas in a Landscape of Interest (AAPI). Furthermore, the island of Dragonera, with a surface area of 271.9 hectares, separated from Mallorca by no more than 900 metres on its closest side, also forms part of the buffer zone. The boundaries of the buffer zone are completed with the incorporation of a protective area that comprises a strip of sea running parallel to the maritime edge of the Tramuntana area. This stretches perpendicularly from the coastline to a distance of one nautical mile (1,852 metres) out to sea. The coastal waters defined in this manner cover a surface of 25,857 hectares, and encircle the core area on its maritime side.

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2 Description of Property

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2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y

The Serra de Tramuntana, the main mountain range on the island of Mallorca, belongs to the Balearic archipelago, situated in the centre of the Western Mediterranean. The archipelago is one of Spains 17 self-governing regions, and it is comprised of four main islands - Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera - as well as small islets and lesser islands, particularly those of the sub-archipelago of the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park of Cabrera, and also the island of Dragonera, which is a natural continuation of the Tramuntana Mountains towards the south. The Serra de Tramuntana is a mountainous area that runs parallel and close to the north-western coast of Mallorca. Visually it has a very rugged appearance. The western slopes actually border on the sea, and the eastern ones with the islands central plain. From a physiographic point of view, one can differentiate a central sector, where the highest altitudes are situated; a northern sector, characterized by a succession of narrow valleys that alternate with sharp peaks and a profusion of coastal cliffs; and a southern sector, less abrupt and with broader valleys.
Figure 1. Aerial view of the north coast of the Tramuntana area, between the municipalities of Dei and Sller

The mountain range is 90 km long and has an average width of 15 km, and it has a surface area of around 83,500 Ha (835 km2). Its differences in altitude range from sea level to a maximum height of 1,445 metres above sea level (Puig Major de Son Torrella), whilst the line of its summits is in excess of 600 m and ten elevations stand at over 1000 m. Mallorcas Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is a good example of a Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscape, reflecting the transformations brought about by man in unfavourable surroundings. It is a singular joint work of man and nature, as defined in article 1 of the

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Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, adopted in 1972

Convention1, characterized by the use of traditional techniques so as to temper the harshness of the physical environment and exploit the natural resources of surroundings to the full, with the aim of obtaining spaces that can be used for growing crops, rearing livestock and the utilization of the forests. It is all marked by a strongly Mediterranean flavour, due to local climatic features, which allow for the cultivation of olive trees and to a lesser extent vines, both of which are still operational today, the legacy of the classic Mediterranean trilogy. In accordance with the classification system for cultural landscapes proposed by the UNESCO,2 the Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is a landscape that has evolved organically (category II), due to social and economic needs, changing in an evolutionary manner in response to the natural environment. Whilst many traditional activities that have conserved the landscape have gradually been abandoned over time, the agricultural environment, population and associated customs and treatment of the land are still maintained in many of the valleys here, so it may be considered a living landscape.

Operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. UNESCO, 2008

Figure 2. Hillside terraces are a fine example of the built landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains (the municipality of Banyalbufar)

The Serra de Tramuntana mountain range occupies the whole north coast of the island of Mallorca, located in the central Western Mediterranean. The very name bears witness to its northern location, since Tramuntana is the name in Catalan the native language of the island of Mallorca given to the north wind. The mountain range protects the rest of the island from this wind. The cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area is the result of interaction between man and nature in a place conditioned by a dual remoteness,

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since this is a mountain region which is also located on an island. Due to this double insularity, the Tramuntana area was converted into a frontier, experiencing historical changes in the form of successive cultural differences that left overlapping marks on its slopes, from the first human settlements created by different cultures between 5000 and 3500 BC through to contemporary European movements, such as those of the intellectual artistic heirs of writer Robert Graves in the small village of Dei. 2.a Description of the property The Tramuntana landscape is the outcome of the application of the cultural know-how of civilisations that succeeded one another there on its physical and natural environment. In the case of the Tramuntana area, this natural environment is basically marked by four main characteristics: 1) Abrupt, rugged reliefs, with an altitude of up to 1,450 metres very close to the sea, consisting predominantly of extremely hard permeable limestone rock, resulting in a landscape with karstic formations. It is criss-crossed by a dense network of streams, dry torrent beds, old streambeds, gullies and torrents, as well as aquifers that supply the many springs, as part of what is a Mediterranean water system. The northern sector consists of a succession of narrow valleys that alternate with sharp peaks and cliffs, whilst the southern sector is milder in orographic terms. Even so, the highest altitudes are to be found in the central sector. 2) A climate marked by Mediterranean characteristics, distinguished by dry hot summers and mild winters, and an irregular rainfall pattern with peaks in rainfall in autumn and spring and a pronounced rainfall gradient oscillating between a wetter central mountain area (between 800 and 1400 mm of rainfall per year) and progressively drier extreme areas. 3) Mediterranean woodland vegetation with forests of evergreen Balearic holm-oaks (Cyclamini-Quercetum ilicis) that represent a climax plant community, replaced in areas that are less wet by wild olive macchia or scrub (Oleo-Ceratonion ass. Cneoro ceratonietum) of a thermophilic nature - extremely common in the Mediterranean - which colonizes places where holm-oak woods are in a significant state of degradation. This macchia is heavily colonized by the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) species. In the Tramuntana area, there are also plant communities that make up high Balearic ground cover (Hypericion balearici), an extremely low plant formation featuring an outstanding abundance of endemic

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plants. Most of the plants endemic to the Balearic Islands belong to this community. 4) Wild fauna, also abundant in the form of endemic species, marked to a large extent by the double insularity entailed by the presence of a mountain district, in itself already isolated from the rest of the region, within an island. The flora and fauna that exist in the Tramuntana area are of significant ecological, scenic and natural value due to their diversity and the rarity of many species. In the case of flora, the Tramuntana area contains 65 of the 97 native species described in the Balearic archipelago, and 65 of the 68 plants endemic to the island of Mallorca. The environmental importance of the Tramuntana area is therefore especially well known in terms of the singularity of its reliefs particularly the karstic landscape -, the originality of its plant communities, presence of endemic, rare and relict taxonomic groups of flora and fauna, and the environmental diversity of its habitats and fauna and flora. Moreover, the Tramuntana area was and still is an important source of resources for Mallorcas society, supplying not only agricultural, forestry and livestock products, but also significant water supplies that are decisive for the rest of the island. It is this physical context that has conditioned the lifestyle of the different cultures that settled in the region over the centuries, intensified in unique style by insularity. Isolation gave rise to the need to develop a selfsufficient farming system in order to obtain resources needed for subsistence, based on the technical knowledge available at each moment in time. This led to heavy human occupation of the Tramuntana area. This dense human occupation of the Tramuntana area over the centuries has given rise to a remarkable succession and diversity of socioeconomic and cultural imprints and it has also favoured the concentration of a high number of items of heritage of a cultural nature that have led to the formation of todays cultural landscape. This heritage is present both in urban nuclei and rural areas, including items of ethnological, architectural and archaeological interest which can be classified in the following groups: 1) Items associated with the hydrological landscape, in the form of systems for the collection, extraction, conveyance and storage of water in order to supply irrigated areas. These items are fundamental in understanding the landscape of the mountain range, and command of them is essential in the management of the irregular rainfall so typical of Mediterranean climates.

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2) Items constructed using dry-stone building techniques that help overcome orographic obstacles to farming. 3) Estate buildings. Large rural buildings where agricultural farming facilities (such as oil presses and mills) co-exist with the residential dwellings of their owners. One of the fundamental cornerstones of these farms was the cultivation of olive trees, thanks to the natural and climatic conditions that favour their growth; 4) Towns and villages, which contain historic features and items of heritage of great interest. 5) Religious centres, such as the Lluc shrine, in Escorca, and numerous other shrines and chapels scattered around the area. 6) Maritime heritage, linked to coastal defence (when the latter was a potential hazard due to outside attack), sailing and fishing activities. Furthermore, the way in which each society inhabits a region, works the land, recalls it, is familiar with it, represents it and narrates it offers an insight into that communitys emotional perception of the landscape. The Tramuntana area is singularly rich in cultural expression, evoking an extensive, complex past. Likewise, it is also rich in contemporary artistic, pictorial and literary expression, reflecting its landscape values and defining the singularity of local lifestyles that are inseparable from the landscape. Also, the Tramuntana areas numerous legends and tales constitute a synthesis of popular wisdom as well as reflecting the character of its people: a highly valuable intangible source of heritage that offers the keys to deciphering a unique, ancient culture. This intangible heritage takes different forms: 1) Traditional lifestyles, connected to the rural society so closely linked to the landscape and associated traditional popular techniques and know-how needed to control the land. 2) Ethnographical, scientific and technical knowledge. 3) Religious ideas and beliefs linked to the landscape and the seasonal rhythms that nature imposes on agricultural tasks. 4) Artistic expression, demonstrated by numerous artists and travellers who drew inspiration from the mountain landscape.

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5) Customs and traditions, festivities, traditional dances and gastronomy. A reflection of influences that have conditioned the Tramuntana landscape. 6) Oral traditions, as expressed in toponyms, legends, and other forms of expression passed on from generation to generation. As proof of the abundance of items of cultural interest within the geographical scope of the Tramuntana area, it should be noted that the Department of Culture and Heritage of the Consell de Mallorca has identified 610 items of real estate that could be declared and indeed in many cases have already been declared - Items of Cultural Interest (BIC as per the Spanish acronym). All these cultural items cover a very extensive historical period that begins with the Chalcolithic period (2200-1800 BC), and includes the Bronze Age (1800-1000 BC), Iron Age, Punic and Roman periods and Middle Ages, through to Modern Times. The Bronze Age, Iron Age and Medieval times are very well represented in the Tramuntana area, and all of them are expressed through numerous different examples, notably small human settlements (16% of the Tramuntana areas catalogue of items of heritage), caves (22%), Moslem water supply networks (17%), windmills and waterwheels (8%) and talayots (6%). Other finds include defensive walls, boat-shaped dwellings, settlements, rock shelters, farms, necropoles, and wells or irrigation channels of great archaeological significance. In terms of their function, most of these items of heritage were associated with dwellings, engineering techniques, funereal rites or defensive or industrial purposes.
Figure 3. Dry-stone walls eventually form a new biotope, in which species and communities of substantial botanical value develop, such as ferns.

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2.a.1. Physical and natural features 1) The geological substratum and reliefs The geological materials that compose the Tramuntana area (GINS, 1998) cover a period spanning the end of the Palaeozoic Era (Carboniferous Period) and the lower Miocene, that is to say a period of time of between 240 and 15 million years. In general, the mountain range is made up of sedimentary rocks, predominantly Jurassic limestone (Secondary era), which give rise to the characteristic greyish colour of the ranges summits and cliffs. These rocks are formed by sedimentation occurring at the bottom of former sea basins that were subsequently around 15 million years ago affected by what is known as the Alpine orogeny. This was a long mountain-formation process that took place as a result of the collision of the African and European continents, causing the slow folding of big marine sedimentary rock masses that now constitute the Mediterraneans most important mountain ranges, such as the Atlas Mountains, Baetic Mountains, Alps or Pyrenees.

The rocks that today compose the Tramuntana Mountains were therefore subjected to a process of compression in a north-westerly direction. This gave rise to the ranges successive folds and thrusts, aligned in a northeasterly/south-westerly direction and stacked towards the northwest. Consequently the northern face of the range has more energetic reliefs, corresponding in general terms to the thrust fronts, whilst the southern face is gentler in relative terms, since it adapts to the general southeast inclination of its rocky materials. This general north-easterly/south-westerly layout of its reliefs is interrupted by perpendicular cuts caused by faults that occurred during the

Figure 4. The pressures to which the Tramuntana Mountains were subject during the Alpine orogeny gave them an abrupt northern face and a gentler southern face. The photo shows the Formentor peninsula.

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aforementioned orogeny, but also as a consequence of the expansion process that took place after it had concluded. This is how the valleys of Valldemossa, Puigpunyent or Sller appeared. At other points, these fracture lines are places where large karstic canyons and gullies have formed, due to the physical disintegration and chemical dissolving of the limestone rocks. Another characteristic of the reliefs of the Tramuntana Mountains is the alternation of large cliffs and summits with valleys and faces that are not so steep, due fundamentally to lithological differences: the cliffs and massifs are formed by the hardest limestone rocks, whilst much softer materials have settled at the base, such as clays or calcarenites materials characteristic of mountain slopes and valley bottoms. This alternance of hard and clayish materials is also important because it explains the emergence of water in the form of numerous springs and sources.

Figure 5. On the left, large limestone packets from the Jurassic era are responsible for the greyish colour of the summits and cliffs of the Tramuntana Mountains. On the right, the mouth of the karstic canyon known as the Torrent de Pareis, in Escorca.

On this mainly limestone lithological base, there is an immediate succession of erosive processes that give rise to a distinctive geomorphology, since they cause the rupture, transportation and sedimentation of rocks. In the Tramuntana Mountains four main modelling typologies can be observed: (a) a fluvio-torrential system, associated with gullies and torrents, (b) a facial system in the form of cliffs and slopes, (c) a coastal system, typical of the coastal area, presenting morphologies such as coastal cliffs and coves, and (d) a karstic modelling system, the result of the chemical action of water dissolving limestone rock: an essential factor in the landscapes singular features. The f luvio-torrential system is extremely well represented in the Tramuntana area, through the presence of an extensive network of torrents, gullies, streams, torrent beds and streambeds. In this document, the concept of a torrent is used to refer to a short watercourse where water flows intermittently or temporarily along a fixed channel. Its main characteristic is that it is episodic, and may dry out for part of the year.

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In general terms, the fluvio-torrential system makes use of soft materials found on the base of the limestone massifs to create broad longitudinal valleys through which the network of torrents is organized. Even so, it is frequent in headwater areas to find torrents carved out of limestone packets, taking advantage of structural fractures or weaknesses, creating deep cuts in the rock and turning into spectacularly-shaped karstic canyons whose geomorphological causes correspond more to the karstic modelling system than to fluvio-torrential ones. The watercourses in the Tramuntana Mountains torrents, as they are called locally are for the most part positioned longitudinally, following the direction of their geological structure, although they are also often positioned in short crosswise sections that carve out gullies and small canyons (so-called estrets), such as those of the Ternelles valley, Cber plain, connection between the Orient valley and central plain of Mallorca via Es Freu and Coanegra, and the emblematic Valldemossa strait. The coastal face is made up of extremely steep, brief streams and torrents that descend almost directly from the line of summits down to the sea. Even so, there are two individualized basins with large drainage areas: the Torrent Major basin (54.5 km2) in Sller and the Torrent de Pareis basin (46.3 km2) which drains the rainiest part of the island, receiving water from the Almallutx and Lluc/Clot dAubarca valleys, although a significant part of the headwaters is captured by the Gorg Blau reservoir. Of special note on the southern face of the mountain range are the torrents of Sant Miquel (which flows into the Bay of Alcdia in the north of Mallorca) and that of Sa Riera (which flows into the Bay of Palma, in the south). We should point out that the islands most important wetlands, like the Mallorca Albufera and Pollena Albufereta, depend to a greater or lesser extent on water from the torrents of the Tramuntana Mountains, as do lesser wetlands such as Es Saluet in Andratx and La Gola in Pollena. The modelling of the facial system encompasses a wide range of processes and forms caused by the action of meteorization processes on the slopes and peaks of rocky mountains. Modelling processes related to large falling boulders are well represented in the mountain range, as is the slow dismembering of slopes, forming small or large areas of scree, due to the accumulation of boulders that have come loose from the sides of the mountains. Thirdly, the coast is a highly dynamic environment in which modelling takes place by means of mechanical processes (abrasion caused by wave movement) and bio-erosive processes caused by the organisms typical of these environments. The coastal area of the Serra de Tramuntana is almost entirely made up of rocky cliffs where landslides and falling rocks are fre-

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quent. Notable exceptions to these dynamics are the Port of Sller, the only natural coastal harbour in the area, and small coves usually associated with the mouths of dry streambeds and torrents, with the distinguishing feature that they are beaches covered in pebbles carried there by watercourses. Nonetheless, the most interesting system and landscape in geomorphological terms in the Tramuntuna area is the karstic system. It is an erosive system typical of carbonate rocks (as indeed limestone rocks are), composed for the most part of calcium carbonate. They are attacked chemically by water in the presence of carbon dioxide, in a process known as karstification. These rocks give rise to a wide variety of morphologies both on their exterior (exokarst) and on their interior (endokarst, which forms underground galleries, caves and chasms). In the Tramuntana area, the exokarst is apparent in the form of external morphologies such as sink holes, karren fields and karstic canyons. The Torrent de Pareis, in the municipality of Escorca, is an excellent example of this latter morphology. Karren produces a landscape with a striated appearance, popularly known as rellar or esquetjar, words that appear repeatedly in the Tramuntana toponymy. The most spectacular shapes include those of the Ses Monges field or Es Pixarells, in the Lluc area (municipality of Escorca). Superficial karst modelling also gives rise to the presence of closed depressions sink holes which dissolving processes have helped form. These take the form of circular or elongated depressions, such as that of Cometa des Morts, near Lluc, which has a surface area of around 12,000 m2 with an underground cavity at its most depressed point - la Cova de la Cometa des Morts , one of the main drainage points for this karstic depression. Meanwhile, endokarstic signs are also extremely frequent in the mountain range. There is a remarkable abundance of vertical underground cavities (chasms or avencs according to popular Catalan terminology), which can reach depths of up to 100 m. You can also find typical caves, which form a complex series of cavities through which an underground water drainage system can be traced. The total number of known and catalogued cavities in the Tramuntana area is well in excess of 1000, Escorca and Pollena being the municipalities with most catalogued examples. Cavities close to the surface were historically occupied by the first human settlers to the Tramuntana, and they are prime archaeological sites.

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2) The climate The main characteristic of the Mediterranean climate is none other than its summer droughts, since the hot period of the year coincides with a very low minimum rainfall, so the growth of vegetation is limited to a large extent by the scarcity of water in the soil. Thus by definition the Mediterranean climate is characterized by a shortage of summer rains leading to dry summers, and, on the island of Mallorca, this dry period peaks during the months of July and August, also preceded by a low rainfall in late spring. In Mallorca, there is a big spatial variation in mean rainfall, with maximums situated around 1,200-1,400 mm a year in the central sector of the Tramuntana Mountains, whilst on the southern coast of the island it amounts to no more than 300-350 mm. This unsymmetrical pattern is basically due to orographic factors. Winds responsible for the heaviest precipitation (NE, N and to a lesser extent the SW winds) collide with the islands reliefs, increasing the rainfalls windward direction. Whilst the aforementioned orographic factor does determine the spatial distribution of rainfall, some studies of geographical rainfall distribution factors, using multivariate analysis techniques, point to the influence of factors such as the presence of mountain barriers in the direction of rainy winds, latitude, the concavity of the terrain, distance from the sea and irregularity of the reliefs (GUIJARRO, 1986). Thus latitude, for example, causes the coastal sector of Pollena the northernmost part of the Tramuntana area to be somewhat rainier (700-800 mm) than the southern section (500-600 mm). This is due, more than anything else, to the increase in summer rainfall in the north-eastern tip of the mountain range, and the fact that the Andratx area is sheltered from wet north-easterly winds. In direct contrast to the plain and also to the islands eastern mountain ranges and coastal areas, the Tramuntana Mountains possess all the defining features, from a climatic point of view, of typical mountains: snow at least in winter -, a high level of atmospheric humidity, a comparatively high rainfall and comparatively low temperatures. It is hostile physical environment but one with natural resources that offer multiple potential in their exploitation, fundamentally water (which, in Mediterranean regions with an absence of permanent watercourses) is a unique trait, and one that makes all the difference. Not for nothing are the Tramuntana Mountains the islands most important area for replenishing water supplies. Climatic factors play a decisive role here. The influence of large systems of depressions or low pressure originating in the Atlantic is not very im-

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portant in Mallorca, whereas the influence of locally created aggravated disturbances are extremely important. The unique conditions of the basin formed by the Western Mediterranean, surrounded by high reliefs, make this area particularly prone to cyclogenesis, with the formation or reactivation of disturbances (JANS CLAR, 1995). This means that the Western Mediterranean is, in fact, the region in the northern hemisphere with most cyclogenetic activity in the cold season. The points where the formation of the centre of a depression is most probable are, in this order: the gulf of the Liguria-Tyrrhenian Sea, the gulf of Leon, the Catalan-Balearic Sea, the Algerian coast and the Alboran Sea. Peak rainfall in the month of October reflects the effectiveness of these Mediterranean disturbances. In spite of the similarity in the rainfall pattern recorded by the islands different meteorological observatories, the rainiest sectors can be identified as the central part of the Tramuntana Mountains, where there is a second peak in rainfall after the month of October, specifically, in December. In this case, it is assumed that orographic factors are influential during a period of the year when the general movement from the west reaches lower latitudes. Thus, occasionally there are moments of very heavy rainfall, with downpours producing over 300 mm in 24 hours. The recurrence of these downpours cannot be considered exceptional, so that within a period of 25 years one can expect maximums of over 250 mm in 24 hours in the central part of the mountain range. Snowfall, on the other hand, is currently very unusual in the Balearic Islands, although the presence of snow on the summits of the Tramuntana Mountains once or several times a year is by no means strange to any islander. The highest number of recorded snowfalls corresponds to the central area of the mountain range, and at the observatory of the shrine at Lluc it is unusual for there to be none at all in any given year. This phenomenon occurs almost exclusively in the winter months, and the synoptic circumstances that lead to snow in Mallorca are the same ones that cause the coldest types of weather in the region, that is to say those usually linked to meridian advections with a northerly component, especially those from the NE (RASO, 1985), concentrated in the months of January, February and December, in order of frequency (highest to lowest). As for temperatures, they follow the well-known pattern according to which annual minimums occur in the months of January and February, and maximums in July and August. Whilst most of the island of Mallorca has an annual average of 16 to 17 C, the Tramuntana area is singled out as the coldest area, with joint values below 16 C, and under 10 C at certain points in the central sector. This is determined by the

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uneven incidence of solar radiation and the orientation of its mountain slopes, meaning that its southern slopes enjoy a positive thermal anomaly with average annual temperatures of around 18 C. Thermal inversions and frosts are not infrequent in the Tramuntana area, above all in enclosed areas and the bottom of valley. 3) Flora and vegetation belts Climatic factors as a whole and the predominantly limy nature of the islands soil condition the distribution of vegetation in the Tramuntana area and the altitude of plant communities. Mountains are a place that favours evolution and speciation, and a refuge for relict species, which are safeguarded from new predators and colonizers. In this regard, the Tramuntana Mountains can be seen as a genetic reservoir. Their varied vegetation responds fundamentally to their climactic differences, since the higher parts are cold, windy and wet, whilst the lower parts are drier and warmer. In general terms the mountain range has four main plant communities: 1) Firstly Balearic holm-oak woods (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis): This is the wooded climax community that would occupy the greater part of the area had there been no human intervention. In the Tramuntana area, the location of these woods has been drastically reduced, due not only to the historic creation of farmland reclaimed from the woods, but also to the continued action of tree-felling and other forestry activities. There are two sub-groups of holm-oak woods: mountain woodland (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis Pteridio rhamnesotum), and lowland and coastal woods (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis tipicum). Currently the presence of holm oaks in the mountain range is confined to areas where the trees were used instead of being ploughed up, and consequently a large number of traditional features used as infrastructure in forestry work have been preserved there. These include charcoal-burning pits, limekilns, paths, and huts for hunting, all of which evoke the anthropic pressure the forest must have been subject to until the second half of the 20th century. This is due mainly to the fact that it was the main source of fuel in the form of firewood and charcoal for the islands population. Apart from holm oaks themselves (Quercus ilex), the most representative species in holm-oak communities are the endemic Cyclamen balearicum, Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, Smilax aspera var. balearica and Rubia balearica. The largest expanses of holm-oak woods are to be found in the area between Puigpunyent and Sller and also in the central part of the mountain range, around the Massanella mountain. This plant community has a notorious affinity with certain rocky materials upon which it grows, such as the marl limestone rocks

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of the Triassic period and sufficiently strong mountain slope deposits. By contrast it does not grow well on terrain based on massif limestone from the Liassic period. 2) Wild-olive scrubland (Oleo-Ceratonion ass. Cneoro-ceratonietum) bears a high similarity to the Provenal macchia found on the European continent. This plant formation is typical of warm regions and it can mainly be found at lower altitudes of the Tramuntana area, where very dry conditions do not allow holm-oak woods to grow properly. These are areas with annual rainfall rates below 500 and 600 mm. Its capacity for colonization has enabled it to invade places formerly occupied by holm-oak woods after they were ploughed up. The wild olives (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) typical of this community are precisely those that have given rise to the expansion of genuine olive trees, that is their agricultural counterparts, the reproduction of which is achieved through grafting. The origins of the olive-tree grafting technique on Mallorca have been related to contact between the local Talayotic population and PunicIbizan merchants. As well as the wild olive mentioned above, other flora in this community includes an abundance of mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), and other species such as Cneorum tricoccon, Asparagus horridus, Asparagus albus, Clematis cirrhosa, Arisarum vulgare, Arum italicum, Rubia peregrina, Ephedra fragilis, Euphorbia dendroides and Calicotome spinosa. 3) Calcicole shrubland (Rosmarino-Ericion) includes two characteristic shrubs: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mediterranean heather (Erica multiflora). Its geographical distribution is not as widespread as that of wild-olive scrubland, and it is found in both coastal and mountainous areas. The association Loto tetraphylli-Ericetum multiflorae is found precisely in mountainous areas, optimally at an altitude of around 500 m, where there is a high percentage of Mauritanian vinereed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica) and heather. The interesting native species Lotus tetraphyllus is also present. On steeper slopes, where percolation due to heavy rain reduces the limy nature of the soil, species with silicicole affinities appear, such as the thorny broom Calicotome spinosa (argelaga). Both in the case of this scrubland and Oleo-Ceratonion, the presence of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) cover has been recorded, a cosmopolitan Mediterranean species of no phytosociological significance. Whilst not considered an association per se, pine woods form their own entity on the Balearic Islands and are actually the most extensive tree formation found on them, due to their rapid growth rate and opportunism, since pine trees quickly colonize altered wooded areas. Both this community and that of wild-olive shrubland are the first to colonize abandoned olive groves in the Tramuntana Mountains, the

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most significant sign of which is precisely the advance of pine trees on mountain slopes that were formerly farmed. 4) Communities in the highest Balearic vegetation belt are those found near summits and mountain crags, grouped under the alliance Hypericion Balearici, which grows particularly on terrain where the strength of the wind or absence of soil often caused by anthropic pressure exercised by years of livestock grazing prevents the growth of other communities. These determining factors can occur at any altitude of the Tramuntana Mountains, but the current presence of Hypericion Balearici occurs above all in the highest sections of the mountains. It consists of a very low formation of compact bushes and thorny plants with rounded forms cushion-type plants with a discontinuous incidence and reduced surface cover. The specific composition of this community is highly original due to the profusion of native species, which account for 35% of its composition and up to more than 60% of its cover. They include Hypericum balearicum, which gives its name to the plant community, and the aforementioned thorny cushion plants Teucrium marum subsp. occidentale, Astragalus balearicus, Smilax aspera sups. Balearica or species typical of rocky walls, such as the shrubby horseshoe vetch Hippocrepis balearica. Other important communities are those formed by Mauritanian vinereed scrubland, crritx in Catalan, (Ampelodesma mauritanica), which at times occupies large tracts of land, above all on the sunny slopes of the north-eastern half of the mountain range, both in the lower and the higher part. In fact crritx is a plant aided by grazing activities by sheep and goats, since the natural vegetation of the area is intentionally burnt without it, however, affecting this plant, which sprouts new shoots afterwards that serve as food for the livestock. We should also mention boxwood (Buxus balearica) formations, a plant that must have been more widespread in the past, as well as being more tree-sized than bush-sized, as is the case now. The boxwood groves that existed in the past, detected in toponymic references, were reduced as a result of charcoal making, as they were used as forest firewood. It is generally assumed that, in the past, a Mediterranean mesophilous forest was present on the mountains of Mallorca (IMANOL et al., 1994), which was replaced by todays holm-oak woods and shrank considerably in relation to the surface it must have covered in other climatically wetter periods. This has been confirmed by polynic analyses of sediments, which also prove the existence of the common beech (Fagus sylvatica), the common hazel (Corylus avellana) and oaks (Quercus spp.) in the past.

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Figure 6. The climatic conditions of the highest Balearic vegetation belt is reflected in the vegetation typical of these areas, which takes the form of woody plants with thorns and cushion shapes

4) Ecosystems and habitats The current ecosystems and habitats of the Tramuntana area are the result of the historical evolution of its ecological systems. Knowledge of this is partially derived from available paleontological records, above all from COLOM (1957, 1964, 1975). The arrival of humans to Mallorca, which presumably occurred between 4000 and 5000 years ago, led to a profound change in the evolutionary and successive ecological patterns that had hitherto characterized the island under conditions of geographical isolation. Humans progressively introduced allochthonous fauna, made use of the land, and self-interestedly selected and promoted the spread of species of wild flora related to silvopastoral practices, creating conditions under which the island ecosystems, in general, and those of the Tramuntana Mountains, in particular, have prospered. Species such as boxwood (Buxus balearica), Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris or Thymelaea velutina, which grew in upper parts of the Mallorcan mountains but were of no interest for livestock, were displaced to lower altitudes and coastal areas that were unprofitable in pastoral-productive terms. Thus a slow replacement process of certain wild species by others that were more beneficial to humans took effect. The erosion and soil loss that affect higher areas of the Tramuntana Mountains can be explained by human land use for agricultural and livestock purposes. This occurred almost continually from the moment that mankind arrived in Mallorca, with the implantation of the Talayotic culture. Nevertheless, the geographical isolation prior to mans colonization

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of the island lasted for around 4.9 million years, enabling certain unique native species to develop within a more or less stable framework of successive ecosystems. It must be added that the natural environment of the Tramuntana area is directly conditioned by the Mediterranean climate that prevails in this area of the Western Mediterranean, and also by the terrain and human domination of the land. This has favoured the existence of a potential majority of terrestrial woodland ecosystems, in which most woody species are evergreens, although there are also winter and summer deciduous species. As indicated before, holm-oak woods are the main potential plant formation in a mountainous area with a distinctive rainfall, relatively deep soil and a fissured rocky substratum, where moisture can be stored during the long summer drought period. Holm-oak woods are currently reclaiming certain areas of disused agricultural land within their bioclimatic scope of influence, although the presumable increase in irregular rainfall patterns and increase in temperature on a planetary scale, attributed to climate change, might, in the long term and from a climatic point of view, lead to a reduction in holm-oak woods, which will slowly be replaced by high wild-olive macchia. The classification of habitats in the Tramuntana area is based on that used by Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC, Appendix I, referring to the conservation of natural habitats and wild flora and fauna. At the same time, the Habitats Directive establishes an ecological network of special conservation areas called the Natura 2000 Network. This is a coherent European ecological network of places that accommodate types of natural habitats and species in areas where they would be naturally found. It is designed to guarantee the maintenance of habitats or to restore them to a good state of conservation, as well as species found naturally in them. Natura 2000 also includes Special Protective Areas for Birds (SPAs), designated in accordance with Directive 79/409/EEC (Birds Directive). Areas in the Natura 2000 Network include habitats from Annexe I or species from Annexe II of the aforementioned Directive. Thus Natura 2000 describes two types of protected areas of natural interest in the Tramuntana area: 1) Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), following the said areas declaration a Site of Community Importance (SICs). 2) The Special Protection Areas for Birds (SPAs).

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According to the Spanish Ministry for the Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs, the Habitats Directive distinguishes 127 Sites of Community Importance and 50 SPAs in the Balearic Islands. In the Tramuntana area, 23 SICs are recognised, 13 of which are caves or underground cavities, and the 50 SPAs mentioned above. The five types of ecosystems recognizable in the Tramuntana area conditioned, as we have said, by the rainfall gradient and uneven geomorphology of the mountain range, as well as by soil types are described below. The communities listed along with the described habitats are marked using the code of the Natura 2000 network. Some of these spaces have subsequently been recognised by the Committee of Experts in Habitats (Directive 92/43/EEC and subsequent versions), in which case they are marked with an asterisk in the text. Coastal marine ecosystems The coastal systems of the mountain range, and by extension those of the island of Mallorca, have been formed in a maritime framework without significant tides and with oligotrophic coastal waters, meaning they are transparent and poor in nutrients. The annual thermal oscillation of the sea water stands at 2628 C in summer and 13 C or less in winter. The coastal marine habitats that form part of the aforementioned Habitats Directive include Posidonia (NC:1120*) seagrass meadows, characterized by an abundance of the species Posidonia oceanica, an underwater phanerogam plant with a depth range of between 30 and 40 m. Posidonia mainly colonizes sandy seabeds, which are infrequent in the Tramuntana area, or seabeds that are both sandy and rocky. In time the colonies come to form shields or submerged dunes measuring up to 2 metres in height. An abundant diversity of organisms grows on and between these plants, and the remains of these organisms form the bioclastic sand of beaches. Posidonia oceanica usually tolerates variations in water temperature, and the currents that are formed, but one of its greatest limitations is a reduction in salinity, its optimum salinity being between 36 and 39 of salt. An increase in water turbidity may also condition its presence. On the other hand, the mainly limestone substratum of the Tramuntana area gives rise to the formation of coastal cavities (CN:8330) in direct contact with the sea or through the phreatic marine layer. These underwater caves contain an interesting, barely-studied biocenosis due to their diffuse lighting or lighting reflected off the sandy bottom.

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Figure 7 The coastal cliffs are a refuge for protected species such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) or Eleonoras falcon (Falco eleonorae)

Coastal land ecosystems Two types of substrata should be differentiated here: sandy and rocky substrata. Sandy substrata are extremely uncommon in the Tramuntana area, sandy beaches being very small in size. Rocky substrata, on the other hand, are characteristic of Tramuntana coastal areas, with high coastal sections where communities (Chritmo-Limonietum) of rock samphire or limoniums are found. Coastal cliffs with endemic species of Limonium

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(NC:1240) can be found along the rocky coast of the cliffs themselves and coastal areas of rock where on-land vegetation closest to the sea is. The fauna in these areas includes tortoises and important coastal birds in the form of falcons (Falco peregrinus, Falco eleonorae), pigeons (Columba livida) in rocky areas and open sea caves, and cormorants and seagulls (Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Larus argentatus and Larus audouinii), as well as others. The lizard Podarcis lifordii has survived on islands and rocky islets of the Tramuntana area included in these habitats, such as the island of Dragonera, after having undergone an interesting speciation process leading to the formation of subspecies. A large number of invertebrates of significant scientific interest co-exist on the islets, which are habitual nesting places for marine birds. Macchia and garrigue ecosystems Broadly speaking, macchia and garrigue habitats include the wild-olive macchia (CN:9320), non-dunal savine and juniper formations (CN:5210), euphorbia formations (Euphorbia spp.) close to cliffs (CN:5320, 5330) and low-lying garrigue scrubs dominated by the Mediterranean fan palm (Chamaerops humilis) and Mauritanian vine-reed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica) (CN:5330). Wild-olive macchias and garrigues are successional formations that dominate thermally warmer, less rainy parts of the island of Mallorca. For this reason they usually include pine forests, and in flat areas suitable for conversion into farmland, they are normally turned into plantations of carob, almond, fig and olive trees. In places of high hydrological stress and not much soil, the woody formations cannot grow very high, and therefore a generally low-lying garrigue scrub appears which, tempered in some places by the influence of the sea, includes the Mediterranean fan palm (Chamaerops humilis). Macchia and garrigue vegetation, located in places where the breakage of the caliche crust (or petrified limestone horizons, locally known as tapiots or calls) was possible, has been transformed into plantations of almond, olive and even carob trees. At times a herbaceous floor is conserved in these plantations, and animals are grazed on it, taking advantage of agricultural sub-products like olive branches, unripe fruit and leaves from the almond and carob trees, which were originally for animals used in transportation. Livestock is a way of maintaining the garrigue and macchia free from weeds and keeping the crops free from undergrowth. This

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joint management pattern of combining the surrounding macchia and non-irrigated crops with livestock farming has strong scenic and territorial implications and it is extremely useful in preventing forest fires. Having said this, this kind of action is only useful in places that are not very steep, because on steep slopes irreversible erosion can occur. Near the coast, in environments that are not especially sandy and with fissured rocks, and even in places that are relatively distant from the coast, savine woods can be found. The savine (Juniperus phoenicea) has been extensively used for the manufacture of poles for the lateen sails of traditional local fishing boats. The degradation of this plant community has led to an increase in the surface area occupied by pine forests, although the pine is not particularly good at withstanding marine conditions. This situation can easily be observed on the little island of Dragonera, where small savine wood populations still survive. Finally, the macchia and garrigue formations contain a rich diversity of fauna that partially takes advantage of the agricultural resources of adjoining areas, and of the mosaic structure of the landscapes where these formations lie. Rabbits, hares and genets are the land mammals found in these environments. Good examples of birdlife are partridges, turtledoves, thrushes, starlings, barn owls and eagle owls, although reptiles and amphibians are also present. Forest ecosystems Current forests in the Tramuntana area are basically comprised of holmoak woods and riverine forest, with the additional presence of wooded pine groves considered, as we have already said, to be transition phases, since they usually include undergrowth that eventually take control in the form of high or low macchia. Woodland habitats and communities dominated by trees and communities on the edges of dry torrent beds and gullies (N:92D0) are made up of small tamarind woods (Tamarix sp.), with no endemic species of their own although they are still of great ecological importance. The undergrowth of the holm-oak woods (CN:9340) is not especially well developed, although there are some endemic species (Cyclamen balearicum, Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, Lotus teraphyllus) and some singular species of orchid. Balearic holm-oak woodland is actually protected by Spanish legislation and there are no notable threats to it. In fact its surface area is even increasing.

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For their part, pine woods (CN:9540) grow among plant formations comprised of garrigue, macchia and altered forests, in which the pine tree is definitely relevant and useful as a pioneer species for the recovery of ecosystems, so its utility in terms of the landscape cannot be overlooked either. In the Tramuntana area the existence of a series of evergreen trees is also acknowledged. They are typical of moister areas of mountain peaks and crags, with remains of ancient vegetation (the yew, for example, Taxus baccata), out of synch with the current climate in terms of rainfall and temperatures. Special ecosystems (caves, freshwater wetlands, rupicolous areas, elevated areas) Up to the 19th century and early 20th century, caves were not sufficiently attractive in naturalistic terms to draw the interest of the scientific community, until Emile G. Racovitza and his school began working on cavedwelling fauna from caves on the island of Mallorca (1905). Ever since, Racovitza has been considered the founder of modern biospeleology and new zoological specimens have continued to be determined on the basis of his discoveries. New ecological processes have also been described, work has been carried out on the biogeochemical cycles of the subterranean environment and the specific trophic chains of these environments have been studied. Mallorcas biospeleological tradition has existed since the birth of this science. There is an abundance of caves due to the limestone structure of the Tramuntana Mountains. The most relevant ecological factor in these systems is the absence of light, and in consequence there are no primary photosynthetic producers. Organic matter introduced by wind or water or the remains of organisms that were trapped there form the basis of the trophic chain upon which up to 25 endemic species develop. They are extremely valuable in terms of their scientific interest. The most noteworthy examples are Oxychilus lentiformis, Eukenenia draco draco, Neobisium monasteri, Tiphlocirolana moraguesi or the coleopter Henrotius jorda.

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Freshwater habitats and non-salinized wetlands stand out among freshwater moist ecosystems, as do more or less seasonally flooded plains, with hydrophytic ferns (CN:3120, 3170*) and also some oligo-mesotrophic communities with species from the Chara genus (CN:3140). Broadly speaking, rupicolous communities cover fern communities or communities of chasmophytic vegetation typical of crags and cliffs (CN:8210), whilst anthropized habitats are the location of plant communities that take advantage of small cracks in rocks and stones in dry-stone walls and hillside terraces where earth accumulates. Groups of moss, hepaticas and ferns live close to the dampest areas with no direct sunlight, such as the openings of wells and underground spring and cave walls. Cold, fast-draining, extremely rocky environments are found from an altitude of 9001000 m upwards, the lower part of them meeting up with mountain holm-oak woods. It is here that high-ground ecosystems are located, inhabited by yews (Taxus baccata), Sorbus aria and Acer opalus subsp. Granatensis, all of which do not manage to form a proper forest. In steeply-sloping environments where snowfall or the force of the wind prevents colonization by trees, so-called Balearic high-ground cover develops, including a large number of vulnerable or endangered species due to the low number of specimens that make up the populations. Amongst the

Figure 8. Photo of the island of Sa Dragonera, in the south of the Tramuntana area.

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animal species in these environments, the black vulture (Aegypius monachus), deserves pride of place as the standard-bearer of the conservation of the Tramuntana areas animal biodiversity. 2.a.2. The hydrological landscape The utilization of water - a scarce, precious resource in the climatic and cultural context of the Mediterranean basin - has given rise in Mallorca and the Tramuntana area in particular to the construction of a complex network of traditional architecture related to water-harvesting techniques. The aim of these constructions is to collect and harvest underground or surface water and transport, distribute and store it. Throughout history important systems have been designed for the regulation and control of surplus water caused occasionally by torrential rainfall that gives rise to flooding and other effects related to soil erosion. Throughout the Mediterranean region, water is a limited resource its presence and absence is highly seasonal and the island of Mallorca is no exception to this specific circumstance. The island, which covers 3,620 km2, has no rivers but instead dry watercourses, gullies, streams and torrents. As mentioned above, in this document the concept of a torrent is used to refer to a short watercourse that flows intermittently or temporarily along a fixed channel. Therefore its main characteristic is that it is episodic, and may dry out for part of the year. As a result, in Mallorca the generic term used to refer to any watercourse, whether it is dry or not, is the word torrent, which is to say an intermittent watercourse or channel that only functions during episodes of torrential rain that occur, above all, in autumn. Mallorca also has springs. These are isolated and scattered about the island, albeit more abundant by far in the Tramuntana area, as opposed to the rest of the island, which contains a large number of wells. The volume of water in these springs is rather low. Water from springs and torrents has traditionally been used for multiple purposes. As well as being used for human consumption on large rural estates (possessions) that have traditionally formed the base structure of the island and in towns and villages, water was used for livestock, as a driving force and for the irrigation of crops. Traditional water collection, regulation, distribution and storage systems that were in operation, generally speaking, until well into the 20th century (and still are in many cases) are the result of continuous developments that have been modified, extended and adapted since the Middle Ages, (more specifically since the 13th century), as is made clear by different documentary references.

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The Tramuntana area is unique in that, in the same place, agricultural, water-supply and drainage systems all coexist, forming a system that can only be understood if we bear in mind the complex sum of its different parts and not only its individual elements. Moreover, on top of the natural network of dry watercourses and torrents which perform the natural function of draining surplus water, there is an overlapping anthropic water network. This anthropic network is integrated in and has been adapted to the physical and topographical characteristics of the terrain, forming a hydrological landscape whose virtue resides precisely in the balanced integration of human activity into the natural environment and in its component architecture, thus its heritage value. The development of the aforementioned dual hydrological network was motivated by mans need to take advantage of the Tramuntana areas rich supplies of water, within the geographical context of a Mediterranean island characterized by an absence of regular water resources. In this way, given their high rainfall in comparison to the rest of the island, the Tramuntana Mountains have directly or indirectly acted as the main water provider for the island of Mallorca. But, paradoxically, the physical conditions that make the relative abundance of water in the Tramuntana Mountains possible also constitute a threat to its fragile built heritage, as it is exposed to significant flooding on occasions and equally significant erosion as a result. The resulting ethnological heritage is not only material, but includes intangible aspects, since the water supply systems and lands supplied with water are clearly reflected in the local toponymy and specific terminology, always expressed in the Mallorcan variant of the Catalan language. In this way, springs, mills, vegetable gardens and other rural spaces, however small they may be, take on a distinctive place name. From a geographical point of view, the spatial use of this rich, extensive toponymic vocabulary is extremely useful for identifying the exact location and delimitation of hydrological landscapes, since many place names refer to water supply systems and other hydrographical items (hydronyms). By way of an example, in a small area of the basins of the Bger and Sant Miquel torrents, in the north-west of the island, many distinctive hydronyms are linked to a complex, singular water supply system: Font des Prat, Font de Biniarroi, Font de sa Presa, Font de Camarata, Font de na Vica, Font de Crestatx, Font de Son Siurana, Font de sa Torreta, es Molinot de sa Canaleta, Mol de Cas Vellaco, Mol de Biniatzent de Dalt, Mol de sHort des Misser, Mol de Can Costa, Mol den Pona, Mol de Massanella, Mol de sa Cova des Fangar, Mol den Prats, Mol den Cusseta, Mol den Gar, Mol de sa Rata, Mol des Pobil, Mol de sa Llebre, es Molins dAigua, es Molins, es Molinet, sAljub, and sa Torrentera. (RIERA AND

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ALOMAR-GARAU, 2009). Another intangible facet of the hydrological landscape is the emergence of mechanisms to control water supplies, such as the existence of water committees, created to regulate the irrigation rights of landowners and establish norms for clearing channels and sanctioning infractions. In order to take advantage of the volume of water in the hydrographic basins in the Tramuntana Mountains and secure land for farming, the different human groups that occupied the area made substantial use of the dry-stone construction technique to delimit and establish the beds of torrents, streams and other secondary courses, and to build walls along certain stretches or watercourses. After this it was relatively easy to decide on the layout of irrigation channels and, in general, the built water supply system, made up of networks to collect and divert water in the form of weirs, distribution conduits, and storage systems comprising ponds, open-air cisterns, water tanks, and even the same widened irrigation channel. The result is a complex, singular hydrological landscape and, all along it, water channelled from a spring, stream or torrent is used for different purposes. This landscape is characterized by the density and abundance of the different types of items it contains, which may be organized in six groups depending on their functions: Surface and underground water collection systems: natural springs and sources, dams associated with surface watercourses and reservoirs, underground water galleries, wells and noria-type waterwheels. Water collection and distribution systems: irrigation channels and other conduits. Water control systems: ralles, albellons, eixugadors, parats, marjades in traditional Mallorcan terminology. Storage systems: tanks, open-air cisterns, troughs. Elements driven by water: flour mills and paper mills. Elements to make use of snow: ice stores. 1) Surface and underground water collection systems: natural sources and springs, dams associated with surface watercourses and reservoirs, underground water galleries, wells and noria-type waterwheels In view of the rainfall characteristics of the Balearic Islands and particularly of Mallorca, throughout history, the form of collecting and utilizing surface water from torrents or underground water from springs and

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sources has played a fundamental role in the anthropic transformation of the Tramuntana landscape. The morphology of the karstic systems of the Tramuntana Mountains also ensures swift water filtration, which enters the main aquifers, whose supplies were and still are utilized systematically by the population of Mallorca. The water resources of the Tramuntana Mountains are collected by four means: natural springs and sources, dams associated with surface watercourses and reservoirs, the creation of underground water galleries or qanats, and the construction of wells and noria-type waterwheels. The Tramuntana Mountains have nearly eight hundred natural springs or sources. The most important ones include the SAbeurada spring, which provides Son Gual (Palma) with water; the Coberta spring, located between Valldemossa and Dei (Ca Mad Pilla-Miramar); the Sa Cova spring, with one of the largest volumes of water in the mountain range; and others such as the sErmitanet spring; the sEstaca spring; Font Figuera, which is very close to the sea; the spring of Es Poll, next to Son Ferrandell, in Valldemossa, the waters of which were conveyed to the houses of sEstaca; the Son Ramon spring; the Son Galcern spring and the Sa Noguera spring. Secondly we should emphasize the streambeds, gullies and torrents that make up a significant hydrological surface network in the Tramuntana Mountains. Even though they do not carry a large volume of water, because hydrological patterns are strongly seasonal and affected by the variability of rainfall, they are active during certain months of the year. One decisive aspect that determines the fact that streams are dry throughout most of the year is the rapid filtration of water through cavities in the terrain and its karstic soils. The hydrographic basins of the mountain range generally collect water from short, steep watercourses. The largest basin is the one that collects water from the western part of the Teix massif and northern face of Penyal Vermell. Some of the most important streambeds in the Tramuntana Mountains are the Lli torrent, Salt torrent, and Sa Noguera torrent or the Sa Marina torrent, which flows into the Port of Valldemossa. The basin that collects water from the northern part of the Teix massif does so through the Salt and Rac torrents, flowing into Dei cove via the Major torrent. Also noteworthy are the partially or completely channelled streambeds and torrents of Fornalutx, Pastoritx, Esporles, Coanegra and Salt. The channelling is achieved by means of dry-stone walling on both sides of the streambed, and sometimes the base of the bed is paved. These structures

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require continuous maintenance since the erosive capacity of the waters alters them, causing fragments to come loose. These surface water resources are collected by means of a purpose-built irrigation dam or weir and subsequently diverted and transported along different types of irrigation channels and conduits to farmland or to existing water-driven mills powered by gravity. The dams are stone and mortar constructions that form a wall crosswise or perpendicular to the watercourse, the function of which is to divert the water to one side of the stream bed where the irrigation channels begin.
Figure 9. Watercourses are frequently channelled by dry-stone walls. Miramar

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As well as the channelled torrents, there are some free-falling watercourses in the Tramuntana Mountains, such as those of Pareis, Mortitx, and Es Cable. These are short watercourses characterized by steep slopes carved into the terrain, forming highly pronounced gullies that drain water from higher parts, sometimes making it flow out into the sea. They are extremely beautiful in scenic terms and as a result they form part of the islands classic hill-walking routes. As well as natural springs that emerge either naturally or through a short dug-out channel, important underground water collection systems have also been constructed in the Tramuntana Mountains: underground water galleries called fonts de mina. Some of them are from the Moslem era the qanats (CARBONERO, 1992), known as foggaras in North Africa, and they were maintained in perfect condition up to the start of the 21st century, although the fact that livestock farming and agriculture have been abandoned in higher parts of the mountains has led to a certain deterioration. Aside from their being first-class items of heritage of geobotanical value given the abundance of hygrophilous species they contain these underground water galleries were fundamental in the development and consolidation of human settlements, as both Islamic settlements (farms or smallholdings) and Christian ones (villages) gradually grew up around them. The aquifer was first located by digging a parent well running vertically from the surface. The excavated gallery may be a kind of open mine, if shallow, or totally subterranean. If the spring flows generously, it is not infrequent for the water to be channelled off for storage in ponds. In construction terms, these underground water galleries are characterized by the excavation of subterranean drainage galleries called mines in a near-horizontal direction, until they reach the point where underground water appears, providing an outlet for it using a conduit along the length of the gallery. These small works of traditional hydraulic engineering are usually complemented with exterior troughs and small shelters where shepherds and farmers would rest. To make them easier to find, a black poplar was usually planted beside them, and in time it would grow very large and stand out even more from the surrounding vegetation due to the characteristic colour of its leaves. A total of 69 springs have been recorded in the municipality of Sller, 61 of them flowing from underground galleries; in Fornalutx there are 48, 37

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Figure 10. An underground water gallery in La Trapa (Andratx)

of them from underground galleries; and in Banyalbufar, 52 springs, 30 of which are also excavated underground gallery springs. In other municipalities such as Escorca and Selva, a total of 84 and 31 springs have been recorded, respectively. Of all these springs, ones located on the edges of busy paths stand out particularly, such as the Es Prat one, the construction of which dates from the year 1748; the Es Verger spring, remarkable as it carries one of the biggest volumes of water on the island; the Subauma spring, on the northern face of Puig Major de Son Torrella; the Muntanya spring, on the old road from Lluc to Pollena; the Sa Teula spring, near the lOfre houses; the sObi spring, on the Plancia estate; the Es Guix spring, on the old road from Caimari to Lluc; the Coberta spring, in Lluc, the site of miraculous occurrences according to tradition; the Es Noguer spring, near Cber reservoir, and the Sa Menta spring in Banyalbufar.

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Figure 11. There are numerous underground water galleries in the Tramuntana Mountains, most of them constructed using dry-stone techniques.

Finally, as well as water from aquifers collected by underground water galleries and sources, water located at greater depths was traditionally extracted by wells and noria-type waterwheels. In general, the wells have a circular wall built around them clad in dry stone. On the exterior there is usually a low stone structure, or a more complex structure formed by pillars and pulleys. In spite of the fact that wells are not commonplace in the Tramuntana Mountains (unlike the Mallorcan plain), they are in a good state of conservation thanks to persistent usage and because they are close to houses and estates. The island has an inventory of communal (public) wells in Mallorca. Noria-type waterwheels date back to Mallorcas era of Islamic rule, although most of the ones that survive are from the 18th and 19th century.

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The name they are given in Catalan is snia, which stems etymologically from the Arabic word saniya, referring to a well where a wheel extracts water for irrigation purposes. The noria-type waterwheel consists of an artefact or machine for raising underground water to the surface. It is comprised of a horizontal wheel, driven by animals, which engages with the teeth of another vertical wheel fitted with a series of cups arranged along a long string or chain. When the wheel turns, the cups are submerged in the water of the well, carrying it up to the surface and pouring it into a small trough from where it is channelled into a tank or directly to a nearby field of crops. Noria-type waterwheels are relatively abundant on the edges of the Tramuntana Mountains, specifically in the areas of Pollena-Campanet and Andratx-Calvi, and also in the Sller valley. Those located in the municipalities of Selva, Mancor de la Vall and Valldemossa are also remarkable. The noria-type waterwheel of Son Moragues estate is worth mentioning. It comes under the Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site of the Estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, together with the estates drinking trough and washing place. In his book Die Balearen (1872), Archduke Ludwig Salvator counted 363 noria-type waterwheels in what was then known as the jurisdictional area of Palma in the late 19th century. In the jurisdictional area of Manacor he counted 938, and in that of Inca 2,215. The mechanized extraction of underground water, using hydraulic pumps, meant that these magnificent, archaic artefacts have fallen into total disuse.
Figure 12. Diagram of the functioning of a noria-type waterwheel (snia).

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2) Water conveyance and distribution systems: irrigation channels and other conduits Acequias or irrigation channels are simply ditches dug out of the earth which occasionally have paved edges to reduce water loss through filtration and help the water flow along. Since the water circulates by means of gravity, they are always arranged on a minimal slope, estimated at 3 or 5%, in order to prevent any undesired stagnating of the water. Moreover, since the terrain is never uniform, certain irregularities in level must be overcome. When the terrain rises, the channel is dug deeper, sometimes running underground, covered over like a tunnel. If the path of the channel crosses an area that is lower than the surrounding terrain, a raised channel is constructed on a wall, by way of an aqueduct. In the Tramuntana Mountains, more specifically in the town of Mancor de la Vall, there is an exceptional irrigation channel called the canaleta de Massanella which stands out for its length - around 6750 metres. This measurement was estimated through fieldwork and the consultation of orthophotos from the year 2006. This traditional example of hydrological engineering was commenced between 1748 and 1750, and it called for the building of an aqueduct with four arches along one stretch. Its objective was to collect water that flows from the Es Prat spring and take it to the Massanella farming estate, specifically to the flour mill located in the buildings themselves. The irrigation channels and their auxiliary components in the form of branch sections, dams, aqueducts and public washing places are a fascinating ethnological example of hydrological architecture. However, the rural surroundings through which they run must be seen as a landscape unit that is inseparable from the water supply system they depend on. 3) Water control systems: ralles, albellons, eixugadors, parats, marjades Climate-induced erosive processes that occur on the island are explained by the torrential, seasonal, variable nature of its rainfall. Whilst the most representative climatic characteristic of the Mediterranean area is its summer drought, which gives rise to three to five months of dry weather, Mallorcas specific climate stands out for its moderate and heavy rains with a marked autumnal distribution (the meteorological autumn begins in the month of September). Thus rainfall occurs precisely when the ground is least protected, due to a reduction in the surface layer of vegetation, caused by over-exposure to the summer drought.

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As a result, even though agricultural and livestock activities in themselves constitute both a use and misuse of edaphic resources, they cooperate with the climate to trigger off soil erosion processes when heavy rains occur. Because of this, humans have attempted to find a technical solution to the problem of erosion in areas transformed for agricultural use, based on the widespread use of dry-stone techniques. This is the case, for example, of the set of watercourses or torrents that cross the Sller valley, near to which the population settled, with the formation of a comprehensive agricultural irrigation system, designed to prevent any possible damage caused by the torrential floods of water that sometimes occur. In Mallorca, four main methods are used for equipping farmlands with an anti-erosive water-control system (GRIMALT, 1992, 1998): a) Cancellation of the runoff on valley floors or thalwegs by building walls perpendicular to the flow of water, built crosswise with regard to the torrent bed. Called parats, their aim to reduce the effectiveness of the drainage network by using walls as obstacles and reducing the slope of the terrain when they are built in terraced areas; b) The creation of an artificial drainage network based on conduits like ralles or albellons, which intercept the surface flow and channel it away from the field of crops; c) Walls separating differently owned plots. Aside from their function as boundaries, they help reduce runoff and, in flatter places, prevent the formation of surface currents of water; d) The staggering or terracing of mountainsides through the construction of hillside terraces. These building systems for controlling water and erosion in the form of parats, walls that mark the boundaries of plots and hillside terraces are systemic features whose abandonment, invalidation or wilful dismantling have serious, clear environmental consequences. Precisely because of their function of controlling the risk of flooding and desertification, and in a future climatic setting presumably characterized by the intensification of extreme atmospheric phenomena, these traditional rural water control systems are becoming extremely important, and any abandonment of them helps accentuate these risks. For this reason, these systems are gaining in relevance as means of adapting to the effects of climate change. One prime example of this function of controlling hazards and regulating water in the Tramuntana Mountains is the hydrographic basin of the Sa Figuera torrent (Sller), which flows into the Port of Sller. This is a heavily terraced area, the basin of which occupies 4.9 km2 with a main

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watercourse that runs for approximately 3 km. The terrain is very uneven, reaching a maximum height of 818 metres above sea level, and nearly half the land has a gradient of more than 20. The area has an average annual rainfall of between 630 mm in the Port of Sller and 800 mm in the higher part of this basin. 71% of its surface is occupied by hillside terraces; proof of long-term, intense dedication in agricultural engineering. The high financial investment that was made can be tied in with the high level of profitability of the crops and also to the financial capacity of the lands owners. 27 springs have been located in the area, some of them of the underground gallery type, and a comprehensive network of different kinds of water conduits has been preserved. As is common in the Tramuntana Mountains, olive trees occupy nearly 95% of the terraces of Sa Figuera, although at times they do so in combination with carob and almond trees, whilst orange trees occupy just 3% of the space, in spite of the importance that they came to acquire in the 19th century, and they are always located at lower altitudes on deep, fertile soils. The sophistication of the drainage systems of this terraced farmland at Sa Figuera is proof of extraordinary human effort to take advantage of a natural hydrographic network in order to exploit its supplies and also control surplus water caused by torrential rain. Thus due to the steep gradient, occasional intensity of the rainfall and intensive farming practices, a controlled system of channelling the natural watercourses was required, together with the creation of an extensive drainage network, designed to control the damaging effects of surplus water and facilitate farming activities on the hillside terraces. All this has been achieved through the deliberate channelling of watercourses, and also through the construction of parats, ralles and albellons. Nearly all the watercourses are channelled with the aid of dry-stone walls at the edges of the streambed, which is sometimes also paved with stones. The parats consist of walls arranged perpendicularly to the bed of watercourses as they pass through fields of crops in order to invalidate them or reduce the speed of the flow and prevent soil erosion. Their extension is such that in Sa Figuera they can together invalidate or regulate 8,000 linear metres of watercourses. A large proportion of terraced land has dry-stone conduits that intercept the surface current and divert it away from the farmland. This is achieved by means of ralles de drenatge, in popular Mallorcan terminology. These ralles or drains divert the water to one side of the thalweg, or even divert it to a different hydrographic basin. Another common method consists of draining off water that has accumulated on a hillside terrace

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following flooding by means of underground drainage galleries, called albellons. These prevent the structure of the hillside terrace from becoming weakened. The same technique is used to bury some streambeds, and in this way more surface land is gained for farming. In Sa Figuera around 700 metres of underground watercourses have been accounted for. As a result of the above, it would appear that erosion through the action of water is the main cause of poor soil and a reduction in its productive capacity. Heavy rain (more than 100 mm in 24 hours) can lead to the instability of farming systems, therefore requiring anthropic controls. Staggered mountainsides in the form of hillside terraces rectify the uneven land by dividing it into sections. Filling the back part of hillside terrace walls with lots of smaller stones helps water drain away, contributing to a reduction in the lands vulnerability to erosion. Finally, the continuance of agricultural practices and the conservation of water regulation systems are necessary not only for the prevention of hazards, but also because dry-stone infrastructure plays a prime role in the uniqueness of Mallorcas landscape. The degradation or disappearance of this infrastructure, either individually or as the components of a more complex system, would also imply the loss of one of the islands most important cultural hallmarks (ALOMAR-GARAU, 2006). 4) Storage systems: tanks, open-air cisterns, ponds, troughs. From a historic point of view water storage was fundamental for guaranteeing the availability of water for the population, as an indispensable means of sustenance for livestock, and also for watering vegetable and other gardens. Water storage systems were generally constructed in farming or forestry areas, or simply in places where there were no other water supplies or watercourses like sources, springs, torrents or irrigation channels. There are also tanks near coastal watchtowers, necessary for supplying lookouts with water. Water storage in the Tramuntana area is traditionally performed by means of tanks, although they co-exist with other water collection methods. On the one hand, natural tanks have been used natural excavations in the rock like cocons and gorgs, which man has taken advantage of and used for storing water. On the other, different constructed storage elements have been designed, the most frequently found ones being the bassa (pond), safareig (open-air water cistern), aljub (water tank) and abeurador (trough).

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Water storage devices used to power a mill are given the name a bassa (pond). The simplest one is made up of an irrigation channel that has been broadened until it is transformed into a genuine pond. Open-air constructions larger than ponds are called water cisterns or a safareig, with mortar walls and internal cladding to render them waterproof. The openair cisterns of the Raixa (Bunyola) and Son Oliver (Santa Maria del Cam) estates stand out for their size and capacity. The same cisterns covered with a constructed roof are known as aljubs or water tanks. Both these storage elements can be found both at ground level and on a lower level or in any intermediate position, depending on the requirements and characteristics of the terrain. Water tanks sometimes contain a sandstone wall dividing them into two and acting as a filter, so as to have purified water on one side which is therefore apt for human consumption. They may be covered by a vault that is visible from the outside, an exterior terrace or semi-flat roof.
Figure 13. Trough in the Tramuntana Mountains

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There are also abeuradors (troughs for livestock), that is to say artificial tanks that usually have an access ramp to make drinking easier for the animals. Some good examples are the Aljubets of Banyalbufar or the Son Vic pond in Esporles. It is important to add that since it is the Mediterranean climate that determines the seasonal availability of water relatively abundant in autumn and winter, and scarce or entirely absent in spring and summer there is a clear imbalance in the mountains between the availability of water and the demand, reflected historically by the need to construct large storage tanks, since if there had been a more or less regular supply, they would have been unnecessary.

Figure 14. The open-air cistern (safareig) of Raixa is one of the largest in the Tramuntana area.

5) Elements driven by water: water-powered mills. Water-driven mills use the power of running water to grind grain. Whilst the presence of windmills, which use eolic energy to move their parts, is one of the characteristics of the landscape of Mallorca, nearly all of these are located on the flat part of the island, either because they are close to grain-growing areas or because they are used to pump up water in places devoted to the farming of irrigated crops. Moreover, they are close to the

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sea, near a recurrent sea breeze. However, windmills are extremely scarce in the Tramuntana area, and are located, when they do exist, in mountain passes that channel the wind. Water-driven mills are much more commonplace in the Tramuntana area. On Mallorca, due to the rainfall pattern and absence of permanent watercourses, water mills were fed by both underground water and intermittent water from streams, torrents and gullies. This explains why the majority are found precisely in the Tramuntana Mountains or on their foothills, alongside the torrent beds that carry the biggest volume of water or on the edges of very old irrigation channels. Their most important function was that of grinding grain, in which case they are also called flourmills. And there are mills dedicated to other tasks, too, such as fulling or shredding rags used to make paper pulp. These mills in the Tramuntana area are constructed vertically in order to take advantage of differences in the level of the terrain and generate a big waterfall, which would provide the power needed to move the mill. Due to the source of energy that is used, the watermills are accompanied by complementary external constructions for conveying the water from the stream to the mill along irrigation channels. To begin with, water is conveyed to the tower, which generally has a pyramid-shaped trunk although there are some cylindrical towers. From here, the water gushes down a vertical conduit and its pressure, at the bottom, rotates an axle that holds a wheel made up of blades. In turn, in the workroom this energy is used to drive the millstones. When the water leaves the tail race through a drainage channel, usually running underground for a few metres, it is carried to another mill or returned to the original channel. In this case, another weir or irrigation dam located a few metres further down collects the water, and the process begins once more. A total of 92 water-powered mills have been located in all the municipalities in the Tramuntana area, although only 15 of them are in a good state of repair. There is a remarkable group of mills in Andratx, Banyalbufar, Estellencs, Calvi, Valldemossa, Escorca, Alar, Bunyola, Santa Maria del Cam, Selva, Fornalutx and above all Pollena, with 16 mills, seven of them (called the molins de Llins) forming an ensemble that was declared an Item of Cultural Interest in 1998. However, some towns or villages have protected them using their own municipal inventory.

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6) Elements to make use of snow: ice stores. Snow is infrequent in most of the region of the Balearic Islands, except in the Tramuntana Mountains where, nearly every year, snow usually falls in the higher areas. The marked persistence and recurrence of the phenomenon in past centuries, in the climatic period that has come to be called the Little Ice Age, gave rise to a traditional, centuries-old activity that had significant economic repercussions: it consisted of the periodic collection of snow for subsequent sale, and survived until the second decade of the 20th century. The hypothesis of the possible introduction of this ice storage method by the Arabs is reinforced by the fact that the Moslems of the Abbasi period possessed knowledge of the usage of it, as it appears in the Thousand and One Nights and works by other authors. Nevertheless, the first reference to the existence of ice stores or cases de neu, as they are known in Mallorca, is made by historian Joan Binimelis in his work Histria General del Regne de Mallorca (General History of the Kingdom of Mallorca - 1595), in which he comments on the existence in Fornalutx of some buildings where snow is collected in winter to supply the town in summer and even all year. Since the first references to the existence of this activity coincide with the period that is known in historical climatology as the Little Ice Age, the hypothesis has been put forward that the increase in the sale of ice was a temporary consequence of modifications in climatic conditions during certain periods. There is an abundance of documents referring to these ice stores from the 16th century on, and the sale of ice was a continuous economic activity until the year 1927, when, as a consequence of the implantation of the industrial manufacture of ice to be specific, an ice factory in the town of Inca the task of collecting and storing snow was performed for the last time, in a store in the Comafreda valley, alongside the Massanella peak. The presence of cases de neu (ice stores) for the collection and storage of snow that fell in the Tramuntana Mountains is now a unique physical testimony of this traditional form of trade on the island, where a total of 41 stores can be counted (GRIMALT and RODRGUEZ, 1991).

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As in other areas of the Mediterranean basin, in the Tramuntana Mountains snow was historically used as a medicinal resource and also for gastronomic purposes, more specifically for the manufacture of ice creams, horchata (a cold sweet drink made from tiger nuts) and derivative products. The popularization of the consumption of ice, due to the healthy properties attributed to it, meant that its commercialization increased on a constant basis after the 17th century, to a point where the interest of public institutions in this type of commerce led to the drafting of Captols de lObligat de Neu, an interventionist measure regulating the provision and sale of it. For this reason many of the ice stores were built precisely during this period (VALERO, 1984). Furthermore, medicinal uses of snow and ice had been deemed essential by the islands authorities, who year after year concerned themselves with guaranteeing the production and supply of ice to the city of Palma. Proof of this can be found in a speech delivered in 1797 by Dr. Pere Mart Vidal y Llampayes to obtain the title of member of the Royal Academy of Medicine and Surgery of Palma, a speech entitled Dissertation or physical-medical discourse on the prudent uses of water cooled down with snow, both in a healthy and morbid state, giving means

Figure 15. An ice store near Puig Major.

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for the making of artificial snow. In fact snow was used both for lowering fevers and stopping haemorrhages, as well as for curing burns and even as a stimulant. The collection and sale of snow gave rise to the construction of cases de neu, made by digging out large holes or cavities (clots or pous de neu), lined with dry stone, where the natural ice or snow was stored. The way in which these snow wells are constructed is very similar in all cases: the design is predominantly elliptical or semi-elliptical, although some may be circular (the Cartujos ice store) or rectangular. One interesting constructional feature is the doorway that provides access to the inside of the store, both for compacting snow when it is collected and for removing it in summer. There are also small side windows through which the snow was shovelled inside. A roof that was tiled or thatched with Mauritanian vine-reed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica), a very common wild plant in the Tramuntana Mountains, covered the store and protected the snow. These old ice stores can be found in the highest parts of the largest mountain massifs. One initial area was the western and southernmost part of the mountain range, around the Galatz peak, with ice stores at relatively low altitudes, around 500 m. The second area they are located in is the central part of the mountains, where most of the ice stores are concentrated. Other smaller groups are those in the Es Teix, Sa Rateta and Tomir mountain areas. One singular example, due to its location at a lower altitude 615 metres above sea level is that of the Ses Figueroles ice store, in the municipality of Selva. The average capacity of each of the ice stores has been estimated at around 300 m3, the total storage capacity standing at approximately 12.300 m3. The density of the ice stores is directly related to the altitude where they are found and average annual distribution of days with precipitation in the form of snow. This relationship leads one to infer that, as the Little Ice Age progressed, which FONT TULLOT (1988) situates at between the years 1550 and 1700, during a phase moving towards a climatic situation similar to the current one, the geographical limits for the collection of snow and location of storage shelters might have moved up to higher altitudes, with an increase in the number located in higher areas, coinciding with the abandonment of ones situated lower down. Invariably the ice stores were connected by paths generally speaking bridle paths and often small hillside terraces were made near the stores to retain the snow. Houses or refuges were built beside these constructions, and served as temporary residences for workers and traders.

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The ice stores of Son Moragues (Son Moragues, Valldemossa), El Prat (Escorca), Es Tomir (Binifald, Escorca) and Ses Figueroles (Selva) are owned by the regional government of the Balearic Islands. The ice stores of SAvenc, Rodona den Rub, Gran de la Mola, Son Lluc, Son Massip and Galileu, all of them on the Tossals Verds and Son Massip estates in the municipality of Escorca, are owned by the Consell de Mallorca. Of special note is the Fartritx store (Pollena), the only one that still has a roof. Also remarkable is the architectural ensemble made up of twelve cases de neu on the Massanella massif (Escorca), declared an Item of Cultural Interest in the year 2001, within the category of a Place of Ethnological Interest. In the year 2009, the Consell de Mallorca began restoring the ice stores of En Galileu, in what is the first reconstruction experience of this kind on Mallorca. 2.a.2 Dry-stone features The most outstanding construction technique relating to the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape is dry-stone walling. It is characterized by the use of left-over stone from fields meaning stone that does not come from quarries worked using no mortar or cement of any kind, and used to build different types of walls and many other constructional items, such as paths, huts, bridges and buildings. It is very widely used in the Mediterranean basin, from the east of the Iberian peninsula (Castelln, Tarragona), to the French region of the Mediterranean Alps (between Cannes and Menton), Liguria in Italy (Cinque Terre), Sicily (Pantelleria, Lipari), Greece (Crete, Andros, Patmos) and Cyprus. In Mallorca, and more particularly in the Tramuntana Mountains, this technique was historically used to construct agricultural systems, the greatest exponent of which are the fields of hillside terraces (called marjades on the island), which are a way of staggering the mountainsides. This is an indispensable way of preparing new agricultural land, using only the stones on hand. Dry-stone constructions normally use materials from the immediate surroundings that blend perfectly into the natural surroundings, almost becoming a continuance of it. In fact, the integration of dry-stone constructions into the natural environment reaches a point where old stone walls can be considered a singular biotope, enriched by the presence of species and communities of relevant botanical interest, such as ferns, some of which are endemic (Asplenium majoricum, Asplenium sollerense, Asplenium orelli). This same relationship with the backdrop means that these constructions become almost entirely reintegrated into the original environment if they decay or disappear.

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Figure 16. Dry-stone constructions form the greater part of the landscape of the Tramuntana area.

Mallorcan dry-stone landscapes are mainly the result of the work of a group of artisans who specialize in this building technique, that is drystone wallers or hillside terrace builders (called margers): a trade that is documented on the island as far back as the 15th century. Whilst they did not manage to form an independent guild within the complex labour system of traditional Mallorcan society, dry-stone wallers were a group of workers with a well-defined range of tools, techniques and learning processes, differentiated from those of other building trades, such as stonemasons. This trade, in decline since the 1960s, has been recovered thanks to the work of different institutions, including the Consell de Mallorca,

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through the creation in 1986 of a training school called the Escola de Margers or dry-stone wallers school. This has forestalled the disappearance of the profession, by having the technique taught by the last margers who were still active. The hundreds of kilometres of dry-stone walls that literally line the sides of the Tramuntana mountain range are one of the most notable, unique characteristics of its cultural landscape, since they are a symbol of the historic human imprint made on the region, as well as representing a highpoint in mans relationship with his environment. These terraced areas are linked to the water supply systems, and together they act as the framework for the productive areas of large farming estates (possessions) and small properties in areas close to villages. Villages like Banyalbufar and Estellencs are also built on a base of dry-stone terraces, without which settlement there would have been impossible. Furthermore, a large part of the Tramuntana area has undergone significant modifications in its physiognomy due to human interest in preventing surface runoff from damaging farmland and eroding or flooding it. One significant modification to the natural hydrological pattern of streams, torrents and gullies and, in short, the resulting landscape is

Figure 17. Dry-stone wallers margers - are the artisans who build walls and hillside terraces using dry stone The trade was recovered thanks to an initiative by the Consell de Mallorca, which created the Sller Dry-stone Wallers School in 1986

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the farmland drainage system, which, in the case of terraced areas, comprises traditional drainage methods aimed at preventing excess water and regulating runoff caused by continuous downpours. Also noteworthy is the fact that for this reason most torrent beds are channelled between walls, and the bottom of a high percentage of them is paved with stone. Valleys whose thalweg has been regulated by building small walls called parats are also common, and the original route of a significant number of watercourses has been diverted. The following are the main dry-stone features of the Tramuntana area: 1) Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls, 2) boundary walls of plots of land and properties, 3) mountain paths, 4) olive grove shelters, 5) farm shelters, 6) charcoal-making ovens and charcoal makers huts, 7) limekilns and 8) other items of infrastructure: threshing floors, artificial piles of stone in the form of galeres and clapers, aixoplucs (shelters) or hunting systems called colls de tords. 1) Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls are structures that are interconnected in the sense that one supports the other, and they cannot be separated from one another. A hillside terrace wall is a bank of earth clad in stone that separates two sections of earth located on different levels, and a hillside terrace is a portion of land which has one or more terrace walls as its boundaries so that it forms a terraced space. The walls usually have steps or adjoining ramps for access to the terraces. They are also connected to other features for the regulation or conveyance of water. Terraced farming systems in the Tramuntana area stand out for their abundance and they are distinguishable by the height of their walls, which ranges from 0.5 to 5 metres, although walls of between 2 and 3 metres are the most commonplace. They also stand out for their construction, using carefully worked stone, and because they are perfectly-planned xerolithic ensembles that incorporate different solutions, depending on the topography and requirements or protection from certain hazards. At this point, given its monumental nature, we must highlight an extraordinary wall known as Sa Regata, which supports part of the Sa Calobra road, standing 17 metres high and covering 1,800 m2.

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SURFACE OF TERRACED LAND PER MUNICIPALITY

Municipality Surface of the municipality (km2) ALAR 45.5 ANDRATX 82.5 BANYALBUFAR 18.1 BUNYOLA 84.1 CALVI 145.5 CAMPANET 35.7 DEIA 15.1 ESCORCA 139.4 ESTELLENCS 13.4 ESPORLES 35.7 FORNALUTX 19.9 LLOSETA 12.0 MANCOR DE LA VALL 18.9 POLLENA 151.7 PUIGPUNYENT 41.6 STA. MARIA DEL CAM 37.9 SELVA 48.7 SLLER 42.6 VALLDEMOSSA 44.5 TOTAL 1033.0

Terraced surface (km2) 23.6 28.1 5.5 9.9 15.9 6.5 7.3 11.3 5.4 12.7 7.9 2.5 6.1 12.2 15.3 7.3 5.8 24.1 11.5 219.1

% of the municipality 52.0 34.0 31.0 11.8 10.9 18.1 48.2 8.0 40.7 35.7 39.8 20.6 32.4 8.02 36.8 19.0 12.0 56.7 25.9

The cataloguing of the terraced areas of 18 municipalities in the Tramuntana area gives a total of 219 km2 of terraced land, which represents hundreds of kilometres of dry-stone walls and approximately 23% of the total surface of the mountain range. The municipalities with the highest percentage of terracing are Sller, Alar, Dei, Estellencs and Fornalutx. There are municipal regulations in place to protect the hillside terraces of Sller and Fornalutx. The most outstanding terraced spaces, due to the heavy construction work they involved, are those of Rotes de Caimari (municipality of Selva), the Biniaraix gully and Es Alous (Sller), Clot de Monnber (Fornalutx), Sa Calobra (Escorca), Can Sastre (Pollena), Son Fortesa (Puigpunyent), Son Galceran and sEstaca (Valldemossa), the vineyards of Son Bunyola, Can Fura and Pla des Cirerers (Banyalbufar), and also those of La Trapa and Biniorella (Andratx). The first site, Rotes de Caimari, was declared an Item of Cultural Interest in 2009, within the Site of Ethnological Interest category. The cataloguing of these terraces by the Consell de Mallorca facilitates not only their subsequent protection, but also management of them.

Figure 18. Surface of terraced land in the Tramuntana area by municipalities.

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Figure 19. The terraced lands of the Tramuntana Mountains use different technical solutions to adapt to the topography, demonstrating a high level of planning.

Another remarkable characteristic of the Tramuntana area is the fact that there are terraced areas at altitudes of up to 700 metres above sea level, as for example in the municipalities of Dei, Valldemossa, Escorca and Bunyola, whilst in coastal areas they are not normally situated any higher than 400 metres. The terraces located highest up usually correspond to very outlying agricultural land. The size of the terraces varies depending on their agricultural purpose, so in irrigated areas the retaining walls are larger and more complex due to the higher financial value of the land. The group of hillside terraces with the most outstanding individual dimensions is that of Banyalbufar, where there was a high amount of horticultural activity that took advantage of a pre-existing irrigation system. With regard to their location, we can distinguish between terraces that occupy intermediate slopes and others that are spread across valley floors. Even so, their general distribution depends on the location of existing human settlements and communication networks. Thus terraces used for horticulture are found around towns and villages, whilst terraces located further away from them generally contain unirrigated crops and they required less construction work.

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The presence of hillside terrace walls are documented as early as the 13th century in the Sller valley, and their subsequent expansion is related to the cultivation of olive trees linked to the importance of oil as an export product. A gradual decline in the profitability of olive groves began to take place in the late 18th century due to difficulties involved in the cultivation of olive trees and no development in the agricultural techniques that were used. The transformation of existing hillside terraces into areas for the cultivation of vines or orange trees was then promoted.

Figure 20. The terraces of Banyalbufar, dedicated to wine-growing and irrigated crops

Figure 21. Parts of a terrace

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Figure 22. The Biniaraix gully, in Sller.

Terrace farming was progressively abandoned from the second half of the 20th century, due to the lack of profitability of the farmland in unison with the growth and subsequent consolidation of the tourism sector as the driving force behind the islands economy. Today, in spite of the walls lack of maintenance and the decline of their crops, half the terraced section of the Tramuntana area is in a good state of conservation.

Figure 23. Steps

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2) Boundary walls of plots of land and properties Documented since the 16th century, these walls are built vertically up to a certain height and used to enclose a piece of land. They are not always made using the dry-stone technique; sometimes earth mixed with water is used as mortar, a technique known as en verd in Mallorca. There are two types of walls depending on the finish, the most common ones being the so-called paret esquena dase (literally, donkey-back wall), finishing in an acute angle, or the semicircular wall, the top of which has a rounded section. There is also an abundance of cabrera (goat) walls, which have a top row of stones that jut out considerably from the vertical face of the wall to prevent goats from crossing them. Walls with a crown have a top row of rectangular stones, all of which are similar in size around 25 centimetres tall to close off the wall properly and prevent its collapse. The paret amb bardissa has a barrier of wild-olive branches on top, or in modern times, wire. Some building solutions are much more modest, as is the case of the paret de lloses, which is comprised of large slabs arranged vertically, using the dry-stone technique, to form a low wall. The paret toma, which consists of two tiers of medium-sized stones, can also be seen. All of them serve to separate crops from forest areas, to mark the boundaries between pieces of farmland or separate plots of land. Often they have secondary features, such as gateways with gates, botadors (steps built into the wall as stiles) or cripple holes (clavegueres), consisting of small gaps closed off by an arch or top enabling livestock to pass through or water from torrents in the event of flooding. 3) Mountain paths A large network of paths, constructed using the dry-stone walling technique, has been maintained and is still in use in the Tramuntana area. It is documented since the 13th century, but probably existed earlier, and the network forms the structural backbone to the area. Given the difficulties involved in reliefs that were often impassable, this network of trails was especially important, since it has enabled communication links between people and the transportation of merchandise between different places in the mountain range over the centuries. And there are numerous places where the only possible access is on foot. For example, bridle paths and trails, designed for transporting goods on the backs of donkeys or horses, make up a dense network of secondary tracks that provide access to forests and farmlands, without which a fair part of the region would be cut off.

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Figure 24. The path known as Cam Vell de Blitx, in the municipality of Fornalutx

There are still many paths used for farming purposes. The primary or main routes, originally designed to link the main towns and connect villages to rural estates and also to ports, shrines and chapels, have lost none of their importance. However, paths constructed merely for forestry management purposes and those used for the transportation and sale of ice have ceased, to a large extent, to be used for their original purposes, although they are now used by some shepherds, fishermen and, above all, hunters. Although most paths such as those that led to smugglers hiding places, fishing areas and coastal defence towers have lost many of their original functions, this does not mean that they no longer have any value in terms of their interest and utility. Also remarkable are the mountain paths associated with the pilgrimage to the shrine at Lluc, which provided and still do provide access to the shrine from the neighbouring villages of Pollena, Caimari, Sller or Bunyola.

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Figure 25. Bnyols cart track, Fornalutx

Recreational uses of the Tramuntana area have turned these paths into excellent means of revitalizing the Mallorcan mountains, and it is fascinating to contemplate and interpret the surrounding landscape from them. Curiously enough, with this same intention in mind, a series of coastal paths located between Valldemossa and Dei were created or restored at the initiative of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria in the late 19th and early 20th century. The purpose of these paths was basically contemplation of the landscape, which is why the Archduke had viewing platforms and resting places constructed in places of special scenic interest. The most important ones include the Barrera de sa Marina path (or old sEstaca path), the Barranc path, Bosc path, Cairats path, Castells path, Cingle den Vic path, Cova path, Cova del Beat Ramon path, Ses Coves path, Coves de Ponent path (or Coves de Miramar path), SEstret de Son Gallard path, Font Figuera path, Fontanelles path, Foradada path, Es Guix path (or sea path), Miramar path, path from Miramar to Can Cal, path from Miramar to sHostatgeria, Mirador de Son Ferrandell path, Muntanya path (Arxiduc path), Nou de sEstaca path, Pedrissa path, Pla des Pouet path, Pont path, Puig de sa Moneda path, Son Moragues path, Talaia Vella path, Torre path, Na Torta path, and Les Vinyes and Volta de sEscolta paths. The first paths built by the Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca Tourist Board) are from this same period, such as the one that provides access to the Torrent de Pareis from the Escorca estate.

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With regard to the typology and characteristics of these mountain paths, one general feature common to practically all of them is the use of drystone construction techniques, that is, the compacting of stones using no kind of mortar whatsoever. Some paths are cobbled, although through deterioration caused by the passage of time, it is not always easy to confirm this. The problems of uneven terrain were overcome by dry-stone buttresses, built at the sides of the path. They are usually set between two dry-stone walls to prevent animals entering or leaving farm fields. In terms of the width of the path, we can distinguish between cart tracks, bridle paths just wide enough for one animal loaded with saddlebags to pass and trails or tiranys, which enable walkers to reach places where access sometimes seems impossible, as is the case of some sea paths in cliffy coastal areas.

Figure 26 The Barranc de Biniaraix path (Sller), with its stone steps designed to make it more convenient for the beasts of burden used as a means of transport.

There are also numerous public footpaths, royal roads, and municipal and other paths in the Tramuntana area. The public footpaths traditionally guaranteed movement between two towns or villages, whilst the private paths usually connected different mountain estates and rural houses, so maintenance of them corresponded to the estates in question.

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Although the list of paths in the Tramuntana area is extremely long, the following are the most interesting ones: the old Lluc path (SelvaEscorca), Almallutx path (Mancor de la Vall-Escorca), Alar Castle path, Puigpunyent to Calvi path, SErmita path (Esporles), Estellencs to Banyalbufar path, old Orient path (Bunyola), Comuna de Valldemossa path, SEscolta path (Valldemossa), Arxiduc path (Valldemossa), Freu path (Santa Maria del Cam-Bunyola), Correu path (EsporlesValldemossa), Estellencs to Puigpunyent path, old Lluc to Pollena path, Volta des Puig Roig path (Escorca), the Costera path (Escorca), Sller to Lluc path, Puig de Massanella path (Escorca), SAlcina Fumadora path (Fornalutx), SIlleta path (Sller), Barranc de Biniaraix path (Sller), Muleta path (Sller), old Formentor lighthouse path (Pollena), Voltes den Galileu path (Escorca), old Calobra path (Escorca), Puig de Maria path (Pollena), Coma de nArbona path (Fornalutx-Escorca), Castell path (Dei-Sller) and Ribassos path (Dei). This network of mountain paths is not immune to the relatively recent problem now affecting stretches of paths and trails all over the island of Mallorca that is, the closure of paths by some landowners in a practice that has spread alarmingly all over the Tramuntana area. Sometimes the paths are public, and town councils and other institutions have taken no action to prevent this as yet. In other cases they are paths with a traditionally public usage, historically documented since time immemorial, or simply paths that provide access to emblematic or singularly interesting places. Furthermore, awareness of the value of this network of paths in terms of its heritage is still on the low side, which is why often some paths have been subject to transformations that have destroyed their integrity and mutilated certain features that account for much of their ethnological and heritage value. However, we should stress possible new prospects for them, as they link two points in the are and at the same time enable people to enjoy the scenic, cultural and ethnological values of the places they run through. Consequently a whole series of recreational and sporting activities and also economic ones now take place using this network of paths. The most important ones are day trips, hiking and different adventure sports, which have become significant tourist attractions, and, as a result, the paths have become an ideal, necessary form of infrastructure. Day trips and hiking the most commonplace activities and also the ones that are most environmentally friendly are gaining more and more enthusiasts amongst both residents and tourists. The institutional work carried out to date in relation to signposting, in the form of milestones, signs and panels, deserves an extremely positive appraisal, as does the restoration of public paths, like the one that leads

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up to Alar Castle, for example, or the Dei to Sller path, Correu path (from Esporles to Banyalbufar), Pas des Cossis leading to the summit of Galatz, two paths from Dei to Cala Dei, old Lluc path, Biniaraix gully path, or Puig de Maria path. There is also a Special Plan for what is known as the Dry-Stone Route (GR 221), and the Mallorcan Hiking Group (Grupo Excursionista de Mallorca - GEM) has performed the important task of cleaning and signposting paths since 1997. The common objective is none other than to maintain the network of paths in the Tramuntana area and coordinate all the different actions being carried out, with the aim of providing a network that will contribute to raising awareness of the values of the conservation and improvement of the mountain range. As well as the stone paving that the traditional paths of the Tramuntana area often have, they include other complementary constructional features, such as cornerstones (escopidors), small walls, steps or ramps when the paths run between hillside terraces. Sometimes there are features designed to remove water that has accumulated on the paved surface, such as cripple holes (clavegueres) and channels. The passage of streams from one place to another is solved by constructing stone bridges or pedres passadores (stepping stones). Vantage points, normally located in high places affording a panoramic view of a large tract of land or sea, deserve a special mention. They are often the high point of a route. That is, they are traditionally acknowledged natural viewpoints, well known historically for their visual delights. Also commonplace are sites that combine views with pleasant surroundings. The most outstanding panoramic vantage points in the Tramuntana Mountains are the Ses Barques (Fornalutx) viewpoint, Ses Tres Creus, Sa Miranda and Santa Maria del Olivar (Sller), the Santa Llcia oratory (Mancor de la Vall), Alar Castle, the Torre des Verger tower (Banyalbufar), Coll de Sller pass (Bunyola), Dei cemetery, the Cor de Jess monument (Esporles), Sant Elm Castle, the Cap Fabioler viewpoint, the La Trapa viewpoint (Andratx), Miranda dels Lledoners in the Palace of King San (Valldemossa), Ricard Roca viewpoint (Estellencs), and other points located on the Puig Major road and in Sa Calobra (Escorca), such as the Sa Creveta viewpoint, Puig de Maria, Calvari or Castell del Rei in Pollena.

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Figure 27. Stepping stones

The more than 40 vantage points constructed or restored by Archduke Ludwig Salvator, many of which lie within an area declared an Item of Cultural Interest in the year 1997 within the Historic Site category in the municipalities of Dei and Valldemossa, stand out for the quality of their construction and their historical significance. The following are the most remarkable of these viewing platforms: Mirador des Tudons, a low tower with a cone-shaped trunk. Mirador del Puig de sa Moneda, with a square base. Mirador de Sa Vorera, which has a square-based tower, made up of two sections set one on top of the other, the upper one being narrower than the lower one. Mirador Nou, with a solid octagonally-based tower set on top of a platform with a circular base. Mirador des Creuer, which has a solid, square-based tower that is small in size. Mirador de Son Marroig, set on an Ionic shrine with a circular base, measuring around 3.5 m in diameter and 6 m high, with a lower flight of 4 steps, six pillars, a roof and dome.

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It is also important to point out that the Ma-10 road crosses the Tramuntana Mountains longitudinally from north to south; this is the main road in the mountains, connecting the town of Pollena in the north of the island with that of Andratx in the south. It was constructed at the request of Fomento de Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca Tourist Board) in the 1960s, and its purpose was precisely to highlight the scenic virtues of the mountains of Mallorca with the early tourism industry in mind.
Figure 28 One of the many viewing platforms commissioned by Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, near Miramar (Dei)

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4) Olive grove shelters In Mallorca these small huts or shelters - made using dry stone and Arab tiles, located on the mountainside and used as a refuge and dwelling for people and animals or for storing tools or wood - are referred to by the name porxos. The porxos of the Sller valley and neighbouring villages of Fornalutx and Dei deserve a special mention. Their location corresponds basically to the olive groves that occupy the higher parts of the mountain slopes, close to villages.

The porxos generally have a rectangular base and one or two doorways on the main faade or on one side. They usually have a fireplace in one of their corners, as well as several small windows to let light in. Beside the building, or even inside it, there is normally a cistern that collects rainwater from the roof. The best-preserved shelters are usually the least accessible ones that can only be reached via bridle paths, and some noteworthy examples are those located on both sides of the path of the Biniaraix gully in the municipality of Sller, which are also protected as Items of Cultural Interest.

Figura 29. Olive grove shelter (porxo) between Dei and Valldemossa

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5) Sharecroppers huts A rota in the Catalan language is a piece of land within a rural estate which, since it was usually a long distance from the houses, was offered to a sharecropper, known as a roter, for cultivation purposes. Rotes were therefore outlying pieces of land, wooded areas or those covered in macchia which could eventually become productive, from an agricultural point of view, after enough work had been invested in the form of removing stones. The sharecropper tilled the land ceded to him for a few years, paying the landowner an agreed part of his harvest for it. Despite their variety of sizes, the usual surface area of a rota was one quarterada: an old local unit of measurement, exclusive to Mallorca and still in use, the equivalent to 7,103 m.

Figure 30. An example of a charcoal-makers hut

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A small shelter was usually built on these austere little farms, in accordance with the limited size and outlying nature of the land on which it was located. The sharecroppers shelter is therefore equally austere, with a rectangular base and a length that may vary between 4 and 12 metres, with one room in a single space. Often it has just one opening the doorway although there may be one or two small windows. Tree trunks or beams (generally speaking wild-olives) are positioned across the ceiling, which is always made of stone, supporting a roof that may be tiled. Currently many of these huts are in ruins and some of them are still used as shelters for sheep. 6) Charcoal makers huts and charcoal pyres The production of vegetable charcoal as a basic source of energy goes back a long way on Mallorca, and the tradition survived until the 1960s. Numerous vestiges remain of this forestry activity in the form of buildings: charcoal ovens and charcoal makers huts. These are two primitive, rudimentary constructions that were used by charcoal makers during the spring and summer. Winter and autumn were avoided since they were

Figure 31. A sharecroppers hut in the Montcaire area

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rainy seasons when the charcoal could be ruined. Charcoal pyres were circular and wood was burned on them in the open air. Usually a circular stone wall was built around the charcoal-making pit. The secondary building the hut was always located in holm-oak woods and, thanks to it, the charcoal maker could stay in the mountains for as long as it took to make the charcoal, generally 8 to 15 days. Since it was very basic, the hut only contained a hard bed and sometimes a net hanging from the middle of the wall where food was kept to protect it. The charcoal maker would normally build a small oven in which he baked his own bread near the hut and the charcoal pyre. All that is left of the charcoal pyres today is their circular base and stone structure. They can be seen nearly everywhere in the woods, although the best-known ones are those that lie close to the busiest paths in the Tramuntana Mountains, such as the Massanella wood path, Es Correu path or Sa Fita del Ram path. Recently some charcoal pyres and huts were rebuilt for didactic purposes in public spaces, such as those of the Caimari Ethnological Park or at Ses Serveres, in the Son Fortuny public estate in the municipality of Estellencs.

Figure 32. The rotllo de sitja (the circle the charcoal pyre was built on) is the mark left by charcoal makers.

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7) Limekilns Throughout history lime was a fundamental product in Mallorca due to its numerous uses: as a disinfectant, for whitewashing walls, a conglomerate material in building, and for certain medicinal purposes. The traditional method of obtaining it called for the construction of limekilns or forns de cal. This construction was generally built in the midst of garrigue or macchia. Inside it, limestone was burned or calcinated, with a certain amount of wood burnt on top, in order to obtain lime in the form of calcium oxide. The limekiln was usually located on a small slope where a large cylindrical cavity was made, partially sunk under the ground and closed off at the sides with a thick stone wall. The limestone was arranged inside it, leaving a cavity for the wood, and covered with a layer of earth to form a dome. An opening near the bottom was used to stoke the kiln, and the smoke would be let out through another opening in the dome. The diameter of these kilns could vary between 4 and 12 metres, and their depth could reach 6 or 7 metres. Limekilns were built close to places where there were large quantities of stone and wood to ensure calcination, and near a path to allow for the transportation of the lime that was produced. After calcination, the removal of the lime involved the destruction of a large part of the kiln. The heritage value of the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area also stems from the preservation of the typical humble houses that belonged to day labourers who worked on nearby large landowners estates.

Figure 33. A limekiln near Valldemossa

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Nowadays, the mass use of new materials has superseded the use of lime to a certain extent, so it is extremely difficult to find a whole limekiln, in spite of the fact that hundreds of them survive in the Tramuntana Mountains, in ruins. They are particularly abundant in municipalities on the southern slopes of the mountains, like Bunyola and Santa Maria del Cam. In this last municipality an inventory of over 50 limekilns has been drawn up and included in the Municipal Catalogue of Heritage Items. In the Caimari Ethnological Park a fully-reconstructed limekiln can be seen, and there is another, partially-restored one on the Son Moragues estate in the municipality of Valldemossa.
Figure 34. Limekiln

Figure 35. Aixoplug or shelter

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2.a.3. Rural estates (possessions) In Mallorca the name possessi (literally possession) refers to a rural property or estate of agricultural characteristics, varying in size and including a small group of buildings called the cases de possessi. This is the central core of an agricultural and livestock farm. The origin of the possessions can be traced back to the division of land amongst the nobles who took part in the Christian conquest of the island in the year 1229, a division that was made on the basis of existing Islamic farms and smallholdings. The owners of these estates are therefore usually genealogically related to the descendents of noble landowning families. The possessi functioned and in certain cases, continues to function like a production unit, around which a whole farming system developed, which included the participation of a large contingent of workers that could vary, depending on the size of the property, from ten to nearly one hundred labourers. On the pre-tourism island of Mallorca, prior to the first stages of the development of mass tourism in the 1950s, the whole region was organized, structured and divided into possessions, typically for agricultural and livestock farming both on the plain of Mallorca and in coastal areas and the mountains. This structure co-existed and still does co-exist with municipal administrative divisions.

Figure 36. The possessi of Son Marroig, in Dei.

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Mallorcas large estates are grouped together in the form of these agricultural and livestock units. In fact, the 10 largest possessions occupy 31,200 hectares, which represents 38.2% of the surface of the Tramuntana area. These large properties were authentic economic hubs, and some of them still are today. They co-existed in the region alongside smaller properties, concentrated mainly around towns and villages in the form of gardens, irrigated land, and olive groves. We can distinguish between mountain, valley and hillside possessions, in accordance with their geographical location. Understanding and maintaining the structure of the division of land as part of the local heritage is fundamental in preserving the identity of the region. Mountain estates are adapted to high parts of the island, allowing for establishment of a farm and use of the available resources. Generally speaking their distinguishing characteristic is that they contain an extensive tract of woodland and a smaller area of farmland. The cases de neu (ice stores) facilitated the use of a resource that was very important in its day. Valley estates can, in turn, be divided into three sub-types depending on their relative location: Single valley estates where a single farm occupies practically all the available surface area. Valley estates parallel to two mountain faces, located with foothills on both sides with the access road along the centre of the basin beside the drainage torrent. Estates in a valley belonging to a chain, located on the central plain along the road that links these valley. Mountain estates can also be divided into two large groups: Coastal estates that start in the mountains and run down the slopes until they reach the sea. Those that run towards flatter inland areas (el Raiguer and el Pla). In general the latter have longer water supply networks and a larger extension of cultivated land. These rural estates are distributed along the length and breadth of the mountain region, although a particularly high concentration of them can be found in the main valleys, occupying more fertile land. The size of the property and its profitability in financial terms were clearly reflected by the houses and outbuildings. Thus large possessions (Son Fortuny, Son Bunyola, Plancia, Son Moragues, Pastoritx, Son Marroig, Blitx, Monnber, Albarca, Son Galceran) can be distinguished from other smaller, more austere ones (Turixant, Ses Figueroles, Son Torrella, SEstaca, Ariant or lOfre).

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The possessions located on the coast between Valldemossa and Dei deserve a special mention; they were gradually bought by the Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria during his visits to the island, from the second half of the 19th century on. The following fall within the municipality of Valldemossa: Son Ferrandell, Son Gual, SEstaca, Sa Font Figuera, Can Costa, Son Moragues, Miramar and Sa Torre; while Sa Pedrissa, Son Marroig and Son Gallard are located in the municipality of Dei. Son Ferrandell: a house built around a central rectangular courtyard, with traditional architecture. Son Galceran: farmhouses with an L-shaped design. It has a ground floor, upper floor and porch. SEstaca: a newly-designed house, completed in the late 19th century, with a rectangular base and flat roof. Font Figuera: rectangular houses with two galleries, a ground floor and two more floors. Can Costa: a building comprised of two annexes, traditional architecture Son Moragues: a rectangular farmhouse with a central courtyard. Casa de Miramar: a rectangular farmhouse with two galleries. Sa Torre de Can Costa: a site comprising three houses adjoining one another in a row, with a ground floor and first floor. Traditional architecture Sa Pedrissa: farmhouses with an L-shaped design and a tower located in the NE corner, where the two wings meet.

Figure 37. The possessions are a characteristic feature of the mountain range. In the photo, Son Marroig.

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Son Marroig: A U-shaped farmhouse comprised of 3 wings with a covered courtyard to the NE. Son Gallard: a farmhouse with a quadrangular base and a central courtyard. The Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Sites of the Estates of the Archduke records up to 700 items that this aristocrat had built or restored on his lands, and 28 of these items are especially noteworthy, mainly estate houses, gardens, drinking troughs and public washing places, noria-type waterwheels, chapels, viewing towers and watchtowers. In the architectural ensemble formed by the estate houses, two buildings in particular stand out: the casa dels senyors (landowners houses) and the casa dels amos (farm managers house). They are completed by a series of rooms and areas devoted to chores typical of the life of a farmer and shepherd. In some cases, due to difficulty of access to the estates houses or when the estate was of inferior category, the farm was left with no landowners house. The absence of this building would be compensated for either by another large house on the outskirts destined to be used only as a residence for the landowners or by typical inns or large town houses from where the estate was governed, in this case inhabited and farmed by farm workers only. They were usually inhabited by several families, as well as the estate manager, who rendered accounts to the owner for the farm, so often over fifty people would live on the estate, in addition to an equal number of draught animals.
Figure 38 The estate houses usually have an inner courtyard called a clastra. The photo shows the courtyard of the Raixa estate (Bunyola).

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Normally estate houses have a square design with a large central working courtyard, called a clastra, around which all the outhouses stood, both for residential purposes and for animals and storage. These farm units were usually devoted not only to purely agricultural tasks but also to the processing of products, which is why nearly all of them had an oil press, a celler (wine cellar) and a mill for transforming agricultural produce. The most important agricultural building on Tramuntana estates is, without a shadow of a doubt, the oil mill or tafona, where the oil was produced that was for centuries the main Mallorcan mountain resource. Transported on the backs of donkeys, olives were brought down from the mountaintops and all terraced areas. Olive oil was one of the most sophisticated, expensive products that large estates produced. The oil mill or tafona is one of the most singular, characteristic features of large Tramuntana estates, and one of the symbols that most clearly define the importance of these houses in the local area. It is normally a rectangularshaped room with several different standardized areas that differ little from one estate to another. There is the trull, where the olives were initially pressed, and the graners (olive stores) at the back through which the olives were entered. There was a fornal (fire) with a caldera (boiler), where water was heated for the second pressing and decanting process, located in the middle of the room. The oil mills contained one or two presses or bigues, although some have three and even four - such as the mill at Massanella (Mancor de la Vall) or Son Torrella (Santa Maria del Cam) for the second pressing, situated at the sides, and a sala de piques i safareig, which were the areas where the oil was left for storage.
Figure 39. The oil mill is the place where olives are turned into oil.

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Some estates had what were known as sweat mills, that is, mills driven by animals, especially in places where one could not rely on water or the wind as a driving force (CAELLAS, 1993). Although their performance was inferior to that of other kinds of mills, the simplicity of their mechanisms and easy availability of animals contributed to their being the most commonplace kind of mill. It is unclear when sweat mills were brought to Mallorca, although we do know that towards the end of the period of Arab rule they were used assiduously, because some animal-driven mills are named in the Llibre del Repartiment, which describes the division of Mallorcas lands by King Jaume I amongst the Catalan nobles who had taken part in the conquest. In the Tramuntana area, as in the rest of the island, there are two kinds of sweat mills, depending on their function. On the one hand, there are flourmills, used to transform wheat into flour. These are very widespread in the mountains, as they are linked to the estates and were used for family consumption. And on the other hand, there are oil mills, better known in Mallorca as trulls, linked to oil presses. However, in time many trulls were mechanized and only a few are in a good state of repair on certain large estates. Their disappearance went hand in hand with the abandonment of agriculture and the disappearance of draught animals. On some estates there was also a winery or celler, found more often in the Valldemossa, Dei and Banyalbufar areas, where not only did they cultivate vines but exotic varieties also came to be produced, such as malvasia. They were usually situated on the northern side of houses, half underground to keep the temperature uniform until the following season. The wine was stored in large wooden casks, both for consumption throughout the year by the people who lived or worked in the house, and to be used as payment for day labourers or in exchanges with other products, known as bartering. Other highly-interesting examples of infrastructure present on Mallorcan estates and those in the mountains in particular are chapels, defensive towers (more typical of estates near the coast), charcoal stores (where the charcoal produced on the land was kept) and agricultural outbuildings such as livestock shelters, barns, pigsties, stables, chicken coops or pigeon lofts.

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There are also historical gardens associated with estate houses. The Tramuntana area has a variety of extremely interesting gardens, such as those complementing the houses of Raixa and Alfabia (Bunyola), Massanella (Mancor), Galatz (Calvi), Canet and Sa Granja (Esporles). Alfabia gardens contain different styles, such as the Arab, Italian or English style, with one common component: water features with cascades, fountains, jets of water and ponds. An impressive flight of stone steps with parallel water canals stands out from the rest, leading to the high part of the gardens, where there is a water tank topped with a barrel vault and an old pigeon loft. Also worthy of note is the pergola formed by 72 columns and 24 hydrias made of stone, where water emerges, crossing over to form a passageway. Another highlight is the Queens Garden, so called because Queen Isabel II visited it in 1860. In the case of Raixa, the abundance of water and fertility of the land in this privileged setting led to the establishment of a farm called Araixa farm during the period of Islamic rule. The estates present-day name stems from this period, and it continued to be inhabited throughout the Middle Ages and in modern times. In the 18th century Cardinal Antoni Despuig and Dameto, a Mallorcan, transformed the old agricultural estate, turning it into an Italian-style palace surrounded by one of the most emblematic gardens on the island. The palace grounds include the gardens, a large flight of steps, a large pond and viewpoints.

Figure 40. On the coastal slopes of the Tramuntana Mountains, many estates have defensive towers, the construction of which dates back to periods when there was more danger of attacks by Turkish vessels, in the 16th and 17th centuries. The photo shows the Muleta Gran estate, in Sller.

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Figure 41. Drawing of the gardens of La torre del Moro. Miramar

Sa Granja dEsporles, an ancient 10th-century estate, highly prized as early on as in Roman times due to its large amount of water. It has a garden in a mixture of stately and rustic styles. Highlights are a yew tree that is over a thousand years old, and a magnificent natural jet of water that rises up to a height of thirty feet. In the southern part of the Miramar estate lies the Torre del Moro garden, a unique place containing geometrical figures by Ramon Llull emblazoned on flowerbeds and an Italian-style pond built in the Archdukes time. The Byzantine Garden stands beside the first vantage point that the Archduke built on the coast. At the rear of the houses lies the Cypress Garden, which contains remains of the old church in the form of a Byzantine cross and a fragment of a Gothic cloister from the Convent of Santa Margalida in Palma. Two more of the archdukes estates have interesting gardens. In Son Marroig the aristocrat wished to leave his mark by commissioning an enormous water tank, the es Galliner vantage point, and Carrara marble Ionic temple, with the imposing Sa Foradada rock below. In Son Moragues some Italian-style gardens were designed, located on an embankment. Some estates are still inhabited and in a semi-operational state, which helps them to be maintained in an acceptable state of conservation, but in general they are going through a period of considerable decline. There are also deserted or very dilapidated estates, whilst others have been re-

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stored to be converted into tourist facilities in the form of rural tourism establishments or as second homes for the well-off. We should also point out that certain important estates have been acquired by different public institutions in the Balearics. The estates of La Coma den Vidal (Estellencs), Galatz (Calvi), Plancia (Banyalbufar), Tossals Verds, Son Amer, Binifald and Menut (Escorca) and Ses Figueroles (Selva), belong to the Consell Insular de Mallorca, the Regional Government of the Balearic Islands or the Spanish Government. As for the area covered by the former estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, this land is divided up amongst a multitude of properties, most of them private, with the exception of the former lands of the Son Moragues estate, which belong to the Government of the Balearic Islands. The estate houses of Raixa, belonging to the Biodiversity Foundation of the Ministry of the Environment and the Consell de Mallorca, have been renovated for conversion into an environmental and cultural centre. 2.a.4. Towns and villages In the Tramuntana area there is a wide spectrum of towns and villages, ranging from larger ones such as Sller, Andratx and Pollena to small hamlets like Orient, Ullar, Biniaraix, Sa Calobra, Llucalcari, Biniarroi, Binibona or Binibass, also including other villages that are extremely interesting in architectural terms, for example Fornalutx, Banyalbufar, Valldemossa, Estellencs or Dei. The latter two have recently been declared Items of Cultural Interest within the Historic Site category. It is in these towns and villages that, logically enough, a large part of the architectural heritage of the Tramuntana area can be found, as well as many other items that define the urban landscape: public washing places, mills, public wells, and large houses. In them, buildings ranging from imposing inns to very simple rustic houses can be seen, whose location determines an urban grid made up of narrow alleyways, sometimes adapted to the mountainsides as in the cases of Bunyola, Estellencs or Banyalbufar. The orography and network of roads, sloping steeply to adjust to the terrain, and the shape of building plots give rise to tortuous, winding streets that bestow an irregular, singular character on these towns and villages. This urban topography is partly due to their Islamic past, although we must point out that Islamic farms were much smaller and old quarters of towns and villages grew significantly in the 14th century. Even though the distribution of residential homes varies widely, there is a tendency to build three-storey houses, with a ground floor, first floor and attic, called

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a porxo in Mallorca. In towns and villages, the division of plots into smaller ones is highly influential. As streets were built in towns and villages, plots were divided up, and they are usually narrow and high at the front, which conditions the type of houses (as opposed to houses on the islands plain which usually have a broad, low faade). Some towns and villages, such as Valldemossa, Estellencs, Banyalbufar or Fornalutx, still have a very well-preserved traditional urban landscape even today, thanks to the fact that limestone was used to construct the buildings, and due also to their cobbled paving, which in some cases was incorporated in the 20th century after burying the rainwater drainage system.
Figure 42. The Bank of Sller, in the town centre, reflects the economic splendour of the first decades of the 20th century in this area.

Although modern buildings, Baroque ones and others in the style of popular architecture prevail in towns, there are interesting Gothic, Renaissance and also Modernist examples. This latter style is concentrated basically in the town of Sller, but also, to a lesser extent, in Bunyola. Together with contemporary buildings in historicist and regionalist style,

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the Modernist ones are a clear testimony to the prosperous economic situation and emergence of a moneyed bourgeois class in the town of Sller in the late 19th and early 20th century. They have all contributed to defining a new urban profile for the town. A full list of important buildings, from an architectural point of view, surpasses the requirements of this document, but we can sum up with some representative examples like the following: the Palace of King San in Valldemossa, which was a royal residence during the independent Kingdom of Mallorca; the Bank of Sller and Can Prunera, in Sller; Cas Don, in the Biniaraix area; Ca nArbona and Es Puador, in Fornalutx; Can Valls in Dei; Sa Baronia in Banyalbufar; Son Mas in Andratx; Sa Bastida dels Amunts and the Posada de Bnyols in Alar; Son Morro and Can Marques in Mancor de la Vall; and Can Costa Vell in Pollena.

Over the centuries, the complex water supply systems have been organized into irrigational communities that still survive today and structure the periurban garden areas of most of the villages in the Tramuntana area. The villages growth generally overlaps with this agricultural structure.

Figure 43. View of a street in the village of Dei. Stone is omnipresent in the urban landscapes of the Tramuntana area.

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One interesting example of popular art in towns and villages are the painted tiles that adorn the cornices of some faades. Sller and Fornalutx are two municipalities on the island with the largest number of inventoried houses (56 and 27 buildings, respectively). In spite of their being known as teules de moro (literally Moors tiles), the tradition appears to date back to the 16th century. These ornamental features were made by placing the tiles in lime and subsequently painting them red using a mixture of linseed oil and red ochre. They bear geometric and vegetable motifs, features of everyday life, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures, religious themes and a large quantity of inscriptions. As well as their decorative value, they have a symbolic value associated with protection of the house and its inhabitants. 2.a.5. Religious centres When one is aware of the traditional religious dimension of Mallorcan society and the strong influence the Church has on it, it is easy to understand that the items of religious heritage preserved in the Tramuntana area are both numerous and diverse. The municipalities of the Tramuntana area feature many religious buildings, items and places of different architectural styles and chronologies that reflect the connection between the area and religious faith. Some examples are parish and rural churches, religious convents and monasteries, oratories and chapels, boundary crosses and via crucis shrines and crosses. The shrine at Lluc, the main focus of pilgrimages in Mallorca, and the Miramar ensemble, founded by Ramon Llull, deserve a special mention due to their singular, exceptional nature. 1) Religious and funerary archaeological remains The religious heritage of the Tramuntana area is basically associated with the Christian culture, which was introduced to the island in the year 1229, although some archaeological evidence has been found dating back to the Talayotic and Roman eras. Unfortunately no traces of the Paleo-Christian, Byzantine or Islamic eras have survived in the area. In the very heart of the Tramuntana Mountains, more specifically at the Gorg Blau reservoir (Escorca), one can see some of the oldest religious remains on Mallorca: the Talayotic shrines of Almallutx. Next to the road that runs around the edge of the reservoir stands a column which was inside one of three shrines whose corresponding building has disappeared under the water. On the other side of the reservoir, one can see the

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other two shrines with their corresponding columns. They have not been covered by the water and excavation work has been carried out on them. The two buildings have a square base and an apsidal wall. Inside one of them, some pieces of pottery with lids were found, containing numerous remains of sheep bones, and to a lesser extent pig, goat and oxen bones. Two burial sites corresponding to a man and a woman were also found. Much still remains to be learned about these shrines in terms of the religious practices and beliefs of the islands first settlers, but a visit to them is highly recommended given the splendid scenery that surrounds them. The place name Lluc presumably comes from the Latin lucus, which alludes to a sacred wood, so it seems plausible that the forest of Lluc was a sacred place of worship and pilgrimage: activities that may even date back to the Talayotic period if we take into account the cave, Cometa de los Muertos, which is very close to the present-day shrine there. Six sarcophagi from the Talayotic culture were found in this cave, along with their ceramic and metal funerary offerings, consisting of iron daggers, swords and diadems, bronze awls, little cone-shaped bells and arrow tips. Whilst in Mallorca there is an abundance of Roman funerary and religious remains, these items are not especially common in the Tramuntana area, with the notable exception, however, of the Roman necropolis of Son Bosc, in Andratx. 2) The Lluc shrine The restoration of the Christian religion in the Tramuntana area after the Moslem interval coincides with a marvellous story about the discovery of the Virgin of Lluc. Worship of this Gothic image dates back into the distant past, as it is mentioned in a will from the year 1268, and pilgrimages to the area are cited as having taken place as early as 1273. The veneration of this figure increased notably in the 14th century, with two masses per day being documented, as well as a religious brotherhood and a collection box for alms in the churches of Mallorca. Although the current buildings are more recent, building work on the square, pilgrims hostel and the area of the covered spring dates back to the years 1322 and 1340. Between 1430 and 1440 attempts were made to found an Augustinian monastery and another Dominican one. In the year 1456, the parish church obtained its own parish priest, and work on the shrine began on land given by Toms Thoms. Pope Callistus III approved the College of Presbyters and, after a period of internal struggles over the priorate of Lluc between 1465 and 1494, its prior was appointed. Baltasar

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Thoms, the son of Toms Thoms, left his properties to the Virgin of Lluc in his will and had the family coat of arms sculpted on the doorway of the shrine. In this way the Thoms coat of arms became that of Lluc. In the year 1531 the shrine regulations were approved. Amongst other considerations, it was established that the collegiate members had to be Mallorcan priests and that there would have to be six boy singers. This led to the creation of what is now the Blauvets de Lluc choir school, one of the oldest in Europe. In 1586 a building was erected to lodge pilgrims and their mounts. Lluc shrine itself experienced a period of intense growth at this time. The present-day church, which replaced the Gothic church, was built between 1622 and 1691, although alterations were made to it in the early 20th century under the direction of architect Antoni Gaud. In 1884 the papal coronation of the Virgin of Lluc took place, an event that was celebrated with a large ceremony presided over by Bishop Mateu Jaume. Poets of the Catalan Renaissance offered the first poetical crown to the Virgin. In the year 1891, the Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts took over the running of the shrine. From 1909 to 1914 a great deal of alterations and extension work were carried out at the request of Bishop Campins. We should mention here that in the years 1934, 1959 and 1984, coronation anniversary celebrations were held and in 1962 Pope John XXIII made the Church of Lluc a basilica. The religious shrine of Lluc is still a place of worship and pilgrimage for Mallorcas Christian community, and a religious, civic and cultural symbol of Mallorcan society. 3) The Miramar ensemble and hermit communities Thirdly we should mention the main Medieval religious landmark in Mallorca: Miramar, founded by philosopher Ramon Llull (Palma, circa 1232/12351316), considered the creator of literary Catalan. Llulls parents were from Barcelona, arriving in Mallorca during the Christian conquest. During the first stage of his life he was private tutor to the future king of Mallorca, Jaume II, and devoted himself to troubadour poetry, but on reaching the age of thirty he had a spiritual crisis that led him to change his life radically, leaving his family and embarking on impressive labours as a writer, preacher and missionary. In 1276, under the auspices of King Jaume II, Llull set up a Grammar and Oriental language school on the Miramar estate between the villages of Dei and Valldemossa where thirteen Franciscan friars were trained to be missionaries and preach the gospel and Ars luliana to Moslems. This

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school was closed in 1295, but in the same place, in the second half of the 15th century, Mallorcas first printing press became operational. Some time later the hermit spirit took root in Miramar: in the 17th century, a distant follower of Ramon Llull founded a hermitage in the nearby woods for a congregation of contemplatives drawn from the common people, genuine followers of Ramon Llull in terms of penitence. In these mountains they sought a place to pray and lead a life far from the problems of the city. The continuance of this hermitage in the present day is the hermit community of Trinidad de Valldemossa, near Miramar.
Figure 44. The bell tower of the former Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa

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Later on, in 1872, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Habsburg-Lorraine bought the estate and made alterations to it, recapturing the memory of Ramon Llull and the message of a respect for and enjoyment of nature, building numerous pathways and vantage points. Enamoured of these places, the Archduke invited important figures of the time to visit it, one prime example being the legendary Empress Sisi of Austria, who was so impressed she named her yacht Miramar. The parts of Miramar one can visit today are the old oil mill, the Archdukes map room, the garden and the cloister of the Convent of Santa Margalida, as well as remains of the medieval building from Ramon Llulls time. One can also see objects from the Archdukes time, such as fragments of his boat the Nixe , or remains of the cenotaph in tribute to Viworny, his first secretary. In the Cypress Garden one can also see the chapel of the Blessed Ramon Llull, designed in 1877 by Frederick Waskmann, with a statue of the Virgin Mary called Notre Dame de la Garde (a gift from Empress Sisi of Austria to Archduke Ludwig Salvator), and a fragment of the cloister of the Convent of Santa Margalida from the city of Palma. 4) Parish churches Churches in the towns and villages united the population that had settled in the region following the Christian conquest and the division of the Mallorcan land amongst the new settlers. Most of the parish churches in the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area are in the Baroque architectural style typical of the 17th and 18th centuries, albeit with later features that are the result of subsequent alterations carried out in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the most recent churches is that of Mancor de la Vall, in neo-Gothic style, dating back to the 19th century. In many cases these churches replaced older ones, many of which were Gothic, which is why the majority of churches today still have moveable or immoveable features in this style in their interior. The greater part of these parish churches are documented in the 13th century, especially in the Papal Bull of Innocence IV from the year 1248, such as Santa Maria in Andratx (1248), Sant Bartomeu in Alar (1241), Nativitat de Maria in Banyalbufar (the second half of the 13th century), Santa Maria in Bunyola (1248), the Virgen dels ngels in Pollena (1236), Sant Bartomeu in Sller or Sant Joan Baptista in Calvi (1248). Over the course of time, some of these parish churches have changed their location within the town or village, such as the parish church of Alar, which moved from the Amunts district to an area called Avall.

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Some parish churches have changed with regard to the patron saint to whom they were originally dedicated. This is the case of Alar, where the original saint, Mary, was replaced by Saint Bartholomew, or the parish church of Saint John the Baptist in Calvi, a patron saint documented from the year 1248 but changed in the 16th century to Our Lady of Sorrows. The parish church of Dei was first to be blessed in the year 1496 and dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows, but later on Saint John the Baptist became the patron saint. This Gothic church crowns the little summit on which the village is set. A small cemetery sits beside the church, considered one of the most unique in all Mallorca, and buried here, amid local residents, lies the English writer and poet Robert Graves, who lived in the village for much of his life. One of the most outstanding churches in the Tramuntana area is the parish church of Sller. The first church is documented in the Papal Bull of Innocence IV in 1248, although it was replaced by another Gothic church, which would have been in the area where the presbytery now stands. This church was sacked by Turkish pirates in the year 1561, and as a result it was decided that it should be fortified between 1563 and 1575, and large walls and towers were constructed around the church and rectory, together with a moat. Work on the current building began in 1688, and it was blessed in 1711 in spite of being unfinished, since the portal was completed in 1747 and the presbytery in 1827, which explains the fact that different decorative and constructive styles overlap one another. The bell tower, in two sections, stands on the site of the bell tower of the previous building, dating back to the late 19th century. The alterations to the current faade were planned by Modernist architect Joan Rubi i Bellver, carried out between 1904 and 1947, coinciding with a flourishing boom in Modernism in the town of Sller. 5) Rural churches As well as parish churches associated with towns and villages, mention must be made of small Gothic churches that sprang up to serve rural communities whose main parish church was somewhat remote, as is the case of the Oratory of Santa Llcia in Mancor de la Vall. Other instances are those where settlements failed to develop around them, as in the case of the original Oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, near Gabell estate, built between 1248 and 1315. This performed the functions of the parish church of Campanet until the latter year. Also worth mentioning is the Church of Sant Pere in Escorca, a little jewel of 13th-century rural religious architecture. As early as the year 1246 it had

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been recognised as a parish church, and also featured in a list on the Papal Bull of Innocence IV in 1248. In spite of these references, there is no record of the existence of a church building as such, which was possibly built in the second half of the 13th century. Today it is in a magnificent state of conservation, with all its purity of design, thanks to its isolated mountain location, the fact that ecclesiastical predominance was given to the nearby shrine at Lluc in 1456, and the significant restoration work that has been carried out on it. Not only was the Church of Sant Pere the religious centre of the district until the year 1456, it was also the centre of civil life. In front of its doors, in 1285, the Universitat dEscorca a local corporation elected representatives to swear an oath of loyalty to Alfonso of Aragon, who had occupied the island in opposition to Jaume II of Mallorca, a deed that was repeated in the year 1343, when an oath of loyalty was sworn by the representatives of Escorca before King Pere the Ceremonious. 6) Religious monasteries and convents Throughout the Middle Ages and Modern Times many religious hermit communities settled in the Tramuntana area, until in the year 1567 the danger of attacks by pirates and bandits forced Bishop Diego de Arnedo to make an announcement calling on all these communities to return to towns and villages, which favoured the proliferation of convents and monasteries there. Places of worship and spirituality, convents and monasteries were also teaching centres, because we should point out that in many villages the primary school education of Mallorcan boys and girls depended on the work of priests and nuns until the late 19th or early 20th century. Tending to the sick and maintaining the parish church were other tasks habitually performed by them too. The Convents of Santa Maria de lOlivar and Sant Francesc (Sller) and the Convent of Santo Domingo (Pollena) are especially noteworthy. Even so, the most outstanding of all is probably the monastery of La Trapa estate, in Andratx, commenced by Trappist monks in 1810, although they only inhabited it for a period of ten years. Dedicated to Santa Maria de La Trapa, it was built in rural architectural style. It includes an oratory consecrated to Our Lady in the Mystery of her Purification and Presentation of the Baby Jesus to the Temple, the main building with dormitories and refectories, the workshop buildings, cellars and storerooms. At the moment it is in a ruinous state, albeit under reconstruction by the ecologist group, Grup dOrnitologia Balear (Balearic Ornithology Group - GOB), which now owns the estate.

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7) Oratories, shrines and chapels Every village in the Tramuntana area usually has an oratory or shrine outside the urban perimeter where the parishioners go at certain times of year to ask for protection and support. In Calvi there is a small oratory known as Sa Capelleta, dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows, perhaps related to a dedication documented in the parish church during the 16th century. It was built in the 15th century to house the Virgin of Portals, but it is said that every time the statue was housed in the chapel, it mysteriously returned to the cave where it had been found. Esporles conserves the Maristella shrine, erected in 1888 and dedicated to the Virgin of Carmen, in honour of fishermen and sailors. In Valldemossa you can find the shrine of Trinidad, built in the mid-17th century at the request of hermit Joan Mir de la Concepci, who founded the congregation of San Pablo and San Antonio. In Mancor de la Vall the 13th-century oratory of Santa Llcia is noteworthy, and in Alar Castle there is the Oratory of the Virgen del Refugio, built in 1622 at the request of the rector of the parish church of Alar, although alterations were carried out between 1764 and 1778. The hermit Joan Mir de la Concepci also lived in this oratory for a while.
Figure 45. The Oratory of Ramon Llull, in Miramar.

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The Oratory of the Virgen de los Desamparados, dating back to 1688, can be found in Llucalcari. In the Sller valley, the 18th-century Oratory of Castell has been preserved, dedicated to the Virgin of the Rosary. In the Port of Sller, there is the Oratory of Santa Caterina dAlexandria, built in around 1280 to commemorate the miraculous shift in location of Sant Ramon de Penyafort from Sller to Barcelona. Today it houses the Sller Museum of the Sea. One municipality that stands out for the numerous religious buildings it contains is Pollena, where four interesting oratories can be found. The first is El Calvari, built between 1795 and 1799 and reached by a flight of 365 steps, with splendid panoramic views of the town. Inside the oratory there is a group of 14th-century sculptures of the crucified Christ with the Virgin at his feet. Secondly, there is the old Oratory of Roser Vell, with a basilica-type design featuring side chapels, built in the 14th century, where the Virgin of the Rosary was worshipped. Thirdly, there is the Oratory of Sant Jordi, built in the 16th century outside the town, in the direction of the sea. This is the place where the inhabitants of Pollena set off from on route to the coast when warning of pirates was given. Finally, near Puig de Maria which stands 330 metres high, at the foot of the village, there is a shrine with a chapel, refectory, tower and walls, built in Gothic style in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The single-nave church contains a popular image of the Virgin dating back to the 14th century. The refectory is one of the most remarkable rooms in all Mallorca. The newly built oratories and chapels that Archduke Ludwig Salvator commissioned on the properties he bought deserve a special mention. They come under the Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site of the Estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. They include the previously mentioned Chapel of the Blessed Ramon, in Miramar, constructed by the Czech architect Friedrich Wachsmann from 1877 to 1880, considered the most emblematic of the Archdukes buildings. Regrettably, only fragments of the wall, roof and arches of the portal now remain. Another two important items of heritage are the Chapel of Puig des Verger, which has a square base, slightly pyramid-shaped volumes and a domed roof; and the Miramar Chapel, also called the Chapel of Trinitat or Virgen del Buen Pastor, which has a square layout and stone walls with hollow ashlars with edging made of ashlars. Finally, we should mention the fact that numerous estates included a private chapel, which was used by both the landowners and the workers, and often by peasants from the area surrounding the estate too.

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8) Boundary crosses Boundary crosses known locally as creus de terme are located at the entrance to urban municipalities, and traditionally they marked the boundaries of the municipalities they separated. These items of heritage are frequent in the Tramuntana area an inventory of nearly 30 crosses has been drawn up and they are protected by legislation as Items of Cultural Interest. Traditionally the crosses were placed at the edges of villages, beside the paths that connected one village or town to another. The growth of these towns and villages, in recent times, means that now they are located inside the network of village streets. Whilst they vary notably in type and chronology, the crosses are usually set on a stepped polygonal base and they feature a religious decoration, normally linked to the Crucifixion. Aside from their value as an artistic object and geographical landmark, we should also add the religious function they have performed for centuries, as part of the religious calendar. 9) The via crucis Certain villages and towns in the Tramuntana area still have chapels with faades that fulfil the function of part of a via crucis. One outstanding example is the via crucis running through the Puig district of Dei, comprised of twelve small framed quadrangular chapels, built using a kind of local stone mars and containing ceramic tiles showing the corresponding season. They also feature the name of the sponsor, which is usually an organization Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca Tourist Board) or the Provincial Government or the names of families who own the local rural estates. One unique variant of the via crucis is the path of the Mysteries of Lluc, also called the Rosary path. Built in the year 1909 under the direction of engineer Guillem Carbonell, it leads to La Roca del Encuentro: the place where, according to tradition, the Virgin of Lluc appeared, very close to the top of the hill. In 1913, the installation of medallions with the bronze reliefs of the fifteen mysteries of the Rosary (five joyful, five sorrowful and five glorious) was completed. This was the work of sculptor Josep Llimona and the Esteve Barber foundry in Olot. The medallions can be found on five limestone monuments, located on five esplanades that serve as panoramic vantage points. Under the reliefs is the corresponding stone plaque bearing the Latin verse from the Holy Rosary.

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10) Religious heritage in the form of furnishings The parish churches, convents, oratories and other religious monuments of the Tramuntana area contain an important, often little-known source of heritage in the form of furnishings, particularly altarpieces and carvings. The Museum of Lluc deserves a special mention. It was founded in the year 1952 and, in it, you can see the Treasures of the Virgin, a set of objects made of gold, silver and precious stones, as well as adornments that have been donated to the Virgin of Lluc over the centuries. There are also chalices, ciboria, monstrances, a Lignum Crucis dating back to the first half of the 16th century, velvet tunics, ex-votos and other offerings. The museum also houses a collection of statues and a collection of display case nativity scenes. Some of these churches still have their antique organs. Indeed the island of Mallorca is one of the places in Europe with the highest density of this kind of musical instrument. The oldest organs are in the Almudaina palace (dating back to the year 1313), Palma Cathedral (1328) and Pollena (1391). In the second half of this century, monumental organs with a Gothic structure were introduced, and a Mallorcan musical school was created, with outstanding dynasties of organists such as the Roigs in the 16th century, the Caimaris in the 17th century and the Boschs in the 18th century. This last dynasty introduced important innovations to the architectural structure of the instrument, permanently abandoning the Aragonese flat front and adopting the Valencian three-sided swell box and ornamentation of the pipes, one of the most notable features of the Mallorcan Baroque. One important pipe organ builder was Jordi Bosch, who introduced horizontal or battle trumpets. He was responsible for the finest organs on Mallorca, such as that of Sant Domingo, for example, which dates back to the year 1765 and is now in Santany, and the organ of San Francisco in Palma, dating back to 1771. He also built the organs of the Royal Palace in Madrid and Seville Cathedral. The seizure of Church property dealt a severe blow to organs in existence up until that point. Many vanished and others the majority were transferred elsewhere. The most serious consequence was that the manufacture of new organs ground to a halt. In the early 20th century, the instrument recovered somewhat from its decline, above all after the First Vatican Council. Newer types of pipe organs reached Mallorca somewhat later than the rest of Spain, with the first Romantic pipe organs and French symphonic organ being installed in the Churches of Montesin and Santa Eulalia, and pneumatic organs like the one in Lluc (1922) or electric ones like the Casal Balaguer organ (1930).

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Among the collection of Mallorcan pipe organs declared Items of Cultural Interest, because they are the finest testimonials of a tradition of organ building lasting over five hundred years, we can find those of the Convent of Santo Domingo in Pollena and the Parish Church of Santa Maria del Cam. 2.a.6 Maritime heritage The north coast of the Tramuntana area, which is extremely difficult to navigate, contains numerous examples of maritime heritage related to surveillance of the coast, sailing and the exploitation of its relatively scarce fishing resources. They include coastal towers, lighthouses, dry docks and heritage linked to smuggling. Quarries for the extraction of mars (sandstone) complete the list of coastal heritage of interest value. 1) Coastal watchtowers The geographical isolation that Mallorca endured for centuries and incursions and attacks by pirates on numerous occasions led to the depopulation of the coast as a way of dealing with a danger that generally arrived by sea. This circumstance has meant that, historically, the area has acted as a last redoubt. As a result, there are two medieval castles Alar Castle and Castell del Rei, in Pollena- in this area, along with numerous watchtowers and defensive towers, organized around a complex system of signals and communications, designed to warn of the presence of enemy ships or provide protection from the attackers once they had disembarked.
Figure 46. The Ses nimes tower, in Banyalbufar

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The construction of the first defensive towers and watchtowers that line the coast of Mallorca began in the 16th century, although the presence of guards and lookouts is documented from the 14th century on. The insecurity of the period gave rise to the construction of an authentic network of towers that could communicate with each other in order to warn others of possible undesired or unforeseen landings. The signalling system and network were designed by mathematician and historian Joan Baptista Binimelis (1539-1616). In the Tramuntana area, the towers that have survived are the Sa Mola, Cala Basset and SEvanglica towers in the municipality of Andratx; in Banyalbufar, the Es Verger or Ses nimes tower; in Valldemossa the Son Galceran tower; in Dei the Sa Pedrissa and Cala de Dei towers; in Sller the Picada tower; in Fornalutx the Na Seca tower; in Escorca the Es Forat, Sa Mola de Tuent, Es Bosc and Lluc towers, and in Pollena the Aubercutx tower. Two of them are on lands that belonged to Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria: the Talaia de la Trinitat or Son Galceran, a cylindrical defensive tower that the Archduke himself bought in 1878; and the Torre de Sa Pedrissa, circular-based very large one, measuring 7.5 m in diameter and standing 10 m tall. The coastal towers are situated in places with good visibility of the coast, high up and in sight of neighbouring and adjoining towers. The tower keepers sent warning signals in the form of fire or smoke, depending whether it was day or night. The layout of the towers was always circular, and the entrance was high up to impede access by any potential direct form of attack, so a rope-and-wood ladder was used to enter and then removed in the event of danger. A spiral staircase led up to the rooftop, where there was usually a hut or sentry box and a cannon or two with the corresponding ammunition. As well as these towers, we must also mention ones that were built onto numerous rural estate houses, which served as a refuge in the event of invasion. Some remarkable examples can be found on the Son Orlandis (Andratx), Son Fortuny (Estellencs), Son Mas (Valldemossa) or Albarca (Escorca) estates. In some cases, when the sea presented almost no danger any longer, in the 19th century the roofs were replaced by battlement tops, due to the influence of Romanticist aesthetics. The towers located on the western half of the Tramuntana coastline are the best conserved ones, due to their ease of access. In contrast, those located on the coast of Escorca are the ones most in need of restoration with the exception of the Sa Mola de Tuent tower, which was recently restored by Escorca Council as they are set on nearlyinaccessible cliff tops.

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2) Lighthouses Mallorcan lighthouses are single-tower buildings located in clearly-visible places on the edge of the coast or set on cliff platforms or reefs. In fact they are situated in strategic points along the coastline, so that the lantern that projects long-range beams of light is visible to all sailors from a long distance. The lighthouses are classified in a series of classes according to their importance. Those in the first category or class are the ones in the most important geographical locations, like peninsulas and capes, and they warn ships farer away of the presence of the coast by means of a rotating beam. The lighthouses in the second, third and fourth categories guide coastal shipping, warning of the presence of islands, rocks and sandbanks. Finally, the least important lighthouses the fifth and sixthclass ones serve as beacons to mark the entrance of a port. The nine lighthouses on the coast of the Tramuntana area, like the rest of the lighthouses on the island, are relatively modern items of heritage, as most of them were built in the mid-19th century, following the directives of a General Plan for maritime lighting for the Spanish coast dating back to the year 1847. At the time, a series of improvements was introduced, relating both to the architecture of the buildings themselves and the fuels and lighting systems that were used, and at the same time new optical apparatus was incorporated in order to increase the amount of light they projected. From an aesthetical point of view, the lighthouses of the Mallorcan mountains follow the same neo-Classical criteria popularly adopted in many other places around the world that Frenchman Durant imposed at the beginning of the 19th century, even though engineer Emili Pou was responsible for lighthouse design on the Balearic archipelago. Execution of the building work of many of the lighthouses took place during the reign of Isabel II, when the lighting apparatus was French-manufactured and they were fuelled by olive oil, a system that would be replaced by the progressive introduction of oil and gas, which eventually disappeared with the arrival of electricity and solar or photovoltaic energy. A total of nine important lighthouses are recorded in the Tramuntana area. Three of them are on the island of Dragonera in the south: the Dragonera lighthouse, Llebeig lighthouse and Tramuntana lighthouse. The first one was built in around 1850 on the highest point of the island to guide ships through the strait that separates Sa Dragonera from the island of Mallorca, which was used as a passage by sailors coming from Barcelona. The constant mists that hang over the island often hid its light, which is why the decision was taken to build the Llebeig (1910) and Tramuntana lighthouses.

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Figure 47. Early 20th-century photo of the Far Vell, now disused, in the port of Sller.

The lighthouse in the Port of Andratx is the only one on the island located on a dock, identifying the mouth of the port. It began operating in the year 1859, but alteration work was carried out in 1904, when a conical trunk standing eleven metres tall was erected. In the Port of Sller there are three lighthouses: the Muleta lighthouse, located 101 metres above sea level, Vell lighthouse and Nou lighthouse. The Muleta lighthouse was built in the year 1842 and its tower is 19.5 metres tall. The Nou lighthouse was built in the year 1930 to make up for the structural and signalling deficiencies of the Vell lighthouse, also designed by engineer Emili Pou. At the tip of the Formentor peninsula, in the municipality of Pollena, stands the Cape Formentor lighthouse. Set 210 metres above sea level, it is the highest in the Balearic Islands. The building is an exact copy of the lighthouse on the island of Cabrera, with a square layout and a tower 20 metres in height. It has enough living space to accommodate three families. In the southern section of the coast of Pollena, we can find the lighthouse of Punta de lAvanada, built under the direction of Eusebi Estada. It was inaugurated in 1905. The building is comprised of two equal sections joined by a central part and it has an octagonal-based pyramidshaped tower attached to the rear.

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3) Seashore dry docks Although there are few of them, in places offering most shelter from storms one can find traditional dry docks, known as alcoves in the Tramuntana and escars in the rest of the island. Generally speaking they are sheltered spots where a ramp has been built for launching or removing fishing boats from the water. The presence of boathouses or shelters to house boats is very common, whilst the ramp used as a slipway for the boats is made of wooden planks nailed to the ground. These dry docks may be made of wood or a mixture of building materials and wood. Their function is none other than that of protecting and sheltering small fishing or leisure boats, and they are, for the most part, located in places along the coast with difficult access, such as the strip of coast between Port dEstellencs and the cove of Dei. Even so, their exposure to sea storms explains the scanty presence of these constructions, which are much more abundant on the eastern and southern coasts of Mallorca. Many coastal estates have their own dry docks, as is the case of the DAmunt estate in Dei, Son Marroig, Can Puigserver or Son Beltran. These last docks, belonging to Son Beltran, date back to the 18th century, featuring a singular stone lintel with a coat of arms chiselled into it. The Sa Costa dry dock is built using mars (sandstone), in one of the least accessible places in the mountain range.

Figure 48. The alcoves of the tiny fishing village of SEstaca (Valldemossa).

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4) The landscape of smugglers Pursuit of coastal smugglers gave rise to a number of very interesting buildings on Mallorca, such as the Cosconar police barracks in the municipality of Escorca, as well as paths for observation of the sea and hiding places used by smugglers, known on the island as secrets (secrets). 2.a.7. Traditional lifestyles Towns and villages are the communitys main source of social life. The economic, political, educational, cultural and religious activities of different members of society find their expression in houses, public spaces, social and power relations, ideologies and beliefs, everyday life, diet, attire and tasks that are performed. In the Tramuntana area, towns and villages have evolved from former settlements from Moslem times, and have been deeply influenced by the orography of the mountains themselves. Life in them has gradually changed as time has passed, but these changes were accentuated with the growth of the tourism sector in the 1960s. Until then, the town was the most important place in the municipality, and the square, with its cafs and barbers shops, was the social centre, above all on Sundays, when people left church, and on public holidays and market days. It was a meeting place, a place for bargaining and the centre of social life.
Figure 49. The village of Dei in around the year 1920.

Mallorcas countryside that is, most of the islands territory cannot be understood without taking a look at the social and interpersonal relations that took place in rural estates or possessions. They were hubs of rural life and the backbone of traditional conventions in the Mallorcan

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countryside. These large estates, the purpose of which was farming and livestock rearing, were administrated from a nucleus of buildings called the estate houses, consisting of the cases dels senyors (landowners houses) and cases dels amos (farm managers houses). In them, the farm manager and his wife (lamo i la madona) frequently lived alongside the owner and his family (els senyors). The senyors were landowners and members of the nobility, belonging to what was called the bra noble (literally noble arm) or m major rural, boasting a high level of independence in these rural areas. They controlled the abundant peasant labour force on the basis of a classist, clearly hierarchical social structure, reflected to perfection in this glosa (Mallorcan folk song): (If he is a landowner, he should wear gloves. If he is the farm managers son, he should wear a kerchief. And if he is the son of the sharecropper, he should wear calluses on his hands). Si s senyor, que dugui guants. Si s fill damo, mocador. I si s fill darrendador, que dugui calls per ses mans These estates constituted a unique system of production and system of social interaction, in which the landowners, lamo (farm manager) and the madona (his wife) lived side by side with many other workers: amitger, majoral, missatge, jornaler, pareller, bover, oguer, hortol, segadors, homes dera, jornalers, and also the traginers (carters) and collidores doliva (olive gatherers), that is to say people from different places around the island who came on a temporary basis to work during the olive harvest. This meant there had to be enough space to accommodate these temporary workers.
Figure 50. Collidores doliva (olive gatherers), in the Tramuntana Mountain in around 1920

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The traditional lifestyles, agricultural and livestock-related know-how of the peasants, specific solutions adopted to meet subsistence requirements, and ways of seeing and understanding the region are expressed in the everyday universe of the estates. In the words of George Sand (1855: 37): Nowhere have I seen the land worked with such patience, or such calm. Even the simplest of machines is unknown here. The arms of men arms that are rather thin and weak in comparison to those of our own peasants suffice for everything, albeit with unthinkable slowness. Although the senyors barely lived on some estates, they usually alternated summer seasons in their townhouses with time spent at the estate. Particularly after the 17th century when social conflicts (the Revolta Forana, and Germanies) between landowners and peasants were over, large landowning families who had a townhouse sought a residence in the Tramuntana area, where we can observe a higher density of estate houses belonging to landowners than on the rest of the island, as well as greater complexity in the rooms, chapels, gardens etc. These more frequent visits to their mountain estates on the part of landowners is linked both to scenic questions and the fact that they had a larger water supply. Forest areas also had workers who specialized in different activities related to forestry, notably the roters, sharecroppers who rented the most unproductive part of the estate lands; the marger, in charge of building and repairing the hillside terraces; the llenyater, who would cut down trees and bushes to supply wood; the carboner, who manufactured charcoal using wood from the surrounding area; the calciner, responsible for manufacturing lime; or the nevater, who manufactured ice. Some of these activities were seasonal. So the carboner, for example, usually worked from spring to autumn. In contrast, the nevaters could only work during winter. Often these chores were carried out by groups of four to six people in the case of lime manufacturing, or eight to twelve people in the case of ice. These workers habitually spent long spells in the mountains, surviving precariously and, as a result, they built huts (roter, carboner and nevater huts) where they could take shelter alongside the architectural structures they used in their forestry work (the sitja de carb, forn de cal, casa de neu etc). They would also build ovens for baking the bread that constituted their staple diet, and tanks for storing water. Sometimes an enclosure was also prepared for the livestock that helped transport their products. Mountain activities were clearly different harder and more solitary to life in villages or towns or on estates, but people who could not work as agricultural labourers on an estate and did not have their own piece of

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Figure 51. A peasant from Pollena, wearing traditional Mallorca attire. Photo from the late 19th or early 20th century.

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land to subsist from were destined to work in these mountain activities, often accompanied by their family or other people in the same situation. Whilst most of these old trades have gradually disappeared, we can still find numerous vestiges of these activities scattered around the area. In addition to these activities, in the summer shepherds would also move the livestock from flatter areas of the island to the Tramuntana Mountains where they could find the necessary pasture land. 2.a.8. Traditional know-how and techniques Villages and towns, estates and paths in the Tramuntana were opportunities for communication and the interchange of products, ideas and knowledge. One of the most valuable treasures of the Tramuntana areas is its drystone construction work. This building technique, used since time immemorial, is clearly linked to a group of local craftsmen, who over the centuries have passed on their techniques, materials, learning processes and specialist vocabulary to extend areas of farmland, improve harvests, prevent damage and utilize the water this area receives in such an irregular fashion. The inhabitants of the Tramuntana area also benefited from an extensive cultural background - transmitted orally from generation to generation and enriched through experience and collaboration - relating to agricultural and livestock processes and techniques, as well as knowledge of how to use natural resources (wood, snow, charcoal, lime, game, fishing and sailing, gathering resources, minerals, and stone). Processing techniques (salting, drying, storage) were also transmitted in a fundamentally oral manner, as were agricultural processing methods in oil mills, other mills, and wineries, together with knowledge of the medicinal properties of plants. Regrettably, the decline of farming and the disappearance of the last labourers who carried out these tasks threaten to relegate this extensive area of age-old knowledge to obscurity. It is essential that it be preserved and documented so that it can be made known to future generations.

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2.a.9. Ethnographic, scientific and technical knowledge In 1869 Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Habsburg-Lorraine and Bourbon of Austria (Florence, 1847 Prague, 1915) arrived in Mallorca, becoming known locally as sArxiduc. He was so captivated by the beauty of the north coast that in 1872 he purchased Miramar and gradually acquired most of the estates located between Valldemossa and Dei. He had the spirit of a traveller and a scientist, and was a great nature lover too, building paths and vantage points on these estates.

Over the following decades, Miramar became the centre of his possessions. It was there that he received all his visitors, who were drawn by the beauty of the landscape, and they can be considered Mallorcas first tourists. They include the French painter and writer Gastn Vuillier; the prehistorians Bartoli and Cartailhac; the Spanish naturalist Odn de Buen; the botanist and rector of the University of Geneva, Roberto H. Chorat; the writer Margherita DEste; and the poets Rubn Daro and Jacinto Verdaguer. Over the years he mixed with Mallorcan and Catalan intellectuals (Antoni M Alcover,

Figure 52. Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria

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Miquel Costa i Llobera, Santiago Rusinyol, Jacint Verdaguer, Francisco Manuel de los Herreros, and Miguel de Unamuno). He became integrated into the local population, learning the Catalan language and investigating traditional culture. As a result he published Rondalles de Mallorca (Folktales of Mallorca, 1895), among other works. But the Archdukes fundamental contribution was Die Balearen geschildert in Wort und Bild (The Balearic Islands Described in Words and Pictures, 1897), a complete radiography of the reality of the Balearic Islands in the second half of the 19th century in which he describes the habits, customs and scenery of the Balearic archipelago, populated and worked just by its inhabitants along with the occasional traveller. This extensive work would later achieve international recognition. In fact, Jules Verne based a part of his novel Clovis Dardentor (1896), set in Mallorca, on this book, since Verne himself never visited the island. Aside from the contributions that Archduke Ludwig Salvator made to broadening knowledge of the ethnography and culture of the Tramuntana area, we must also stress those of other researchers and scientists, such as Franois Arag, Dorothea Bate, Guillem Colom, Emil G. Racovitza and William Waldren. They contributed to a knowledge of the natural environment of the Tramuntana area and boosted work carried out subsequently by other researchers: Franois Arag (17861853) was a French scientist, famous the world over because he performed measurements to determine the exact length of the metre. In the month of May in 1808 he travelled to Mallorca and moved to the top of the mountain of SEsclop, very close to the Puig de Galatz summit. A simple ruined rectangular hut still reminds us of his stay here. The period when Arag lived on Mallorca coincided with a time of great political instability caused by the outbreak of the French War of Independence. Because of this, Arags work with fire and optical objects on the mountain top were misinterpreted, and he was thought to be an agent in the service of the Emperor of France. He spent the month of July as a prisoner in Bellver Castle, after which he left for France. Linnaeus, the famous Swedish naturalist, regarded as the father of the classification of living things, described diverse species in the Balearic Islands and Tramuntana area: ...My God! These happy islanders have in their fields the plants that adorn our gardens, even the academic ones... Emil G. Racovitza arrived in Mallorca in the month of July 1904 during the course of a French oceanographic expedition. Amongst other places, he visited the Drac caves (Manacor) and took samples of the

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Figure 53. Dance of the Alar Cossiers , according to an illustration in Die Balearen in Wort und Bild, (19th century), a work by Archduke Ludwig Salvator.

organisms he found there. The following year he presented a description of a new species, Typhlocirolana Moraguesi, the name of which refers to the naturalist and owner of the caves, Fernando Moragues. The discovery of this tiny crustacean marked the direction his studies would take, which tended towards cave fauna. The publication of his work Essai sr les problmes bioespleologiques (1907) laid the foundations of biospeleology. Emil G. Racovitza went on numerous expeditions during the course of his life and he held different posts in European scientific institutions, becoming deservedly famous as a scientist. The European Dragan Foundation erected a sculpture in Palmas Passeig Martim in his memory. Dorothea Bate (1878 - 1951) was one of the most important speleologists of her time, an authentic fossil hunter. At the age of 22 she embarked on her first expedition to Cyprus in search of fossils, and the find of 12 new sites encouraged her to continue her travels in Crete, Corsica, Malta and beyond. In 1909 she came to Mallorca where, according to her own notes, she found some fossils of an unknown animal on the island. Her initial studies reached no decisive conclusions, but they were dedicated fundamentally to description, as the contradictory characteristics of the new animal confused Bate: it had the cranium and two horns of a goat, but the most striking peculiarity were two large incisors similar to those of rodents. This particularity inspired her to name the new species: Myotragus Balearicus meaning goat-rat of the Balearics. Dorothea contacted local researchers like Pere

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Caldentey, but it was her compatriot Charles Andrews who continued her work. However, Bates early notes already spoke of the changes in the physiognomy of the animal due to its evolution in conditions of insularity. Guillem Colom Casasnovas (Sller, 1900 - 1993) was a Mallorcan geologist who specialized in the geology of the Balearics. A specialist in foraminifera and calpionellids, he discovered approximately 250 new species for science and published over 200 technical and informative books, articles in scientific journals, including Estudios sobre la sedimentacin profunda de las Baleares (Studies on the Deep Sedimentation of the Balearics - 1947), Ms all de la prehistoria (Beyond Prehistory - 1950), Los foraminferos del burdigaliense de Mallorca (The Burdigalians Foraminifera of Mallorca - 1952), and Biogeografa de las Baleares (Biogeography of the Balearic Islands -1957). Although Colom always worked independently from any private or public organization, his scientific vocation and sense of responsibility made him serve international science as a member of the Societ Gologique de France (1966), the Cushman Foundation (1954), Madrid Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (1950), Madrid Real Academia de Ciencias (1950), and Barcelona Reial Acadmia de Cincies i Arts (1954). As a result his laboratory in Sller became a reception centre for specialists from all over the world between 1934 and 1993. The United States-born archaeologist William Waldren (1924-2003) so discovered the goat / antelope Myotragus Balearicus, a species that disappeared 4,000 years ago according to experts, because it fell prey to the first humans who arrived on the islands. Waldren made Dei his habitual residence in around 1953, creating a museum devoted to the archaeology of the Balearic Islands there. Waldren had previously devoted himself to painting, but his passion for the ways our ancestors found of solving problems led him to become interested in archaeology and to take a PhD in this speciality at Oxford, where he lectured for several years. From Dei, Waldren worked on different excavations both in Mallorca and Menorca, along with a team of local collaborators. One highlight of his work is the discovery of the campaniform culture in Son Marroig in Valldemossa, and the now-extinct endemic species Myotragus Balearicus in La Muleta cave in Sller. He was also crucial in locating the Son Mas shrine and an important settlement in Son Oleza.

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2.a.10. Religious ideas and beliefs Not only have the Mallorcan mountains been considered a place steeped in energy and spirituality by writers and artists, even in a context with an inclination towards introspection as can be seen in some neo-Classical and Romantic poems. The different cultures that settled on the island of Mallorca over the years have attributed a sacred character to certain places or inhabitants of the area, venerating the forces of nature and erecting buildings to perform their religious practices. Although we can recognise some religious and funerary structures from the Talayotic period, knowledge of the religious practices and beliefs of the first settlers on the island is scanty. Neither have any significant architectural or material remains relating to the religions of the Roman, Paleo-Christian, Byzantine and Moslem cultures survived. This is in sharp contrast to the profusion of remains relating to the Christian culture, which was introduced to the island last of all, yet more strongly and continuously, an it has made a significant mark on the regions popular and religious expression. In the heart of the Tramuntana Mountains, as it has been said, especially in the municipality of Escorca, the oldest religious remains in Mallorca can be found: the Talayotic shrines of Almallutx and activity in the forests of Lluc, the name of which stems from the Latin Lucus, which means sacred wood or place. Nevertheless, there are still many unknown factors regarding the religious practices and beliefs of these first communities on the island, both Talayotic and Roman. Nowadays the shrine at Lluc is one of the islands main spiritual centres, with an important tradition of pilgrimages and pilgrims coming from all over the island to prove their devotion to the Gothic statue of the Virgin of Lluc. This devotion dates back to 1273 and clearly remains alive today, as throughout the year Mallorcas different towns and villages organize group walks to the monastery. As of old, the traditional paths that interconnect the different parts of the Tramuntana Mountains and connect it to the rest of the island are used for these pilgrimages. One of these pilgrim paths comes from Sller and ascends the whole of the Biniaraix gully. Another fundamental path is the one that leaves the shrine in the direction of Caimari and from there provides access to the rest of the island (Inca, Manacor, Alcdia and Palma). The Tramuntana Mountains have also been frequented by monastic communities who sought the silent tranquillity and inspiring beauty needed for prayer, leading a life far away from the problems of towns. The most emblematic initiative was the Oriental language school that Ramon

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Llull founded in Miramar (1276), where Franciscan friars were trained to become missionaries and preach the gospel and the Ars luliana to the Moslems. This was not an isolated experiment because later on, different contemplative congregations some of them genuine followers of Ramon Llull continued this hermit spirit, searching for a place in the mountains where they could pray and lead a life far from urban worries. From the natural viewpoints of Miramar, Llull would go into ecstasies through the contemplation of nature and he was able to express himself in scenic verse like those found in the composition Hores de Nostra Dona (When I see the earth and the sea and the sky and I hear the birds sing, then I feel such sweetness in my heart, as great I had never felt before): Quan veig la terra e la mar, e lo cel e oig aucells cantar, adoncs sent al cor tal dolor que anc no la sent major. A stanza of the poem written by Ramon Llull in 1299 refers explicitly to the scenery of Miramar, using the terms entre la vinya e el fenollar (literally amidst the vines and the fennel); in general the vision of nature in Llulls works is conventional and idealized, but it does contain glimpses of a personal, living incisive interpretation. Cant de Ramon Ramon Llull Sn creat e sser ms dat a servir Du que fos honrat, e sn cat en mant pecat e en ira de Du fui pausat. Jess me venc crucificat, volc que Dus fos per mi amat. Mat an querre perd a Du, e pris confessi ab dolor e contrici. De caritat, oraci, esperana, devoci, Dus me f conservaci.

Figure 54. Ramon Llull

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Lo monestir de Miramar fiu a frares Menors donar per sarrans a precar. Entre la vinya e el fenollar amor me pres, fem Dus amar, entre sospirs e plors estar. Dus Paire, Fill, Dus espirat de qui s santa Trinitat tract com fossen demonstrar. Dus Fill, del cel s devallat, de una Verge est nat, Du e home, Crist apel.lat. Lo mn era en damnaci; mor per dar salvaci Jess, per qui el mn creat fo. Jess puj al cel sobre el tro, venr a jutjar li mal e el bo: no valran plors querre perd. Novell saber hai atrobat, pot-nhom conixer veritat e destruir la falsetat: sarrans seran batejat, tartres, jueus e mant orat, per lo saber que Dus mha dat. Pres hai la crots, tramet amors a la Dona de pecadors que della maport gran socors. Mon cor est casa damors e mos ulls fontanes de plors. Entre gauig estaig e dolors. Sm hom vell, paubre, menyspreat, no hai ajuda dhome nat e hai trop gran fait emperat. Gran res hai del mn cercat, mant bon eximpli hai donat: poc sn conegut e amat.

Vull morir en plag damor. Per sser gran no nhai paor de mal prncep ne mal pastor. Tots jorns consir la deshonor que fan a Du li gran senyor. Qui meten lo mn en error. Prec Dus trameta misatgs, devots, scients e verdaders a conixer que Dus home s. La Verge on Du hom se fes e tots los sants della sotsms prec que en infern no sia ms. Laus, honor al major Senyor al qual tramet la mia amor que dell reeba resplandor. No sn digne de far honor a Du, tan fort sn pecador e sn de llibres trobador. On que vage cuit gran b far, e a la fi res no hi puc far, per qu nhai ira e pesar. Ab cont rici e plorar vull tant a Du merc clamar que mos llibres vulla exalar. Santedat, vida, sanitat gauig, me d Dus e llibertat, e guard-me de mal e pecat. A Du me sn tot comanat: mal esperit ne hom irat no hagen en mi potestat. Man Dus als cels e als elements, plantes e totes res vivents que no em facen mal ni turments. Dm Dus companyons coneixents, devots, lleials, humils, tements, a procurar sos honraments.

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As well as surroundings steeped in spirituality, the Tramuntana Mountains have different characters and events of a religious nature associated with them. One outstanding figure is that of Saint Catalina Thomas, known all over the island as La Beateta, who was born in the village of Valldemossa in 1531. Orphaned at an early age, as a young child she already showed signs of her religiosity and determination to enter a convent. After overcoming the reluctance of her family and lack of dowry, in 1553 she entered the Convent of Santa Maria Magdalena of the Augustinian canonesses regular of Palma. News of her exemplary life and the ecstasies she experienced spread beyond the walls of the convent and her fame took such root in the village and the island that by the time of her death, she was already worshipped as a saint. Her incorrupt body is still preserved in Santa Magdalena Convent of the Augustinian nuns in Palma, where she passed away in 1574. She was beatified in 1792 thanks to the intermediation of Cardinal Antoni Despuig who also had a sumptuous chapel erected in the convent church of Santa Maria Magdalena, where she took her vows and her incorrupt body is worshipped to this day. She was canonized in 1930 by Pope Pius XI. The humble house where she was born still stands in Valldemossa, located at number 5 Calle Rectora. In 1930 the Valldemossa-born saint became the patron saint of the village and the most important festivals in Valldemossa celebrate the Triumphal Carriage or Parade of the Beata, when a 6-year-old girl is chosen to play the part of the saint in a procession through the whole village, which is decked out with plants and flowers. 2.a.11. Artistic expression The Tramuntana Mountains have acted and still act as a model and source of inspiration for many different artists mainly painters and writers since Valldemossa Monastery welcomed the musician Frdric Chopin and writer George Sand from the winter of 1838 to 1839. They stayed in monastery cells that still conserve memories of their time there, like the Pleyel piano that the composer used and manuscripts and first editions of Sands work Un hiver Majorque (A Winter in Mallorca, 1855). This was a controversial work because as well as describing the beauty of the scenery of the Tramuntana Mountains, Sand also highlighted the lack of comfort, upsets and setbacks that the couple experienced living alongside the inhabitants of Valldemossa. Despite all this, Sand acknowledged the merits of its cultural landscape, stating: Everything the poet or painter might dream of has been created here by nature. Chopin also praised the north coast of Mallorca in a letter to Juli Fontana on November 15th 1838: I will very probably go to live in a charming

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Figure 55. Frdric Chopin

monastery set in the loveliest place in the world; the sea, mountains, palm trees, a cemetery, church dating back to the Crusades, ruined mosque, ancient olives Now, dear friend, I enjoy life somewhat more; I am very close to what is most beautiful in the world; I am a better man. They were not the first illustrious visitors to the monastery, because between 1801 and 1802 the famous writer and legal expert Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was confined there as a political prisoner on the orders of minister Godoy before being transferred to Bellver Castle in Palma. There he wrote his Memoria sobre educacin pblica o tratado tericoprctico

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Treatise on Public Education or Theoretical and Practical Treatise on Education Epistle to Poseidon

Treatise on Mallorcan Botany

de enseanza3, Epstola a Posidonio4 and two petitions to King Carlos IV, and he started work on the Tractado de Botnica Mallorquina5, which he would conclude during his strolls through Bellver wood. The old medieval palace of King San, which in time came to form part of the monastery, has also housed figures as illustrious as Unamuno, Azorn and Rubn Daro (1906 and 1913). The latter published two novels, La isla de oro and El oro de Mallorca, the second of which was published in instalments in the Buenos Aires newspaper La Nacin. Endless personalities have visited Valldemossa in recent years, lured by the monasterys musical influence, thanks to the Chopin Festival, which has been held since 1930 with 28 editions to date. Some of these personalities include Igor Stravinsky, Arthur Rubinstein, Alfred Cortot, Manuel de Falla, Alexander Tansmann, Karol Szymanowski, Ignaz Paderewski, Maurice Ravel and Pau Casals. La voz de la Cartuja Rubn Daro Este vetusto monasterio ha visto, secos de orar y plidos de ayuno, con el breviario y con el Santo Cristo, a los callados hijos de San Bruno. A los que en su existencia solitaria, con la locura de la cruz y el vuelo msticamente azul de la plegaria, fueron a Dios en busca de consuelo. Mortificaron con las disciplinas y los cilicios la carne mortal, y opusieron, orando las divinas ansias celestes al furor sexual. Darme unas manos de disciplinante que me dejen el lomo ensangrentado, y no estas manos lbricas de amante que acarician las pomas del pecado. Darme una sangre que me deje llenas las venas de quietud y en paz los sesos, y no esta sangre que hace arder las venas, vibrar los nervios y crujir los huesos. Y quedar libre de maldad y engao, y sentir una mano que me empuja a la cueva qua acoge al ermitao, o al silencio y a la paz de la Cartuja!

The Voice of the Monastery Rubn Daro This ancient monastery has seen, parched from praying and pale from fasting, with the breviary and with Christ, the silent children of Saint Bruno. Those who in their solitary existence, with the delirium of the cross and the mystically blue flight of prayer, turned to God in search of consolation.

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They mortified with discipline and hair shirts their mortal flesh, and repressed sexual passions by praying divine heavenly yearnings. Give me the hands of a penitent that leave me with bleeding skin, and not these lewd lovers hands that caress the apples of sin.

Give me blood that fills my veins with calm and my brains with peace, and not this blood that makes my veins boil, my nerves throb and my bones creak. And let me remain free from evil and deceit, and feel a hand that pushes me to the cave that welcomes the hermit, or to the silence and peace of the Monastery!

Among Archduke Ludwig Salvators prolific work, one authentic example of poetic prose stands out, inspired by contemplation of the landscape of Miramar and Sa Foradada. It is Somnis destiu ran de mar (Seaside Summer Dreams, 1912). In it, he says (p. 101): Natures contemplation, done as it should be done, must be regarded as a prayer in which man bows submissively before the Creator of all these miracles. In this same work (p. 6-8), he describes the different features of the landscape of Mallorcas north coast: Seaside Summer Dreams Archduke Ludwig Salvator In this solitude, the human voice is almost a disturbance and, when you speak to another here, you do it quietly as if you feared to break that higher silence. You are afraid of adding a discordant note to natures harmony, where only the wheeling of the birds around distant cliffs stands out, seeming to accompany the rhythmic beating of the waves. You almost feel tempted to hold your breath so as to listen better. () Sometimes clouds scud by close to the mountains and then they move backwards as if compelled by an invisible force, because behind the mountains there is another wind that whips them round. The air reposes gently like the sea, or rather the sea rests because there is no wind, and thus our souls rest doubly in this peaceful natural haven. Because while we see our sentiments reflected in nature, at the same time nature also influences us, arousing, inspiring or tranquilizing, depending on the circumstances. It is an influence that we initially do not perceive, we cannot touch or see it and we are unconsciously affected by it. It is a domain similar to the realm of ideas in which we were educated and so it also educates. Nature sets the tone.

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One anecdote about the Archduke demonstrates his sensitivity toward the landscape that he cared for and made his home. One of the peasants who worked on his land is said to have once stood staring at the Archduke. When he was asked why, the peasant replied: I wanted to meet the person who paid so much for Son Marroig (the estate that the Archduke had purchased). The Archduke pointed out that Son Marroig had been a gift, because Sa Foradada alone was worth much more.

Figure 56. Sa Foradada, Valldemossa

The Tramuntana Mountains were visited by other travellers, artists and naturalists from Europe and the Iberian peninsula, like Isidoro Antillon, Joseph Tarong, Santiago Rusiol and Jernimo de Berard, among many others. All of them highlighted the landscapes natural virtues and sometimes they portrayed a society and economic system anchored in traditional ways. Joan Cortada (1845, p. 98-99) visited the island and, after riding up to Castell del Rei (a castle in Pollena) astride a mule, he wrote: When I reached the foot of the mountain whose peak housed the ruins that we were planning to visit, we got down from the mules and started the ascent on foot, a long tiring one because you have to beat a path through the bushes and walk amid loose stones that trip you up each step you take. The ruins are magnificent. Three quarters of

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the castle are the work of nature, made up of a huge crag that seems to have been superimposed on top of the mountain A magnificent armoury with good gothic architecture has been fairly well conserved. From the peak, there are splendid well-assorted views depending where you stand. On a good day, you can see the mountains of Catalonia on the other side of the Mediterranean. The writer Josep Pla (in a note on Mallorca in Les Illes, 1921), Catalan Renaissance poets Joaquim Rubi dOrs and Joan Cortada i Sala (Viaje a Mallorca en el esto de 1845) and Julio Cortzar (in El rayo verde) also described the landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains. Miguel de Unamuno visited Mallorca on different occasions and devoted three chapters to it (In Mallorcas Tranquillity, On the Golden Island, the Olives of Valldemossa) in Andanzas y visiones espaolas (1922). Josep Pla described the scenic variety from the central plain to the northwestern mountains that both worlds offer spectators from any of the roads that runs between the central depression to the Tramuntana Mountains (PLA, 1970: 118-119): On both sides, you can see almond, carob and olive trees. Almonds in blossom, enveloped in an air midway between lilac and pink. (...) At the foot of the trunks, short blades of wheat create spacious damp green patches under the trees. (...) Amid the trees, from time to time, you can see an admirably located, delicious, rather decrepit, toasted rural mansion, with a palm tree before the door: a palm trees that offers itself up to the sun with masculine grace and total languidness. (...) As we approach the range of mountains along the north coast, almond trees become scarcer: the carobs continue for a little longer; and scrubland begins to appear amid olive groves. (...) When the road starts to wind through the first mountain buttresses, enclosed spots start to appear, together with sweet little valleys with lemon and orange trees amid the still air, and tiny vegetable gardens so warm and sheltered where a still calm and dreamlike light prevail. As for Sller, as he reached it by train, Pla exclaimed: When the traveller peers out over the valley, the spectacle is a breathtaking one (...) Sometimes the mixture of colours is so incredible that they form an unreal dreamlike palette, almost like a stage set. Mallorca is a place closely linked with art, among other things due to the melting pot of cultures that have combined to form it and to the outstanding beauty of its landscapes. Since the 19th century and, above all, throughout the 20th century, numerous artists from outside Mallorca have chosen it as the setting for their work, even settling on the island permanently. In short, Mallorca became a venue for writers and artists, who found the answer to what they were seeking on the island. The

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Figure 57. Painting by Santiago Rusiol, Valley of Orange Groves, Biniaraix (1901)

Catalan painters Santiago Rusiol and Joaquim Mir and Belgian painter William Degouve de Nuncques introduced Modernism and Symbolism, trends that represented a reaction to academic styles of painting, using elements of Impressionism and Post Impressionism. Once on the island, they forged friendships and shared experiences with local artists, like Antoni Gelabert, who was influenced by their spirit of renewal and developed a personal, synthesized approach to portraying the landscape. Just a few years later, this evolution was to continue with Hermen AngladaCamarasa and his disciples, who included the argentine Tito Cittadini. All of them settled in Pollena, transforming the Tramuntana Mountains into their source of inspiration. The Valencia-based artist Joaqun Sorolla made a very brief but notable trip to Mallorca, finding peace on the island and falling under the spell of the beauty of the northern coast. Throughout the 20th century, Pollena was a home for key local intellectuals, like the priest Miquel Costa i Llobera (1854-1922). He was the author of a poem entitled La Vall6 (1873) that described the joy he found in natures contemplation, together with the classic poem Lo pi de Formentor7 (1875), a tribute to the Mediterranean scenery of Mallorcas north coast. Taking refuge in the idyllic peace of Pollena and Formentor, he discovered that his muse inhabited those luminous places of bluish mountains and green shores. His poetry expresses an emotional attachment to the

6 7

The Valley

The Formentor Pine

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Figure 58. Joaquim Mir, Torrent de Pareis

real landscape that he contemplated, with two closely linked constant themes: religious sentiment and feelings for the landscape. The landscape that Costa portrays in his poems the vivid green scenery of Pollena, the blossom-filled valley of Ternelles, the opal-coloured cove at Formentor is converted into a literary landscape with features and characteristics that adopt a universality, as if this landscape were a symbol of the Mediterranean. It is a landscape that reflects a romantic longing: the poets yearning to be one with infinity, transmitting a desire to rise above the horizon and draw closer to God.

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Figure 59. Work by the painter Anglada Camarassa

Ribera de Canten i Dormen Costa i Llobera Un vespre de cel rogenc baixava un estol de gent, en llarga filera blanca, per un desert penyalar, que en la ribera de mar forma una estreta calanca. Eren dels ltims venuts, muntanyesos qui, batuts en llur defensa darrera, escapar del vencedor conseguien a favor dels penyals de la ribera. Ja en la cala, a poc a poc, anaren a prendre lloc dins una nau que hi havia. Era un gali, qui, mig buit, all estava per descuit, sense patr, sense guia. A on devien anar? Ning ho gos demanar, ning hi podia respondre... Anirien... cap al port, Ja en la vida, ja en la mort, Que els hagus de correspondre.

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The Shore of They Sing and Sleep Costa i Llobera One evening of a reddish sky a group of people, in a long white line, descended a deserted crag, which beside the seashore formed a narrow little cove. They were the last of the vanquished, mountain people who, defeated during their retreat, managed to flee the victor thanks to the rocky landscape of the coast. Once in the cove, little by little, They each took their place in a boat that was there. It was a galleon which had been abandoned there, half empty, without a captain or guide. Where should they go? No one dared ask, No one could reply They would gotoward the harbour, In life or death, whatever was their fate.

The musician Miquel Capllonch (1861-1935) was also born in Pollena. He was the owner of the Bquer and Albercuix estates and, throughout his life, he granted some of his land to the town of his birth. Since 2006, the Rotger Villalonga Foundation, in association with the local council and family of the artist, has held a musical tribute entitled Nits de Capllonch (Capllonch Evenings), which normally takes place in Montisin Church in Pollena during the winter season. The painter Dions Bennssar (1905-1967) was also from Pollena. He achieved international acclaim for picking up the baton of the well-known Pollena school of artists and continuing the Modernism of Anglada Camarasa while also creating his own style of Post-Impressionist and Expressionist work that can be seen in his former home, now a museum, in Pollena. The argentine artist Adam Diehl commissioned the construction of the famous Hotel Formentor, which first opened its doors in 1929 and continues to be a deluxe port of call for international celebrities, including kings, aristocrats, presidents, Noble prize winners, business entrepreneurs, and the Dalai Lama, Winston Churchill, Aristotle Onassis, Audrey Hepburn, Peter Ustinov, Ava Gardner, Gary Cooper, and intellectuals and writers like Francis de Miomandre (1880-1908) and Agatha Christie. The latter stayed there in 1932, going on to use it in one of her novels, Problem at Pollensa Bay (1958). It was there that Camilo Jos Cela and editor Carlos Barral organized two editions of a get-together entitled the Formentor Poetic Conversations (in 1959 and 1960), which gathered together numerous intellectuals. Special mention must also be made of the Pollena International Music Festival, held in Santo Domingo cloister. Initially founded in 1962 and now in its 47th edition, it is highpoint in Mallorcas cultural life.

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Figure 60. Robert Graves, portrait by Mati Klarwein

Part of the work of the British essayist, novelist and poet Robert Graves (Wimbledon, 1895 Dei, 1985) features Mallorca as a reference and, more specifically Dei, where he settled in 1929 and lived until his death, with the exception of a brief parenthesis between 1936 and 1945 motivated by the Spanish Civil War. His novel, The Golden Fleece (1946) is partially situated in Dei. The presence of the island in some of his short stories and the fact that, when he compiled them, the author decided to entitle a group of them Majorcan Short Stories demonstrates the importance that Mallorca played in the real and literary world of Robert Graves. Although they were initially published in the press, later eleven of them were published in 1965 in a compilation entitled Collected Short Stories, whose third part included eleven Majorcan Short Stories of the eighteen that can be found in his Complete Short Stories (1985). The author often refers to Mount Teix, which he considered to be a shrine for the Moon goddess. Nowadays Ca nAlluny, the house that Robert Graves and his partner at the time, writer Laura Riding, built is a museum open to the public.

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The Golden Fleece Robert Graves When they finally reached Dei, exhausted and with aching feet, Anceus found the nymph of the oranges sitting very stiffly on a stone, near a plentiful spring that came gushing out of the granite rock and watered the orchard. Here the mountain, covered in a thick mantle of wild olives and green oaks, sloped sharply down to the sea, five hundred feet below, dotted that day up to the horizon with small patches of fog that looked like sheep grazing Following in Graves footsteps, artists and writers from all over the world chose the scenery of the Tramuntana Mountains as a model and source of inspiration for their work. More specifically, the painter and archaeologist William Waldren (founder of the Dei Archaeological Museum), North-American painter Mary Taum (1925-1997), writers Laura Riding and Julio Cortzar, musicians Mike Oldfield and Kevin Ayers, painters Paul Hogarth and Mati Klarwein and entrepreneur Richard Branson all came to Dei. In the last case, Branson converted the Son Moragues and Son Canals estates into the famous Residencia Hotel. Several well-known foreign artists currently live in Valldemossa, like the German Nils Burwitz (1940), Bruno Zupan (1939) and Claudio Torcigliani (1954). We must also mention Josep Coll Bardolet (Barcelona, 1912- Valldemossa, 2007) whose paintings can be found in a foundation and exhibition centre in the village. Sller is also the setting for work by artists like the Aragonese sculptor Luis Lpez or painters Bernad Celi (1921-1985), Manuel Santos Panitz (New York, 1927), Francesca Spille (California, 1962), Gisela Schrader (Frankfurt, 1947) and the Swede Elna Ernest. Lastly, mention must be made of the innumerable local authors whose narrative work and poems have been influenced by the Tramuntana Mountains. As well as Miquel Costa i Llobera (the aforementioned author of the poem Lo pi de Formentor, published in Poesies; the poems Raixa, El Torrent de Pareis and El Gorg Blau, published in Noves poesies, 1907; and Lera dEscorca, in Tradicions i fantasies), other authors who must not go unnamed include Joan Alcover (with the poems Miramar written in 1876 and Notes de Dei, published in the volume Cap al tard, 1909), Miquel dels Sants Oliver (author of the poem Elisabet, emperadriu dustria, written on the occasion of a visit by the Empress of Austria in 1892 and 1893, and the poem El perfum de Sller, published in the volume Poesies, 1910), Bartomeu Ferr Perell (Miramar, in Proses i poesies, 1929), and Miquel Ferr i Juan (Lermita sobre el mar, in A mig cami, 1926; and Dins el bosc in Poesies completes, 1917), Josep L. Pons i Gallarza (author of the poem Los tarongers de Sller in Poesies, 1879), Bartomeu Rossell-Prcel (Sller, published in Imitaci del

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foc, 1938), Guillem Colom i Ferr (author of the poem La Serra. La Vall, in Entre el caliu i la cendra, 1972), Baltasar Porcel (author of La lluna i el Cala Llamp, 1963), Lloren Riber (La minyonia dun infant orat, 1935) and Joan Rossell de Son Fortesa (Influncia de la poesia, 1905). 3.a.12 Customs and traditions The different municipalities that make up the Tramuntana Mountains have contributed to the creation of a wide range of festivities and cultural events of a religious, pagan and commemorative nature. As well as traditional festivities, a wide variety of regular cultural activities have been created and integrated into the local festive calendar, forming part of the complementary activities on which cultural tourism to the area by islanders and nonislanders is partly based. 1) Festivities On the one hand, it is important to mention religious festivities, because with the Christian conquest of 1229 Catholicism was appointed the official religion, and so religious celebrations adhere to the Catholic festive calendar, with highpoints being: - Christmas All the towns and villages of the Tramuntana Mountains celebrate Christmas. Their streets are decorated with lights and other decorations and, from a religious point of view, on December 24th practically all Mallorcas churches celebrate Matines, the Christmas Eve midnight mass, to commemorate the birth of Jesus. One of the most emotional moments of this celebration is an ancient chant called the Sibilla. Generally speaking, this chant, which augers the end of the world, is sung by a young girl with a pure voice, dressed in a tunic, skullcap or hat and cloak embroidered with silk, and she holds a big sword in her hands. This ancient chant has only been conserved in Alguer (Sardinia) and Mallorca and it can be traced back to the tradition of medieval liturgical Christmas dramas, featuring a voice alternating with musical interludes. The protagonist, dressed in distinctive garments (the sword, tunic and cap) proclaims the arrival of the Day of Judgement. According to a 14th century book of traditional ecclesiastic practice in Palma Cathedral, the Sibilla has been sung since the Christian conquest. Breviaries were sent from the Kingdom of the Crown of Aragon with verses of the chant. This liturgical drama-cum-Gregorian chant was declared an Intangible Item of Cultural Interest by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce in 2004.

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Likewise, at the religious shrine at Lluc, mention must be made of the Blauets, a childrens choir named after the blue cassocks that they wear during services. This permanent choir of boys and girls sing the Salve Regina every day in public in front of the statue of the Virgin Mary. At the matins mass, a single blauet chants the Cant de la Sibilla, making this one of the most emblematic events on the island. - Saint Anthony the Abbott One of Mallorcas most traditional events is the feast day of Saint Anthony on January 17th each year. It is a festivity that is deeply rooted in popular tradition, dating back to Mallorcas former agricultural society. Back then, people asked Saint Anthony, the patron saint of domestic animals, to protect animals used in agricultural work. Over the years, the saint has been venerated in different ways, slowly developing into the festivity that we know today, although it has never lost its essence: the adoration of the saint and protection for animals. People flock to church with their animals for them to be blessed (the Benedes) by the benevolent Saint Anthony. Two classic ceremonies are held in Mancor de la Vall and Alar. The night before, the Revetla de San Antoni is held, a popular festivity when big bonfires are lit in the main streets and squares of towns, which people dance round. Fire, the real core of the celebration, symbolizes the purification and renewal of life at this festivity; the triumph of good over evil. Additionally, torrades (barbecues) are held and everyone shares cured meats like llonganisses, botifarrons, sobrassada and other local produce from the island. For the whole night a magical one for many people bagpipers play tirelessly and one of the nights highpoints is the traditional Dance of the Demons, which symbolizes the temptations that the Devil often laid before Saint Anthony. The following morning, the feast day of Saint Anthony, there is a solemn mass in honour of the saint and animals belonging to the townsfolk are blessed. From canaries, goldfinches, dogs, cats, pigs and hens to donkeys and horses, all the towns domestic animals wait eagerly by the church for mass to finish so that Saint Anthony can bless and safeguard them. In many places on the feast day, there is a parade of floats decorated with rural motifs that allude to Saint Anthonys life: Sant Antoni s un bon sant qui t un dobler li dna perqu li guard sanimal tant de pell com de ploma. (Saint Anthony is a good saint, those with money give it to him; for him to safeguard animals, whether covered in hair or feathers).

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In Pollena, after the traditional procession and blessing of the animals, a strange traditional event is held that does not extend to other towns or villages on the island: the townsfolk depart to look for a pine tree in Ternelles, accompanied by bagpipers. After lunch, in the Ternelles estate, the people of Pollena take the pine to a square named Plaa Vella. There it is stood vertically and youths from the town try and climb the 20 metres that the trunk usually measures. - Easter week Easter week stands out for a cultural programme made up of processions of Nazarenes, the Davallament in Pollena, and processions known as the procesiones del Encuentro. Easter week is a religious celebration that commemorates the death and resurrection of Jesus. At the same time, it is also a popular festivity, whose processions can be traced back to medieval times. Different brotherhoods of believers process through the streets of different towns in the Balearics, recreating Christs final days. The acts begin on Palm Sunday, which celebrates Jesus entrance into Jerusalem, and they continue for the whole following week. The most traditional component of Palm Sunday is the blessing of the olive branches and palm leaves taken to the procession, which are kept in the window of homes as a means of protecting the family. In the Tramuntana area, one particularly spectacular procession is El Davallament in Pollena, which takes place on Easter Friday. This procession, when the body of Christ is carried down 365 stone steps flanked by cypress trees from a hillock called El Calvario, is the most important event that day on Mallorca. The week of celebrations finishes on Easter Sunday, when most of the towns hold a procession known as the Encuentro, which represents a resuscitated Christ reunited with his mother. Mallorcas shrines and chapels play an important role during the week after the Easter week. After Easter Sunday, celebrations of a more recreational kind begin, traditionally known as pancaritats. They consist of communal picnics held on the outskirts of towns, usually preceded by a procession on foot to the local chapel or shrine. Some towns hold this event on Easter Monday, as is the case of Andratx, Pollena and Selva. Others, like Campanet, Mancor and sa Pobla, do it on the Tuesday. In Lloseta, it is held on Wednesday, while in Valldemossa and Alar, they wait for the first Sunday after Easter (called Diumenge de lngel), the day that concludes the week of the pancaritats. In a festive, friendly atmosphere, popular

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dances are held and traditional Easter food is eaten, with giants and xeremiers (popular musicians that play the Mallorcan bagpipes or xeremies). On this day, it is typical to eat traditional Easter produce like pies filled with meat, fish or peas, or a dish made of lamb with fried vegetables. Typical desserts include two pastries known as crespells and robiols. - Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, the festivity held 60 days after Easter Sunday, is celebrated almost all over Mallorca, but one prime example is in Pollena, where an ancient tradition has been conserved that is now only exclusive to Pollena: the Ball de les guiles and ritual dance known as Sant Joan Pels. The Ball de les guiles (Dance of the Eagles) is performed by two young girls dressed in white and covered from head to foot in gold, supplied by families from the town to mark the occasion. Around their waists, they wear a cardboard crowned eagle, from which numerous different-coloured ribbons hang to make their movements even more striking. They perform two dances: one known as Les taules, inside the church, and the processional dance, accompanied at all times by a guitar, 25-string guitar and violin. Castanets mark the rhythm of the dance. The origins of this tradition are thought to date back to a big eagle that flew across the sky of the city of Palma on the day of Corpus Christi in 1614. Sant Joan Pels is also an ancient ritual dance, performed by the figure of Saint John. Archduke Ludwig Salvator mentions it in his work Die Balearen. In Pollena, it is performed on the day of Corpus Christi together the Ball de les guiles and the procession, with Saint John dressed in silk with a lamb in his arms. - San Joan (Saint Johns Day) In Mallorca, as in other places in the Mediterranean, the summer solstice is celebrated to the full, with festivities to welcome in the summer. On the eve of the solstice, traditional foguerons (bonfires) are lit beside the sea. The celebrations must continue until the sun rises, that is el sol quan balla (when the sun dances). Saint Johns day is an annual festival in Calvi and Dei. - Sant Pere and La Verge del Carme (The Festivities of Saint Peter and Our Lady of Mount Carmel). June 29th is an important feast day for mariners, since Sant Pere (Saint Peter) is the patron saint of fishermen. It is celebrated with enthusiasm in almost all coastal municipalities, which have a fishermens guild that organize processions by sea. The saint day is also celebrated inland in Alar, Bger and Esporles. On July 16th, in coastal areas in Mallorca, including the ports of Sller, Pollena and Andratx, a seagoing proces-

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sion is held at which the Salve Marinera is sung, with the participation of numerous local boats, decked out to celebrate the occasion. Other traditional festivities include: - The Valentes dones and Es Fir During the second week of May, the town of Sller holds its most popular festivity, known as the Fires i Festes de Maig (May Fairs and Festivities). This commemorates the role of the Valentes dones (brave women) during an attack by Turkish pirates on May 11th 1561, when sisters Catalina and Francisca Casasnoves, far from being scared witless, took the bar used to close the front door and used it to kill some pirates, thus contributing to the towns victory. The bar still exists today and it features in the commemoration of the event. It is exhibited during the parades and takes pride of place during the programme of events, although the star protagonists are the Valentes dones, represented every year by two young women from Sller, chosen by the Groups of Moors and Peasants. The festivities begin with an opening speech and the investiture of the Valentes dones. On the Saturday afternoon, a floral offering is made to Our Lady of Victory, who is taken from the oratory to the parish church, and on Sunday a fascinating craft fair is held. The busiest day is the Monday. In the morning, mass is held in the house where the Casasnoves sisters lived and in the afternoon the Fir de Sller takes place, when 1200 people enact the 1561 battle, taking either the role of a peasant or pirate. - Moors and Christians in Pollena On July 26th, festivities begin in Pollena in honour of the patron saint in a civil and religious celebration of ancient origins. The programme of events opens with canons being fired, rockets being set off and church bells being rung. Events continue until August 2nd, the day of Our Lady of the Angels, with a wide variety of activities. The highpoint of these festivities is the Moors and Christians Simulation, which commemorates the battle by the people of Pollena against 1500 Moors led by the pirate Dragut on May 30th 1550. It was the worst pirate attack that the town had ever experienced. The battle was won largely thanks to Joan Mas, who rushed into the main street and warned people of the danger, heading the heroic fight against the pirates. The attackers were fought off by the townsfolk, who fought against the invaders until the latter were forced to beat a retreat, looting and pillaging on their way.

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The simulation was included in the programme of events in the 19th century to enact a historic event that is strongly present in the memory of the people of Pollena. It is a visually striking celebration, which virtually all the townspeople take part in, with the Christians wearing white and Draguts Moors in colourful clothes. The simulation is announced at 5 a.m. on August 2nd after an open-air dance, when the band plays La Alborada. The whole town is eager for this special moment to begin. On the day of the patron saint, August 2nd, at 11 a.m. a mass is held in honour of the said saint (Our Lady of the Angels) and the dance of the Cossiers (a group of popular Mallorcan dances) is performed. In the afternoon, after a procession with the ancient statue of the Virgin, the simulation begins. Following the famous cry by Joan Mas, imploring the Virgin Our Lady of the Angels, help us for the pirates are already here!, the expected encounter between Joan Mas, the leader of the Christians, and Dragut, head of the Turks, with his second-in-command, takes place. The Moors withdraw down the main street and, when they reach Can Nogus, the Ajuntament Vella joins the battle. This figure represents the former organ of government in Mallorca. At the Church of Sant Jordi, another skirmish takes place, enacting the liberation of the women, men and children that the Moors had imprisoned there. The battle continues until the old football field is reached, where the last encounter takes place. Once the battle is over, the Christians sing the Te Deum by clergyman Miquel Tortell in thanksgiving and the Cntic dels Goigs by clergyman Costa i Llobera. The festivity ends with a spectacular firework show. - La Beata, Valldemossa Valldemossa, the place of birth of the pious Saint Catalina Thoms, is decorated every July 28th in tribute to its patron saint. A procession with the saints triumphal float is held at which the saint, represented by a 6-year-old girl from Valldemossa, is paraded through the streets of the municipality with her court of angels. She is accompanied by numerous other floats decorated with coloured ribbons and other adornments, carrying villagers in traditional Mallorcan costume.

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Figure 61. Dance of the Alar Cossiers, during the celebrations of the patron saint, Saint Roch

- The Alar Cossiers In this description of key popular expressions of the Tramuntana Mountains culture and history, a popular event held in Alar as part of its festivities to celebrate the villages patron saint Sant Roc or Saint Roch (August 16th) must not be missed. It features cossiers or horsemen as its protagonists. This event is particularly fascinating because each year it includes the dance of the cossiers. The dancers are usually made up of six men, each in traditional costume, and a Dama or Lady, accompanied by a man who represents both a Dimoni (devil) and musician playing a whistle and a drum. The male dancers dance round the Dama, who stands in the middle of the circle. Pairs of cossiers dress in different colours and they dance as they process along the streets of the village, performing different dances along the way called LOferta, La Gentil Senyora, La Cadena, La Process, SEmbui and Lacompanyament. The origin is so ancient that researchers have found different explanations. On the one hand, they might be pagan dances of adoration, thanksgiving or divine veneration, initially forbidden by the Church and later integrated as dances in Christian rites, thus becoming religious dances. In them, the Dama represents Good and the Dimoni represents Evil. The devil strives to make the Lady fall, while the horsemen try to stop this from happening, thus protecting Good.

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- Dance of Les guiles, Pollena The Dansa de les guiles (Dance of the Eagles) in Pollena shares the same religious background. Dating back to the 16th century, it consists of a parade in front of Christ during the Corpus Christi procession, accompanied by a statue of Sant Joan Pels (Saint John). The dance is performed by two young women, who wear a cardboard crowned eagle round their waists with the head at the front as if they were riding on it. The womens costumes white tunics are called Maria Antonietas, since they are bedecked with jewels and evocative of the Baroque style. They perform two types of very basic dances called Sa Process and Ses Teules, dancing to the melody of a guitar, 25-string guitar and violin. There are different hypotheses about the origin of this dance. Some authors think it has civil origins, associated with ancient medieval and modern eagles present in some Catalan cities. Others think it formed part of a procession, taking as a starting point the Corpus Christi procession in the short play about Saint John the Evangelist, or that it formed part of a representation by the Guild of Weavers who featured an eagle on their coat of arms. 2) Traditional dances The traditional Mallorcan dance known as a Ball de Bot or Ball de Pags is very matriarchal. The dances, led by a woman, have an erotic dimension and they are totally improvised. The woman makes her male partner imitate the different parts of her dance, drawing closer or moving away as she sees fit. In olden days, the dances formed part of town festivities to celebrate their patron saints and celebrations organized by the owners of possessions (rural estates) when there had been a good harvest of wheat, olives, figs etc. For more basic festivities, musicians were not strictly needed, because the base music was provided by human voices, accompanied by percussion instruments to keep the rhythm going. For this purpose, objects were used that had been made by the participants: cane castanets, saws, reeds, bones, bottles of aniseed liqueur, tabors, tambourines, drums, wooden spoons etc. For festivities aimed at providing greater entertainment, several musicians were used, who, with a ukulele-type guitar, violin, whistle and guitar, added a richer note through a wider variety of sounds. Key traditional instruments associated with Mallorcan folklore are: - The Mallorcan bagpipes (xeremia). A wind instrument with a double reed. The windbag is made of goats hide, while to make the reeds almond, cherry or trumpetwood is used.

Figure 62. Dance of Les guiles in Pollena, depicted in an oil painting by Dions Bennsser (Violins. Can de les guiles, 1944).

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- The whistle (fabiol). Made of the same wood as the bagpipe. It stands out for the way it is played, with just one hand. - The drum (tamborino). Made of rabbits skin and hackberry wood. - The ukulele-type guitar (guitarr). A string instrument much used during dances held at big estates, made of lignum vitae. - Other important instruments are the violin, guitar, lute and mandolin. 3) Gastronomy Traditional Mallorcan cuisine is based on fishing and agriculture, two activities from before the tourist boom. One simple dish, sopes mallorquines, reflects how hard it must have been to subsist in rural Mallorca. To make it, whatever products were available in the vegetable garden were used (mainly cabbage, spring onions, leeks and garlic), to which dry bread was added, moistened in vegetable stock. In exceptional circumstances only, meat or wild mushrooms were added. Despite its traditional self-sufficient economy, Mallorcan cuisine is very varied. The islands typical dishes and desserts point to a rich gastronomic tradition, reflecting the different cultures that succeeded one another in Mallorca. Pastries like robiols and crespells evoke the Jewish presence on the island during its Islamic domination and the first centuries after the Christian conquest, while cocarrois and panades are clear legacies of the Islamic period. The eating of suckling lamb during the Easter week and by-products from when pigs are slaughtered (sobrassada, botifarr, camaiot, varia) are a reflection of the Christian culture. The origin of the ensamada (a spiral-shaped pastry) is still the subject of controversy. Its name stems from the word sam, which means pork lard. However, some uphold its Arabic origins, given its shape evocative of turbans, while others believe it is derived from a bulema (a very similar roll that Jewish people used to make). Other Mallorcan dishes, like frit mallorqu or tumbet, are clearly influenced by the arrival of two products from America, the tomato and the potato. Mallorca also has certain gastronomic traditions linked in with the calendar. It is a custom to cook pork specialities following the slaughtering of a pig on bonfires at Saint Anthony celebrations (January 16th-17th), to roast suckling lamb during Easter week, or eat soup and chicken or turkey escaldums at Christmas. Likewise, on the night of October 20th, when the Revetla de les Verges (Virgin Festivities) are held, young girls give gifts of potato and/or sweet potato fritters and dessert wine to the boys who come to sing serenades to them. The Carnival is also celebrated through Balearic Island cuisine, with different specialities that add a special flavour to the festivities. The

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ensamada, one of the Balearics most typical pastries, is adorned in red and green when Carnival arrives, because traditionally on the Thursday before Lent (one week before Ash Wednesday), ensamades de tallades are put on sale, with pieces of sobrasada and candied pumpkin. Another typical pastry in the Tramuntana area is coca de patata (sweet potato rolls), particularly in Valldemossa. The islands wines, one of Mallorcas oldest crops responsible for an important legacy in terms of viniculture and popular traditions, is an excellent accompaniment when sampling the islands cuisine and an unparalleled way of taking away the bottled aromas and flavours of the island.
Figure 63. Kitchen of a rural estate in Calvi. Illustration by Archduke Ludwig Salvator.

Using oranges from the Sller valley, an orange liqueur is currently made that constitutes a delicious drink, either neat or combined with a mixer, evoking the beauty of the area where the fruit was grown. In his work La isla de la calma, Santiago Rusiol highlights the importance of oranges in this corner of the island: It has courtyards with flowerpots and pilasters; it has a large church, well-cared for streets; but all of it is presided over by orange trees. All the rest serves as a framework to highlight the fruit. () Sller oranges are everything. They are an indication of the weather, life, and well-being of the town. Nonetheless, two of Mallorcas most traditional liqueurs are its herbes (herbs) and palo, which both have a designation of origin. Mallorcan herbes are made of different herbs, in some cases more than 30 different types. Fennel, rosemary, mint, orange and lemon leaves, camomile and lemon balm are left to macerate for several months and the resulting con-

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centrate is mixed in small proportions with sweet aniseed to make herbes dolces (sweet herbs) and dry aniseed for the more alcoholic herbes seques (dry herbs). They can be traced back to the medicinal drinks prepared by apothecaries in the 16th century to fight epidemics. Traditionally, these herbs were digestives, drunk after a meal. They can be drunk cold, with ice or at room temperature. They are also delicious accompanied with lemon or orangeade, although this is not very common in Mallorca. Palo is an exquisite liqueur that can be traced back to the 16th and 17th centuries when there was a lot of marshland on Mallorca and mosquitoes transmitted a terrible illness, malaria. To combat it, two plants were used, quina calisaia and genciana, which were conserved by putting them in alcohol to stop them from fermenting. People also added sugar to remove the bitter taste. Gradually, over the course of time, changes have been made to the way in which palo is made and now it is made with burnt sugar, the secret of this liqueur. According to those in the know, all palos are made with the same base ingredients, but none of them tastes the same. Most palo is made in Mallorca and it is particularly popular in Pollena. Unlike herbes, palo is an aperitif, drunk before meals, either neat or with soda water (the most common way in the Balearics). Although there are several factories in Mallorca that specialize in making these liqueurs according to traditional practices handed down from former generations, none is located in the Tramuntana area. However, the household tradition of making homemade herbes for family consumption continues. 4) Crafts Roba de llenges are handcrafted, traditionally made fabrics from the Tramuntana area. To make them, the warp is prepared with white cotton, in accordance with traditional custom, and it is dyed in sections depending on the chosen pattern. This means that the fabric does not have a front or back, because both sides have the same pattern. The dyes are made with solid colours. Once this stage has been completed, the most delicate complicated part is the composition of the pattern. Subsequently, it is taken to the loom to give the fabric more body, using linen. This is how it continues to be done at Can Vicen (Pollena), Art Textil Riera (Lloseta) and Artesana Textil Bujosa (Santa Maria del Cam) Other traditional crafts that can be found in the Tramuntana area, although they are also present in other parts of the island, are:

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- Typical Mallorcan embroidery, using Mallorcan stitch, chain stitch, linking stitch and cross-stitch. Embroidery is a traditional craft that has only recently been revived, taught by former embroiderers. In the Tramuntana area, Pollena stands out for this speciality. - Mallorcan espadrilles (espardenyes) are still made in traditional style, using only natural products: raffia, linen etc. Visits can be made to the Cas Campaneter workshop in Campanet or Can Parets workshop in Consell. - Artisan jewellers, capable of making impressive-looking typical gold chains, botonades dor (gold buttons worn on traditional costumes), filigree panerets (literally little baskets) and traditional settings. - Artisans who work with wrought iron, like Guillem Cerd from Port de Pollena. - Luthiers who make traditional Mallorcan folkloric instruments (the whistle, bagpipe or drum), like Joan Marroig and Tomeu Amengual in Sller and John Lambourne in Valldemossa. - Footwear manufacturing. The municipality of Selva has six shoemaking factories, the best-known of which is probably Kollflex, founded in 1927 by Lloren Coll. Lloseta specializes in mountain boots, the best-known brands being Cabrit and Can Bestard. 2.a.13. Oral traditions The Tramuntana area has generated an extensive, exceptional intangible heritage. Despite its intangible nature, or precisely because of it, it is a prime exponent of the local culture, closely identified with the rich culture of the region. Four different aspects can be distinguished: place names, legends, rondalles (folk tales) and gloses (songs), although obviously there are other linguistic contributions, like terminology related to drystone wall making, agricultural and livestock farming, fishing, forestry or gastronomic activities, some of which have been conserved although many terms are in danger of extinction since they have not been catalogued or studied sufficiently. 1) Toponyms Place names combine to form a rich heritage that makes up a large part of popular and traditional culture. Given the intangible nature of this heritage, the task of safeguarding it is an important one. This mainly oral toponymic heritge encompasses many different aspects, particularly the geography, history and native language of Mallorca. The island has a very extensive intangible toponymic heritage. The Balearic Topographic Map, on a scale of 1/5000, contains an average of 30 names per km2, some 40,000 toponyms in total. It is strange that, from the place names

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All names of pieces of farmland or land for growing crops. 9 Cube, irregular portion, square, strip, tip, strip, irregular hillside terrace
8

used in Mallorca, a map of the islands different physiographical units and sub-units can be formed with amazing perfection and detail and, by extension, a map of its flora-related and geomorphological landscapes and its agricultural division into plots and estates of differing sizes. This is because in Mallorca in particular the names given to inhabited spaces combine to form a rich terminology and popular vocabulary in the native Catalan language (with Mallorcan as the local dialect), so that however small places may be and even though they may initially look similar to others, they might have names as different as pleta, tanca, tancat, hort, clova, artiga, tros, ter, sort, taula, cair or rompuda8, which highlight their form and function. Sometimes, what determines the name is the shape (dau, gaia, quadro, llenca, punta, trinxa, vela9), while on other occasions it is the size (campiri, gaveta, hort, jovada, quarterada, quart, sort, ter, tornall, verger). Another typical characteristic of Mallorca are the well-known local ways that the particle Son can be formulated (derived from => ac => so den => Son), So na, Can, Ca na, Sos etc. (all denoting ownership of land and meaning that belonging to or the home of, normally used to refer to big properties) and Cal, Cas, Cats, lo den, lo de na, (referring in general to small ones). It must also be remembered that this rich, plentiful terminology and these toponyms encompass Mallorcas entire countryside, because until the first half of the 20th century, agriculture was the predominant activity. The rural landscape looked very different from today. It was inhabited on a relatively permanent basis, mainly by agricultural workers who spent most of their time there. Thus undeniably, the landscape (or, in reality, landscapes) helped to determine the identity and culture of the island. 2) Legends Due to their isolation and rural way of life, from the Middle Ages through to the Modern Age, the mountains were the source of numerous legends. Some of them very probably have an even older origin and are versions of myths believed by the islands first settlers. The mountains are a symbol of vigour and strength for men from all ages. Galatz and Es Teix, two of the islands most emblematic mountains, are a source of innumerable legends and popular tales, whose main protagonists are witches and ghosts. Some passages from history are also the source of this type of popular tradition, like the case of the divine aid received by the people of Sller during the pirate attack of 1561 or the case of the legendary figures of Guillem Cabrit and Guillem Bassa, defendants of the independent Kingdom of Mallorca during the invasion of King Pere IV. Among the most popular legends referring to this area, we must highlight two that are clearly linked to the area and its landscape: Cabrit and Bassa and El Salt de la Bella Dona.

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In the first case, the backdrop to the legend of Cabrit and Bassa is the resistance of Alar Castle in 1285. The story goes that young King Alfonso of Aragon gathered with his army under the defensive walls of Alar Castle in an attempt to conquer it from the King of Mallorcas troops, who had gathered there. A brief dialogue took place with the defendants, during which the royal official of the army attacking the castle demanded that the other troops surrender in the name of King Anfs (pronounced Anfs instead of Alfons, leading to a misunderstanding because anfs is the Catalan word for a fish called grouper). When the officer of the other army heard him, he replied in an arrogant sarcastic tone: Anfs torrat o ben aguiat amb salsa mengen els homes. Noms reconeixem com a rei nostre senyor en Jaume de Mallorca (Grouper, roasted or stewed in sauce, is eaten by men. We only acknowledge our lord Jaume of Mallorca as king). The king, affronted and furious, asked who had uttered such insulting words, and then the response could be heard: Jo soc en Cabrit i aquest, el meu company, sanomena Bassa (Im Cabrit baby goat in English and my companion is called Bassa - pool), to which the king impetuously replied: Id jo te jur, Cabrit, que the de fer torrar com a tal (Well I swear, Cabrit, that Ill eat you roasted as you are). And once the castle had been conquered, Cabrit and Bassa were executed and roasted in Lledoner Square at the top of Alar. This legend is mentioned in the following poem: El Comte Mal Guillem Colom i Ferr Quan la lluita es fa ms forta, truca un missatger a la porta: -Castellans, lliurau de pressa les claus del castell rebel o de grat deixau-vos prendre: el fort que car es deixi vendre ser en sec fet pols i cendra, insepults els qui el defensin i menjats pels corbs del cel. -I, qui amb tal ordre us envia? Cabrit irat responia-Anfs dArag i Mallorca jurat com a rei i hereu. -No coneixem al reialme altre rei que el rei En Jaume A Mallorca, -i perdonau-meanfs s un peix que es menja amb allioli a tot arreu... -Llamp del cel!, que s gran vilesa sofrir ms vostra escomesa!

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Qui gosa amb tals paraules insultar el rei dArag? -crida Anfs als de la plaa.-Dos lleials: Cabrit i Bassa. -Cabrit, dieu? Bona caa! Doncs, com cabrits jur rostir-vos per escarment del traidor!The Wicked Count Guillem Colom i Ferr When the battle grew stronger, a messenger knocked on the door: Castellans, hand over the keys to the rebel castle at once or surrender: for the fort that allows itself to be abandoned will at once be converted into ashes and dust, and those who defend it buried and eaten by the skys crows. And who sends you with such an order? Cabrit angrily replied. Anfs of Aragon and Mallorca, sworn king and heir. We know not in this kingdom of Mallorca any other king than King Jaume and excuse me, grouper is a fish eaten everywhere with garlic mayonnaise Damn it, it is dastardly to put up with your attack any longer ! Who dares, with such words, to insult the King of Aragon? cried Anfs to those in the square. Two loyal subjects, Cabrit and Bassa. Cabrit, you say? Good hunting! For as young goats I swear Ill roast you as a lesson for your treachery! The Evil Count (el Comte Mal) was the name given to Ramon Zaforteza, the owner of the rural estate of Galatz (Calvi). A member of one of the most aristocratic Mallorcan families, he went down in history for his extreme cruelty to the peasants who worked his land. There is a popular legend according to which it is thought that the Evil Counts soul was condemned to ride eternally every night on a black horse surrounded by flames in his Galatz estate. There are numerous legends, myths and anecdotes about the peak called Puig de Galatz, which lend it a magical, magnetic, ghostly air. One of the most popular legends in Mallorca, usually associated with a specific part of the Tramuntana Mountains because it is popularly situat-

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ed on the way up from Caimari to Lluc, is that of the Salt de la Bella Dona (Beautiful Wifes Leap). The legend is about a couple who were processing to the shrine at Lluc. The husband, who suspected that his wife was having a secret affair with a little shepherd, pushed her off a cliff when he reached this point. Imagine his surprise when he reached the shrine and entered the church to find his wife praying in front of the Virgin. A poetic version of the legend has been put to music and performed by the wellknown Mallorcan folk singer Maria del Mar Bonet. El salt de la bella dona / The Beautiful Wifes Leap Gabriel Janer Manila - Lautaro Rosas Qu se nha fet de lamor, tan prest sapaga? El marit est gels, la dama calla. Parteixen de cap a Lluc, s mitja tarda. Ell noms cerca venjar-se, no diu paraula. Un niu de serpents que fiblen com una daga. Ai, ai, que dins les muntanyes cau lhorabaixa. Ella duu el vestit de seda blava i brodada dins la m un ramell de flors, flors de guirnalda. Arriben a un lloc estret, el cam es tanca. Les murtreres de la nit un plany exhalen. () What has become of the love that so quickly dies out? The husband is jealous, the wife remains silent. They depart for Lluc, its mid afternoon. He only seeks revenge, he says not one word. A nest of snakes that bite like a dagger, Oh, oh, in the mountains the afternoon is ending. She wears a silk dress, blue and embroidered, in her hand a bunch of flowers, a garland of flowers. They reach a narrow point, the path comes to an end. The myrtles of the night exhale a lament.

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Figure 64. The Beautiful Wifes Leap, Escorca

3) Folk tales The Tramuntana Mountains are often the setting for rondalles, tales or narrations in prose of oral origins by anonymous authors. The tales recount imaginary events featuring a series of characters, a plot, and a specific setting. Archduke Ludwig Salvator wrote Rondalles de Mallorca (Folk Tales of Mallorca, 1895) and, in a secondary way, in other works that he published about the Balearics he also compiled stories from the islands extensive, rich oral heritage. In his work Los castillos roqueros de Mallorca, Archduke Ludwig Salvator (1994: p. 214-215) included the following legend that revolves around the previously mentioned Bellver Castle and a cave close to the fortress: A man found a cave on the peak where the castle sat and, inside it, he saw seven heaps of coins. He told a friend and they went back there, but the friend did not want to touch any of the coins. The other man took one, without his friend realizing, and suddenly the mouth of the cave closed, plunging them into darkness. The one who had taken the coin threw it to the floor but the mouth of the cave would not open up until the coin was returned to the heap where it had originally been. Finally, they were able to get out of the cave, but the mouth closed again and never again has it opened.

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The person who was mainly responsible for compiling the rondalles was a clergyman called Antoni Maria Alcover. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, he gathered together tales that had been verbally handed down from generation to generation, trying to conserve the popular language (Mallorcan) in which they were told. Their publication, at Christmas in 1895, in the form of serialized instalments made a big cultural impact and they were widely read. The first edition of the Rondaies mallorquines den Jordi des Rac (Jordi des Rac being the pseudonym of Antoni Maria Alcover) was made up of 428 tales, divided into 24 volumes. The landscapes of the rondalles reproduce the islands different features, often mentioning the coast, its torrents, panoramic views of Mallorca from mountain peaks, and geographical features like caves, crags and mountains such as Puig Major, Es Teix and Alar Castle. The mountain on which Alar Castle is situated and another called SAucadena both play a starring role in this tale: In the olden days, on Saturday evenings, witches used to congregate on the two peaks and they threw yarn across to one another that they knew how to spin, making a bridge between the castle and SAucadena, and there, on top, they danced and pranced about until dawn. (Alcover, XXIV, p. 101-102). The rondalles mention some of the islands most popular historic events, like the conquest of Alar Castle by King Jaume I: That needle-shaped peak, part of which stands out above the rest, belonged to the Moors. King Jaume came, and needless to say he wanted to capture it. There, where the steps up to it begin, his horse rode up, leaving its hoof prints behind which can still be seen. The poor Moors could only flee the king by throwing themselves from that crag. To protect themselves, they jumped off with their heads in an earthenware pot. Imagine, when they hit the ground what the Moor and pot must have done to themselves. The biggest piece was smaller than an ear. (Alcover, V, p. 108-109) The protagonists of these tales often take paths like the one from Santa Maria to Alar, the path that leads to the new houses of Son Grau, or the Na Pontons path that begins at the Church of Sant Miquel in Campanet. Although many towns or villages in the Tramuntana area are mentioned, like Sller, Andratx, Pollena, Puigpunyent and Alar, there are far more stories set in rural surroundings and they mention 124 rural estates like Es Putget in Estellencs, Alfbia in Bunyola, Cber and Es Tossals in Escorca, Plancia in Banyalbufar and Son Forteza in Puigpunyent, together with numerous references to country houses throughout the island. In the tale En Pere de la bona roba (Alcover, IV, p. 5-14), there are specific references to parts of the town of Sller, like Can Cudony de Sa Volta, the Rectory, Calle de la Luna, the bridge in the square and the torrent, and mention is also made of dialectic features peculiar to the town.

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Given the isolation that insularity entails, Mallorcans can only come into confrontation and be contrasted with other Mallorcans, with this division being based on two geographic concepts: the Pla (plain) and Muntanya (mountains). They are two radically different landscapes, to the extent that the tales contrast the characters of the towns and villages of both areas. Thus in the tale En Ti de Sa Real, the protagonist is a typical man from the plain who comes up against a glosador (singer) from the mountains. To emphasize a characters uselessness, the phrase is even used he is of no use for either the plain or the mountain. Aside from these legends, mention must be made of an imaginary character called Maria Enganxa (Maria Hook), present in Mallorcan oral narrations since time immemorial. Folk tales are full of frightening characters like Maria Enganxa, who, according to tradition, is an old woman that lives in all wells and water tanks. With the hook from which her name is derived, she traps children who dare look down into the well. Through this intelligent way of frightening children, grandmothers safeguarded children from the dangers that wells and water tanks represented. This imaginary well woman is probably associated with ancient local divinities of water and currents that were worshipped in past times. With the introduction of Christianity, they were replaced by the veneration of the Virgin Mary. Today, during the Alcdia Fair, Maria Enganxa takes part in the Estol del rei en Jaume, a street parade of nine big heads that represent nine characters from different popular tales and Mallorcas historic traditions. King Jaume I and the Moor King (the Saracen king who capitulated to Jaume I), Ramon Llull and Maria Enganxa symbolize the islands past. Maria Enganxa strolls through the streets of the town with a broom, a hook for picking figs and a bucket and she pretends to chase people watching the parade and hook their feet. The other big heads - LAmo de so na Moixa, Na Pixedis Bruta, En Tfol Mentider and En Gori Dolenties, and Sa Jaia Tonina- represent human vices and defects in a humorous, satirical way. All the heads were made in 1990 by Josep Flux, a Mallorcan artist of cardboard figures. The tradition of the big heads ties in with another tradition that has been well conserved on the island and is therefore also present in the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area: giants. Associated initially with the Corpus Dei processions, their origins can be traced back to Barcelona in 1424 and they were first documented on Mallorca in 1630 in the Corpus procession in Sller. Their gradual incorporation by different towns and villages has been recorded, like Pollena in the late 18th century. Although some such processions disappeared in the course of time, in the late 20th century the tradition was revived. The island currently has 74 pairs of

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giants of five different types: peasants, characters from folk tales and legends, traditional trades, historic characters and other giants. Aside from those that represent historical figures (like Cabrit and Bassa in the case of Alar), the giants usually have names typical of their local town. Thus the Sller giants are called Antoni and Catalina, while the Binissalem ones are called Jaume and Aina in honour of the patron saints of their local festivities. In other cases, they are related to local history (the giant of Mancor de la Vall is called Luca in honour of the Oratory of Santa Luca) or local geography (the Puigpunyent one is called Ftima in honour of the mountain of the same name). 4) Songs and gloses At a time when culture was limited to an lite, oral traditions were the key to finding out news and remembering information. One important expression of Mallorcan folklore are its gloses, popular oral rhymes that are normally improvised when they are declaimed. They are the equivalent of the Catalan corrandas or Valencian albadas. In the Balearic Islands illiterate rural society, the figure of the glosador became sufficiently popular for some of them to do it professionally, travelling from town to town and testing their skills as challenged by the townspeople or other glosadors in what were known combats of gloses. Even today in some popular festivities a codolada is often organized, with the participation of people skilled in the art, who compose improvised poems gloses - that can sometimes be woven in with one another. Unfortunately, the glosadors are ageing and this art is partly disappearing with them. Some gloses refer to the geology of an area, like the one alluding to SAvenc de Femenia, an impressive pothole with a huge 120m vertical shaft, located on the upper coastal section of the north face of Caragoler de Femenia (Escorca): Mal trobassis un fondal com sAvenc de Femenia, que si hi caus es migdia, es vespre no ets a baix. Youll find it hard to find a chasm like SAvenc de Femenia where, if you fall, its midday and youre still not down by evening.

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Other gloses describe traditional agricultural or mountain activities: Sa Revetla A sa Cala de Tuent me llogaren per xermar, me tractaren malament, per aix no hi vull tornar. A sa Cala de Tuent te llogaren per xermar, te tractaren malament, per aix no hi vols tornar. The Open-Air Dance At Cala de Tuent they hired me to clear the land, they treated me badly, thats why I dont want to go back. At Cala de Tuent they hired you to clear the land, they treated you badly, thats why you dont want to go back.

Jota des collir olives Vaig anar a collir olives a nes poble dOrient i no vaig menjar calent per aix s que mhe amagrida. A sa Rota hi tenc un pi que fa albercocs i cireres i sndries i meloneres, allota, que hi vols venir? The Olive-Picking Dance I went to pick olives in the town of Orient and I didnt eat anything hot thats why Ive got weak. in sa Rota Ive got a pine that gives apricots and plums and watermelons and melons, lass, do you want to come there?

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2.b. History and Development The Tramuntana cultural landscape has been and still is the result of the areas historical evolution, succession of cultures and ways in which the land has been used. Alternating periods of prosperity and shortages have left their mark on the landscape. Traditional agricultural and livestock farming has left a strong imprint on the area, through its irrigation systems, the dry-stone walls of hillside terraces, and olive trees, complemented by traditional uses of the woodland, coastal areas and peaks of the mountains. The specific marks that each successive historical period and culture left on the Tramuntana area can still be seen. The period spanning mans arrival on Mallorca and the fall of the Roman empire represented the first human change to a landscape that had hitherto remained untouched, with the extinction of species and introduction of allocthonous ones, the introduction of agricultural and livestock activities and deforestation. In particular, the development of technically complicated irrigation systems, dating back to Moslem times and still surviving today, offer an image of fertility and prosperity that contrasts strongly with austere olive groves in very steep areas or others with bare rocks. Olives could be grown thanks to the design and construction of complex hillside terrace walls that evoke periods when it was necessary to extend crop-growing areas to a maximum due to the pressure of a growing population on an island with limited resources. In conjunction, this unique rich variety of archaeological, architectural, ethnological, artistic and intangible features highlight mans cultural response to the environment. In the following sections, these historical periods are described in greater detail and an outline is given of their impact on the area, contributing to the configuration of the Tramuntana areas outstandingly unique cultural landscape.
Figure 65. Ancient olives close to Valldemossa

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2.b.1. From the first settlers to the fall of Rome (5000 BC 454 AD) The oldest human remains known to date in the Balearics were found in the Tramuntana area. With these remains and numerous archaeological sites that extend along the mountain range, it can be affirmed that the first human presence in the area dates back to approximately 5000 BC, leading to the gradual introduction of new flora and fauna, causing the extinction of some species and partly modifying the existing natural environment due to deforestation. Archaeological sites and remains from this period have been found throughout most of the area, particularly in the form of caves or rock shelters that acted as a refuge for the first settlers. In some cavities in the rocks (Coval den Pep Rave, Cova de sAlova and Cova de Ses Alfbies) numerous ceramic and human remains have been found that span a chronological period from the pre-Talayotic period to the Middle Ages, indicating the continuous human occupation of the region which led to an intense process of cultural transmission, particularly in terms of the technical way in which humans modified the environment to adapt it to activities, examples being stone paths, walls and hillside terrace walls. This group of humans subsisted by hunting and gathering food. The mountains offered a good environment for this kind of nomadic life, since it had good natural resources and numerous rock shelters that could be used as the first dwelling places. In the Son Matge site (Valldemossa), the remains of Myotragus balearicus were found: an extinct native goat that stood barely 50cm high, weighed 15 kilos, and fed on typical Mediterranean vegetation. Due to an absence of predators, their legs got shorter and they lost the capacity to run or jump. Their extinction in about 5000 BC coincided with the arrival of the first settlers in the Balearics, who hunted them for food and then tried to domesticate them. In about 2500 BC the settlers are documented as having achieved a high level of organization, with the appearance of bell-shaped ceramics and the use of copper and other metals. Intensive agricultural and livestock activities have also been documented. Grain was very probably the most important crop. Gradually human settlements became more complex in their built structure and in terms of the society that they represented. Two archaeological sites from the period should be highlighted: Puig den Canals (in Sller) and Almallutx (in Escorca).

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Figure 66. Illustration of the Bquer naviform settlement (Pollena), an example of colonization based on agriculture and livestock until the final stages of pre-Talayotic Mallorca. Source: Cerd Juan, 1984.

In about 1700 BC the Bronze Age began, known in the Balearics as the pre-Talayotic period (1700-1350 BC). This was characterized by the appearance of a new type of construction, naviform structures, and by the use of bronze. The naviform structures were upside-down boat-shaped dwellings, made using cyclopean techniques instead of mud. That is, large blocks of stone were inserted in the earth and made into dry-stone struc-

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tures. The walls of the dwellings are very wide, with a double wall, filled in the middle with smaller stones and earth. Bronze was used to make tools and objects for worship. In many parts of the Tramuntana Mountains, the existence of small settlements has been confirmed (Bquer, Es Brutell, Galatz, and Cals Reis, among others), that specialized in keeping sheep and goats, reinforced by a very basic type of agriculture, the gathering of food, hunting and fishing. During this period, pressure on the natural environment began to have quite an impact, as indicated by the discovery of settlements with naviform structures at altitudes of up to 700 metres in rocky, relatively unfertile areas. (ARAMBURU, 1998, p. 34-49). During the late Bronze Age (1300-900 BC), there were new innovations in the technology used by island communities, with ceramics of new shapes, metalwork made of improved alloys, and new strategies in dealings with the outside world. Researchers see this process of cultural transformation as being a process in which society changed its conception of the way territories were organized. They wished to control the available water and food. This made groups more competitive and better organized. There was also an increase in the amount of contact with societies from outside the island and, very importantly, a rise in the population began that would finally lead to the deforestation of a large part of the island. Family links grew stronger and the population began to group together in settlements, building defensive walls round each territorial unit that was created.
Figure 67. A plan of a typical Talayotic settlement that made up the main nucleus of the Talayotic model of spatial settlement. Drawing by Vicen Sastre.

The transformation of the land continued with the Talayotic people, a Megalithic culture that could also be found in Menorca whose prime legacy was a round or square tower-shaped structure called a talayot, made of large blocks of stone. Although the origin of this culture is not clear, it is generally accepted that migrant warrior and seafaring people from the

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eastern shores of the Mediterranean reached the island, probably also settling on other islands like Sardinia, Malta, Crete and of course Menorca. Whatever the case, the architectural structures and types vary from island to island, contributing to the mystery that surrounds these settlers. The Talayotic culture began about 3000 years ago in Mallorca, between 900 and 850 BC. At that point, the island started to fill with talayots: architectural structures that gradually replaced naviform ones, becoming the main scenic legacy of the period. These structures are well represented in the Tramuntana area, with the talayots of Coma-Sema (in Bunyola), Son Ferrandell (Valldemossa) and Ses Casotes (Puigpunyent) standing out for their good state of conservation. The population must have become very high during this period, judging by the high number of constructions and remains scattered throughout the island. In the Tramuntana area, some 60 or 70 Talayotic settlements are calculated to have existed, in places close to safe fertile valleys, in other more hidden spots on the fringes, and in the mountains most remote valleys. Each of them controlled an area of between 9 and 15km2 and their gradual expansion must have generated complex power relations and rivalries, as well as helping to decimate the islands natural resources.
Figure 68. The Shrine of Son Mas (Valldemossa), whose layout is reminiscent of table-shaped Minorcan shrines. Pre-talayotic remains were found here.

Numerous shrines have also survived in the Tramuntana area, normally located close by settlements, where different types of religious ceremonies must have been held, some related to the seasons, climatic adversities, plagues that affected crops, and the fertility of the land. Some examples are the shrines of Son Mas (in Valldemossa), Almallutx (Escorca), Els

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Clapers (Formentor) and Es Fornets (Calvi). From a religious perspective, there is also a predominance of collective burial sites particularly in caves and rock shelters previously used as dwellings, such as Son Boronat (Calvi), La Cometa dels Morts (Escorca), La Punta (Pollena) or El Cementeri dels Moros (Capdell). The Greeks and seafaring Phoenicians no doubt knew the Balearic Islands and used them as a base in trade with the mainland. Until the islands Roman occupation in ancient classic times, Greek traders differentiated between the Gymnesias (Mallorca and Menorca) and the Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera). The former two islands were inhabited by native societies of possible Indo-European origin (the Talayotic culture), while the second two depended directly on the Phoenician and Carthaginian worlds. The Romans introduced the place name Baliares, using it first to refer to the Greek Gymnesias and later for the whole of the archipelago. (RULLAN, 2001). Although no Greeks or Phoenicians settled on Mallorca, they did trade goods with the Talayotic people and influence the introduction to the island of products and ideas from other parts of the Mediterranean. According to historical data, the Phoenicians and Greeks introduced olive trees to the Iberian Peninsula and, from there, they probably passed to Ibiza (BLAZQUEZ, 2000: 151-184; COSTA and FERNNDEZ, 1992, p. 342-343). The islands fertility is very well known (Diodorus, 5, 17, 2; Strabo, 3, 5, 2; Pliny, Historia Naturalis., 14, 71 and 18, 67). Olive growing and, in consequence, the consumption of olive oil was non-existent before the conquest in the two bigger islands, the Gymnesias, at least, because very possibly it was already consumed to a certain extent on the island of Ebusus given its own historical dynamics related to the Punic-Phoenician world. It is important to bear in mind, at this point, the words of Diodorus Siculus, the 1st century BC author, documented from 3rd century BC texts. This author speaks of olive growing on the island of Ibiza (by grafting onto wild olives) and he says that in the bigger islands, given the lack of oil, they extracted it from the pistacia lentiscus and, mixing it with pork fat, they spread it on their bodies (MARIMON, 2004, p. 1052). The Roman occupation, led by General Quintus Caecilius Metellus in 123 BC led to the creation of two Roman colonies in the Bays of Palma and Alcdia (Palma and Pollentia, Latin toponyms that mean victory and power), with the survival of existing Talayotic settlements. Romanization resulted in the coexistence of new settlers with the heirs of the Talayotic culture, who adopted Latin, urban customs and new forms of production. Most Talayotic settlements are documented to have survived after the Roman conquest, while a more in-depth process of urban development occurred, for example in the prehistoric settlement of Bocchorum (Bquer,

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Pollena), which was one of the islands most important urban nuclei. Although no urban settlement was created in the Tramuntana area, given its proximity to the two Roman colonies it was probably much frequented in search of supplies of its abundant well-assorted natural resources. Indeed, in Bunyola Roman lamps have been found in the galena mines of Son Creus, known popularly as the Minas de los Moros (Mines of the Moors). In Pollena, a drinking water network was discovered measuring 13km long, carrying water to the city of Pollentia (Alcdia), and a Roman bridge and Talayotic settlement that was still occupied in Roman times, possibly the federate city of Bocchorum cited in classic sources. In different municipalities of the Tramuntana area (like Estellencs, Puigpunyent, Selva and Mancor de la Vall), archaeological sites have been found with Roman remains on the surface. Roman domination of Mallorca led to the centuriation of the Mallorcan ager- a process that has been documented and analysed in the southeast of Mallorca - and the appearance of villae (basic units of agricultural land mainly devoted to growing basic produce like the Mediterranean trio olives, vines and wheat), although imports of wine and oil have been documented, which might indicate a lack of local supplies. (AMENGUAL et al, 2003, p. 11-26; CARDELL and ORFILA, 1991-92, p. 415423; GARCA and SNCHEZ, 2000, p. 13-14; MARIMON, 2004, p. 1054). It was Romanization that boosted the mass cultivation of olives and it should not be thought that Mallorca was an exception. Nonetheless, our lack of information about rural areas in reality about all the basic problems of Roman life on the island prevent us from making a more accurate statement and determining the stages and intensity of olive growing and oil making. Was Mallorca self-sufficient? The presence of Dressel 20-type amphorae, which were used to transport oil and which are always attributed to the Betica area (Andalusia), might lead us to infer that oil from Andalusia reached the island. However, although it is true that large numbers of Dressel 20 oil-filled amphorae departed from the ports of Betica, it cannot be assumed that all amphorae of this kind came necessarily from Andalusia. If we accept the second hypothesis, some of them could have held local oil. (TARRADELL et al, 1978:334-335). Pliny (14.72) considered Balearic wines to be comparable to the finest Italian ones and Diodorus Siculus (5.17.2) mentions the production and commercialization of wine in the Balearics (CERD, 1978, p. 31; 1999). Documentary sources have revealed the existence of other rural activities, like livestock farming with oxen, sheep, pigs, mules, goats and fowl, as well as hunting fowl and rabbits. Fishing began to be an important activity, like trade. Remains found in coastal areas of the Balearics reflect heavy trade, mainly related to agriculture and fishing. At Sa Roca Rotja (in Sller), the remains were found

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of what might have been an old port of Roman origin and various little statues have appeared there. The decline and fall of Western Roman civilization, from the 3rd century AD, led to a drop in trading and craft-related activities by Mallorcan colonies, which probably led, in turn, to the gradual abandonment of urban nuclei in favour of rural areas to ensure self-sufficient supplies. This could well have generated a rise in local agricultural and livestock farming. The period between mans arrival on Mallorca and the fall of the Roman Empire represented the first changes of anthropic origin to a hitherto untouched landscape. The intensity with which man transformed the area during that period is clearly highlighted by the booming growth and decline of the Talayotic culture: a Megalithic culture that was also present in other Mediterranean islands, as is the case of Menorca. This culture expanded progressively in Mallorca, exhausting its natural resources and leaving behind as a scenic legacy its talayots (structures made of large blocks of stone), scattered throughout the entire Tramuntana area. In parallel, Mallorcas conquest by Quintus Caecilius Metellus in 123 BC represented the Balearics incorporation into Roman and Western civilization. Romanization led to the coexistence of the heirs of the Talayotic culture and new settlers. 2.b.2. The dark centuries and Moslem rule (454 1229) The looting of Mallorca by Vandals in 454 represented the end of Roman domination of the island and the beginning of a long period of which little or nothing is known. Indeed the centuries following the fall of Rome are known locally as the dark centuries, having left no important marks on the local landscape. The virtual disappearance of the islands two Roman cities and a notable drop in human pressure on the environment due to the declining population are the most significant features of this period. The only thing that is known, in the pre-Islamic period, is the use of castles built in mountainous locations, used subsequently by Moors and Christians, as power centres. Their leaders managed to reach agreement with the Moslems from at least the year 711 to avoid domination. Archaeological discoveries relating to the period reflect a population that was concentrated in the castles of Santueri (Felanitx) and Alar. The resistant population of this last castle grouped there for eight years and six months. As Rulln (2004, p. 85) points out, nothing territorially functional remains of the earliest cultures (between 3000 BC and the Roman decline), only isolated items of heritage, in particular archaeological remains, place

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names, and cultural vestiges common to the whole Mediterranean: With the re-naturalization that occurred in the dark centuries (454-903), Mallorca recovered fully from an ecological point of view, and so when the Moslems settled in Mallorca from 903 onward, a new stage of colonization began without any territorial inertias that might have conditioned future growth. Thus the current landscape of the Tramuntana area is the direct legacy of Moslem domination and of the populations that colonized rural areas, devoting themselves to extensive livestock farming and irrigated crops. In this last case, techniques based on the channelling and distribution of water were used to water orchards and vegetable gardens: techniques at which the Moslems were highly skilled. In this way, a mainly woody landscape was formed (used for hunting and extensive livestock farming), dotted here and there with irrigated land round which the rural population lived in alqueries and rafals (farms and small farm holdings).

After two centuries, during which the island was sporadically frequented by the Moslems, in the year 903 Mallorca came under Islamic domination and the Balearic Islands became the eastern islands of Al-Andalus, dependent on other states. Between 903 and 1229, the year when the feudal Christian conquest occurred, the Balearic Islands formed part of the following states: the emirate and caliphate of Cordoba; the taifa10 of Dnia-

Figure 69. Castell del Rei in Pollena

1o

Kingdom

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Balearics, with its capital in Dnia; the taifa of the Balearics, with its capital in Madina Mayurqa (now Palma); an Almoravid state; an independent Balearic Almoravid taifa; and, finally, an Almohad state. Civil and military power over the territory was held by a wal, the caliphs main representative and subsequent governor of Madina Mayurqa. He was responsible for receiving taxes from peasant communities, controlling piracy, and keeping an eye on long-distance trade with the island. Experts believe that this rural Islamic population maintained a strictly tax-related relationship with the states, paying them taxes regulated in the Koran in cash and guaranteeing the system stability. Payment in cash gave the peasants a high degree of autonomy, because, via different strategies, it allowed them to decide what crops to grow, what to produce, and where to sell any surplus. The payment system was also designed to avoid the emergence of lords to whom they would have to pay rent, along the line of feudal lords, who might have monopolized part of their output and thus held sway over them. From a spatial point of view, two stages can be observed in Moslem Mallorca. The first, lasting up until the 6th century, was characterized by a predominance of rural areas over urban ones (Madina Mayurqa) and a predominance of livestock farming over arable farming during the process of the islands colonization, organization and rule. During the period of the taifa (1015-1114), the city grew in size and developed intellectually, there was an increase in demographic pressure, and the rural world was organized around tribal and clan-related rural communities, complementing the urban population. Agriculture expanded, together with water engineering techniques, in order to supply rural areas and the growing city. After the conquest, waves of immigrants began to arrive of Arabic and Berber origin, the first from the East (theoretically descended from Arab tribes) and the second from North Africa. They arrived in perfectly structured, organized extensive families known as clans. In turn, clans were usually interrelated, so that different ones formed a tribe. The names of clans and tribes were used to create place names. For instance, extensive clans or families used to call themselves the descendents of a common ancestor, putting the particle Banu (meaning children of) before this name. After the Christian conquest, this particle was given a Catalan version in the form of Bini or Beni, leading to numerous place names like Binissalem, which means children of Salim. Other direct legacies of the period are the abundant place names of Moslem origin that still survive in the Tramuntana area, like Alfbia, Alquera Blanca, Biniatzar, Banyalbufar, Bunyola and Valldemossa.

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During the long period of Islamic rule (902-1229), the island, which was called Mayurqa, was divided into 12 districts (Jz in the singular and ajzd in the plural), characterized by a tribal structure and the districts links with livestock farming, because originally the term was used for communal grazing areas. The Islamic district of Bunyla-Ms, for example, occupied the current municipalities of Bunyola, Valldemossa, Dei, Esporles and part of Banyalbufar. Calvi, Andratx and Puigpunyent formed part of the Jz of Ahwaz al-Madina. Pollena and Alcdia formed the Jz of Bulansa. The Lluc area was called al-djebal, which literally means the mountain. In these rural districts (Jz), the population was fragmented, revolving around two types of settlements: an al-Garya and rahal. That is, farms and small farm holdings (alqueries and rafals in Catalan). Studies have been made of them thanks to the Llibre del Repartiment, a register that the Christians drew up to share out the spoils of war after the Christian conquest of 1229. The farms, with agricultural land covering an average of 85 hectares, were communal rural communities mainly dedicated to agriculture. They emerged during the taifas and Almoravid rule. The smaller farm holdings, with about 50 hectares of land, might date back to the period when Mallorca formed part of the Caliphate of Cordoba and they were private holdings as opposed to communal ones. According to estimates by Poveda (1992, p. 5-7), Mallorcas countryside would have had over 1600 farms and farms holdings, which would have accounted for the deforestation of one third of the island for agricultural and livestock activities. In the Tramuntana area, there is still evidence of how important it was to take advantage of water resources and land during Moslem domination. Olive growing became more widespread, particularly in more mountainous areas. Hillside terraces were built there to prevent erosion and facilitate the cultivation of these non-irrigated trees. The terraces followed contour lines, with surfaces that were not particularly flat because a certain slope facilitated agricultural work. They are particularly plentiful in Alar, Caimari, Campanet and Galilea. Although no systematic records have been found about irrigated crop farming in Islamic times, the presence of artificially watered fields, using irrigation systems, and the existence of mills point to the cultivation of irrigated crops of grain, fruit, vegetables, cotton, linen and vines (for grapes and raisins) and rice in wetlands. Indeed, it was at this time that the cultivation of rice, aubergines, artichokes and sugar cane was introduced to the mainland and Balearic Islands.

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Figure 70. Systems for collecting and channelling water are one of the most outstanding examples of scenic heritage from the Moslem period.

Apart from irrigated and non-irrigated crops, the Moslems used other resources from the Tramuntana area. The abundant wood of its woodlands was used to make furniture, boats, and as fuel. Mention must also be made of the collection of medicinal and aromatic plants and wild fruit. Although fish did not play an important role in the Moslem diet, the existence of a long coastline must have encouraged fishing and, in other parts of Mallorca, the extraction of salt could have led to a big salting industry as well as being an export product. As for livestock farming, it is repeatedly quoted in written sources. The description of the Balearic Islands by geographer Al Zuhri, in the 12th century,

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gives us an insight into the livestock farms on each island. In Mallorca, there were few goats but lots of sheep, cows, horses and mules. Horses and mules must have played a particularly important role in the Balearic Islands, because there are numerous references to exports of these animals to the mainland. Leather making must also have been an important activity, because there are references to a special inclination in Al-Andalus for shoes made of Mallorcan leather. This craft continued with the Christian conquest and has survived up until today, particularly in the towns of Inca, Lloseta, Alar and Palma. The creation of terraces for crops was a fundamental feature of the Islamic system of irrigation. Small mountain orchards shored up by dry-stone walls are common in the Tramuntana Mountains and they are clearly visible on the coastal side, particularly in Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Sller, Fornalutx, Bunyola and Alar. Irrigated crops, which prevailed in farms at the time, entailed the creation of terraced orchards with dry-stone walls and certain built features to supply, control and regulate water, transforming the land and scenery of the Tramuntana area in a big way. The existence of irrigated crops implied access to a more or less constant flow of water and to underground water (either by gravity by digging shafts qanats to the water table or by added force, using norias), rounded off with water storage and distribution systems (water tanks, irrigation ditches, norias, ponds and wells). Using a gravity-based system of movement, water came down from the upper hillside terraces to lower ones, sometimes under the ground, and any surplus water was channelled into torrents and, from these, into the sea. Crops could be irrigated by flood irrigation or using channels. In the first case, the soil must retain the right level of moisture and so it is essential for the land to be horizontal and for the wall of the terrace to be higher than the surface of the field so as to keep the water in. In the second case, the terrace must be slightly sloped lengthwise in the same direction as the water in the irrigation ditch, and also sloped crosswise so that water runs to the end of the terrace and can flow back without running down to the lower terrace. In this case, the wall should not be higher than the soil, because the aim is not to store water. As for surface water, as well as shoring up the sloping terrace, channels to collect torrential rain were also incorporated because the two things are vital for the maintenance of hillside terraces in areas with clearly defined dry seasons and to reduce soil erosion caused by surface water from seasonal rains. These irrigation systems were always based on previous very rigid designs, conditioned by the flow of water and physical geography. The character-

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Figure 71. The Juz of Islamic Mayurqa

istics of some of those initial designs have been established and, from them, the population that each of these irrigated areas could cope with, because they covered the dietary needs of a specific number of people. If there were a growth in the population, part of the group would split away and begin the construction process of hillside terraces in another place. During the final period of Moslem rule, the colonization of agricultural areas speeded up, thanks to the development of water engineering systems that made it possible to extend the surface area of irrigated land. (BARCEL, 1989, p. 2013-2047; CARBONERO, 1984, p. 31-68). The basic principles on which irrigation systems in mountain valleys and larger irrigated areas, like the orchards of Banyalbufar or Valldemossa, were based were similar. For instance, Alars system was centred in the Ses Artigues estate, whose spring features an underground gallery - qanat or font de mina - that leads down toward the water table and extracts water by gravity. The gallery subsequently turns into an open irrigation ditch that runs alongside one side of the torrent, which crosses the bottom of the valley, maintaining a constant angle. The land that can be irrigated is situated between the ditch and the torrent. It is flat close by the torrent, with hillside terraces in more sloping areas. Further down, near the houses of Sa Font, there are the remains of a mill driven by water that forms part of a series of ten mills that used to be found in the area. In the village

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Figure 72. The location of waterwheels in Madina Mayurqa, according to the historian Miquel Barcel.

of Alar, water from the irrigation ditch is used for domestic purposes. At the other end of the village the houses of Son Tugores can be found, with a terraced orchard, waterwheel, and big open-air cistern (safareig), where the water corresponding to the houses was stored. The irrigation ditch then leads on to the houses of Son Forteza, crossing a fan-shaped piece of irrigated land. Secondary irrigation ditches can be seen that distribute the water throughout this section of land, which is bigger than the belt of irrigated land by the torrent. There are also open-air cisterns for storing water for each sector or irrigation device so that it can be used to move waterwheels and water the land. The distribution of the water supply was regulated by assigning a certain timetable to each person when they could let water in to their land from the main irrigation ditch. After the Christian conquest, an urban water supply system was introduced, which functioned until very recently. Studies of different water supply systems in Mallorca and Ibiza demonstrate how different groups of people shared a same area and its springs, together with the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems. By pre-established agreement, they managed the water supply, communal land and water-driven mills. In combination as part of a global system, hillside terraces, irrigation ditches and water tanks have a specific significance, not just related to the way the water supply system worked techni-

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cally and mechanically but also to the way in which social groups were organized and shared water to make better use of it: a system that the society of Al-Andalus called majil. Although the basic principles of these water supply systems did not change with the Catalan conquest, in certain cases subsequent additions and the growth of urban nuclei led to the occupation of part of this irrigated land. In Moslem times, in contrast, residential zones were never situated below the level of the irrigation ditch because irrigated land would have been wasted. Many other Islamic irrigation networks were cared for and maintained during subsequent centuries up until today. The crisis of the islands traditional agricultural society and recent building development endanger what is the finest, almost exclusive tangible legacy of the Moslem period in the Balearics. The irrigated tree-less hillside terraces of the Tramuntana area that can be found close to the qanats built by the Moslems are a relic of Mallorcas Al-Andalus landscape, one which has today been invaded to quite a substantial degree by woodland but where some farmland from the period can still be seen. The marks of the Moslem period left on the makeup of the Tramuntanas rural landscape is evident in works by different authors, especially in the opinion given by Mallorcan geographer Bartomeu Barcel: The formation of the [Balearic] Islands rural landscapes can be traced back to Moslem rule (903-1229), which ended with Catalan occupation of the Balearics, when ownership of new lands were acquired by sharing out former Moslem farms and small farm holdings. [...] In this way, while the Moslem legacy was a scattered population with small farms playing a colonizing role, the policy of the new rulers [the Christians] tended to favour the concentration of the population in urban nuclei. The Christian conquest of the city of Madina Mayurqa took place in 1229. Between 1230 and 1231, the rest of the island was gradually occupied, although a certain resistance to the new invaders was encountered in the mountains of the eastern range and Tramuntana Mountains, where the Moslems took refuge, particularly in two castles: Alar Castle and Castell del Rei in Pollena. The latter was the last place in Mallorca to surrender. Resistance there was not organized by members of the Almohad army but by the religious hierarchy, who had managed to flee the city. Thus the Tramuntana Mountains acted once again as a frontier between two worlds. The two aforementioned castles are the only two examples of strongholds of that type to be found in the Tramuntana area. They were military and defensive fortresses that played an important role in the islands medieval history, in the transition between Moslem and Christian rule. For cen-

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turies they were privileged surveillance points, acting as a refuge for the civilian population in the event of an enemy attack. Alar Castle, situated in a central inland part of the Tramuntana Mountains, has traditionally been regarded as the most impregnable in Mallorca. Conquered by King Jaume I in 1231, in 1285 it was defended by two popular heroes, Cabrit and Bassa, from King Alfons of Aragon. With the introduction of artillery, from the 16th century onwards, its military function waned and so only Castell del Rei was kept on as a surveillance post of the coast. Castell del Rei, located in the extreme east of the Tramuntana area, takes its name from the fact that it was acquired by King Jaume I. This fact is documented in 1231, at a time when an agreement was signed between Jaume I and Prince Pere of Portugal. It had a gothic chapel, covered by pointed arches, consecrated to the Archangel Gabriel, as documented in 1354. Outstanding events in its history include the siege of the castle by King Pere IV the Ceremonious. It was abandoned once and for all in 1715. In 1990, its current owners started to renovate it but at present both castles are in a ruined state, although their progressive restoration is contemplated. 2.b.3. The Christian conquest and modern era (13th to 18th centuries) The Christian conquest of Mallorca in 1229, with the arrival of King Jaume I of Aragon (the Conqueror), led to the introduction of a European feudal system in the Moslem countryside and an end to the fragmented possession of farm holdings. Instead agricultural land became concentrated in the hands of the aristocracy, with the creation of rural estates called possessions.
Figure 73. A series of buildings called the casetes del Rei San (houses of King San), whose origin is the medieval castle of Es Teix, built in 1309

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Once the island had been conquered, its land and properties were shared out among all the participants in the conquest: King Jaume I, the Crown of Aragons important feudal lords, more minor nobles or knights, and the Church, leading to new forms of spatial and social organization. As well as gaining an insight into the structure of ownership of properties and toponyms at the time of the conquest, the Llibre del Repartiment (register detailing how land was shared out) shows that the king divided the island into eight parts: half the island became owned by the king (medietas regis) and the other half (medietas magnatis) was shared out among four nobles (Guillem de Montcada, Viscount Bearn; Huc de Ampurias; Nuno Sans, Count of Rossell; and Berenguer de Palou, Bishop of Barcelona), who in turn shared the land out among their men, freemen and religious communities. If we focus on the Tramuntana area, Guillem de Montcada received a third of the djuz of Sller, while Huc de Ampurias received the other two thirds. Nuno Sans received the ajz of Valldemosa and Bunyola but, when he died with no heir, his properties passed to the Crown. Berenguer de Palou received Calvi, Andratx and Puigpunyent. Numerous other nobles received land in Mallorca, like Gilabert de Crulles and Ramon Sa Clusa, who received the Barony of Banyalbufar, or the Knights Templar, who received most of the land in Alcdia and Pollena. Although he divided his land among his nobles, cities and religious orders, King Jaume I reserved control over it, so that the owners became feudal subjects, owing him service and allegiance. This increased the power in the monarchs hands, who came to occupy a predominant, less precarious place in relation to his nobles, in addition to the added prestige that he acquired.
Figure 74 Ancient olives near Pastoritx, in Valldemossa

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The implantation of a nobility in Mallorca meant that the islands inhabitants were converted into feudal vassals. From then on, they were forced to pay an annual rent in kind. This was completely different from the previous stage, because the Islamic state collected its taxes in the form of money, which the peasants obtained by producing what they deemed most fitting. In contrast, from 1232, the peasants had to ensure surpluses of certain agricultural products, livestock or milk by-products to be handed over annually. In 1230, the Franqueses de Mallorca were passed, privileges aimed at guaranteeing sufficient labour to work the land, attracting new settlers mainly from Catalonia. This contributed to the introduction of the Catalan language in Mallorca and also to Occitania, Italy, Aragon, Navarre, France, Castile and Flanders. After the death of Jaume I, Mallorca, Ibiza and Formentera and different lands under his rule in the south of France were inherited by his son, Jaume, and the Crown of Mallorca was created. This was a kingdom independent from the Crown of Aragon until its reintegration in 1343. King Jaume II strove to guarantee the viability of the kingdom, increasing royal tributes and creating a new monetary system. He consolidated what was known as Ciutat de Mallorca (now Palma), starting work on the construction of the cathedral and extending the Almudaina Palace and transforming it into a royal residence. Likewise, he ordered the construction of Bellver Castle and the palaces of Manacor, Sineu and Valldemossa, outside Palma. King San and King Jaume III both spent periods at the latter, particularly to alleviate the formers asthma and, in both cases, to go hunting. This contributed to the growth of a settlement close to the palace. In 1399, King Mart of Aragon granted ownership of the old palace in Valldemossa to the Carthusians to found a monastery in Mallorca. What is particularly important, however, was his policy to promote the colonization of agricultural areas. In 1300, he passed the Ordinacions, a plan to found towns on the island and regulate their growth. It contained a series of regulations regarding surface areas, communal lands, conditions for settlers, infrastructure and defence. Each settler would be entitled to two plots: an urban plot measuring 1775 m2 (a measurement known as a quarto), a plot of land of 3.55 hectares (5 quarterades) suitable for an orchard, vineyard or non-irrigated land, and a right to 10 quarterades of communal scrubland as grazing land for livestock. To guarantee supplies of water for the new agricultural units, it was established that, using public money, public water tanks and ponds would be built. The towns affected by the Ordinacions were Manacor, Felanitx, Campos, Santany, Algaida, Llucmajor,

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Porreres, Selva, Petra and Binissalem, and newly created ones were Sa Pobla, Sant Joan, Capdepera and Son Servera. The aim that Jaume II sought, by passing this legislation, can be summarized in the following basic points: first, to return an economic and human balance to Mallorca between its mountain areas and plains; and, second, to promote the development of an agricultural economy. Stimuli were created for those who went to live in the new towns, whether they worked the land or were craftsmen, but always under the commitment of their permanence. To create focuses of agricultural growth, the development of a section of urban land was planned, using an urban grid in the case of new urban development and, if there was an existing urban nuclei, this section was juxtaposed or superimposed. The new settlers had access to loans for the construction of dwellings and, after they had been assigned a plot, they had to complete the building work within a period of six months. If they incurred debts within a three-year period, repayment could be postponed. Public features were created, like squares, a plot for a church with its own square, a civic and trading centre, cemetery and public place for washing. (CURIEL, CANT, CALVO, 1998, p. 108).

Figure 75. Valldemossa

Although a split occurred between Moslem and Christian Mallorca in political and religious terms, there was a process of continuity in the islands colonization by man and ownership of the land. The scattered about Moslem farms and small farm holdings gave way to a network of fiefs known as caballeras, which were responsible for introducing the new Christian way of running the land, symbolized by big rural estates or possessions equivalent to cortijos in Andalusia or masies in Catalonia, run by noblemen or members of the Church. Socially and economically, these estates were run in feudal style. The owners or senyors held direct control of these fiefs, as extensive as Moslem tribal farms, but they subdivided them into smaller peasant farm holdings, leading to a different system of tenure: usufruct. This gave rise to two key figures in medieval society: the senyor (owner) and amo (estate manager).

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Mass numbers of new settlers led to a higher concentration of people in the Tramuntana area, and its numerous towns, villages and hamlets are medieval in origin. These urban nuclei, which were populated after the Christian conquest, are, in some cases, linked in with communal woodland properties from which the inhabitants obtained their own resources. This is the case of the Comuna de Bunyola, Comuna de Fornalutx and Comuna de Caimari, now public properties that are proudly maintained in joint style. An extensive network of tracks would come to link these settlements and connect them to their agricultural land.
Figure 76. The Raixa estate (Bunyola)

Because the island bordered Moslem territories, a network of fortifications had to be built in the form of watchtowers and castles along the mountain range. In this way the islands most important fortifications, which the Moslems had already transformed into major strongholds, were consolidated: Castell del Rei (Pollena), Alar Castle in the Tramuntana Mountains, and Santueri Castle (Felanitx) in the eastern mountains. Another medieval fortification in the Tramuntana Mountains that is now in ruins, with barely visible remains, is El Teix Castle, built in 1309, known as the casetes del rei Sanxo. These castles, perched on rocks, were used by followers of King Jaume III of Mallorca to defend themselves during the islands invasion by King Pere IV of Aragon, which led to the reincorporation of the independent island kingdom (1271-1343) into the CatalanAragonese confederation. The increasing commercial strength of the islands capital (called Ciutat de Mallorca up until 1715) generated increasing pressure on the rest of the

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island, which was divided into estates whose owners lived in the city and chose the main crops to be grown according to their potential commercial benefits. Compared with Moslem agriculture, which was mainly based on orchards, this feudal society and economy promoted the introduction of non-irrigated crops, primarily wheat, olives and vines. This move from a Moslem agricultural system of small tribes that each revolved around an irrigation network and self-sufficient supplies to a feudal one brought about big changes to the landscape of the Tramuntana area.
Figure 77. Grain production in the 14th century, according to Jaume Sastre

This partly involved an increase in wheat growing, a minority crop for the Moslems but one that became a strategic, fundamental one for the new Christian culture who were more dependent on grain than the Moslems with their more varied diet because it was the main source of food for the population. The growth of this crop was particularly evident in the centre and south of the island, where it was virtually the only crop and led to a gradual reduction in woodland (CELA CONDE, 1979). In the words of Rulln (2004, p. 92), the transformation of the landscape that it entailed led large areas of woodland dotted with small patches of irrigated farmland characteristic of the Moslem period to be exchanged for an ocean of grain with patches of woodland of Christian characteristics. () When the slope of the land or thinness of the soil made the cultivation of grain impossible, there were two possible solutions to the problem: to let a peasant work the land in exchange for part of the yield or to grow olives there.

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The former meant taking farming to critical limits, since this was outlying land, while olive growing, suitable for high sloping land with poor soil, would, like the former case, allow crops to be grown higher up and ensure supplies for a bigger population. Indeed, oil, produced in amounts far beyond the islanders needs, was mainly exported, and so necessary imports of grain could be made to deal with the pressure of the Mallorcan population. Oil was produced when it was impossible to cultivate grain so as to be able to buy in grain. In this sense, oil was equivalent to grain. At the same time, from the Catalan conquest, olive growing became more widespread, especially in the northern and southern areas of the Tramuntana area, with the central focus being the municipalities of Esporles, Bunyola, Valldemossa, Dei and Sller. Taking advantage of the extraordinary aptitude of these trees to grow on mountain slopes and the technique of hillside terraces shored up by dry-stone walls introduced in Moslem times to create irrigated land, a large amount of woodland was ploughed up to free new land. The old Moslem olives of some farms, like those of Biniatzar in Bunyola, acted as a core. With the passing of the centuries, olive-growing spread throughout the entire Tramuntana area and, in this way, new terraces of olive groves were added to existing ones and to Moslem irrigated hillside terraces. Historical records show that from the 13th century, oil was exported from Mallorca to North Africa, together with other agricultural produce. In the mid 15th century, it was exported regularly on a constant basis, particularly from the Port of Sller, but it was in the 16th century that there was a big boom and oil became the main source of wealth for many rural estates in Mallorca, which had their own oil mill. In the early 16th century, a levy called a diezmo was paid to the king on all produced oil. This represented 10% of the total, a percentage only surpassed in the case of wheat and barley. Feudal lords and owners of big estates mainly levied taxes for peasants to pay on less easily perishable non-irrigated agricultural produce. This new system put peasants under the control of feudal lords in the city and thus favoured the city-based growth of the latters power over the rest of the islands rural land, symbolized by its rural estates. Unlike the Islamic farms and small farm holdings, these estates grew, increasing their surfaces areas of cultivated land. Extensive livestock farming became decreasingly important and estates specialized more and more in crop-growing alone. From the 16th and 17th centuries, in parallel with different crises in subsistence caused by successive increases in the population, olive growing was extended, reaching higher altitudes and covering more and more land. Given how steep the land was, it might have seemed impossible to grow olives there, but for the use of hillside terraces.

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During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mallorcan oil played a key role in the islands economy, as a basic ingredient in the local diet and in exports in exchange for goods in short supply locally, mainly grain. Oil continued to play a predominant role in exports until the first half of the 19th century, accounting for between 65 and 80% of all Mallorcan exports for many years, and even in the second half of the 19th century, Mallorca continued to export considerable amounts of oil, particularly to places with which it had historical trading relations, specially the south of France. In one of the documents that best reflects customs and life in Mallorca, Die Baleren in wort und bild geschildert (1869-1891), written by Archduke Ludwig Salvator during the time he spent on the island in the 19th century, the quality of Mallorcan virgin olive oil is praised. External recognition was achieved in the late 19th century, when oil made in Mallorca was awarded second prize in an oil tasting contest.
Figure 78. Vine growing in the 14th centry, according to Jaume Sastre.

In third place, grain and olives were complemented by vines: a crop that dates back to Roman times in Mallorca, as indicated by Pliny the Elder in his work Naturalis Historia: Balearic wines can be compared with the finest of Italys. They continued to be grown during Moslem rule, despite the fact that wine is forbidden in the Koran, in order to produce raisins. Nonetheless, the crop grew in importance after the Christian conquest, because one of the measures taken by the king was the granting of li-

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cences for vines to be grown in certain Mallorcan towns and villages, including Bunyola and Valldemossa. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, the island underwent a prosperous period of vine growing, with wine even being exported by sea. A special mention must be made of Sller, an important seaport and town in the Tramuntana area, which, in the 17th and 18th centuries, had some five thousand inhabitants. As also occurred in most of the Tramuntana, in the Sller area olive growing predominated, but fruit growing (oranges and lemons) was also important, together with mulberry trees to make silk. In the 17th century, the first records can be found of other traditional activities, tied in with woodland areas that had in many cases been spared the plough because it was simply impossible due to the climate or cultivation of olives. These activities included the production of charcoal and lime and the use of other resources, like wood or ice. The late medieval and modern ages represented a golden age for the local landowning nobility and estates, whose houses played a key role in the islands traditional agricultural and livestock farming economy. They underwent functional changes over the centuries to meet defensive needs or the desires of their owners to have a large rural mansion. This led to different types of buildings, some of a fortified nature, like Son Marroig (in Dei), while others were authentic baroque palaces, like Alfbia (Bunyola) or Sa Granja (Esporles) or neo-classic ones, as is the case of Raixa (Bunyola). In parallel, during the Modern Age, an organized, coordinated defensive system was introduced to deal with pirate raids, under which the island was divided into three parts: the mountains, plain and coastal section. Some towns in the Tramuntana area or close to it were expected to offer assistance to ones closer to the coast. For instance, the towns of Santa Maria, Bunyola and Alar had to assist Sller in the event of a pirate attack. From the 16th century, this system was intensified with the construction of watchtowers in the mountains, combining to form a complex, effective network of coastal surveillance, covering the whole of Mallorca. The towers could communicate with one another by smoke signals, so that in just a few hours the whole island could be warned of an attack. Worthy of special mention are the defensive towers and watchtowers of Cala En Basset (in Andratx), la Trinitat (Valldemossa), la Pedrissa (Dei), la Torre Picada (Sller), Na Seca (Escorca) and Aubercutx (Pollena).

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Figure 79. The watchtower of Sa Calobra, in Escorca

In the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of King Felip II (1558-1598), Mallorca was constantly besieged by pirates, with the Turkish empire generally leading them in attempts to weaken the Spanish monarchys hold over Mediterranean areas. The people who lived in the Tramuntana Mountains were the most isolated and found it most difficult to find reinforcements when needed, and so some attacks were devastating, like those on Banyalbufar and Estellencs in 1546. The townspeople of Pollena defeated the fearsome pirate Dragut in 1550 at a well-known battle, and much looting was recorded in Alcdia (1551), Valldemossa (1552) and Andratx (1553). Nevertheless, the town of Sller suffered from one of the worst pirate attacks of the century. In May 1561, the population was attacked by a small Turkish/Algerian fleet commanded by Euldj Al, Draguts second-in-command. Sources speak of almost 1700 pirates landing, intending to loot the town, but they were met by the townsfolk, with reinforcements from Alar, Bunyola and Santa Maria, who stood up to the invaders and forced them to retreat, following much destruction and pillaging. During this period, the Tramuntana Mountains, especially the Alar and Bunyola areas, served as a refuge for bandits from Mallorcas different aristocratic families, including the Santacilia and Pacs families. The bandits took advantage of the mountains and family estates to hide and attack enemy groups.

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Figure 80. Simulation of the pirate Draguts attack on the town of Pollena, celebrated each year during the festivities of the towns patron saint.

2.b.4. An end to autarky (19th and 20th centuries) The most noteworthy characteristic from the 18th century on was no doubt the end of Mallorcas traditional autarky, when the island began to form part of Spanish trade networks mainly to America. This led to technical improvements, the development of a manufacturing industry, and imports of food supplies. During a second phase, between the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th, there was the biggest boom in agricultural and industrial development. This was when the industrial economy first started to take over from the traditional agricultural sector. During a third phase, from the second half of the 20th century, tourism was introduced in a big way, the basis of the islands current growth, with the integration of the Balearics into the world economy. In more contemporary times, the Tramuntana area has continued to have an essentially rural society. The seizure of Church property in the 19th century, with much of it passing to the State, brought about the emergence of owners of small-sized rural or urban properties. As a result mountain farming reached a peak in production, because changes in the system of ownership brought about an increase in production and a change in society, with a growth in small holdings that still exist in areas in the Sller valley. Despite this, there were still big differences between different parts of the Tramuntana, and large estates in the hands of the aristocracy remained intact until the late 19th century. There continued to be a predominance of traditional crops. (That is, grain on the plain and olives in the mountains). At the same time, there was a growth in existing minority crops, like almonds, carob trees, figs, citrus fruit and vines, which gained in importance due to the intensification of trade with America.

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Figure 81. Son Marroig, a Valldemossa estate purchased by Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria for its outstandingly beautiful scenery.

In the first half of the 19th century, there was a big decrease in vine growing due to two plagues caused by aphids and oidium. In contrast, the plague of phylloxera that ravaged France in 1862 generated an urgent demand for grapes, must and wine by French wine dealers, bringing about the rapid re-plantation of vines in Mallorca between 1865 and 1890 and a boom period in grape growing and wine producing on the island. Such large amounts were sent from the ports of Palma, Portocolom and Alcdia to France that shipping companies were created, dedicated exclusively to wine exports. Unfortunately, phylloxera spread to Mallorca in 1891, with a lightning effect on its vines. Exports stopped and the local vinegrowing sector was devastated. In consequence, some vines were replaced with another crop, mainly with almonds, and the amount of wine that was produced was limited to just a very small amount, insufficient for domestic consumption, and so wines had to be imported. In the 19th century, the number of island municipalities rose, following their emancipation brought about by the liberal laws of the 1830s. Fornalutx separated from Sller and Dei separated from Valldemossa. In the same century, the traditional landscapes and features of Mallorcas mountains began to become known to outsiders, following visits by numerous Romantic travellers, attracted to Mallorca by its beauty and the conservation of its scenic and cultural values. One outstanding example is Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. He first came to Mallorca in 1867 and, shortly afterwards, he settled on the island with homes in Dei and Valldemossa, buying ten different estates like Son Marroig, Miramar, Son Moragues and sEstaca, many with superb views of the Mediterranean sea. Their land was devoted to growing vegetables, fruit trees and vines. The Tramuntana area was visited by other travellers, artists and natural-

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ists from Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, like Isidoro Antillon, George Sand, Frdric Chopin, Joseph Tarong, Santiago Rusiol and Jernimo de Berard, among many others. All of them highlighted the natural virtues of the landscapes they discovered and sometimes they portrayed a society and economic system anchored in tradition. In reality this idealized image of the Tramuntana area contrasted with pressure by the aristocracy, epidemics and emigration. Despite this, in the 19th century, the traditional isolation that had characterized the Mallorcan mountains began to disappear, first when roads and tracks were improved and then when the main harbours were adapted, like Sller or Andratx. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the effects of industrialization were perceptible on top of traditional rural landscape of olives and hillside terraces, with estates and small mountain villages. This led to the creation of infrastructure (roads, railway tracks, and infrastructure for generating electricity), many made with dry-stone building techniques, constituting in some cases a prime example of public property that is well integrated into the landscape. During the first quarter of the 20th century, electricity supplies and telephone lines began to be built and, at the same time, the railway started to reach different towns. The development of a textile industry (of particular importance in Sller and Esporles) generated substantial trade, facilitating the urban growth of associated towns. The valley of Sller is a prime example of the changes that occurred during the late 19th century and early 20th century. During this period, the town saw a big growth in industrial development, trade, the textile sector and export of citrus fruit (especially oranges), added to which emigrants who had made a fortune in France and America returned and reinvested their profits in the construction of small Modernist-style palaces.

Figure 82. Villa Francisca, in Bunyola. An example of the introduction of Modernism to rural parts of the Tramuntana area.

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The 20th century also generated social, economic and spatial change in Mallorca, also noticeable in the Tramuntana area, although in this case the effects are not as clear as in other parts of the island. Tourism began in the early 20th century and mountain areas were one of the first main destinations. In the 1920s, combined with the promotion of tourism, hiking attracted tourists to the Tramuntana area. The Fomento de Turismo (Tourist Board) and Associaci per a la Cultura de Mallorca (Association for Mallorcan Culture) were created, organizing outings to places like Lluc, Torrent de Pareis and Galatz. It was at this time that the first tourist accommodation began to appear for visitors to the Tramuntana area. One flagship was the guesthouse Ca Na Magina, also known as Ca Mad Pilla after the person who ran it. After having been refurbished several times, it is now called Hotel El Encinar. The building was possibly one of the first mountain hostels, because in about 1900 building alterations were made by the Archduke to offer free shelter for three nights to anyone visiting this part of the Tramuntana, with the provision of a guidebook for those wishing to discover the surrounding area. Other important hotels were Hotel el Gua (1880) and Hotel La Vila (1904) in the town of Sller; Hostal Can Mari (1890) in Valldemossa; Hotel Juma (1907) in Pollena; and Hotel Miramar (1912) and Hotel Illa dOr (1929) in the Port of Pollena. Also worthy of mention is Hotel Formentor, built in 1929, which has belonged to the Buades family since 1954. Winston Churchill, Henry Miller, Charles Chaplin, Ava Gardner, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, John Wayne and Aristotle Onassis all feature among its illustrious guests. The building blends carefully into the idyllic landscape of Formentor beach, with pines leaning over the sea. Likewise, the Es Port estate must also be highlighted: one of the first to be converted into a hotel after refurbishment work between 1911 and 1912. From the second half of the 20th century, a boom in tourism led to the progressive abandonment of agriculture in places with a more complicated physical geography. From 1960, there was a sudden emergence of mass tourism and very soon agriculture just came to occupy a marginal proportion of the economy compared with the service sector, with all the social and cultural changes that this entails. Even so, the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area at a distance from the sea and its beaches were not affected by the tourism phenomenon. This also had repercussions on the physical image of the Tramuntana area, which is generally well conserved, although there has been a growth in residential and recreational uses. The impact of modernity and post-modernity on the landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains is reflected in the progressive advance of woodland

Figure 83. Ca Mad Pilla, in times of the Archduke (1900)

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areas and the introduction of new tourist-related and residential uses in traditional towns and villages. It is also reflected by a collective awareness of the need to safeguard and promote the value of its scenic heritage.
Figure 84. The construction of the Sller-Palma railway (opened in 1912) represented a big advance in transport links between the Tramuntana Mountains and rest of the island

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3 Justification for inscription

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3.a Criteria under which the proposed nomination is based (and justification for inscription according to these criteria) Over the centuries, the Mediterranean has been a cradle and meeting point for successive cultures along its shores. Mallorca and the Tramuntana area are a border territory where these cultures have successively left their mark on the land. Over the course of one thousand years the introduction of Islamic water supply systems and their subsequent transformation and extension in Christian times, insularity and the geographical features of the Tramuntana area have all gradually moulded the place, culminating in the landscape we can see there today. Given the complex technology of the water supply system, the use of dry-stone techniques as the main building system and the unique make-up of its settlements, with Arabic, North-African and European features, we propose that the Tramuntana area should be declared a World Heritage Site in its capacity as an essentially evolutionary cultural landscape, based on the following criteria: (ii) The exhibition of an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design The Mediterranean has always been an area of interchange between Moslem North Africa and Christian southern European. The Balearic Islands have also acted as a bridge with the East through maritime trade. Agriculture played a fundamental role in guaranteeing these exchanges. This led the Arabs to introduce irrigation systems in an island with long periods of drought, since they were highly skilled at handling water supply systems in their countries of origin. They created productive orchards and vegetable gardens where before there had been uncultivated land to produce food and generate wealth for the local inhabitants. For this purpose, they used the most plentiful, cheapest material stone and their own hands as tools. Gradually the land was transformed, leading to a multitude of small settlements throughout the whole of the Tramuntana Mountains, with exquisitely sculpted hillside terraces that allowed them to grow crops very similar to those of their countries of origin. After the Christian conquest, the changeover to a feudal model based on the collection of levies, mainly in kind, of wheat and oil led these systems to be extended and transformed. Big areas of steep wooded mountain slopes were cleared of their vegetation and given new hill-

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side terraces and complicated drainage systems, grafting olives onto wild olive trees to make them produce fruit. The few f lat areas that existed were ploughed up for growing grain or used for grazing. The landscape was transformed, becoming covered in hillside terraces of olive groves, and there was a move from Islamic farms and small farm holdings to the big estates (possessions), villages and towns that now make up the Tramuntana area. An area of trade and piracy and, above all, one characterized by an important cultural exchange between Moslems and Christians from north and south, the Tramuntana area forms a rich, complex landscape that is both unique and representative of the Mediterranean. (iv) An outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history The introduction by the Islamic world of water supply technology and the subsequent adaptation of the land to make it productive involved the construction over the centuries of kilometres of dry-stone walls (marges) that can range from a few centimetres high to several metres, covering hillsides like scales and retaining the little soil there is. Likewise, sophisticated drainage systems were introduced that help drain away surplus water and avoid erosion. Additionally, very long walls enclosing estates and endless cobbled roads form a spiders web across the peaks and valleys of the Tramuntana Mountains, making this one of the most spectacular man-made dry-stone (mortarless) landscapes in the world. Many features of the area are also built using the same technique, like the underground water galleries, known as qanats in the Arabic world and in Islamic Mallorca or foggaras in Northern Africa. They are a living testimonial of our Islamic past. A large number of them perforate the land horizontally in search of water, with narrow galleries that can be hundreds of metres long covered by a vaulted ceiling with vertical ventilation shafts. Subsequently, via complex networks of irrigation ditches and minimal gradients, the water is transported to places where irrigated terraces could be created for citrus fruit trees or orchards. Likewise, big water tanks for storing water regulated water supplies in periods when it was scarce. Water was used to move waterwheels, positioned parallel to irrigation ditches in such a way that they took advantage of drops in level. This meant they could be used for grinding wheat, fulling, dyeing or other uses related to the textile industry.

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In turn, drainage systems also formed part of these complex water-engineering and dry-stone technologies. Understanding these systems and knowing how to maintain them is fundamental for the conservation of the area. In addition to the sides of torrents, features like alballons, ralles and eixugadors (drains, drainage ditches, and open drainage pipes) collected surface water and transported it, slowing the water down and helping it to filter into the soil and avoid erosion. This helped to replenish underwater aquifers, which abound, given the karstic nature of the Tramuntana Mountains, guaranteeing supplies in times of drought. Other constructions that use stone in a unique way are associated with different ways of taking advantage of existing resources. They range from ice stores (formerly used to store snow for its sale or gastronomic or medicinal use) to kilns for making lime, barraques de roter (very basic dwellings used by sharecroppers), porxos dolivar (shelters in olive groves) or groups of buildings, sitges (charcoal making pyres) and huts for charcoal makers, which can be found throughout the area. Escars, small boathouses with ramps, can be found all over the coast as a support for fishing activities. This landscape and its privileged situation, on steep slopes overlooking the sea, have for centuries been enjoyed, appreciated and used by local inhabitants and visitors alike. As well as the plentiful agricultural structures and constructions, there are endless vantage points, defensive towers, castles, shrines, churches and other buildings, which all help to enrich and enhance the Tramuntana area as a whole. All this, over the centuries, has led to a unique place where many different expressions of dry-stone architecture and water technology can be seen. (v) An outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change Settlements in the Tramuntana area are living examples of the evolution of the Roman model of a settlement through to the Islamic culture and beyond, with their progressive transformation over the centuries to constitute the farm holdings, towns and villages that today mark it. Numerous Islamic farms and small farm holdings appeared, with associated water supply systems and hillside terraces for growing

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crops. After the Christian conquest, the typical Catalan model of a rural estate and the introduction of a feudal system changed the image of these settlements, which were taken over by new owners, generally members of the nobility. Large plots of land, with a characteristic irrigation network, formed spatial units that gradually became known as possessions or estates. Each of these estates contained a series of different agricultural areas of different characteristics and morphologies: rocky areas on the tops of mountains, strips of woodland, slopes with hillside terraces of olives, terraces where crops were intensively grown near dwellings, extensive grazing land, fields for reaping, vineyards or different non-irrigated fruit crops on flatter land. The epicentre for storing and processing produce and living were the estate houses or cases de possessi, made up of a series of buildings surrounding a central courtyard known as a clastra. Round it were rooms for processing and storing the produce and dwellings. Among these, mention must be made of the big oil mills (tafones) for producing oil that were so important for the local economy of the area. Because these possessions were used by the nobility as summer residences, many of them were transformed into beautiful mansions based on Italian models. Their orchards and gardens were enhanced with decorative features in keeping with the period, while still conserving the legacy of their original Al-Andalus orchard garden. The network of tracks that connect these estates with towns and villages and the paths that lead to agricultural land, through woodland and olive groves, can be used today to cross the area and appreciate its scenery. The towns and villages are based on a medieval urban design of irregular little streets with steps and cul-de-sacs, marked by the complex water supply systems that led to their original creation. Irrigation ditches, public washing places, orchards, mills and well-type water tanks can be seen amid stone houses piled up on the slopes, forming a fascinating urban ensemble that blends perfectly into the natural surroundings. To attract new settlers, the feudal lords created communal land (comunes), some of which still survives. Defensive towers, churches, convents, markets, old factories and splendid Modernist houses all bear witness to the evolution of the landscape and to different external influences. The Tramuntana area is thus a testimonial of the conservation and evolution of settlements and urban structures in a rugged area of the island

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characterized by steep slopes. The settlements have been adapted to the local landscape through the skilful use of stone, as a key resource, and intelligent use of water, with the gradual incorporation of different features that reflect the areas role as a Mediterranean cross-roads. (vi) Being directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance The Tramuntana area has fascinated and continues to fascinate visitors. Figures like Frdric Chopin and George Sand, together with other illustrious visitors, reflected their experiences in journals of their travels where they highlight the marvels of the area. They ended up by attracting numerous other intellectuals and artists to the Tramuntana area, some of whom even settled there. One emblematic example was Archduke Ludwig Salvator, who compiled a major work on the Balearics called Die Balearen, which has been and still is a fundamental reference for studies of our heritage. The Archduke was the first person to uphold the importance of the semi-agricultural, semi-wild romantic spirit of the landscape of the Tramuntana area and he was its strongest champion. He improved the appearance of his estates, built roads and vantage points, and transformed the land into a productive place that could be visited by all. He went to live in a mansion called Miramar which, over five hundred years before, had been the School of Oriental Grammar and Languages founded by the great Mallorcan medieval philosopher Ramon Llull, a prime exponent of intercultural dialogue. The scenery and coast around Miramar continue to be some of the most captivating in the Tramuntana area. Very close by is Dei, a magnet for writers and poets and place chosen by the British writer and poet Robert Graves as a home. Local characters and images of the Tramuntana were sources of inspiration in many of his novels because, as he said, they evoked memories of the classical past. Today, Dei is still a venue for literary get-togethers. Further north, Pollena acts as an umbrella for a big group of painters who, for over one hundred years, have been inspired by the landscapes of the Tramuntana Mountains. Among others, Anglada Camarasssa, Joaquim Mir and Santiago Rusiol fell in love with the landscape, which features in many of their paintings. It is not only painters who value the Tramuntana area. Major writers, intellectuals, actors and politicians have stayed in what is still a symbol of top-quality tourism throughout the world: Hotel Formentor. The hotel and the literary

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awards to which it lends its name are a reference point in the 20th century world of culture. The Tramuntana area also features important examples of intangible, living heritage derived from its historical past and geographical context. Its Islamic past and the fact that it was a border territory for the Christian world have led to numerous place names and words of Arabic and Berber origin and even rich traditions, like its local festivities, which have for centuries commemorated battles between Moors and Christians. Prime examples are the festivities held in the towns of Sller and Pollena. Dances like Les guiles, Els cavallets or Els cossiers are also age-old cultural traditions that have been kept alive. Lluc is the spiritual nucleus and, every year, numerous pilgrimages are made to its shrine from all over the island. Font Cuberta is its holy spring and the Mysteries of the Via Crucis, by the worlds best-known Catalan architect Antonio Guad, is one of its most typical features. The childrens choir, the Blauvets, perform the mysterious chant dating back to the distant past, La Sibilla, each year on Christmas Eve, which announces the Day of Judgement. 3.b Proposed Statement of Outstanding Universal Value The cultural landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana is an exceptional example of a Mediterranean agricultural landscape because of its singular combination of water supply systems applied to irrigation, of Islamic origin, and olive and vine growing systems, of Christian origin. Both are conditioned to a large extent by the scant resources the environment offers in the region, due to its climate, orography and insularity. The result of this combination is a landscape modelled by man in an extremely intense fashion, and one which bears witness to the continuous interaction between man and nature over the centuries. This landscape is characterized by the intense transformation of the original natural environment, based on the construction of hillside terraces on mountain slopes for olive cultivation; the extraction, channelling and conveyance of water in order to achieve orchards and irrigated areas; and the consolidation of a whole agricultural system in a mountainous area founded on the use of dry-stone architecture and intelligent management of the land. The use of dry-stone building techniques involved huge effort, because this system only uses material available in the immediate vicinity com-

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bined with manual labour. Work by successive generations is reflected by the extensive dry-stone architecture, spread all over the slopes of the Tramuntana area, plus a wide variety of building and technical solutions. In conjunction, this architecture is a magnificent exponent of Mediterranean cultures whose insular circumstances strongly determined their historical and cultural evolution. The landscape of the Tramuntana area is therefore a faithful reflection of the isolation that the island of Mallorca experienced over the centuries due to its remoteness from continental lands and because it was a border region, half way between Africa and Europe, subject to invasion from both north and south, which led to major cultural interchanges. The singularity of the landscape is defined by concepts such as insularity, the orographic layout and climate, water as a means of subsistence and aesthetic value in the form of the sea, Islamic and Christian cultural legacies, admiration on the part of philosophers, travellers, painters, musicians, poets and writers, and a wealth of legends, traditions and festivities linked to the Tramuntana area. The Tramuntana area demonstrates the close links between the intense use and enjoyment of this cultural landscape and between highly demanding natural conditions and the imprint of successive cultures, who have gradually moulded the Tramuntana to make the most benefit of it. This is the key to understanding the survival of age-old crops like olives, the outstanding tangible and intangible heritage that this cultural landscape constitutes, and an age-old intercultural way of life in an area that constantly evolves, resisting nearby pressure from tourism and the growing emergence of fragmented settlements over the rest of the island. For this reasons, we are calling for the Tramuntana area to be included in the list of WHS, given the exceptional values that it represents, aesthetically, ethnologically, socially, economically, culturally, physically, ecologically and scientifically, all of which make this emblematic place so unique. 3.c Comparative analysis (including the state of conservation of similar assets) The focal point of our comparative analysis is the introduction of water engineering techniques and use of stone to transform terrain that was originally rugged and infertile into land suitable for crop growing, together with the value derived from the assimilation of different cultural systems that have interacted in a specific place. For

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this purpose, each of the values that contributes to the formation of the Tramuntana areas unique character is used to make a comparison with other sites already recognized by the UNESCO or else on its tentative list of potential candidates of a similar quality level. The values are taken into consideration in accordance with basic aggregate criteria, bearing in mind their presence or absence in a specific place. Information from the UNESCO and different consultative bodies (UICN, ICOMOS), the official pages of different landscapes and the extensive graphic information that is available were used as the basis of an assessment of each of the areas. In continuation a list is given of the sites that were compared with the Tramuntana area: - Bam (Iran) This fortified medieval town is situated on what was a commercial crossroads for silk and cotton traders. It is an oasis, built using a local technique (adobe), with underground irrigation channels (qanats). - Costiera Amalfitana (Italy) The Costiera Amalfitana has been a World Heritage Site since 1997. This coastal strip of the province of Salerno began to be heavily colonized in the early Middle Ages. Several cities, like Amalfi and Ravello, feature architecture and works of art of substantial value. The rural areas reflect the local inhabitants versatility and capacity in adapting to terrain that varies substantially. They spread their vineyards and orchards across slopes that overlook the sea in order to use the big plateau for grazing land. - Cinque Terre (Italy) The coastal region of Portovenere, Cinque Terre and the Palmaria, Tina and Tinetto islands were declared a Cultural Landscape in 1997. The shape and layout of the villages and type of surrounding landscape help offset the disadvantages of steep, uneven terrain, allowing for the continual human occupation of the region during the whole of the last millennium. The vineyards are located on terraces of land with a slope of over 30%. - Alto Douro (Portugal) The wine-producing region of Alto Douro, a production area dating back over two thousand years, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2001. Since the 18th century, its main product - port wine - has been famous throughout the world for its quality. This long tradition has led to a cultural landscape of outstanding beauty that reflects the technological, social and economic evolution that this crop has undergone.

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- Lavaux (Switzerland) The terraces of vines at Lavaux were declared a World Heritage Site in 2007. They cover some 30 kilometres of the north bank of Lake Geneva, where vines cover the lower south-facing slopes. Although it might seem that vines have been grown there since Roman times, the current terraces date back to the 11th century, when Benedictine and Cistercian monasteries controlled the area. Lavaux is an example of interaction between people and the surrounding land over the course of the centuries in order to optimize local resources and produce a much esteemed wine. Sites on the tentative list of possible UNESCO World Heritage Sites - The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus) Fikardou was nominated to be a World Heritage Site in 2002. It is a traditional mountain settlement that has conserved its physiognomy, architecture and natural environment since the 18th century. It stands out particularly for the integrity and authenticity of the village, which blends harmoniously into the background setting. - Western Sand Sea (Algeria) The valley of Saoura bore educated witness to caravans that transported gold, wheat and slaves from Fez, Tunisia or Timbuktu. Marking the route are large fortified mansions, extraordinary oases with palm groves, and traditional towns with numerous foggaras (underground water galleries) and irrigation channels to transport the highly prized water supplies. A comparison with other regions allows us to define those qualities that best distinguish the Tramuntana area and explain why it is an outstanding cultural landscape. Briefly, we acknowledge it as having the following unique values: 1. The Tramuntana area is a magnificent example of the advantage that has been taken of water resources in short supply in order to transform an infertile land into a rich agricultural landscape.

For over one thousand years, the introduction of water engineering techniques by Arab and Berber conquerors made it possible to convert inhospitable terrain with few resources and steep slopes into a rich, varied agricultural landscape that has gradually been enriched over the centuries through the contributions of the different cultures that have lived there. The resulting landscape is a rich ecosystem with a careful balance between nature and the action of man.

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2. The Tramuntana area is a place moulded by successive cultures, with a clear linking thread: dry-stone architecture. Widely differing civilizations have shaped the Tramuntana area, using the same distinctive element: the sensitive, sustainable use of local stone (residual surface stone not quarried stone), removing it from wild stretches of land and working in traditional style (building the carefully worked stone into structures, using no binding mortar of any kind). This has given rise to a powerful, coherent image: an outstanding landscape forged through ongoing efforts, over the course of the centuries, by its inhabitants and also through a combination of unique physical conditions and the application of environmentally-friendly uses. 3. The agricultural hillside terraces are the result of singular efforts by man to adapt to harsh natural conditions. Through age-old efforts by man, the scanty soil has been retained and thousands of hectares of terraces (marjades) have been built on rocky outcrops, avoiding erosion and carefully terracing the steep land to ensure access and its cultivation. The terraces follow the lay of the land, sculpting a new rich landscape, with a variety of shapes that are carefully adapted to the specific features of each particular place. 4. Dry-stone building work has led to the construction of a rich variety of structures closely associated with a way of colonizing, inhabiting or using the land. The work of successive civilizations has led to the creation of hillside terraces (marjades); land uses through the construction of wells, underground water galleries, irrigation channels, ice stores, mills, water tanks, olive presses, sharecroppers huts, shelters in olive groves, charcoal-making pyres, limekilns, caves, and huts; means of facilitating the movement of people, like cobbled paths, low balustrades, walls, steps, ramps, bridges and dry-docks by the sea; means of channelling water by paving the sides of torrents or building drainage elements (albellols, ralles, eixugadors), underground water galleries, irrigation ditches, norias, aqueducts, and water storage tanks; and means of defence or observation points based on slings (foners), watchtowers, castles perched on rocks, towers and lighthouses. At the same time, an environmentally-friendly enjoyment of the landscape has also been encouraged, with walks, vantage points and springs; the

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erection of small monuments, like the gardens of mansions, shrines, hermitages, and oratories; and monasteries, cloisters and most of the small towns and villages. All this has been achieved over the course of the centuries, generating singular results: a unique place where this dry-stone architecture can be appreciated. 5. In the Tramuntana area, a rich legacy of urban heritage has been built up. Different towns and villages have maintained their integrity, from small villages on terraced slopes to others in the foothills of a few valleys, combining to form a rich heritage of historic buildings. These settlements colonized the mountains through an extended system of hillside terraces, although each one follows a distinctive pattern, depending on its location and the culture that led to its creation. Thus as a legacy of different cultures, you can find: - castles perched on rocks, like those of Alar and Pollena, which held sway over a large part of the island (characteristic of the Vandal and Byzantine cultures); - farms and smaller farm holdings, generating a system of settlements in the Islamic period that have survived up until today (Sller, Alar, Bunyola, Banyalbufar etc.); - possessions or rural estates: the main production unit during the Catalan-Aragonese period. They are the cornerstones of the spatial structure of the Tramuntana area, featuring prime examples of architecture. 6. In the Tramuntana area, the age-old tradition of growing olives has been conserved The coherence of resources in short supply and the adaptation of the natural environment explains why the tradition of growing olives has survived up until today, with the constant updating of the olive-pressing trade. The immense majority of the hillside terraces are filled with olives, some thousands of years old, resulting in very competitive, highly prized products (made in Caimari and Sller, for example), which form part of the local identity, keep local traditions alive and, by extension, conserve the land from neglect.

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7. Different interventions have enhanced this supremely beautiful landscape If the rocky castles that were erected from the 5th century onward or watchtowers of the 15th to 18th centuries had an essentially defensive role, the system of paths and vantage points commissioned by Archduke Ludwig Salvator and those that have continued to be built or restored through until today are intended to ensure widespread enjoyment of landscapes of breathtaking beauty, from impressive rocks leading into the sea to fertile valleys or a vision of hillside terraces gradually sculpted over the centuries. The construction of these features over the course of history, either for defensive purposes or social reasons, has infused the Tramuntana area with a rich complexity of values that go beyond mere production-related qualities. 8. The Tramuntana areas values are widely acknowledged by society Legal protection has played an important role in the conservation of the Tramuntana landscape from the real estate and tourism pressures that the rest of the island has suffered from. Nonetheless, leaving aside different legal figures, the Tramuntana area and its people have been calling for special recognition of their heritage for over a century, with eminent initiatives and numerous projects, plans and laws that call attention to the area and guarantee the preservation of its resources. However, these endeavours to work toward the areas recognition and preservation also involve modest, everyday yet vitally important efforts by numerous social agents. They include those who have revived the traditional trade of the hillside terrace builder; those who have managed to prevent the disappearance of several species of animals; the volunteers who work tirelessly at weekends to rebuild cobbled paths, an old Trappist estate, charcoal-makers huts or limekilns; those who have revived and defend age-old traditions; those who have transformed a splendid estate into a rich example of the uses and customs of old estates; the olive makers who continue to improve oil production processes and to maintain and build a landscape of terraces; the inhabitants who keep alive a rich tradition of festivities and customs; or the numerous academics through their analyses and fight to conserve the area. All of them, like the Tramuntana area, are worthy of special recognition.

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As a conclusion, if we compare Tramuntana area with other places not included in the list, we can see how its wide diversity of hydrological and dry-stone architecture is far more plentiful, as is the surface area this architecture covers and its prevalence and presence over the centuries. If we refer to those sites on the WHS list, the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape stands out in comparison with some of them for its specific values and, far more still, for the concurrence of these values there and their continued production over a long space of time. Likewise, the Tramuntana stands out for the creation of a landscape where natural and cultural factors interact in harmony. The interdependence and continued validity of so many values is largely attributable to physical isolation and, even more so, to the silent patient labours of so many inhabitants and the laudable task of cultured travellers, academics, artists and intellectuals in disseminating its scenic and emotional values in their capacity as the first people sensitive to its values and concerned with its conservation. The broad cultural repercussions of these visitors have helped forge a tourist image of this cultural landscape based on its natural, cultural, scenic and emotional values.

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES

Basic details for characterization of landscape

CRITERIA

UNESCO assessment criteria

Surface area

Values

Bam (Iran 2004)

ii,iii,iv,v

81 Ha

Cultural

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

ii, iv, v

11.231 Ha

Cultural

ii, iv, v

4.869 Ha

Cultural

iii, iv, v

24.600 Ha

Cultural

ii, iv, v

989 Ha

Cultural

ii, iv, v, vi

31.932 Ha

Cultural

Indicative list of proposed sites

ii,iii,iv,v

Cultural

ii, iii, iv, v

Cultural

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES
VALUE 1: Example of use of a scarce resource, water, to transform unfertile land into a rich agricultural landscape VALUE 2: An area shaped by successive cultures with a clear common denominator, dry-stone constructions

Rich ageold water supply techniques

An infertile, steep landscape transformed into a rich, diverse agricultural one

A rich ecosystem, based on a balance between nature and human action

The construction of a landscape based on the legacies of different cultures

An area delimited by defined natural features

CRITERIA

Diversity of activities

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES

VALUE 3: The agricultural terraces are the result of singular adaptations by man in difficult natural conditions

CRITERIA

Terraces on rocky outcrops

Terraces on rocky outcrops

Variety or specificity of the shapes of terraces

Slope greater than -30% and surface area of over 40% of region

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES

VALUE 4: Dry-stone building work has given rise to a rich variety of heritage, associated with a way of colonizing, inhabiting or using the territory

CRITERIA

Diversity in the way the mountains were colonized

Landscape mainly made up of hillside terraces

Crop-growing on steep slopes

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES

VALUE 5: Consolidation of urban heritage

CRITERIA

This urban heritage maintains and conserves its integrity

Towns and villages situated on terraced slopes

Towns and villages situated at the foot of terraced slopes

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES

VALUE 6: Age-old crop-growing systems are kept alive

A cropgrowing tradition of over 800 years

The cultivation of the immense majority of the hillside terraces with traditional crops

Particularly famous produce

Currently stable or expanding agricultural estates

CRITERIA

A mostly living landscape

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls VALUES
VALUE 7: Different types of interventions have given new value to an extraordinarily beautiful landscape

VALUE 8: The values of this area have achieved widespread social recognition

Observation points that can be traced back to different cultures

A variety of different types of scenic routes

The involvement of different social stakeholders in its protection and conservation

CRITERIA

Legal level of protection for the area

Bam (Iran 2004)

Cases of UNESCO World Heritage Indicative list of proposed sites

Costiera Amalfitana (Italy 1997) Cinque Terre (Italy, 1997) Alto Douro (Portugal, 2001) Layaux (Switzerland, 2007) Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca (Spain, 1996) Western Sand Sea (Algeria, 2002) The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)

Degree of relevance of each value High Medium Low

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3.d Integrity and/or authenticity The authenticity of the Tramuntana area is the outcome of the combined knowhow and techniques that the different cultures that have enriched it have each contributed, together with the evolution of the different social forms, beliefs and sensitivities that have gradually shaped it. A long process of over one thousand years of removing stones, draining and shoring up land, creating water supply networks and adapting settlements has transformed uncultivated rugged land into a beautiful productive zone. All this illustrates a socio-economic process that continues to survive today, leading to a protected landscape in a state of constant evolution, due to changes in production systems and the moderate growth of traditional towns and villages. Numerous studies and conferences on dry-stone building techniques have facilitated a comparison between Mallorcas landscape and other similar places around the world. There are many shared features, but insularity, the high degree of conservation and diversity of features and typologies, together with the importance that dry-stone building techniques represent in association with techniques aimed at collecting, piping and draining water and the natural setting in which this can be found, make the Tramuntana area a focus of substantial interest for the international community. The contributions of specific bibliographies on the introduction of water supply systems in areas with a mountainous physical geography and difficulties in irrigation are also important. From places ranging from the Arabic peninsula or Northern Africa to the former territories of Al-Andalus, numerous studies manage to relate certain techniques with their origins. This is a key issue in helping to understand the evolution and cultural transmission of knowledge that occurred on the shores of the Mediterranean over the centuries. Rural estates (possessions) as a basic spatial unit have also come under study and they are the living testimonial of the remarkable way in which limited resources were taken advantage of and an example of the sustainable use of a territory. An accurate understanding of their structure is a key aspect of the territorial initiative currently in progress and in efforts to restore such an impressive example of functional architecture that is so well adapted to the local environment. To maintain the large areas of cultivated land and quality of this productive landscape, ongoing intervention is required. For this purpose, age-old

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techniques that have been maintained through traditional trades that still survive in towns and villages in the Tramuntana area must be conserved and perpetuated. A sensitive insight into the landscape of the Tramuntana area can be further enriched by numerous artistic and literary contributions. The first descriptions by travellers who visited the area during the 19th century, the high literary standards of authors who finally settled in its valleys and the pictorial movement of the Pollena school of artists represented the beginning of an important group of writers, painters and poets who all upheld the value of the Tramuntanas landscapes. Likewise, many age-old festivities and traditions have been kept very much alive. Many have been held for centuries. Not only do they demonstrate the deep-rooted feelings of local inhabitants but also a unique, rich mixture of influences from the northern and southern Mediterranean. The Tramuntana area continues to evolve in a process not without difficulties. Numerous legal acts, spatial plans and projects deal with the maintenance, protection and promoted value of the resources of this extraordinary place. These joint efforts, inspired by its values, together with the Tramuntanas mountainous topography, difficult access and, above all, appreciation of its inhabitants are the best way of avoiding the dangers of a massive influx of people, as has occurred in other areas of the Mediterranean. As for its integrity, the Tramuntana area is characterized by a high level of uniformity, based on dry-stone structures, with hillside terraces of olive groves as the star protagonists. Its spatial organization is clearly evident in the areas basic agricultural and livestock unit: its possessions or estates. These estates are organized around water supply networks that divide the land into different production areas. This, in turn, has determined the type of settlement on which the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area are based; ones which continue to conserve their basic original structure despite their growth and transformation. We can find all these elements uniformly scattered throughout the area and transformed, in the course of time, by different styles and influences, although they always maintain the values that gave rise to them. The area that makes up the nominated property is well representative of all the values and it is the outcome of a process of historical evolution that has contributed to the cultural transformation of the Tramuntana Mountains.

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In 1973, the Tramuntana area was declared a picturesque landscape of the island of Mallorca. The area it covers (its core area and buffer zone) include a total of 610 items of cultural interest of all types, from the historical ensembles of Valldemossa and Dei to the historic site of Pollena, historical gardens, monuments, archaeological sites and items of ethnological interest. It is an area inextricably linked to historic events and memories of the past, popular traditions and artistic work of a high historical, ethnological, paleontological and anthropological interest. It is, therefore, a magnificent field of study for numerous different scientific disciplines, making it one of the most authentic heritage-related ensembles in the Mediterranean. This heritage survives thanks to numerous instruments (plans and legislation) that acknowledge its extraordinary value, despite substantial pressure from tourism in nearby areas or the impact of quarries, housing developments, bottling plants, improvements to roads, forest fires, and uncontrolled dumping in the immediate area. The aim in moving from the necessary protection and preservation of the areas major resources and from coercive mechanisms or the promotion of maintenance tasks to the Tramuntana areas universal recognition is to stimulate all those inhabitants who strive on a daily basis to defend their heritage. Likewise, the objective is also to reinforce a global understanding of the area, not as the sum of a series of extraordinary isolated resources but as the resulting hallmark of successive cultures that colonized this part of the Mediterranean.

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4 State of conservation and factors affecting the property

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4.a Present state of conservation Due to its physical features difficult access and an absence of flat, sandy coastal sections the Tramuntana area has remained historically unaffected by the intense process of economic growth that the island of Mallorca has experienced from the second half of the 20th century, sparked off by mass tourism. This has led to a reduction in the population, the decline of its fragile mountain-based economy, and the progressive abandonment of existing farmland and woodland, followed by the deterioration of certain associated ethnological features and infrastructure. At the same time, this situation has also helped safeguard many places in the Tramuntana area from the intense process of tourism development that some coastal areas in Mallorca have suffered from, so that although it has lost part of its traditional agricultural and forestry-related function, it still boasts high environmental standards in several respects: the quality of the air, low noise levels (resulting in noiseless places), and high visual appeal. All this only serves to demonstrate that the Tramuntana area is a privileged natural setting that constitutes a solid base for the development of activities related to the use and enjoyment of the environment within a sustainable framework (rural tourism, visits to natural environments, ecofriendly agriculture). Additionally, the Tramuntana Mountains contain a much higher number of public estates and properties than the rest of the island, even if they are attached to several different authorities. For instance, communal properties like those of Bunyola, Fornalutx, Caimari and Biniamar have been conserved, together with estates that are owned by the Balearic Regional Government or Consell de Mallorca or which are simply run by these bodies. This high amount of public property, particularly in the central part of the Tramuntana Mountains, favours the preservation of local values and helps prevent activities that are detrimental to the environment and the Tramuntanas heritage. 4.a.1 The state of conservation of natural features The natural environment of the Tramuntana area is relatively well conserved and its environmental resources are in good physical condition. For instance, its karstic limestone pavements have not undergone any noticeable deterioration and their exokarstic and endokarstic formations have conserved their geomorphological and scenic qualities almost intact. The state of conservation of its water resources is equally good, despite very localized problems, like occasional specific spillages of wastewater.

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Its underground aquifers, watercourses, streams, beds of torrents and springs are also in good condition, despite the strong trend for this water to be used for human consumption by piping it artificially to existing towns and villages.
Figure 85. The spring known as the Fonts Ufanes, one of the Tramuntanas natural monuments

As for flora and plant communities, the areas of most interest in terms of their flora are those over 1000 metres above sea level (Puig Major de Son Torrella, Massanella, Tossals, lOfre, Puig Roig, Puig Tomir, and many other peaks), together with some specific biotopes, like the beds of torrents or streams that sometimes carry water, caves and cliffs. In the area between the mountains of Puig Major de Son Torrella and Puig Tomir, 53% of the plant species considered to be in critical danger of extinction can be found, 59% of species in danger, and 68% of vulnerable species. The biotopes of the main mountain peaks have a very high percentage of native species from the perspective of their specific composition, territorial scope and the percentage of their biomass. Additionally, Mallorcas mountains are the only place where certain birds of prey of high interest to naturalists nest, like the black vulture or sea eagle, and they are also a favourite place for cormorants and the peregrine falcon. The coastline of the Tramuntana area also features interesting examples of native plant species in a good state of conservation, thanks to difficulty of access. Naufraga balearica, a delicate native plant protected internationally (European Directive 92/43/CE - Habitats Directive, 1991; Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats Berne Convention, 1991; and Act 4/89 which, by virtue of Royal Decree 439/90,

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creates the National Catalogue of Threatened Plant Species), can only be found in two places in Mallorca, both on the Formentor peninsula. The possible extinction of species like these cannot only be brought about by forest fires and the uncontrolled burning of reeds, but also by wild goats, whose population the Government of the Balearic Islands Ministry of the Environment currently monitors and controls. Based on the average productivity of Mediterranean plant formations, it has been estimated that the areas maximum permissible carrying capacity with regard to grazing by herbivores is one sheep or equivalent per hectare per year (PAPANASTASIS et al., 1990). Exceeding this threshold is extraordinarily dangerous because it has negative effects on the survival of certain plant formations, in addition to subsequent erosion. In consequence, it is important to make sure that the joint carrying capacity of sheep and goats does not exceed one sheep or equivalent per hectare per year in order to avoid situations of irreversible damage as has occurred in Cala Bquer and some parts of the Art mountains, in the northeast of the island. As for woodland, it should be remembered that the abandonment of most traditional forestry activities and practices has led to a decrease in the use of woodland, while the felling and removal of wood and trees is regulated by existing legislation. This has generated an increase in the surface area of woodland in the Tramuntana area, and only forest fires and certain urban development activities can now lead to its destruction. Existing woods of holm oaks offer maximum potential in terms of native woodland today and so they should be considered the type of woodland most representative of the natural state of the environment. Other smallersized examples of woodland to be considered, given their potential interest value, are small groves of yews, oak and cedars. It is no mere coincidence that Mallorcas mountain areas are the parts of the island where most land in natural conditions can be found, despite the relative value of the concept natural in a place like the Tramuntana area, with such a strong human imprint on it even if it has such a small population. Its ecosystems still maintain their environmental function and the ecological function of its agricultural land is of high interest too. In certain places where the natural habitat has been conserved, there are sections adapted for traditional farming activities that act as ecological connectors with forest masses and other natural areas. Thus, the role of olive groves on existing hillside terraces is a fundamental one. Streams, beds of watercourses and torrents also act as linear biological corridors, encouraging the re-vegetation of banks and the expansion of species in danger of extinction. It must be remembered that the flora and

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fauna of the Tramuntana area include a high number of native species, sub-species and formal varieties. As for fauna, most native species are invertebrates, like the little toad known locally as the ferreret (Alytes muletensis), described in 1981 but known as a fossil since 1978 when it was considered an extinct species. There are also several sub-species of the Balearic lizard on some islets in the Tramuntana area. For the international scientific community, the Tramuntana area is a key focus of interest and, for some time now, an important field of experimental research in naturalistic, heritage-related and socio-cultural matters. This has led to differing documentary, bibliographical and statistical material on the area. Indeed, the evident peculiarities of the Tramuntana areas natural and human habitats make it a privileged fascinating place for a special type of scientific tourism. Likewise, it can also be used for educational purposes. 4.a.2 The state of conservation of cultural features Given their extension and hallmark on the landscape, the Tramuntanas hillside terraces are a prime feature of tangible cultural heritage. Its terraced slopes occupy a total of 219 km2 of the surface of all its municipalities, according to figures from catalogues of hillside terraces made to date. Some municipalities, like Sller, Alar, Dei and Estellencs, have hillside terraces that cover half their surface areas, reflecting the intensity of mans marks on the local landscape and his adaptation to the local environment in order to take advantage of agricultural resources and control geomorphological or climatic hazards. Although the figures for the municipalities of Bunyola and Mancor de la Vall are still missing, approximately half the surface area of hillside terraces in the Tramuntana area is in a good state of conservation (47.9%) and the other half is in a poor state (46.5%). A meagre 5% of them are regarded as being in a ruinous state, by which we mean it is impossible to restore them. This means that, generally speaking, the terraces still fulfil the key role of physically supporting soil and preparing land for agricultural use. However, there is a clear tendency for terraced areas to be abandoned, due to the disappearance of agricultural activities in places with the worst physical geography, where mechanization is very difficult, and so they are the first places to be neglected. All in all, it must be said that in these places, even when part of the heritage related to these hillside terraces is lost, the original vegetation is restored: vegetation that suffered from a high level of anthropic pressure up until the first half of the 20th century.

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STATE OF CONSERVATION OF HILLSIDE TERRACES, BY MUNICIPALITY

Municipality ALAR ANDRATX BANYALBUFAR BUNYOLA CALVI CAMPANET DEI ESCORCA ESTELLENCS ESPORLES FORNALUTX LLOSETA MANCOR DE LA VALL POLLENA PUIGPUNYENT STA. MARIA DEL CAM SELVA SLLER VALLDEMOSSA TOTAL

Good state (%) 64.1 27.1 50.0 Under study 74.1 55.0 42.0 43.0 22.0 24.2 45.6 47.2 Under study 62.3 37.5 71.7 50.1 61.9 38.0 47.99

Bad state (%) 34.6 47.2 37.0 Under study 23.0 40.0 53.0 55.3 62.0 75.3 51.1 51.9 Under study 29.5 59.0 27.7 48.2 35.8 60.8 46.56

Destroyed (%) 1.3 25.7 13.0 Under study 2.8 5.0 5.0 1.7 16.0 0.5 3.3 0.9 Under study 8.2 3.5 0.6 1.7 2.3 1.2 5.45
Figure 86. State of conservation of hillside terraces in the Tramuntana area.

The hillside terraces in better condition are those that are still used in an effective way. They tend to be located in places closest to urban nuclei. Those used for cultivating non-irrigated crops suffer from the highest degree of deterioration or they have already been abandoned and invaded by vegetation (pines and scrubland). This move from the use of hillside terraces to their abandonment restores areas gradually to their natural state and accelerates the disappearance of one of the key values of this cultural landscape. It must be noted that the construction-related features of hillside terraces and their adjoining structures are conceived to ensure that the system is as functional as possible. Thus a genuine insight into interrelations among these built elements and their management requirements is needed in order to ensure their survival over the course of time. In this respect, the multi-functional aspect of terraced areas must be taken into account, together with the premise that the maintenance of agricultural and livestock activities is vital for their conservation. If there are alternatives to existing crops, they should be introduced in accordance with sustainable criteria that minimize possible erosion and help to conserve the biodiversity.

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It is also possible and indeed advisable to identify those areas of greater interest, where priority must be given to activities based on criteria like environmental, scenic, and construction-related quality and the role that they might play in the prevention of natural hazards. In short, criteria and techniques relating to management and use must be drawn up that bear in mind ecological, historical, symbolic, cultural and aesthetic values and the complexity of systems present in the Tramuntana and interrelations among all their components, particularly with regard to the fundamental control and regulation of water supplies to hillside terraces and their complementary infrastructure. Furthermore, the need for conservation work is even more relevant when an assessment is made of the financial cost of the replacement of a landscape or infrastructure in the event of its loss. The conservation of paths ties in with their recent, highly significant recognition as invaluable items of heritage in the Tramuntana area, due to their role as revitalizing arteries and the existence of a big network of paths that connect all four corners of the Tramuntana area, even the most remote places, thanks to tracks originally conceived for hoofed traffic and carts. The narrow width of these tracks, ensuring that they are not wide enough for wheeled traffic, has contributed to their conservation, except for specific cases when they have been widened or partially destroyed, forest trails have been opened up that cut across cobbled tracks, or other modifications have been made to the path they follow. It is important to mention tasks to inventory, protect and define the ownership of certain paths, and work to consolidate and restore them by the authorities. However, the current situation of traditional paths is a problematical one, due to the high number of hikers along some of them and the closure of certain ones over the last decade. This has affected public paths, ones with a traditional use, and private ones leading to emblematic places like mountain peaks or symbolic buildings or constructions. Various paths are closed to the public, although a court ruling has demonstrated their public ownership, like Cam de SEscolta (in Valldemossa), Cam de Son Ver that led from Valldemossa to Bunyola, Cam de la Torre de Lluc and Cam de la Ermita de Sant Pere, both in Escorca, and Cam de Solleric in the municipality of Alar. Many owners who close paths claim that it is because they pass through private property but they would be willing to lease rights to their use as thoroughfares to compensate for the expense and problems that access by the public involves, like rubbish, the disturbance of animals and a loss of privacy. This might be a solution in certain cases in order to guarantee public access to this heritage, reinforced by surveillance measures, regular cleaning, signing, the publication

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of leaflets indicating these routes and their conditions of use, and their adaptation to include rest areas for visitors. The widespread abandonment, throughout the 20th century, of traditional infrastructure relating to water supply systems and the ethnographic heritage of rural and wooded sections of the Tramuntana area has led to a general state of advanced neglect. Although some features have recently been restored, others are in a bad state of deterioration, mainly due to the action of the weather or neglect. Architectural structures have been generally invaded by vegetation while, in other cases, the outlying location and structural weakness of other constructions have led to their gradual deterioration or parts have fallen down. The pressure of day-trippers and, to a lesser degree, hunters has resulted in a build up of rubbish (paper, cigarettes, cans, plastic bags), vandalism (graffiti, paintings or the dismantlement of structures) and, in the case of the hydrological landscape, even pollution (detergent, soap). Some inappropriate activities in the vicinity of these assets have been noted, like camping or fires inside constructions, even using stones from items of local heritage. Measures to clean up, maintain and monitor the area are seen as insufficient and greater effort must be given to initiatives that help sensitize citizens and the different authorities to their joint responsibility in the conservation of the Tramuntana area. Mores specifically, items of heritage that form part of the water supply system are generally in a deficient state. Most of the norias in the Tramuntana area are in bad condition and many cannot be used due to a drop in the water table or, alternatively, they have been replaced by hydraulic pumps, mills, or simply modernized versions of the same norias with wheels and iron axles. In contrast, the wells are still in use and are in good condition. The springs and underground water galleries are in an irregular condition, because in crop-growing areas (particularly Sller, Banyalbufar and Esporles), water gushes up on a regular basis from most springs, which contributes to their conservation. However, in abandoned areas, particularly in olive groves at medium and high altitudes and in what was originally sharecroppers land, their bad state of conservation makes it hard to restore them, particularly due to the outlying position of the land or abandonment of crops. Springs close to paths, above all ones used for hiking, are cleaned and restored by the public authorities, but those at high altitudes tend to be in a bad state of repair, even if they are on hiking routes, and they require specific action to protect and restore them.

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Water storage tanks in mountain areas (pools, water tanks, wells and depressions in the rock) are, with some exceptions, in a bad state of conservation due to neglect, the weather and deliberate action by day-trippers and hunters. Ice stores have been catalogued and protected under regional legislation, but they are in an insufficient state of repair due to their exposure to the weather and some negligent behaviour by day-trippers. Water wheels have lacked effective protection and, in many cases, this has led to adjoining buildings being turned into homes. As a result, their structures have been altered. Many are also in a ruinous state, without anyone keeping an eye on them, which has led to plundering. During the last decade, thanks to their inclusion in catalogues of items of municipal heritage, better knowledge of them has been gained together with improved protection. The Consell de Mallorca is currently working on a general catalogue of these features. The same needs extend to mills and, although in some cases they have conserved their machinery, particularly the millstones, almost none of them in the Tramuntana area still has their sails. The Consell de Mallorca is running a project to fit new sails, which could help these architectural features to regain the place that befits them within the cultural landscape. Big progress has also been made in the restoration of ethnological heritage, thanks to the implementation of certain projects promoted by the Consell de Mallorca for the restoration of items of heritage (hillside terraces, oil mills and mills), based on the recovery of traditional crafts via the creation of training workshops. This demonstrates the feasibility of many of the environmental initiatives that have been carried out. The maintenance and proper management of these places can help boost local development, as has occurred as a result of past attempts. The limekilns are in a very bad state of conservation, because they stopped being used in the 1950s and since then they have gradually deteriorated. Specific work has been carried out to them but, generally speaking, no effective measures for their conservation currently exist. The stone sharecroppers huts in the Tramuntana area are an item of ethnological heritage in a bad state of conservation due to their neglect, outlying position or basic architecture, which has often led them to be excluded from inventories. Charcoal-makers shelters are in a similar situation, because the weakness of their structures and roofs has caused

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sections to fall down. Rubbish left by day-trippers and, to a lesser extent, hunters can be found in those that are closer to used paths, like the Cam des Correu path in Massanella wood, and Sa Fita des Ram. As for the porxos dolivar (stone shelters in olive groves), their changing function and renovation and extension so as to convert them into weekend residences, particularly in areas that can be reached by motor vehicle, often leads to the disappearance of their traditional characteristics. The most common alterations consist of the addition of new sections of building, the cement rendering of their walls, the incorporation of windows, and the replacement of roofs and water collection systems. On the other hand, those that are less accessible are the ones that have undergone the least change but they are most prone to neglect, like the hundred or so examples in the Barranc de Biniaraix, declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC according to the Spanish acronym). As for defensive heritage, the watchtowers (declared Items of Cultural Interest in 1992) are characterized by two very different situations. On the one hand, those between Andratx and Sller are restored or in an acceptable state of conservation and they are also accessible, while those in the municipality of Escorca are in a state of deterioration that makes their conservation difficult. Additionally, they are situated on cliffs that are inaccessible. The only one there that has been restored, Sa Mola de Cala Tuent, was badly restored and these problems must be put right. The escars (or boathouses) of the Tramuntana area are limited in number but important, due to the fact that they are concentrated between the municipalities of Dei and Estellencs. They have undergone modern alterations, although their gradual protection and inclusion in municipal catalogues have reduced the risks they face. As for archaeological heritage, although some previous work in this field has been done, it has not been completed, and the creation of an exhaustive updated catalogue needs tackling of existing archaeology in the Tramuntana area, based on intensive fieldwork that details their current condition, protective mechanisms, and defines the protective buffer zone around the item or site. In general, the state of conservation of these assets is poor, due to the influence of agricultural and forestry work over the course of time and the re-use of the stone they were made of to make dry-stone structures. Excavation and research work should be promoted to gain a better insight into the importance of this historical period in the development of the cultural landscape.

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Initiatives must also be urgently drawn up in the field of sensitization, aimed both at property owners and residents in general, which might make an impact on the conservation and monitoring of this archaeology and control over the plundering and vandalism (graffiti, destruction) that has traditionally affected this type of heritage and other ethnological features. Likewise, measures must be introduced to promote public access to declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC in Spanish) and the use of public paths. Finally, it must be added that the intangible heritage of the Tramuntana area has been kept alive, although it is subject to the pressures of globalization, which might represent a threat for the survival of local traditions and customs, local craftwork and products, and the rich linguistic heritage represented by terminology related to agricultural and livestock farming and dry-stone architecture. More specifically, current demographic changes in the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area have had big social and economic repercussions, as well as making an impact on the local identity, with local customs and traditions increasingly tending to coexist with cultural features of new residents. One future challenge for the area is to manage this evident cultural diversity in a balanced way so as to avoid the loss of the traditional local culture while also promoting intercultural integration. 4.b Factors affecting the property (i) Pressures due to development The decline of the rural world and its agricultural and livestock systems has been aggravated by the shift toward the tertiary sector at a local, regional and worldwide level, the waning importance of agricultural economies and depopulation of the countryside as rural populations migrate to cities. In the case of Mallorca, mass tourism has become the main source of income so that the wealth generated by the tertiary sector has almost completely replaced what was traditionally generated by the islands primary sector activities, even though the social importance of the latter is still strong thanks to the cultural values that they represent and the symbolic hallmark they have left on the local population, expressed through numerous festivities and traditions that exist on the island. The Tramuntana area suffers from the economic and social territorial imbalances that affect the island as a whole and, in consequence, an attitude has formed among certain sectors of society that does not look well upon environmental protection. The outlying geographical position

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of some towns and villages in the Tramuntana area has led to their exclusion from development brought about by mass tourism and to low levels of income. The population of the Tramuntana area feels excluded from the benefits of tourism, and this generates a negative attitude to land and environmental protection initiatives because the latter prevent them from increasing their income through building speculation (which coastal municipalities were able to do in previous decades and continue to do). This situation also hinders environmental and urban planning control by municipalities affected by this situation of exclusion.
Figure 87. General view of Pollena, in the extreme northeast of the Tramuntana area

The Tramuntana area is not unaware that economic and tourism development brings about new needs and demands that end up by generating an increase in new infrastructure and growing pressure from urban development. Building work to create new infrastructure and new buildings for communication networks represent a threat when they occur in places of high natural and scenic interest. Moreover, an increase in developed areas and second homes built in places with a clear rural vocation has sometimes had an impact on the surroundings, because the buildings are over-sized or materials are used that do not blend into the background setting. Since the 1950s, the Tramuntana area has undergone big changes associated with the tourist industry, linked particularly with the breakaway from the age-old economic model based on agriculture. During the last 40 years, the growth rate of the population of the Tramuntana area has been quite a lot lower than other areas in Mallorca, although differences among municipalities can be observed. The population is rising at the extremes of the Tramuntana area (Andratx, Calvi and Pollena) and

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also in areas close to Palma (Bunyola, Esporles and Puigpunyent). On the other hand, the population of other municipalities is tending to decline. All this has a clear reflection on the composition of the working population by economic sectors. In 1857, the working population dedicated to the primary sector in the Tramuntana area accounted for over 80% of the corresponding total figure there. This figure has now dropped to barely 10%. This is the result of the ageing process of the agricultural workforce, mainly due to an exodus of young people and to the fact that farmers are not replaced. Given these considerations, the Tramuntana area is today a multi-functional area in which agriculture coexists with new non-agricultural forms and uses of the land, like its development for housing estates, second homes, game refuges, and certain tourism facilities. Nonetheless, a large part of the Tramuntana area is not cultivated, due to its physical and morphological characteristics, where intensive agricultural or livestock farming is impossible except in very specific places. In 1860, cultivated land accounted for 38% of the area, while now it accounts for about 23%.

Figure 88. Hillside terraces of olive groves in the Tramuntana area

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As for livestock, the Tramuntana area follows a pre-tourism-type model, according to which bovine livestock, mainly located in orchard areas, is not very important, whereas there is a predominance of sheep, pigs (on a self-sufficient family-reared basis) and goats, all in mountain areas where livestock is a complementary aspect of rural life. It must also be added that traditional agricultural activities offer minimum earnings. Apart from reasons inherent in the structure of property and the division of land into plots, these minimum earnings can be accounted for by four factors: low productivity per hectare, difficulties in mechanization and access, commercialization problems and the lack of a competitive industry for making by-products. Additionally, certain traditional practices related to the use of grazing land, based on the burning of thickets of Hypericion Balearici, greatly hinder the possibility of the growth and consolidation of woodland in many high mountain areas due to chemical erosion and the erosion of organic soil matter that occurs during months just after the burning process. Thus the gradual abandonment of the countryside is the main reason for the deterioration of terraced fields, their associated structures, and landscapes, where a perceptible process of rural change can be noted. The expansion of urban areas, the shift from agricultural and forestry uses to residential ones and the replacement of traditional construction techniques with others that bear no physical or cultural relation with the local environment and which lead to a loss of cultural and heritage-related values and to environmental degradation and a certain growing scenic uniformity are motivated by a process of deterioration that is, in turn, conditioned or contributed to by factors of a lithological and geomorphological nature. All this means that certain items of heritage are subjected to a process of accelerated deterioration or destruction once they have lost their initial function, as occurs with waterwheels, hillside terraces, traditional paths, public washing places, defensive towers and many others. In some cases, like the charcoal-makers huts, the reason for this deterioration is due to the fact that they are very simple architectural structures and thus prone to deteriorate as time goes by. In other cases, like the constructions and structures associated with the gathering of snow in high parts of the mountains, it is because they are located in places exposed to the action of environmental agents and so they have rapidly deteriorated under extreme environmental conditions. Lastly, two examples of activities that are detrimental to the environment, especially on the southern side of the Tramuntana Mountains, are the quar-

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rying of aggregates for the construction sector and limestone for cement, because this face of the mountain range has outcrops of useable minerals and good transport and distribution links for quarried material, as well as being closer to parts of the island where these minerals are consumed. (ii) Environmental pressures The previously mentioned irregular rainfall and permeability of the subsoil and the fact that the drainage system is based on very small basins mean that there are no surface watercourses that can serve as a permanent source of water or as biological corridors to link different wet microsystems. Underground water supplies are resources that must be conserved in optimum conditions in terms of the quality of the water, although they are very vulnerable because the materials that make up a large part of the Tramuntana area are heavily karstified and fissured, so that water easily penetrates the surface at a high speed with hardly any capacity for it to be filtered. This means that any spilled liquid pollutants on the surface can affect underground water resources, which can also be contaminated by dumped solid waste. Thus the beds of watercourses suffer, albeit at specific moments, from the dumping of untreated or barely treated wastewater, as also occurs with the uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These practices are, needless to say, a threat because they upset the ecological balance of watercourses and lead to the contamination of underground water resources. In addition to the above, the amount of water taken from the underground water supplies of some hydrographic units is or has been higher than the water that replenishes them, sometimes to a serious extent in the case of the over-consumption of water from aquifers in contact with the sea, like those of Na Burguesa, Calvi or Andratx, with the subsequent filtration of sea water and salination of supplies. It should also be mentioned that the transfer of water from some basins to others for consumption purposes can have a negative effect on the ecology of streams, beds of watercourses, ravines and aquifers that find themselves without water following the transfer. For example, since the construction of the dam Gorg Blau, the mountain stream known as the Torrent de Pareis has seen a reduction in the water that it carries. Following a drop in the level of the karstic aquifer along which it runs, in time certain wells have dried up that used to have water supplies all year round thanks to the carved channel that linked up with saturated levels of the aquifer.

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It should also be remembered that a large part of the species of plants and animals with only a limited geographical distribution are, given the nature of their biotopes, in danger of disappearing due to the destruction of the few areas in which they can be found. One particularly representative case of this vulnerability is species of invertebrates that live in caves or springs, which often only live in one or few cavities or pools. With regard to the aforementioned emblematic toad ferreret (Alytes muletensis), Mallorcas most important native species of animal, the presence of the water serpent Ofidi natrix endangers its survival although, at the same time, the serpent is a valuable species in itself in terms of the biodiversity of the Mallorcan mountains. Lastly, the low profitability of crops of olives and other kinds of nonirrigated trees tends to lead to the abandonment of maintenance work to these areas of hillside terraces. The vegetation that replaces the olive groves is not always of special naturalistic interest, but it is true that the abandonment of traditional crops involves a higher natural risk because the traditional engineering structures that shored up this land, which prevent soil erosion and desertification, fall into a state of disrepair. (iii) Natural hazards The Tramuntana areas same physical conditions that make it a place of such outstanding scenic value are prone to generate natural hazards, mainly due to its stratigraphic and geomorphological circumstances (entailing the possibility of mass landslides) or due to climatic and hydrological factors (causing big floods of water following rains). Age-old human action on the land has aggravated this problem but, at the same time, also provided construction-related solutions designed to alleviate the dangers. Thus in areas with the biggest human presence, the natural dangers of floods or rock falls can affect economic activities or endanger the inhabitants physically. The places most susceptible to this kind of process are the southwestern part of the Tramuntana area (Estellencs and Banyalbufar), the Sller valley, and loamy sections of the southern face of the Tramuntana (more specifically the Mancor de la Vall area). Although most natural disasters in Mallorca are related to adverse weather and extreme climatic factors (frost, floods, cold spells, drought, hail and tornados), there are climate-induced disasters that become geomorphological ones or geological ones derived solely from the internal dynamics of the Earth, originated by seismic movements like earthquakes. Given the areas lithological composition, steep land and high rainfall, the Tramuntana Mountains are potentially prone to natural disasters, both in terms of frequency and intensity.

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Landslides and rock falls are a well-known risk in the Tramuntana area, with several documented cases. Examples include the landslides of September 25th 1971 in Estellencs, Banyalbufar and Andratx or the big landslide that occurred in the village of Biniarroi (Mancor de la Vall) in 1721, which led to a mass exodus of the population. The Sller valley has historically been particularly affected by the movement of land and by a risk of erosion. Erosion is, indeed, a natural way of shaping the landscape. This process is accelerated with quarrying activities and by the construction of artificial reservoirs, roads and housing estates, given the loss of soil that is involved. Natural hazards motivated by stratigraphic and geomorphological conditions and climatic and hydrological circumstances have been aggravated (and sometimes alleviated, as mentioned above) by the action of man. Since ancient times, most beds of streams and torrents and ravines in the Tramuntana area have been modified by man in order to prevent the water from destroying crops and eroding land. Watercourses in the Tramuntana Mountains can carry substantial amounts of alluvium on occasions when there is heavy rainfall. In such circumstances, water can flow down along the main watercourses in amounts of up to hundreds of m3, taking the form of flash floods. That is, they are sudden and have a high destructive capacity. As a result, areas close to the beds of some watercourses can become flooded, with subsequent destruction and material and human losses. In the Tramuntana area, there are several places that are especially prone to flooding: 1) Traditional urban nuclei crossed by watercourses: Esporles, SArrac, Sller, Calvi, Lloseta, Alar. 2) New housing estates on the beds of torrents or in the immediate vicinity of them: Puerto de Sller, Camp de Mar, Peguera, Port dAndratx, Son Font, Cala Sant Vicen. 3) The beds of valleys with alluvial formations: the orchards of Sller. A relatively long list of episodes of big floods can be drawn up in the history of some places (GRIMALT, 1992). One prime example is the big flood of water in Sller in 1885 or in March 1974. In the south-west of the Tramuntana area there have been repeated catastrophic events like that of September 1962, with serious destruction in Esporles, Puigpunyent, Calvi, Andratx, Bunyola and Palma, or that of September 24th 1971 in the vicinity of Estellencs and SArrac. Some torrential floods coming down the south face of the Tramuntana Mountains have caused well-known

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destruction in recent years, like the flooding of the Almedr Torrent in Lloseta and Solleric Torrent in April 1981 and the water that flooded down toward Pollena in October 1990. At the same time, some plant formations can be considered relicts due to their gradual disappearance. If, in some cases, they are clearly woods that grew well in former climatic conditions, like woods of yew trees, in other cases we are talking about vegetation that could cover bigger areas, given its ecological potential. These masses are also threatened by the permanent presence of pests, since populations of certain types of insects can, in favourable environmental conditions for the insects, endanger their conservation. Certain plagues of insects, like that of the pine caterpillar (Thaumetopoea), originated when this species of insect was introduced to the region by accident relatively recently. The case of Cerambyx cedro, which affects the holm oak, is different, because its presence on the island is natural and it is a taxonomic group protected by current environmental legislation. Forest fires, generally deliberately caused, also threaten certain plant formations like wild olive groves, mountain thickets, and other woody masses in the Tramuntana Mountains. The deforestation of some areas and the fact that some traditional systems of controlling mountains slopes have fallen into disuse lead to problems of erosion, with a reduction in the depth of the soil and increase in rocks. These signs of erosion can be observed in many places in Mallorca with irregular reliefs, but particularly in the Tramuntana area. (iv) Visitor / tourism pressures The gradual development of Mallorcas international image can no doubt be initially traced back to a visit by Napoleons representative Andr Grasset de Saint-Saveur, who published Voyage dans les iles Balares et Phitiuses in 1807 and opened up the gateway to trade between the Balearics and European continent. In 1837, the first scheduled shipping line between Palma and Barcelona was inaugurated, leading to a flow of eminent artists, aristocrats and famous or wealthy people who were engaged on a Grand Tour. They included George Sand, Gaston Vuillier, Jean-Josep Laurens, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria and Charles Toll Bidwell (a member of Londons Royal Geographical Society). Aside from these early visitors, since the 1960s the Balearic Islands have experienced three tourist and real estate booms. The first began in 1960, coinciding with Spains incorporation into the world economy, leading

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to the end of the relative isolation that the Balearic Islands had suffered from and finishing with the oil crisis. During this first boom, the Balearic coastline began to be heavily developed, mainly in the Bay of Palma and island of Ibiza. The second boom occurred in the 1990s, when accommodation grew at the same pace as the growth in tourists and increase in immigration. The period coincided with the approval of Balearic Act 1/1984 on the Regulation and Protection of Natural Areas of Special Interest, which classified the first areas designated ANEI (natural areas of special interest) areas of non-developable land. In 1991, Balearic Act 1/1991 on natural spaces was also passed (LEN in Spanish), which excluded approximately 40% of the Balearics from urban development, although not from the construction of buildings. Lastly, the third boom, between 1993 and 1999, coincided with the expansion of the world economy, reflected in the Balearics by the incorporation of rural areas into the real estate and tourism markets. The birth of mass tourism and rising development that characterized the first tourist boom led to a process of spatial functionalization that affected most of the Mallorcan coast, with the major exception of the Tramuntana area, which remained relatively unaffected by the necessary development of hotel infrastructure and complementary tourism services, apart perhaps too from the Port of Sller. In contrast, in the last two decades, tourism has been extended to encompass the whole of the island, reflected in the Tramuntana area since 1994 by an extensive network of tourism services based on rural tourism (rural rented properties, rural hotels, and inland tourism accommodation). The Tramuntana area also has one of the highest rates of European foreigners, with the municipalities of Estellencs, Dei, Fornalutx, Puigpunyent and Alar having a predominance of residential tourism. The conservation of the Tramuntana Mountains natural spaces, following the approval of successive regional acts, its declaration a Natural Site, and the drafting of a corresponding Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources (PORN according to its Spanish acronym), has generated an increase in visits by residents and tourists alike. This is because a rise in the demand for open-air leisure activities and an interest in wildlife have attracted more people to these places, thanks to their high scenic value, and they have become a tourist attraction with a high pull capacity. The importance of leisure activities by tourists and residents in places declared ANEI (Natural Areas of Special Interest) is evident when peak daily user numbers are scrutinized, with Sa Calobra being visited by 1,925

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people in the high season (BLZQUEZ, 2002). The Consell de Mallorca has estimated the Dry-Stone Route as having 326 daily users in the central section of the Tramuntana Mountains, 27.1% of whom are foreigners (mainly from Germany, accounting for 17.5%) and 5.1% of whom are Spaniards from outside the Balearic Islands. In any of the Tramuntanas recreational dimensions (hiking, diving, bird watching, photography, enjoying the biodiversity, learning and education), visitor numbers to places of scenic, cultural or natural interest there has added to the aforementioned vulnerability of the area by introducing a series of related problems. These include congestion, the disturbance of the flora and fauna, the exhumation of tree roots, the dumping of waste and oil by-products, illegal fishing and hunting, a loss of biodiversity and surface soil, the deterioration of cultural assets, degradation and the fragmentation of habitats and introduction of new species.
Figure 89. Visitors to Calobra, the mouth of the Torrente de Pareis, in Escorca

Nevertheless, the deterioration of the landscape is not so much caused by tourism as by a lack of material and human resources to guarantee the fundamental goal of conservation and protection that should form the basis of any management plan of the area. A well-regulated plan of the areas distribution, based on the specific characteristics of ecosystems, human habitats and activities to be performed in them, and controlled access to certain places of preferential interest could ensure that (conventional, student-based and scientific) tourism contribute to its preservation. On top of this, additional revenue could be obtained which, together with possible budgetary allocations, might facilitate the development of other functions as important as research, the publication of information, interpretation of landscape values and a raised social awareness, aimed at

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sensitizing residents and visitors to the natural values and tangible and intangible cultural heritage of this cultural landscape. (v) Number of inhabitants within the property and buffer zone Estimated population inside: - The surface area of the nominated property: 7,958 inhabitants. - The buffer zone: 120,354 inhabitants. - Total: 128,492 inhabitants. - Year: 2008. The number of inhabitants of municipalities in the Tramuntana area, according to census figures, amounts to 128,492, without taking into account the municipality of Palma, even though a small part of the latter is inside the buffer zone. Naturally, the total municipal population does not coincide with the real population inside the limits of the nominated property. If the said figure is taken into account and related to the total surface area of the 19 municipalities (1,033.8 km2) included wholly or partly within the limits of the nominated property (with the exception of Palma), the density of the population is 124.3 inhabitants per km2.
Figure 90. Surface area, population and density of the population by municipalities in 2008. Source: Review of Municipal Registers of Inhabitants for 2008. Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE).

Surface area (km2) Alar 46.5 Andratx 82.5 Banyalbufar 18.1 Bunyola 84.1 Calvi 145.5 Campanet 35.7 Dei 15.1 Escorca 139.4 Esporles 35.7 Estellencs 13.4 Fornalutx 19.9 Lloseta 12.0 Mancor de la Vall 18.9 Pollena 151.7 Puigpunyent 41.6 Santa Mara del Cam 37.9 Selva 48.7 Soller 42.6 Valldemossa 44.5 1037

Population 5.178 13.348 627 5.910 50.777 2.601 754 276 4.696 388 732 5.655 1.146 11.997 1.763 5.572 3.370 13.625 1.977 128.492

Inhab./km2 111.3 137.5 34.6 70.3 349.0 72.9 49.9 1.9 131.5 28.9 36.8 471.2 60.6 79.1 42.4 149.7 69.2 319.9 44.4 124.3

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The core area, which covers 320 km2, should be considered an area with a low population, since its inhabitants amount to about 8,000 people. This figure corresponds to an estimate based on data for the resident population in this main core, according to a review of municipal registers of inhabitants for 2008. Thus, in the case of municipalities only part of which are located in the core area (Sller, Calvi, Alar, Lloseta and Selva, for instance), their populations have not been included or a percentage-based estimation has been made of residents scattered about the core area. When the municipalitys main town is located in the core area (as is the case of Valldemossa, Estellencs or Mancor de la Vall), the total population of the municipality according to the said register has been included.

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5 protection and management of the nominated property

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5.a. Ownership Ownership of the land within the proposed core area of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area is divided between private owners, holding a majority with a total of 25,226.2 hectares (79%), and publicly-held land, which amounts to a total of 6,704 hectares (21% of the total). This situation represents a high percentage of private ownership thus constraining, to a certain extent, the nominated propertys management. The management plan must contemplate appropriate measures in line with the ownership of property so that the results, at the end of the day, are the same with regard to the protection and conservation of the declared asset, without any notable difference being perceived whatever the Property Register.
DISTRIBUTION OF OWNERSHIP IN THE TRAMUNTANA AREA (CORE AREA)
Figure 91. Distribution of ownership in the core area of the Tramuntana Mountains.

Ownership Private Public State Regional Government Consell de Mallorca Town Councils Total

Surface Area (Ha) 25,226.2 6,704.0 1,713.2 1,126.2 1,203.4 2,661.2 31,930.9

% 79.0 20.9 64.4 42.3 45.2 100.0 100.0

With regard to private ownership, this encompasses properties held by the Church, including the outstanding setting of Lluc Monastery, and also large rural estates, some of which still belong to heirs of the nobility. As for public ownership, reference should be made to the fact that this category covers all levels of the public authorities, from municipal to State level. In terms of surface areas, it is significant that the State holds ownership rights over a total of 1,713 hectares, including very important estates such as that of the recently acquired Plancia, in the municipality of Banyalbufar. The Regional Government of the Balearic Islands in turn owns a total of 1,126 hectares, while the Consell de Mallorca holds another 1,203 hectares. The remainder corresponds to those estates owned by the municipalities, which form the most numerous group, covering a total of 2,661 hectares. In general, the estates in question are communal properties that have been in public use since remote times. It must be noted that the Consell de Mallorca owns a number of publiclyowned properties located in different places on the island of Mallorca, particularly in the Tramuntana area. All of these, except for Son Amer, have been declared of public use and are included in the State Forestry Catalogue. Corresponding plans have been drawn up for the use and

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management of these publicly-owned estates and these instruments regulate the kinds of work and activities that can be performed in them. 5.b. Protective designation 5.b.1. General characterization of current regulations protecting the Tramuntana area Throughout the Tramuntana area, there are many elements that reflect interaction between the natural setting and successive cultures, signalling traditional ways of using the land and illustrating the basic features of this cultural landscape. The delimited area is currently included under or covered by protective categories or designations defined in various legal instruments in the fields of spatial planning and protection, historic and cultural heritage, and natural and environmental resources. These legal figures aimed at protection and management, approved between 1972 and 2007, represent the recognition of exceptional values, establishing a specific restrictive protective regime, so as to ensure the conservation and maintenance of these values, and promoting the implementation of policies relating to economic development, the dissemination of information, the protection and conservation of natural and cultural assets and visitor attention, whether local residents or tourists. For over a hundred years, the Tramuntana area and its people have been longing for special attention to be granted to their heritage. After the publication of Un hiver Majorque by George Sand and, following in the footsteps of Chopin at Valldemossa Monastery, numerous Spanish and foreign visitors reflected their vision of the scenic, natural and cultural values of the Tramuntana area in numerous travel books. The impressions of leading figures from the worlds of science (E. A. Martel), art (Rusiol and Anglada Camarasa), and prose (Sargeant, Rubn Daro, Verdaguer, Unamuno and Graves) gave rise to groups of writers in Dei and artists in Pollena, as well as intellectuals attracted by the wealthy patron of the arts Diehl in Formentor, who also contributed to the image of the Tramuntana area as a unique place and prime destination for cultural tourism. Special mention, nonetheless, must be made of Archduke Ludwig Salvator, who made a decisive contribution at the end of the 19th century to the Tramuntana Mountains image. The Archduke, who was in love with the area, bought numerous properties where he had a network of paths and vantage points built with the intention of fostering enjoyment of the landscape. The Archdukes Route is an extraordinary example of a tourist route capable of generating a powerful collective image, and his lead was to be followed by other enlightened individuals tied in

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with the Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca Association for the Promotion of Tourism) at the beginning of the 20th century. Voices calling for the recognition of the values of the Tramuntana area were not long is making themselves heard. In 1916 writer Miquel dels Sant Oliver applied for the former estates of the Archduke to be declared a National Park: His estates made up one of the most beautiful and regal of national parks ever seen in Europe; and the public use he made of them (...) meant that the islanders became used to considering them shared property, somehow linked to their knowledge and admiration by future generations (...) This foreign magnate was the first to create a modern National Park. Years later, in 1922, a report by the Royal Commissioner for Fine Art, Joan Alcover, tells us that the Fomento del Turismo has applied to the Minister for Public Works to have ...the areas known as Miramar, made up of the estate and other portions detailed on the attached plan, declared a National Park with all the urgency that circumstances dictate, pursuant to the Act dated December 7th 1916 and Royal Decree dated February 27th 1917. In 1946, Joaqun Ximnez de Embn, an Aragonese forestry engineer who worked in the Balearics during that decade, again requested that it should be declared a Natural Site of National Interest, proposing the establishment of a local Tourism and Parks Board to act as the governing body. Private interests and political influences managed to frustrate this project which was eventually abandoned. In 1972, architect Gabriel Alomar, at the time Vice-President of ICOMOS and previously General Commissioner for National Artistic Heritage for several years, sponsored the declaration of the Tramuntana area a Picturesque Setting. This declaration (Decree 984/1972 of March 24th, published in Official State Gazette no.94 of April 19th 1972) represented the first formal protection for the territory, fully affecting the municipalities of Campanet, Dei, Valldemossa, Banyalbufar, Estellencs, Escorca and Fornalutx and partly those of Sller, Andratx and Pollena. The preamble of the Decree is striking in that this recognition is based on principles very similar to those used twenty years later by the UNESCO to define cultural landscapes: The northwest coast of Mallorca, praised by Spanish and foreign pens, transferred to paintings by eminent paintbrushes, the cradle of illustrious figures, with marvellous landscapes of international renown where it is hard to find a parallel for its rich monuments and historic memories, is an appealing area of outstanding beauty, with a unique character worthy of being conserved in its entirety.

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Among its numerous rich variety of monuments, a special mention must be made of the gothic oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, the gothic palace of King Sancho and Valldemossa monastery and, from a decorative point of view, its gardens and vantage points, strategically situated mainly on the coast of Miramar; its urban ensembles, monasteries and rural churches, and a multitude of natural or scenic places of interest like the valleys of Son Brondo, Sller, Ternelles, Cala Tuent and so many others of incomparable beauty. All this makes it advisable for the northwest coast of Mallorca to be placed under State protection by declaring it a picturesque site. At the proposal of the Ministry of Education and Science, following consideration by the Council of Ministers at their meeting on March seventeenth, nineteen seventy-two. Subsequently, in 1996 to be exact, the Tramuntana area came to form part of the UNESCOs Indicative List on the basis of criteria (v), (vii), (ix) and(x). Quite apart from all this formal recognition, the values of the Tramuntana area have been highlighted in singular style in legislation governing the Balearic Islands natural and cultural heritage: State Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna. Act 1/1991 of January 30th on Natural Spaces and the Urban Planning Regime for the Balearic Islands. Decree 54/1995 of April 6th approving the Plan for the Regulation of the Tourism Supply. Act 6/1997 of July 8th on Rural Land in the Balearic Islands. Act 12/1998 on the Heritage of the Balearic Islands. Act 6/1999 of April 3rd on Spatial Planning Guidelines for the Balearic Islands and Tax Measures. Act 14/2000 of December 21st on Spatial Planning. Act 8/2003 of November 25th on Urgent Measures for Spatial and Urban Planning in the Balearic Islands. Decree 71/2004 of July 9th declaring certain species subject to hunting and fresh-water fishing in the Balearic Islands, and establishing the rules for their protection. Act 5/2005 of May 26th for the conservation of spaces of environmental relevance (LECO according to its acronym in Spanish). Act 11/2006 of September 14th on environmental impact assessments and strategic environmental evaluations in the Balearic Islands.

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Decree 28/2006 of March 24th declaring Special Protection Areas (ZEPA according to its Spanish acronym) for birds. Decree 29/2006 of March 24th extending the list of Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and ZEPA within the Balearic Islands. Decree 91/2006 of October 27th on the regulation of goat populations and the hunting of Mallorcan wild mountain goats and on the amendment of technical plans. Resolution by the Cabinet dated March 3rd 2006, definitively approving the list of Sites of Community Importance (SCI) approved by virtue of a Resolution of the Cabinet dated July 28th 2000, within the geographical scope of the Balearic Islands. State Act 42/2007 of December 13th on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity State Act 45/2007 of December 13th for the sustainable development of the rural environment. Framework Plan regulating hunting in game reserves on the island of Mallorca. Resolution by the Cabinet dated May 30th 2008 creating additional Special Protection Areas (ZEPA) for birds and extending the surface area of certain existing ZEPAs within the geographical scope of the islands of Mallorca and Minorca. Decree-Law 3/2009 of May 29th on environmental measures to foster investment and economic activity in the Balearic Islands. The natural values of the Tramuntana area, in part or as a whole, are currently recognized under the designations Natural Park, Natural Site and Natural Monument: Natural Site of the Tramuntana area (Decree 19/2007 of March 16th). Although at the time the authorities proceeded to approve the Plan for the Regulation of the Natural Resources of the Tramuntana area (PORN according to the Spanish acronym)11, there is so far no corresponding Master Plan for its use and management (PRUG according to the Spanish acronym). Natural Park of Sa Dragonera and the islands of Pantaleu and sa Mitjana (Decree 7/95 of January 26th). Owned by the Consell de Mallorca (1987), it occupies 908Ha overall, 274 of which form the on-land surface area of the natural park. So far, a Master Plan for the use and management of Sa Dragonera Natural Park has been drawn up for the period 20012004 (Balearic Official Gazette no. 73 of June 19th 2001), together with a Management Plan for Sa Dragonera Site of Communal Importance (ES0000221), by virtue of Decree 25/2007 of March 30th 2007. Although corresponding Master Plans for use and management have not yet been approved, the Tramuntana area has two already declared

11

This PORN creates and regulates the Network of Natural Leisure Areas (XALEN in Spanish), entered on the register of the DirectorateGeneral for Biodiversity of the Balearic Ministry of the Environment, comprising those public and private amenities and installations related to recreational, educational, cultural and similar uses (refuges, hostels, summer camps, recreational areas, camp sites etc.)

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natural monuments: the Natural Monument of Ses Fonts Ufanes (Decree 111/2001 of August 31st) and the Natural Monument of Torrent de Pareis, Gorg Blau and Lluc (Decree 53/2003 of May 16th). It is also worth highlighting the existence of La Trapa Nature Reserve in Andratx, located in a forest property belonging since 1980 to the Balearic Island Ornithology Group (GOB). Part of the European Network of Private Nature Reserves (EUREL), it is a game refuge catalogued a Natural Area of Special Interest (ANEI in Spanish) and a Special Protection Area for Birds (ZEPA). In addition, the Tramuntana area features two cultural routes acknowledged by the European Route Network: The Dry-Stone Route (GR-221), which runs through thirteen municipalities in the Tramuntana area: Andratx, Calvi, Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Dei, Sller, Fornalutx, Alar, Escorca and Pollena. It has a Special Plan for the regulation and protection of the Dry-Stone Route (2008)12. The Art-Lluc Route (GR-222), which affects the municipalities of Selva and Escorca. Its special plan for the regulation and protection of the route has not yet been approved13. With regard to historic and cultural heritage, the following have already been declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC): Historic Site: the Historic Site of the Llins flourmills in Pollena (October 30th 1990) and attention to the Historic Site of the estates purchased by Archduke Ludwig Salvator in Mallorca (October 6th 1997), which has had a Special Plan of Protection since 2002 highlighting 28 of the over seven hundred monuments built or restored by the Archduke. Historic Ensemble: Current declared ensembles include the Historic Ensemble of Valldemossa Monastery (July 8th 1971), although the Palace of King Sancho had already been declared one since April 22nd 1949; the Historic Ensemble of Dei (February 5th 2001); and the Historic Ensemble of Estellencs (March 6th 2007). The first additional provision of the Mallorca Spatial Plan (PTM in Spanish) proposed, in 2004, that proceedings should be put in motion to arrange for the towns of Sller and Pollena to be declared items of cultural heritage (BIC) in the category of historic ensembles, together with the extension of the historic ensemble of Valldemossa and the declaration of the smaller-scale ensembles of Biniaraix (Sller), Ullar (Campanet) and Galilea (Puigpunyent), but so far they have not been declared as such. On the other hand, proceedings have been set in motion for the declaration of the town of Orient (Bunyola).

12

http://www. conselldemallorca.net/?id_ section=1675

13 http://www. conselldemallorca.net/?id_ section=1841

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Places of Ethnological Interest: Ice stores on the Massanella massif (Escorca) (March 8th 2004) and hillside terraces at Ses Rotes de Caimari (Selva) (February 7th 2009). Monument: The Oratory of Sant Miquel, Campanet (December 7th 1978); La Avanzada Fortress, the Port of Pollena (July 7th 1997); the tower of the electricity plant in Alar (May 8th 2000); Banc de Sller and Can Magraner (December 4th 2000); the Parish Church of Sant Bartomeu in Sller (June 2nd 2003); The estate houses of Alfbia (March 8th 2004); the Chapel of Santa Llcia in Mancor de la Vall (October 28th 2004); the Church of Sant Pere in Escorca (March 8th 2004); the water supply network at La Font den Baster, Palma-Esporles (December 24th 2005); the Casa de la Lluna in Sller, classified a monument (August 8th 2006); the water supply network of La Font de la Vila, Palma (January 11th 2007); the waterwheels at Cala de Banyalbufar (June 16th 2007); the water supply network of Font de Mestre Pere and irrigation channels of Na Cerdana, Esporles (March 26th 2009). Historic Garden: the Gardens of Alfbia (February 5th 1954). In 1949, a generic declaration was approved for castles and defensive towers based on a list drawn up by architect Gabriel Alomar. Religious and heraldic elements on monumental sculptures (crests, emblems, heraldic stones, pillories, crosses marking local boundaries and similar items of historic or artistic interest) were declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC) as a whole by virtue of Decree 571/1963 of March 14th. Archaeological Site: apart from the archaeological site at Son Serralta, Puigpunyent (declared on January 24th 2000), most of the prehistoric and protohistoric monuments of the Tramuntana area were declared a National Historic Monument in 1966 (on the basis of an inventory drawn up by Mascar Pasarius) and they became items of cultural interest in 1985, when the National Historic Heritage Act came into force. Moveable Heritage: The most representative organs on Mallorca, including the organ from the Convent of Santo Domingo in Pollena (October 6th 2005); the Guasp Collection, Valldemossa (October 7th 2006); and the documentary collection, library and chair at Alfbia (Bunyola). The Mallorca Spatial Plan (2004), approved by the Consell de Mallorca on December 3rd 2004, is currently the general instrument used for spatial planning purposes and the regulation of the islands human settlements, activities, and uses and shared services, stipulating measures for improving the quality of life and protecting the environment. Its goals are clearly aligned with the need to preserve the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area: to improve the quality of life of its citizenry; to ensure a suitable spatial structure to achieve social and economic development that is compatible with the rational use of natural resources; and to guarantee the protection and improvement of the environment.

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More recently, in May 2009, the Consell de Mallorca published the Fundaments of a Mallorcan Landscape Strategy, a document developing the European Landscape Convention to which this body subscribed in 2008 which is based on the ideas and proposals contained in the Florence Convention. The said document considers the Tramuntana Mountains to be a natural special interest area. The most important natural area in Mallorca, featuring the islands most valuable natural habitats and a traditional landscape, based on Mediterranean mountain farming. The creation of a dry-stone route must be mentioned as a proposal for its public use and the interpretation of the areas landscape and heritage. 5.b.2. The impact of urban and spatial planning on the nominated property The impact of urban and spatial planning on the area delimited as the proposed core area entails the classification of most of the said area protected rural land, in accordance with the urban planning rules currently in force in the Balearic Islands. The Mallorca Spatial Plan acknowledges that part of the Tramuntana area is considered a Picturesque Site and as a result it specifically regulates and protects its monumental and historic heritage. In particular, it devotes TitleIII to this area, explicitly stating that it contains three areas enjoying special protection: Natural Areas of Special Interest (ANEI), Rural Areas of Scenic Interest Woodlands (ARIP-B), Rural Areas of Scenic Interest (ARIP) and Settlements within Areas of Scenic Interest (AAPI). Under these protective categories, certain uses are prohibited, constrained or permitted on rural land. Similarly, it regulates the tourism supply outside areas regulated by the Mallorca Master Plan for the Regulation of the Tourism Supply, especially that of the Tramuntana area. With a view to landscape integration, the Mallorca Spatial Plan (PTM in Spanish) defines the Tramuntana area as one of nine scenic and environmental integration units and one of nine spheres for coherent planning with a trans-municipal scope on Mallorca. The territorial conversion areas (ART in Spanish) foreseen in the PTM (which allow for the execution of action to free up space, create or improve amenities and infrastructure, provide services, and improve the urban and rural landscape) include ART1: ANEI Tramuntana area (ecological and environmental assessment and restoration) as the basis for a Special Plan to regulate land uses and access to the most heavily protected areas of the Tramuntana. At the same time, regulation 31 of the PTM indicates that, according to Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st, all elements in-

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cluded in the Mallorca Register of Items of Cultural Interest and in the Mallorca Catalogue of Historic Heritage are considered to be listed elements, as are all those included in existing municipal catalogues14. More specifically, as provided for in the Mallorca Spatial Plan, which is mandatory for the islands municipalities, the types of land in the core area are as follows: Natural Area with a High Level of Protection (AANP): This is the rural land category with the highest level of protection, allowing only uses related to agriculture, livestock farming and the environment. These areas coincide with the most important ecosystems from an environmental standpoint. In the core area, a total of 16,773.3 hectares are classified in this protective category, representing 54.6% of the total surface area of the core area. Natural Area of Special Interest (ANEI): The second highest category in terms of protection, allowing for some more activities than an AANP although still within the scope of areas under the strictest protection. Among other prohibitions, the construction of housing inside these areas is forbidden. These areas represent a total of 8,890.1 hectares, 28.9% of the total core area. Rural Area of Scenic Interest (ARIP). This kind of rural land includes areas of the mountains with a rural and agricultural flavour, with an agricultural vocation but not including natural habitats or ecosystems. Under certain highly restrictive conditions, the use of single-family dwellings is allowed in this category (minimum plots of 50,000m, with very strict conditions with regard to finishes and the building process, as measures to protect the landscape). These areas represent a total of 3,512.0 hectares, 11.4% of the total core area. Rural Area of Scenic Interest Woodlands (ARIP-B). This is differentiated from the preceding category by the presence of scrubland or forests. The use of single-family dwellings is prohibited in this category. These areas represent a total of 1,207.1 hectares, 3.9% of the total core area. Area of Agricultural Interest Olive Groves. This is a category included in unprotected rural land, which nonetheless establishes a certain degree of protection for growing olive trees in areas that are scenically less sensitive. The permitted uses are more extensive than in preceding categories, including the use of single-family dwellings under less restrictive conditions than in ARIPs. These areas represent a total of 3.5 hectares, 0.01% of the core area.

14

Several municipalities in the Tramuntana area (Banyalbufar, Dei, Fornalutx, Sller, Puigpunyent, Mancor de la Vall, Valldemossa and Bunyola) are currently working on a municipal catalogue as an inventory and protective mechanism for real estate and heritage of historic, artistic, architectural, ethnographic, ethnological and scenic interest. Regulation31.3. of the said PTM indicates that those municipalities that have not definitively approved the corresponding municipal heritage catalogue will only be allowed to carry out activities of a strictly conservationrelated nature in buildings of architectural or ethnological importance (estate buildings, country houses built using traditional techniques, mills and waterwheels, bridges, ice stores and other elements representative of traditional techniques).

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Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest (AAPI) in rural land. This is a specific category for the area surrounding the core of the Sller valley and the occasional small isolated settlement. It is an area of rural land close to the town. Due to its special characteristics (orchards), it has certain restrictions in comparison with its equivalent category: common rural land. In total, these areas cover 78.6 hectares, 0.3% of the total core area. Areas of urban or developable land (Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest AAPI for urban development). A category covering towns and villages in the proposed core area and their small surrounding development areas. This category is the one that allows for the growth of existing urban nuclei in the core area, which are subject to certain scenic and heritage-related restrictions when it comes to the consideration of new growth. These areas represent a total of 280.2 hectares of the core area, 0.9% of the total. Thus it should be noted that 98.8% of the whole core area is classified as protected rural land (AANP, ANEI, ARIP and ARIP-B), thus effectively guaranteeing protection for the whole area nominated for inclusion on the World Heritage list.

Figure 92. Urban planning classification of the core area of the Tramuntana area.

URBAN PLANNING CLASSIFICATION OF LAND IN THE CORE AREA, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN

Category Natural Area with a High Level of Protection (AANP) Natural Area of Special Interest (ANEI) Rural Area of Scenic Interest (ARIP) Rural Area of Scenic Interest Woodlands (ARIP-B) Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest (AAPI), in urban or developable land. Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest (AAPI), on rural land Areas of agricultural interest (AIA), olive groves Total

Surface area (Ha) 16,773.3 8,890.1 3,512.0 1,207.1 280.2 78.6 3.5 30,745.0

% 54.6 28.9 11.4 3.9 0.9 0.3 0.01 100.0

Meanwhile, categories that can be considered urban or developable land represent less than 1% of the whole proposed area, and, in this case, they are subject to protective regulations derived from other legislation on historic heritage which place very serious constraints on possible new buildings and uses allowed in urban historic ensembles.

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5.c. Means of implementing protective measures A number of different protective legal regimes apply to the Tramuntana area, with different physical scopes and different legal areas of authority that often overlap. When the target of protection is analysed, they can be classified into three groups: those related to the protection of historic, artistic and cultural heritage, those related to environmental protection, and finally those associated with legal compliance with urban and spatial planning regulations. It is important to note that protection can be applied at different moments, either in a preventive way by controlling intended activities or in a subsequent regenerative way by trying to restore values that, for some reason, have been negatively affected. Through the different powers of different authorities entrusted with safeguarding the Tramuntana area, in compliance with current legislation, a wide range of available resources currently exist to ensure its effective protection. In continuation, these resources are listed and broken down according to the responsible body and its powers, even if, in some cases, administrative mechanisms can be linked up to guarantee coordinated, more effective protection. 1. Within the different municipalities, town councils are the authority in closest proximity with the reality of the Tramuntana area, with easier scope of initial action even if their actions are limited to the physical boundaries of their respective municipalities. Essentially, they have protective powers in matters concerning legal compliance with urban planning regulations, building permits, compulsory formalities prior to certain activities, or the opening of proceedings when an urban planning offence has been committed. They may also have complementary powers to act in matters concerning historic heritage and environmental protection. 2. The usual resources at their disposal tend to be municipal technical services (architects, engineers, legal experts, inspectors and, in general, local law enforcement officers in terms of staff and, by extension, the technical and material resources assigned to them, such as offices, vehicles, equipment etc) and they can vary in number, depending on the size of the municipality and its resources. 3. The Consell de Mallorca is invested with a series of trans-municipal powers which, in this case, comprise three specific scopes of authority:

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a. Safeguarding historic heritage through the Mallorca Committee for Spatial and Urban Planning and Historic Heritage and the resources of the Department of Cultural Affairs Mallorca Directorate for Historic Heritage, which is entrusted with reporting on special plans of protection, opening proceedings for the declaration of items of cultural interest, supervising projects to be run in protected areas, authorization for archaeological excavation, prospection and research projects, and the surveillance, control and conservation of archaeological and ethnological monuments for which it has technical services, inspectors and the necessary material means to carry out these tasks for the Tramuntana area. b. Control over compliance with urban planning regulations, from the control and supervision of municipal urban plans and their provisions relating to the Tramuntana area to direct intervention in the supervision of certain projects to introduce activities to rural land in the Tramuntana area. This service counts on the technical and material resources of the Spatial Planning Departments Mallorca Directorate for Urban and Coastal Planning. At the same time, there is also a regional body called the Mallorca Agency for Legal Compliance with Urban and Spatial Planning whose main aim it is to safeguard compliance with urban planning regulations within its own scope of authority and as delegated by municipalities, particularly on rural land and in the protected public coastal strip, carrying out surveillance activities, controlling possible building activities and land use, and opening proceedings for the restoration of legal compliance with urban planning regulations. It has a specific inspectorate, with specially assigned staff and experts and a general monitoring service. c. Emergency aid through the Mallorca Fire Service, attached to the Home Affairs Department. It is an operative unit with numerous highly skilled members of staff who attend to and resolve incidents of different kinds in the Tramuntana area, like the extinction of fires, assistance in traffic accidents and mountain rescue operations via a special mountain rescue team who deal with people who get lost or have accidents in the mountains. It has an extensive range of material resources at its disposal to carry out its activities. 4. The Balearic Ministry of the Environment has protective powers over all elements relating to the environment in all their different forms (flora, fauna, mountains, water, pollution etc) in terms of their regulation, inventories of existing resources, and their protection.

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5. It has an extensive network of agents at its disposal, normally one per municipality, dedicated exclusively to associated surveillance. There are also technical back-up staff and sufficient technical and material resources. 6. The Balearic Ministry for Home Affairs has authority in matters concerning public order and situations involving emergencies or natural catastrophes. It coordinates civil defence services and has specialist means at its disposal for the extinction of fires and rescues involving hazardous situations. 7. SEPRONA (the Nature Protection Service), attached to the Directorate General for the Police and Civil Guard of the State Ministry for Home Affairs, is a body of public law enforcement agents who safeguard the environment in compliance with current legislation in all matters that might be considered an environmental offence, usually acting in an official capacity and, in other cases, in collaboration with the legal authorities. The service has sufficient material and human resources to cover the whole of Mallorca and its coastal waters. 5.d. Existing plans related to the municipalities and the region in which the nominated property is situated Current plans of action that apply to the Tramuntana area can be classified in three groups, depending on the matter they concern. These groups are: 1. The regulation of natural resources The Plan for the Regulation of the Tramuntana Areas Natural Resources, approved by virtue of Decree 19/2007 of March 16th following the Tramuntanas declaration a Natural Site in accordance with current legislation on areas of environmental interest. 2. The Protection of Historic Heritage The Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site of Arduke Ludwig Salvators Estates, approved on April 8th 2002 in a plan that develops legislation on the matter. The Special Plan for the Protection of the Dry-Stone Route. The Special Plan for the Protection of the Art-Lluc Route.

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The Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic, Artistic, Architectural, Ecological and Scenic Values of the Municipality of Dei. The Special Plan for the Protection and Cataloguing of the Village of Lluc. The Special Plan for the Protection and Cataloguing of the Municipality of Escorca. The Special Plan for the Historic Centre of Pollena. 3. Spatial and Urban Planning The Mallorca Spatial Plan, approved definitively on December 13th 2004. The general urban plans of each municipality in the Tramuntana area, which contain different provisions that affect all or part of the delimited area. The most important are listed below:
Figure 93.

Municipality Alar Andratx Banyalbufar Bunyola Calvi Campanet Dei Escorca Esporles Estellencs Fornalutx Lloseta Mancor de la Vall Palma Pollena Puigpunyent Santa Maria del Cam Selva Sller Valldemossa

Plan Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations General Urban Development Plan General Urban Development Plan Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations General Urban Development Plan General Urban Development Plan Subsidiary Planning Regulations Subsidiary Planning Regulations No planning instrument General Urban Development Plan Subsidiary Planning Regulations

Date 17-10-2003 26-04-2007 18-07-1986 13-02-1978 26-06-2009 28-07-2003 23-07-2004 25-11-1993 23-11-2001 07-05-2007 19-05-2006 15-11-1996 30-04-1992 23-12-1998 29-11-1991 28-07-2003 26-01-1996 -17-11-2000 27-10-1995

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5.e. Management plan for the nominated property Volume IV of the document contains a copy of the Management Plan for the Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana in spanish. In continuation, by way of a summary, an outline is given of the main provisions and strategies contained in the said Plan. This has been specifically drawn up for the Serra de Tramuntanas World Heritage candidacy and as an alternative to other existing management plans and programmes for the area, which are also attached as appendixes. This Management Plan was developed by the Consell de Mallorcas Spatial Planning Department during the year 2009. As well as different experts from the Consell de Mallorca, over 50 social and cultural bodies from the Serra de Tramuntana area were involved in its creation, through different working sessions directed at reaching a consensus on programmes and initiatives that must be given priority and at identifying the necessary agents for its successful implementation. Consequently, this Plan has been created through a comprehensive strategy of public participation: a crucial factor in ensuring its successful implementation in a place as complex as the Serra de Tramuntana. The Management Plan for the Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana is conceived to act as a strategic plan for the coordination of all initiatives currently in progress in the Serra de Tramuntana, thanks to the different protective instruments and management mechanisms that it already possesses, as described in sections 5.b, 5.c and 5.d of this document. It also takes into account the implementation of those actions which, throught the public participation process, have been identified as necessary. The generic goal of the management plan for the Tramuntana area, in its capacity as a Cultural Landscape, is the comprehensive management of all actions that have an impact on the area, so as to adapt and co-ordinate them to allow for the conservation and protection of the asset. To this end, the Consell de Mallorca, the body promoting the proposed nomination, is working on the establishment of a specific body for the management of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. As its first step, at a Plenary Session of the Consell de Mallorca on July 2nd 2009, the following resolution was unanimously approved: 1. To push for the creation of a body with such legal form as may be considered appropriate at the time to carry out the management of the Tramuntana area as a World Heritage Site, once it has been designated a Spanish candidate for inclusion on the World Heritage List under the concept of a Cultural Landscape. The specific legal figure to be created must allow for the incorporation of the public authorities involved in the nomination, as well as those bodies and social representatives related to the intended declaration by the UNESCO.

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2. To entrust the Spatial Planning Department with tasks aimed at creating the said body, following at all times procedures established in applicable regulations in force at the time. With this body as a starting point, the drafting of a management plan for the nominated asset is proposed with a view to developing strategies, goals, programmes, projects and management tools for the protection, conservation, dissemination and sustainable economic development of the landscape values of the Tramuntana area, in the short and long term, on the basis of 10 priorities or basic goals, namely: 1. The maintenance and fostering of crops and good practices in traditional and/or environmentally sustainable agriculture, livestock farming and forestry activities. 2. The protection of the cultural, ethnological and ethnographical values of this cultural landscape. 3. The conservation of the environment, maintenance or increase in the areas biodiversity, and protection of specific habitats, species or geological formations. 4. The recovery of abandoned hillside terraces, water supply networks and other items of heritage. 5. The development of a model of rural tourism able to ensure the continuity of agriculture and livestock farming, generate complementary sources of income and facilitate the conservation of rural areas and traditional uses. 6. Adequate tourism-related and recreational uses, from an environmental, social and economic standpoint. 7. Infrastructures and services that help to achieve a better understanding of the cultural landscape, such as interpretation centres, reception offices, signed routes and other elements for public use. 8. Activities in the fields of interpretation, environmental education, training and citizen participation so as to contribute to a better understanding and appreciation of the natural setting, cultural heritage and cultural landscape. 9. The fostering of scientific and research tasks that help gain a deeper understanding of environmental, cultural, ethnological and landscape values. 10. The promotion of land stewardship bodies and agreements and easements of environmental interest in conjunction with titleholders of rights. The common denominators to this management plan are sustainability, a respect for the local identity and cultural diversity, and the development of the local economy.

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The management body will encourage, support and accompany initiatives related to these priority areas, providing that they are in line with objectives aimed at the conservation of the cultural landscape, fit in with the natural and cultural characteristics of the area, do not have a negative impact on the values to be protected, and do not disturb the traditional production activities or lifestyle of the resident population. The sustainable development of local heritage-related and cultural resources, the boosting of the local economy and improvement of the quality of life of the population are commitments undertaken by the management plan with respect to the Tramuntana area and its recognition as a cultural landscape. Furthermore, the management body will foster the implementation of these actions by participatory means. In addition to preparing the nomination in collaboration and in complete agreement with local communities, throughout the process of the definition of the management plan, it will deploy such measures as may be necessary to reach a consensus and the ratification of the same with public and private agents, institutions and the local population in general, and it shall also foster their involvement in the course of its implementation. The initiatives that make up this management plan have been divided into five programmes: Communication and participation: The first premise on which the Management Plan must be based is its definition through the consensus and participation of the main stakeholders that form part of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. Thus, the programme for communication and participation will set forth the necessary measures to achieve effective involvement of society in decision-making relating to the protection and conservation of the nominated asset. Economic development: This is the programme affecting economic activities in the Tramuntana area, i.e.agriculture and livestock farming, handicrafts, trade and tourism. The actions in this programme are mainly aimed at promoting changes and improvements in cultivation systems and supporting alternative activities that ensure financial resources that can contribute directly or indirectly to the protection and recovery of the landscape, starting out from the basis that it is, to a large extent, an agricultural landscape. Dissemination: this programme includes actions in the field of education and training; relevant issues in helping to change social attitudes

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in the long term; research, which covers scientific activities to improve the asset; and actions involving citizen participation in the nomination process, so as to achieve the entire populations awareness and support. Heritage: This programme covers those actions directly affecting elements representative of the uniqueness of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. In this sense, direct actions are contemplated for the restoration and conservation of cultural and natural heritage, or such complementary actions as will improve the understanding of these assets, such as inventories and the cartography of the area. Management of visitors: This programme deals specifically with the handling of visitors to the area, in order to organize, regulate and limit the impact of visitors and ensure the areas conservation through three types of measures: deterrents for the most fragile areas, preventive measures to avoid overcrowding, and filters to avoid inappropriate visits in certain settings. Through powers held by each of the participating authorities, the management body will carry out the necessary actions to bring each of the programmes to fruition. In this sense, the management bodys ability to act will be based on the following thematic areas: 1) Spatial and urban planning. The Consell de Mallorcas Spatial Planning Department holds pertinent powers, on the island of Mallorca, for spatial and urban planning. To this end, it will offer the management body the possibility of the development of a proposed Special Plan for the whole of the Tramuntana area in the Mallorca Spatial Plan (Territorial Conversion Area number1), on the basis of which it will be possible to establish measures related to the regulation of access to and uses of the area, the recovery of traditional uses and crops, the restoration of hillside terraces and dry-stone elements, as well as the development of economic activities related to the recovery of the agricultural landscape. 2) Protection of historic and cultural heritage. The Consell de Mallorcas Cultural and Heritage Department will introduce the necessary measures to protect and preserve historic and cultural elements of the Tramuntana area. In addition to continuing initiating proceedings for the declaration of Items of Cultural Interest, it will develop programmes for the management and conservation of declared cultural assets and boost the cataloguing and mapping of all items of heritage making up the Cultural Landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains.

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3) Agriculture and rural development. The management body will place great importance on the development of agricultural and rural development policies, through the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries and also through the Consell de Mallorcas Department for the Economy and Tourism, the party holding authority over agriculture for the island of Mallorca in 2010. In this sense, it should be pointed out that the Rural Development Programme for the Balearic Islands (20072013) already contemplates actions to recover agricultural and rural activities, such as the strategy for landscape development in the Tramuntana area or the promotion of olive oil and wine through the Mallorca Protected Designation of Origin and other agricultural and livestock farming activities related to the improvement of the quality of life and environment in rural settings. 4) Environment and biodiversity. The degree of protection given to the Tramuntana area through protective mechanisms for natural spaces and the importance of the biodiversity present in the area must always be given fundamental emphasis in the cultural landscapes management. In this sense, collaborative strategies will be set up through the Balearic Ministry of the Environment and through the Department of the Environment of the Consell de Mallorca, so as to ensure a consensus on policies for protecting the biodiversity and existing flora and fauna, along with management strategies for the Natural Site of the Tramuntana Area, the maximum protective designation for the area and one that is still currently in the development process. The Consell de Mallorcas Department of the Environment has, in turn, extensive experience in the restoration of hillside terraces and dry-stone structures, and it is responsible, among other activities, for the management and development of the Dry-Stone Route (a hiking route (GR-222) that runs through the Tramuntana Mountains from north to south). 5) Tourism. Another fundamental cornerstone for the recovery and improvement of the social and economic fabric sustaining the landscape are tourism-related activities, linked to the endogenous development of the villages of the Tramuntana area. The Consell de Mallorca, through the Department for the Economy and Tourism, will equip the management body with the necessary tools for the appropriate supervision of the planning and regulation of tourism in the area, as well as the dissemination and communication of actions linked to the nomination in order to make people aware of the proposed asset and the need for its adequate protection and management. In this sense, it is particularly important to be able to take advantage of the network of tourist information offices currently attached to the Consell de Mallorca as information offices.

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5.e.1. Management body for the nominated property Legal form of management As has been explained above, the Consell de Mallorca is promoting the creation of a suitable legal body to manage the nominated property and it must, in all cases, contemplate the participation of different authorities and not-for-profit organizations with objectives that are of public interest. The main mission of the management body is the co-ordination of actions for the development, conservation, dissemination and public use of the area. To this end, it is proposed that the following institutions should be included within the said management body: The Spanish Government: The Ministry for Cultural Affairs and Ministry of the Environment. Regional Government of the Balearic Islands: The Ministry for Presidential Affairs and Ministry for Education and Cultural Affairs. Consell de Mallorca: The Spatial Planning Department, Heritage Department, Department of the Environment and Department for Tourism and the Economy. Town Councils: Federation of Local Bodies (FELIB), Association of Balearic Municipalities (AMIB) and Local Agenda 21 Participatory Platform. In addition, a proposal will be made for the inclusion in this body of all those non-governmental stakeholders and associations that are considered necessary for the proper execution of the management plan, such as: Economic stakeholders: Business associations in the fields of tourism, trade, agriculture, the food processing industry or crafts sector. Social stakeholders: Institutions for the protection of the environment and heritage, and cultural associations. Other stakeholders: The University of the Balearic Islands, leading institutions in the fields of scientific research and development, and other scientific associations. The management body must be able to count on suitable institutions for citizen participation in the decision-making process related to the assets management. Structure and organization of the management body As a starting point for the incorporation of the management body, the following aspects must be taken into account:

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1) The legal definition and Articles of Association of the body. This entails the following points: incorporation, the concept and scope of application, legal nature, general management principles, purposes, powers, functions. 2) Structure and organization, on the basis of the following structure: Management bodies: Governing Council, Executive Committee and Management. Consultative bodies: Advisory Council (formed by bodies representative of citizens) and benefactors (partners and sponsors). 3) The regime governing financial and economic aspects of the management body, the property it administers, and its personnel. This will include the following sections: property, the economic and financial regime, economic and financial control, human resources, and the bodys dissolution, winding-up and disappearance.

Figure 94. Raixa, in the municipality of Bunyola, is the proposed seat of the management body

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The headquarters of the management body It is proposed that the headquarters of the management body should be the publicly-owned property known as Raixa, an emblematic estate belonging to the Biodiversity Foundation and Consell de Mallorca, the houses of which have recently been refurbished. The headquarters of the management body will house and centralize the following departments and services: 1) Management and administration. 2) The Technical Department, on which focal points of the management plan will be based (economic development, dissemination, heritage, visitor management). 3) Communication and participation: the External Relations Office, Citizen Information Service and Citizen Participation Unit. 4) An interpretation centre for the Tramuntana area (permanent exhibition). 5) Rooms for dissemination activities. 5.e.2. Information and Participation Programme This programme is intended to provide citizens with access to the various authorities, refer their requests on correctly, and ensure comprehensive management of all resources and services available in the Tramuntana area in the fields of economic development, conservation, study and public use. The goal is to turn it into a service for citizens that provides real advantages, such as information on the status of administrative proceedings, access to tourist and cultural information and programmes of activities, bookings for activities organized in the Tramuntana area etc. The programme will be deployed through three channels: Information Services An External Relations Office A Citizen Participation Strategy Network of information points Apart from Raixa (the general headquarters of the management body which will centralize administrative, informative and project manage-

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ment services), a network of information points is planned, distributed throughout the Tramuntana area in co-ordination with organizations involved in the management body and with the local authorities. Two types of information centres are proposed: External Centres. These would comprise automated interactive information points outside the Tramuntana area, located at the port in Palma, the airport, hotels or other places of interest. Internal Centres. These will be located in the Tramuntana area, preferably in existing amenities such as the Tourist Information Offices in Andratx, Pollena, Sller and Valldemossa, and in other existing facilities such as municipal offices, social and cultural centres, headquarters of social and cultural bodies, publicly run hostels and similar locations. These strategic points will help sensitize residents and visitors, and their requests can be handled more smoothly. They will act as single windows, offering personal attention and telephonic and electronic contact with the support of a website and informative material, such as leaflets and maps on the following aspects: 1) Information service: On the one hand, it will furnish information on programmes run by the authorities involved in the management body and it will channel requests from citizens to the appropriate authority or body. On the other hand, it will centralize information on the Tramuntana area and the projects and services provided by the management body. 2) Advice on and the speeding up of administrative formalities by different stakeholders: residents, agricultural and livestock farmers and co-operatives, educational centres, social and cultural bodies and other platforms for citizens. 3) Services for companies: It will offer advice on the legislation in force, financial support programmes, the processing of administrative formalities, and sectoral information of an economic and socio-demographic nature. It may evolve towards the formation of a seedbed for companies when their projects contemplate or contribute to the improvement and conservation of the items of heritage within the asset. 4) Technical advice on projects in the fields of traditional agriculture, organic farming, the creation of craft products and marketing of locally produced items, and services by cultural tour guides etc. Obviously, the management body will develop educational and research activities and economic development and heritage restoration and conser-

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vation programmes in specific parts of the Tramuntana area that require intervention, striving at all times to harmonize conservation and research needs with the need for information, training and socio-economic development by the local population. In this sense, the information points will furnish informative material (leaflets, guides, posters) with details about access, car parks, visits and anything that may be of interest and useful for visitors. In parallel with these information points, the website will provide all necessary details of routes, publicly run hostels, gastronomy, rural tourism accommodation, services and resources. It will be a dynamic, constantly updated website. The External Relations Office The general goal of the External Relations Office is to establish a permanent, fluid, effective communication system with the different parties at whom the initiative is aimed, basically institutions present locally, visitors, social and cultural bodies, the economic fabric, educational centres, residents, the mass media, opinion leaders, experts and residents in general. The External Relations Office of the management body will be divided into two areas: a Press and Public Relations Department and a Publications Service, which will take responsibility, respectively, for relations with the media and the organization of events, and for informative materials (leaflets, books, catalogues or presentations). 1) Press and Public Relations Department The Press Department is responsible for dealing with the media, events and other PR actions. Its goals are: To achieve positive repercussions in the press. To contribute to the generation of favourable public opinion. To maintain fluid relations with journalists. To involve opinion leaders so that they take part in its acts. To organize events with high citizen participation. To organize and keep the management bodys press library up to date. To plan how to act in the event of a communication crisis.

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Proposed actions: Notification of informative sessions forming part of the dissemination campaign. Notification of meetings held with political, economic and sociocultural agents in the Tramuntana area. The preparation of press releases on scientific advances, seminars and events, completed projects, the results of educational programmes, implementation of research projects etc. The organization of press conferences and the preparation of corresponding press dossiers. The creation of a press library for the monitoring and assessment of impacts in the media. The organization of an annual event with the media for the presentation of the management bodys programmes. The public announcement and dissemination of the annual Tramuntana Forum Award. The preparation of an annual informative programme on the Sponsorship Plan. The preparation of the management bodys annual report. 2) Publications Service This service will supervise the correct application of the corporate identity in all communications issued by the management body, coordinate actions and informative supports at information points, and it will be responsible for the design and publication of various items. Its goals are: To provide information flexibly and speedily for all audiences. To centralize all information on the Tramuntana area and to become a reference for others. To provide stable up-to-date information. To organize the media library of the management body. To act as an interactive communication channel, which users can consult and where they can join programmes for friends and sponsors of the Tramuntana area, book visits, contact tourism-related services etc. Proposed actions: The creation of a corporate identity for the nomination. Documentation on the UNESCO nomination and the declaration. A website. Informative leaflets for the Interpretation Centres and other available amenities, places to visit, hiking routes, annual educational services etc.

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Tourist promotion leaflets for tourism fairs and similar events. Educational materials: teaching guides and modules for teachers. Catalogues and guides to interpret the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. Maps to help understand the cultural landscape. A monthly guide to social, cultural, educational and interpretative activities run by the management body, the authorities, services, and social and cultural bodies. The publication of an annual report on performed activities. Signage. Audio-visual material. The compilation of scientific publications. The creation of material to promote the management body, the Serra de Tramuntana Paisaje Cultural brand name , and performed activities. At the present time, an interactive website is already available for individuals and other bodies interested in this proposal for them to consult the contents of the nomination, give opinions and receive information on dissemination initiatives. It facilitates the centralization of documentation, photographs and videos relating to the nomination. The citizen participation strategy The degree of awareness of the local population and their engagement with the project are a key factor during the nomination phase, as priority is given to the welcome acceptance, understanding and appreciation of any eventual recognition of the Tramuntana area as a World Heritage Site by all the groups involved. In this sense, the citizen participation strategy has four general goals: to publicize the nomination and its relevance for the conservation of the Tramuntana area, to generate public opinion in favour of the nomination, to involve the residents of municipalities included in the area, and to achieve the participation of key sectoral agents (in the fields of heritage, agriculture, tourism and trade). The plan has two phases: 1) January-June 2009. The nomination launch stage, with the goal of informing all sectors of society of the nomination, above all the most relevant sectors (the media, socio-economic agents, socio-cultural and environmental bodies in the Tramuntana area, and residents in general).

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It includes a campaign to increase awareness of the nomination among the inhabitants of the Tramuntana area, the owners of the cultural assets and/or estates, affected authorities, schools, the sectoral agents mentioned above, the media, the population of Mallorca in general and finally tourists. The campaign aims to inform people of the meaning, need for and scope of the places declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO and the values of the Tramuntana area that warrant its nomination. In addition, sectoral meetings have been held with various groups and bodies from the Tramuntana area: teachers from the Tramuntana area, the Association of Tourist Guides, the Crculo Ecnomico de las Islas Baleares and ARCA (an association devoted to the conservation and dissemination of heritage).

2) From September 2009. A participative process has been developed aimed at reaching a consensus on, approving and enriching the proposed management system, both during the formulation and acceptance of the candidacy and during a period of up to one year after the UNESCOs final decision. Participative workshops have been held in different municipalities, focused on the five programmes of the Management Plan. At them a consensus has been reached on activities to be performed as part of the Management Plan and their characteristics. In parallel, contact will be made with the local authorities, socio-cultural bodies and economic agents locally in order to explain the initiative in detail and to obtain their support for the nomination. The creation of the Tramuntana Forum is proposed as a forum for discussion and awareness raising and a meeting point for people and bodies interested in collaborating in the conservation and research of the Tramuntana area, as well as acting as a driving force for the dissemination of actions carried out by the management body. Throughout both phases, the following actions will be carried out, some of them intended for specific sectors and others aimed at the population in general: Support for existing volunteer programmes (Volunteers for Mallorca, run by the Consell de Mallorca, and other bodies) and the development of specific informative, protection-related, and awareness-raising activities in the Tramuntana area. The boosting of initiatives already under way by local socio-cultural bodies (associations, leisure groups etc.) to promote the Tramuntana area. Preferential support for the Tramuntana area with respect to the rest of the island for actions foreseen within the framework of Local Agenda21, and on sustainability issues, particularly those tending to boost

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joint actions among different municipalities, plus the definition of a joint environmental policy for the Tramuntana area. The creation of the Tramuntana Forum which will schedule regular, stable series of conferences devoted to four main themes (geography, biology, history, heritage) that contribute to the dissemination of the results of studies by researchers, sectoral agents and citizens who have contributed to the conservation and improvement of heritage in this cultural landscape. The organization of an international seminar on tourism and cultural landscapes. The creation of an Annual Landscape Seminar, focusing on the conservation of cultural landscapes. The organization of an edition of the International Congress on Dry Stone. The organization of sectoral meetings in co-ordination with economic and socio-cultural agents and local researchers, and others related with the needs of the area. An Annual Open Day for amenities in the Tramuntana area, with educational activities such as series of conferences and guided tours, the tasting of local products and other leisure-oriented activities. Participation in external fora and debates contributing to the dissemination of the values of the Tramuntana area, the purposes of the management body and performed activities. The reintroduction of the Formentor International Literature Award (1959), with the announcement of an award for those works set in the Tramuntana area.

5.e.3. Economic Development Programme The conservation of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area and the values that make this place unique requires the maintenance of water supply networks, hillside terraces and traditional crops, as well as the proper use of natural resources and the cleaning and upkeep of forests. Its continuity is, furthermore, an opportunity to generate activities that redound on the socio-economic development of the area, especially through the development of initiatives focusing on the implementation of changes and improvements in the production, processing or marketing systems of local products, or the generation of tourism services based on the sustainable use of endogenous resources. The management plan intends to prioritize those activities that allow for the maintenance and continuity of processes and dynamics relating to agricultural, livestock and rural tourism that make the landscape of the Tramuntana area unique, particularly those encouraging traditional

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and complementary uses and activities in a context of sustainable local development. In addition, the management body will promote activities combining traditional uses with others compatible with the economic and ecological conservation of rural estates, in other words allowing for harmonious social and economic development in the area as well as ensuring environmental quality. For all these reasons, the management body will establish regulatory mechanisms (such as the development of a Special Plan related to the Mallorca Spatial Plan) and economic mechanisms to foster agricultural, livestock, forestry and environmental uses, especially those that allow estate owners to find ways to complement their income so as to avoid the abandonment of these sectors. In addition to the positive direct and indirect repercussions on the conservation of the nominated asset, the development of these activities may provide added value for other sectors, such as trade and the tourism sector. In general, all these activities will contribute to boosting sustainable economic development in the Tramuntana area. For tourists interested in hiking, adventure, ecological and cultural pursuits, this is a potential market to which priority will be given. Efforts will be made to offer suitable activities complementing the conservation and maintenance of the asset in terms of accommodation, amenities, routes and gastronomic attractions. In addition, the management body will promote actions aimed at supporting the local commercial fabric.
Figure 95. Olive trees are one of the most widespread, important crops in the Tramuntana area

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The main actions to be carried out within the framework of this programme are as follows: 1) The development of protective and management mechanisms for main sections of irrigated farmland in the Tramuntana area: the Sller valley (citrus fruit, vegetables) and the hillside terraces at Banyalbufar (the production of Malvasa grapes, vegetables). In both cases, efforts will be made to establish strategic planning mechanisms (such as the concept of an agricultural park) in close co-operation with the agricultural co-operatives operating in both municipalities and, through these, to try to recover and maintain farming activities and make them financially sustainable. 2) The improvement of plans currently in place with regard to the growing of olive trees and the production of olive oil throughout the core area, as well as developing strategies for the marketing and improvement of these products. 3) The development of a strategy to boost local trade thanks to local traditional products. 4) Within the field of tourism, developing a common brand throughout the Tramuntana area linked to cultural, gastronomic and nature tourism. This programme will therefore be deployed in three areas: farming and livestock activities, trade and tourism. Agriculture and livestock farming The creation of a development plan for agricultural and livestock farming in the Tramuntana area focusing on traditional crops, local fruit and vegetable varieties and on the breeding of autochthonous livestock. This plan will be able to count on the collaboration of the University of the Balearic Islands in the development of projects related to the conservation of agricultural and livestock production in the Tramuntana area. This plan will, in turn, be included within the strategy set out in the Rural Development Plan (2007-2013), already approved by the Regional Governments Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries. Economic and technical support for the refurbishment and/or adaptation of traditional agricultural and livestock installations. The development of a programme to foster the maintenance of olive groves in the Tramuntana Mountains and conservation of olive trees planted on hillside terraces in order to maintain their productive activity and as a major tool for the prevention of forest fires.

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A service for the processing and monitoring of financial aid from the Balearic Regional Governments Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries intended for improving the quality of agricultural production and its classification for estates located in the Tramuntana area. The design of a training plan, based in the Raixa estate, aimed at agricultural and livestock farmers in order to encourage the recovery of traditional crops and improve systems and mechanisms for agricultural and livestock production. The consolidation of the Mediterranean Advisory Service, offering diagnostic, consultancy, labour integration, monitoring and support services for entrepreneurs through the execution of these activities at Raixa. Economic advisory services for the marketing of local products and the development of rural tourism projects aimed at farm-owners. The creation of incentives for farmers implementing organic farming projects or grouping together to form local co-operatives, particularly those investing in the cultivation and marketing of local varieties. The preparation and monitoring of projects that are candidates for co-finance through the European Agricultural Regional Development Fund (EARDF) or the local Agriculture and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish). Administrative formalities in connection with the obtainment of the Producte Balear and Producte Balear Selecte quality labels for farming, livestock and industrial products, granted by the Government of the Balearic Islands. Support for initiatives in the fields of research, training, marketing and dissemination undertaken by associations of agricultural and livestock farmers and entrepreneurs in the Tramuntana area. Particular regard will be given to the development of a research centre into food and agriculture in the Sller valley, currently in the design stage. The creation of a Tramuntana Land Stewardship Network for the conservation of nature, the landscape, and the cultural heritage of private and municipally-owned estates, involving the authorities, bodies, associations, owners and users of the Tramuntana area. This network will provide advice to landowners on specific conservation issues for the stewarded area, potential sources of funding, sustainable management models and economic advantages to the setting up of projects (such as crops offering tax benefits, or tax deductions for the maintenance of dry-stone constructions) so that farmers and owners are compensated for the environmental and cultural services they provide, thus generating synergies among the different social agents; contact details of environmental and cultural volunteers and the preparation of informative materials. The development of projects for the agricultural parks of Banyalbufar and Sller.

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Trade The creation of a brand for the marketing of products made in the Tramuntana area, with distinctive labels referring to its capacity as a Cultural Landscape. The co-ordination and boosting of entrepreneurial initiatives for the marketing and exportation of local food and craft products in local, national and international markets. Support and the authorization of projects for the creation of establishments related with the sale of local products, particularly the Oli de Mallorca protected designation of origin, the Vi de la terra Serra de Tramuntana brand for Malvasa wine, citrus fruits from Sller, tomatoes, almond-based products, certified meat and other food products from the Tramuntana area. The promoted use of local food products by tourist establishments in the Serra de Tramuntana. The co-ordination and acceleration of administrative formalities for obtaining the Establiment dOr quality label, aimed at retailers with the purpose of encouraging the sale of products from the Balearic Islands. Encouragement and support for trade associations engaging in actions supporting local products. Advice, support and the co-ordination of activities related with the values of the Tramuntana area taking place at fairs held at different towns in the Tramuntana area in the course of the year. Tourism Inter-sectoral agreement on the development of tourism products and services that highlight natural, cultural and landscape values, and the promotion of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape brand image at national and international tourism fairs. The development of measures to consolidate and de-seasonalize the existing accommodation network, supporting the development of complementary services related to events and activities taking place throughout the year in the Tramuntana area, such as weekend breaks coinciding with thematic fairs or other cultural events. The promotion of complementary tourism activities for the winter season linked to the needs and interests of European social tourism. Support for the creation and consolidation of rural tourism and inland tourism establishments that, in addition to providing customized family-oriented service for guests, also collaborate in the maintenance of architectural heritage through the conservation of buildings and estates, as well as making financial profits.

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Support for the external marketing of the network of rural tourism accommodation centres in the Tramuntana area. Boosting the network of publicly run hostels, extending their services and fostering the optimization of available places and their on-going maintenance. Incentives for social and cultural amenities in the Tramuntana area so as to offer a co-ordinated, complementary range of activities that would be attractive to both visitors and residents. The re-organization, for greater efficiency and co-ordination, of visits to specific sites of tourist interest, such as Valldemossa Monastery, the Palace of King Sancho, the Coll Bardolet Foundation and Costa Nord Cultural Centre in Valldemossa; La Granja at Esporles; the house and museum of Robert Graves in Dei; the Botanical Garden and Maritime Museum in Sller; Raixa and the gardens of Alfbia in Bunyola; or the shrine and museum of Lluc in Escorca. One of the measures to be implemented is a combined ticket, offering cut-price admission to two or more cultural amenities in the Tramuntana area. The creation of a network of Interpretation Centres, including existing centres funded privately or publicly and new amenities that, in combination, would ensure a better understanding of the cultural landscape (please refer to point5.8.). Incentives for accommodation and catering establishments that incorporate local products into their culinary goods and contribute to the dissemination of the said products history, characteristics and relevance through leisure and gastronomic activities aimed at residents and tourists. Support for the consolidation of the wine and olive oil tourism routes and the inclusion of visitor attractions along the routes related to the preparation of local gourmet products (honey, preserves, dried sausages, desserts etc.), either fostered by the regional authorities or producers themselves in the Tramuntana area. The implementation of thematic routes focusing on water supply networks, hillside terraces, traditional crops, natural springs, scenic points that inspired writers and painters, as well as other significant features of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. Promoting innovative business activities, particularly sustainable ones aimed at tourists developed by the local population, based on the values of this cultural landscape, such as the preparation and marketing of local products (olive oil, wine, almonds etc.) and the provision of services related to the Tramuntanas tourist attractions (cultural tour guides or hiking guides, collective transport, translations, environmental assessments etc.).

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5.e.4. Dissemination Programme The goal of this programme is to foster awareness of the exceptional scenic, ethnological, natural and cultural values that characterize the Tramuntana area and make it unique. The actions to be carried out are grouped into four areas: education, training, dissemination and research: Education: educational actions aimed at teachers and students. Training: professionalization programmes for different groups. Research: aimed at scientists, whether at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) or from local social, educational or environmentalist bodies. Priority will be given to those initiatives implying shared involvement, participation and support on the part of civil society with the aim of bringing about a better, more widespread understanding of the environment, together with initiatives that will contribute to the protection and conservation of this cultural, heritage-related and ethnological asset and may also, in the longer term, lead to environmentally-friendly attitudes among citizens vis-vis the landscape and also the local culture. These are aspects that might help, in future, to enrich the decision-making process regarding the asset. This programme implies three initiatives held at Raixa estate, the headquarters of the management body: The Tramuntana Classroom: A permanent educational forum devoted to teaching, dissemination and awareness raising among children and teenagers from the area and the rest of the island with respect to the Tramuntanas values, their sense of local belonging and the need to take care of the environment. The Tramuntana Landscape Observatory: A meeting place bringing together the authorities, organizations and society in general to co-ordinate actions and carry out studies into this cultural landscape. The goals of this Observatory are: (1)to establish criteria defining the landscape units that characterize the Tramuntana area; (2)to adopt protective, management and landscape planning measures; (3)to establish mechanisms for observing the evolution and transformation of the landscape; (4)to propose actions aimed at improving, restoring or creating scenic landscapes; (5)to foster social awareness campaigns with respect to the landscape, its evolution, its functions and transformation; (6)to establish working methodologies on landscape issues; (7)to stimulate scientific and academic collaboration on landscape issues, and to engage in European landscape initiatives; (8)to disseminate completed studies and reports.

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Education The implementation, in the Tramuntana area, of the UNESCO programme World Heritage in Young Hands, through the distribution of materials already produced by the UNESCO to raise the awareness of young people and their teachers. The dissemination of the projects logo (Patrimonito). The creation of a travelling exhibition touring schools in the Tramuntana area to explain what the UNESCO is, what it means to form part of this organization, what the values of the Tramuntana are are, what the advantages of being a World Heritage Site area, what a Cultural Landscape means, and what other cultural landscapes exist in the world. The creation and co-ordination of a network of educational centres that will work together on concepts related to the heritage of the Tramuntana area. The creation and co-ordination of the Youth and Heritage Programme, focusing on young residents between 16 and 30 years of age in order to engage them in the maintenance and dissemination of the cultural landscape, particularly by means of training and volunteer tasks related to monitoring, conservation, heritage restoration, visitor management and participation in activities carried out by the management body. Through an agreement with the UIB, a decision will be made as to how many hours of volunteer work can be counted towards university credits. The creation of a programme aimed at reviving memories of the past and oral traditions. The population who still conserve this knowledge is now elderly and so this is a unique opportunity to keep memories of the past and the oral traditions that make up a large part of the Serra de Tramuntanas intangible heritage alive. The design and implementation of a stable daily provision of guided tours and educational workshops on the Raixa estate, focusing on the concept of Cultural Landscapes and on the theme of this interpretation centre (rural estates and traditional agriculture). The development of a programme of visits to other interpretation centres (Sller, Lluc, Costa Nord, Son Marroig, Miramar, Estellencs), with prior booking. The creation of back-up teaching materials for teachers on subjects dealing with the historic evolution and construction of the cultural landscape, fauna and flora, geology, hydrology, traditional agriculture and organic farming related to possible visits that could be organized for students. The preparation of teaching units for various school levels (pre-school, primary and secondary education) on the cultural and landscape values of the Tramuntana area. These will be made available as paper cop-

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ies for those schools requesting them and also in digital format on the management bodys website. The encouragement of other local social and cultural bodies and institutions in the production of specific teaching units on the Tramuntana area. For example, the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences in Sller could be asked to develop the unit on flora. The dissemination of a co-ordinated complementary range of activities by the management body, together with educational programmes developed by other institutions (the Environmental Education Programme of the Consell de Mallorca, the Botany and Natural Sciences Education Programme of the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences and Botanical Garden in Sller, or the La Trapa Educational Programme by Sa Nostra Savings Banks Social Department and the Balearic Ornithology Group (GOB)). The production of an interactive educational DVD with the history, location and composition of the Tramuntana area to be sent to schools all over the island. The development of interactive games for the management bodys website. The design and execution of leisure and educational activities for open days, weekends and school holidays at the interpretation centres. The development of a short-stay environmental discovery programme in co-ordination with the network of publicly run hostels. Visits to farms or places processing farming and livestock products, such as wineries with the Costa Nord designation of origin, the Sller Co-operative and olive press of country estates. Visits to wherever teams of margers (dry-stone wall builders) are working to understand more about hillside terraces, what features they contain, how the stones are placed, their function on hillside terraces and the effects of erosion. The organization of a drawing competition on the values of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape, aimed at schoolchildren on the island of Mallorca.

Training The design of a teacher-training programme to enable teachers to convey the cultural heritage and ethnological wealth of the Tramuntana area. This training programme will be co-ordinated by the Tramuntana Classroom. Support for training programmes aimed at farmers given by other authorities, collaborating in their dissemination and carrying out initiatives that complement current programmes.

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The development of a training programme on self-employment, focusing particularly on the creation of micro-companies and co-operatives devoted to food production, the development of services, marketing of local products etc. Support for dry-stone training programmes and the school for margers (dry-stone wall builders), contributing to the training of professionals ready and able to help in the restoration of items of heritage in the Tramuntana area. The training of personnel aimed at the recovery of traditional crafts so as to foster new jobs focused on recovering, conserving and protecting this important legacy. The training of personnel specializing in the care and maintenance of historic gardens and in the future implementation of specialist crops and botanical gardens. The training of personnel for the recovery of traditional forestry jobs involving the regeneration, maintenance and protection of woodlands. Training in catering services to meet specialist demands in the addedvalue tourism sector. Specialist training for personnel attending to the public and tour guides showing visitors round monuments open to the public and other local features. The training of tourist guides in general so that they can give appropriate information on the concept of a Cultural Landscape and on the values of the Tramuntana area. The training of future building professionals, architects, surveyors etc. in understanding traditional architecture and traditional ways of building. Practical internships for university students at the end of their undergraduate degree or masters course in the understanding, management and use of cultural and natural heritage. Research So far, three events have been held in connection with the study and dissemination of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape: - Activities commemorating the European Landscape Week (October, 2008): These include the 7th Seminar on Spatial Planning, Landscape Protection and the European Landscape Convention; the presentation of a landscape intervention project involving the power station at Alcdia; a seminar on Daily Landscapes, Exceptional Landscapes: the European Landscape Convention and the Tramuntana areas nomination a World Heritage Site; the meeting of the Executive Board of the European Network of Local and Regional Authorities for the Application of the European Land-

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scape Convention (RECEP-ENELC); and a guided tour of Mallorcas landscape units to analyze their problems. - The Tramuntana Workshop (March to May 2009) during the course of which a score of students from the Masters Degree in Urban Planning run by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia made an in-depth analysis of the Tramuntana area and its current situation, coming up with different proposals for its interpretation and pertinent interventions. Within the framework of this workshop, the lecturers and students on this Masters degree carried out a 4day visit to the Tramuntana Mountains, accompanied by specialists in this field, to gain a first-hand insight into the reality of the Tramuntana area and learn about experiences to date. The results of this workshop will be displayed in an exhibition and publication that will appear in September 2009. - International Seminar on Cultural Landscapes: the Case of the Tramuntana Area (May, 2009), with participation of several specialists from Spain and abroad in the field of cultural landscapes, as well as local researchers familiar with the cultural, natural and scenic reality of the Tramuntana area. Proposed activities from now on include: The creation of the Tramuntana Landscape Observatory and the implementation of projects and actions aimed at the achievement of the aforementioned goals, particularly in connection with waterbased and dry-stone landscapes, the conservation of heritage and the environment, and an understanding of past life in the area. These will include: The development of an experimental project for the conservation and restoration of a chosen dry-stone ensemble comprising certain water engineering features, in order to evaluate which methods and techniques may be applied afterwards to the rest of the site. The announcement of the First Annual Tramuntana Award to acknowledge and reward the activities of researchers and experts in Spain and abroad whose careers have had a favourable impact on the conservation of the area. The announcement of aid for the development of research projects conducted by associations and not-for-profit bodies in the Tramuntana area. The announcement of aid for research projects by different research groups at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB): the Climatology, Natural Hazards and Territory group; Hydrology, Sedimentation and Tectonics group; Rural Changes, Human Mobility, Tourism and

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Territory group; Sustainable Mobility, Information Society and Territory group; Territorial Studies and Tourism group; Sustainability and Territory group; Geographical and Territorial Information Systems Department; Historic Science and Art Theory group; Environmental Education and Heritage, Tourism and Islamic Archaeology Interpretation group etc. Through the Tramuntana Landscape Observatory, financial aid can be channelled from other institutions for research into the Tramuntana area. This research includes research projects applied to agriculture, livestock farming and fishing, financed by the Balearic Regional Governments Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish); complementary research activities in the 26 thematic areas of the Ministry of Science and Technologys National Evaluation and Foresight Agency (ANEP); introductory research scholarships in matters concerning agricultural and livestock farming and fishing, financed by the Balearic Governments Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA). 5.e.5. Heritage Programme This programme is directly intended to re-enhance, maintain and promote a set of heritage-related, scenic and ethnological features of the Tramuntana area that characterize this cultural landscape and reflect its uniqueness. Direct actions are proposed for the conservation and restoration of cultural, natural and scenic heritage, in addition to complementary actions for the cataloguing and mapping of movable and immovable heritage (through databases, inventories, cartography) prior to the delimitation of areas and classification of landscape units within the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. All this restoration work must respect these elements, promoting the use of traditional building techniques and materials, and giving priority to the training and employment of residents, contributing particularly to the generation of stable skilled jobs. Priority will be given to those features whose current state of conservation requires urgent action or which contribute to the preservation of the rural and agricultural landscape of the Tramuntana area, as well as those that, due to their accessibility or relevance, may contribute to the awareness raising and education of residents and to the promotion of cultural tourism.

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The management body will strive to co-ordinate and optimize available financial resources in order to contribute more effectively to heritage protection and conservation, as well as seeking out additional funding to be able to carry out its own programmes. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance to work in collaboration with other institutions at regional, state and international levels. Conservation and restoration The co-ordination and reinforcement of existing training and labour integration programmes by the Taller dOcupaci and Escuelas Taller schemes, in order to harmonize the restoration and promoted value of dry-stone ethnological features and adopt a comprehensive co-ordinated approach to those located in publicly-owned properties managed by the Consell de Mallorca (Son Amer, Tossals Verds, Son Fortuny, La MolaSon Massip, sa Dragonera and Raixa). In fact, in 2009 the Consell de Mallorca embarked on the restoration of the en Galileu ice stores, the first experience of its kind on the island, although it must be extended to hillside terraces, walls and paths, as well as forest conservation work that can contribute to the maintenance of shelters used by charcoal-makers (carboners) or ice collectors (nevaters), or the charcoal wood stores (rotlos de sitja) and lime kilns (forns de cal). In the towns of Estellencs and Banyalbufar, the development of a multi-year programme for the restoration and recovery of traditional water storage tanks and channels that carried water to different hillside terraces, as well as their characteristic vegetation, through the use of traditional dry-stone techniques, earth-and-water walling techniques and local labour. The channelling of 1% of the Ministry of Education and Cultures cultural budget (originating from work to create infrastructure put out to tender by the Ministry of Public Works), dedicated to historic and cultural heritage, into the execution of a multi-year project for the restoration of hillside terraces and paths in the Tramuntana area. Preferential attention for applications regarding items of heritage in the Tramuntana area, in connection with the Consell de Mallorcas Historic Industrial Heritage Programme, which gives financial assistance to owners and private individuals starting restoration processes on a monument catalogued as an Item of Cultural Interest (BIC) or an example of rural ethnological heritage, located at a site they own. The reinforcement of the current programme of technical consultancy, technical projects and support for the direct restoration of items of rural heritage already under way by the Consell de Mallorca. Swifter administrative formalities for the restoration of items of heritage.

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The consolidation of the training workshop and school for margers (dry-stone wall builders) operating on Mallorca, creating a specific brigade to work in the Tramuntana area all year round so as to maintain and restore dry-stone items of heritage in various points in the area. The strategic promotion of the programme under way for the recovery of the Dry-Stone Route, with the cataloguing and restoration of other paths in the Tramuntana area. Priority will be given to traditional paths forming part of land originally owned by Archduke Ludwig Salvator and others held in public hands, so as to contribute to the improvement of accesses to the Dry-Stone Route (GR 221) and create a more diversified network of paths with alternative itineraries and access to cultural, natural and scenic attractions that also allow for the dispersion of visitors engaged in hiking activities. In the same way, the restoration of botadors (stone stiles) pedres passadores (stepping stones) and other structures associated with the paths will also be fostered so as to facilitate hiking activities. The promotion of agreements with owners to allow access to restored items of ethnological heritage. If the authorities have contributed to the restoration of an item of heritage on a private estate, in exchange, within the framework of aforementioned land stewardship agreements, it shall be proposed that these items shall be open to the public under conditions established jointly by owners and the authorities. The drafting of a general study of types of urban structures in the Tramuntana area so as to understand the relationships between urban areas and their settings, as well as the potential for the integration of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing constructions. The reinforcement of the financial aid programme run by the Balearic Regional Governments Directorate-General for Architecture, intended for architectural heritage declared Items of Cultural Interest (BICs), so that buildings in the Tramuntana area classified as such can be given priority and receive aid in the short term. The management body will also help with the processing and receipt of aid requested by owners of these items. The drafting of a good practices manual for the maintenance of buildings characteristics of Tramuntana architecture, both with respect to their different types and building systems and materials, through written, graphic and photographic documentation on the construction and maintenance of this kind of architecture in the area. The manual must include recommendations proposed by the UNESCO for the maintenance of monumental heritage and those of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development with regard to heritage and its use for tourism-related activities. Support for the historic centres of Sller and Pollena to be declared Items of Cultural Heritage (BIC) within the category of a historic

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ensemble, as well as for the smaller-scale ensembles of Biniaraix and Galilea. Support for the extension of the Historic Ensemble of Valldemossa, together with the preparation of related Master Plans. An urban planning study of original urban layouts derived from the 1300 Ordinances handed down by King JaumeII. The restoration of the emblematic Oratory of Ramon Llull, currently in a state of ruin having been hit by lightning, is proposed. The programme will also contemplate the inclusion of a lightning conductor to prevent the repetition of the incident. In the channelling of torrents, special emphasis will be placed on the use of dry stone. In the case of torrents whose waters have already been channelled, priority will be given to the use of dry stone over other modern techniques. A study of scenic quality and places in the Tramuntana area that could be the focus of reintegration initiatives. Control of the Serra de Tramuntanas goat population. It is proposed that these controls shall be carried out, if necessary, with the collaboration of hunter associations through action in both public and private estates. Promote the use of biomass from the Tramuntanas forests to reduce wildfires. This biomass could be used to generate energy contributing, through this means, to improve the energetic sovereignty of the Tramuntana area.

This proposal deliberately excludes other actions that already form part of the goals of the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the Tramuntana Area. They will presumably be included in the future Management Plan of the Tramuntana Natural Landscape: The maintenance and improvement of the areas water resources. The protection, conservation and promotion of plant life associated with the area and its setting. The creation of favourable conditions for the settlement, maintenance and reproduction of communities of fauna. Biological links with other protected natural spaces nearby. The global protection of biotic and abiotic ecosystems and communities and their components, and the preservation of natural ecological processes occurring there. The elimination of allochthonous species. Cataloguing and mapping The Consell de Mallorca will continue and further encourage the mapping of byways and paths through the mountains, including private ones, and will then proceed to the full dissemination of these maps.

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The fostered completion of the catalogue of hillside terraces already under way by the Consell de Mallorca, an analysis of the results, and the demarcation of preferential geographic scopes of action, both relating to the restoration of elements themselves and the recovery of traditional uses. Prior to the drafting of a multi-year programme for the restoration of architectural features on land belonging to Archduke Ludwig Salvators estates, a programme will be set in motion for the drafting of plans and a diagnosis of all the components of the ensemble. The creation of a multi-year plan for the drafting of plans and cataloguing and diagnosis of items of heritage in the Tramuntana area: - defensive towers - historic gardens and unique trees - torrents with dry-stone work - archaeological heritage, incorporating the protective buffer area around each catalogued item - painted roof tiles - places of known geological and geomorphological interest, especially karstic landscape and caves An inventory of facets of the Tramuntana cultural landscape that can be considered intangible heritage, i.e. aspects of traditions, techniques and oral heritage, such as toponyms and anthroponyms, legends, songs and improvised songs in verse. A terminological glossary for agricultural and livestock farming, fishing, food production and gastronomic activities, and items used in water engineering and dry-stone building work. An inventory of literary references to the Tramuntana area: novels, poetry, travel books, folk tales and improvised songs in verse. A study of artistic and religious expressions that have come into being locally and traditional local events (feasts in honour of patron saints, religious holidays and festivities commemorating memorable dates in history). The preparation of a computerized database to consult existing inventories on features of the Tramuntana area, also allowing for their geolocation through Google Earth. A study to identify the limits of the different spatial units in the Tramuntana area through identifiable features of the terrain, such as paths or tracks, walls, hillside terraces etc., and the preparation of specific maps. Updated municipal plans on a scale of 1:1000 and 1:2000 and the digital scanning of these maps so that they can be shared. They will include the delimitation of classified land and items of heritage, such as hillside terraces, paths, springs, shelters used by nevaters, roters, carboners (ice gatherers, share croppers, and charcoal makers), and other items of monumental heritage.

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5.e.6. Visitor Management Programme The development of cultural tourism and hiking are two key aspects of the economic model proposed for the Tramuntana area. An increase in the number of visitors has been ruled out and the aim is to achieve an optimal number of visitors able to bring economic wealth and development to the region without harming its scenic, cultural and natural heritage. Historic data held by the UNESCO with regard to the assets included in its different categories of protected heritage indicate that, should the nomination for the Tramuntana area to be declared a World Heritage Site be successful, the number of visitors would increase by20%. This would be a significant increase but would not threaten the setting or the heritage of the Tramuntana area. The goals of this programme are linked, on the one hand, with a reduction in vehicle traffic and vehicle concentrations in certain locations and, on the other, with better visitor control and the dissemination of tourist information vis--vis the various features that make up the cultural landscape. In this respect, the Management Programme proposes certain means for the reception of visitors and interpretation of the cultural landscapes values in order to facilitate the dispersal and redistribution of visitors. Secondly, two measures (the creation of car parks and reinforcement of public transport services) are proposed to reduce the presence of private cars on the roads and in towns of the Tramuntana area, so as to avoid overcrowding in certain places, protect the values of the cultural landscape and guarantee the quality of the experience. Thirdly, vantage points and hiking/hill walking routes must be improved and increased. These measures may contribute to a better distribution of visitors in order to ensure the conservation of values and minimize the anthropic impact on items of heritage, because an excessive number of visitors might affect the quality of the experience. Reception and interpretation The creation of a network of thematic interpretation centres with the main goal of informing visitors of the Tramuntana areas values while also contributing to the retention of visitors there by deterring them from visiting certain assets that must be preserved due to their fragility and by avoiding overcrowding at other sites. These centres will offer visitors both general information on the situation of the Tramuntana area and specific details of the site in question at each centre. These

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interpretation centres will cover the whole of the Tramuntana area and will also deal with different complementary themes: - Raixa (Bunyola). This publicly-owned estate will focus on the theme of country estates or possessions, their typical architecture, life in a possessi and traditional agriculture. The visit will include both the rooms inside buildings and the gardens and rural area surrounding them, so as to allow visitors to be able to appreciate traditional crops and the way the fields were worked. In addition to providing workshops for the preparation of traditional products (preserves, dried fig cake, almond milk etc.), visits will be arranged at Raixa to olive presses and wineries in the area. This centre will also act as the reception centre for the Tramuntana as a whole, so it will devote part of its exhibition area to explaining the concept of this Cultural Landscape. - Sller. The creation of an interpretation centre is proposed, devoted to geological formations found in the Tramuntana area. More detailed information will be provided on the origin of the mountain chain, the composition of its mountains, its minerals, and the importance of the mountain range in the abatement of northerly winds. The centres location in the Sller valley is justified by the fact that the area has important geological traditions and already has a Natural Science Museum where the formation of the earth is explained, along with geological changes in the Balearic Islands and the effects of glaciation. The interpretation centre will therefore coordinate its activities with this museum and with other museums already operating in the Sller valley. - Lluc (Escorca). The interpretation centre at Lluc will be devoted to explaining the natural setting of the Tramuntana area, holm oak forests and existing ecosystems. At this centre, the spotlight will focus on autochthonous, endemic and protected fauna and flora. - The Costa Nord Cultural Centre and Son Marroig estate (Valldemossa). Both these places will allow visitors to delve deeper into the life of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. At the Costa Nord interpretation centre, which already exists, a room will be devoted to the figure and work of the Archduke, and teaching and informative material will be available. From these amenities, visitors will be able to set out on journeys along the Route of the Archduke, so as to view some of the most important estates acquired by this Austrian aristocrat. - Miramar (Dei): An interpretation centre devoted to the life and work of the philosopher Ramon Llull. The Miramar interpretation centre would allow visitors to gain a deeper insight into this historic figures literary and religious significance and bring visitors into closer contact with the scenic, religious and artistic values of Mallorcas northern coast.

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Figure 96. Son Marroig, together with Costa Nord, will bring visitors closer to the figure of the Archduke

- Banyalbufar and Estellencs: The creation of an interpretation centre devoted to water supply networks, dry-stone building techniques, and their importance in the conservation of the Tramuntana Mountains natural environment. Both municipalities offer visitors a unique landscape with dry-stone features on slopes covered in hillside terraces. In addition, these centres will deal with products associated with the various hillside terraces, whether irrigated or not, and also the traditional planting of Malvasa grapes. This centre will also act as the reception centre for vehicles entering the Tramuntana area from Andratx, since there is so far no reception and interpretation centre available on this route. All these interpretation centres will have at their disposal a common module devoted to explaining the work of the UNESCO in protecting world heritage and the values of this cultural landscape, although this subject will be dealt with more fully at the interpretation centre in Raixa (Bunyola). In the municipalities of Alar, Andratx, Banyalbufar, Calvi, Fornalutx, Lloseta, Mancor de la Vall, Santa Mara del Cam and Puigpunyent, where there is currently no museum or interpretation centre and no new amenity is planned, an informative module will be prepared for

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installation in the reception area of the Town Council or cultural centre. A similar one could be prepared for museums and interpretation centres already operating in the Tramuntana area. In all of the municipalities, an outdoor information panel is proposed explaining about the Cultural Landscape and amenities and places that can be visited. This can be placed at the entrance to towns or anywhere with a high frequency of visits by tourists. A study of the carrying capacity of those places with higher numbers of visitors, so that a maximum number of visitors to popular parts of the Serra de Tramuntana can be determined. With this data, pertinent regulations can be established, particularly with regard to tourists who travel to these places by motor vehicle. The promotion of advantageous agreements for owners who allow pedestrians right of way through their estates. The creation of campsites that are not just confined to the Serra de Tramuntana but are also located close to the urban nuclei from which these visitors come, thus acting as a filter for those people who have hitherto just visited the Serra for leisure purposes and not with an interest in its natural or cultural values.

Transport A plan for the improvement of existing car parks (Sller, Fornalutx, Valldemossa) and the creation of new ones, both in access points to the Tramuntana area and in the proximities of towns. These car parks will act as both a deterrent and also as a structural base for activities in the area. Visitors will be able to walk to town centres or follow any of the country paths emerging from these towns. The reinforcement of the public transport system in the Tramuntana area. On the one hand, steps will be taken to interconnect all towns in the Tramuntana area and, on the other hand, the frequency of bus services will be increased to allow for greater mobility by those visiting and living in the area. The creation of a shuttle service using electrically-powered vehicles for 3035 passengers, departing from urban centres and visitor centres to take people to hiking routes and items of heritage. Consideration will also be given to the need to collect hikers finishing long rambles, such as the descent of the Barranc de Biniaraix gully. The regulation of accesses and use-related rights of way for certain paths and tracks (for mountain bikes, hikers, motor vehicles etc) to ensure minimum disturbance and the conservation of the area. An analysis of points on main roads where uncontrolled parking normally occurs (generally associated with the starting points of hiking

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routes) and the implementation of one of the previous measures (car parks or public transport). The adaptation of a network of information panels, distributed throughout the area, to provide real-time information on occasional traffic jams at certain sites and on the occupancy of car parks so that visitors can judge which route to follow.
Figure 97. The extension of car parks is proposed to encourage visitors to walk or use public transport

Visitor attention The creation of a network of vantage points, including both the updating of existing ones (Torre de Ses Animes, Son Marroig, Mirador de Ses Barques) and the rectification of current defects (collapsed sections, erosion or fallen trees as at Mirador des P, or insufficient space for parking, as at Mirador des Colomer), and the creation of additional vantage points (Sa Muleta, Sa Pedrisa, Llucalcari, la Trapa and Estellencs), so that all of them have an adequate car park, signposted pedestrian access, information on the significance of the landscape observable there and, where possible, a small rest area. The encouragement of hiking as a healthy recreational practice in contact with nature through the establishment, in collaboration with companies and bodies from the Tramuntana area, of an annual programme of activities aimed at residents and tourists, so as to facilitate the dissemination of the natural and cultural values of the area as well as ensuring the better regulation of hiking activities and helping to boost local development. In the case of existing hiking and hill walking routes, particularly those that are best-known and most used at present, a study will be

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carried out to monitor the frequency of visits, carrying capacity and impacts on the environment and cultural heritage. This will be accompanied by a management plan for these places. The preparation of informative leaflets (available at all information points, interpretation centres and tourist offices) on the starting and end points of different hiking and hill walking routes, showing how they link up with car parks, public transport and shuttle services. They will also show the timetables of places that can be visited and how long hikes last. The preparation of informative explanatory panels at the start of rambles, clearly indicating the level of difficulty, duration of each leg of the ramble, steepness, and existence of complementary features (signage along the hike, rest places etc.). The improvement of the signage system, safety and monitoring of the Dry-Stone (GR221) and ArtLluc Routes (GR-222) where they pass through the Tramuntana area. The extension of the network of paths and tracks closest to towns, particularly those with the lowest levels of difficulty and lowest impact on the nominated asset, so as to disperse visitors and prevent massification at specific sites. The introduction of a hikers card system for the Tramuntana area in order to control the potential number of visitors and insurance for accidents and rescue services. At the most fragile locations, the restriction and monitoring of visitor access through a pre-booking system or the establishment of a daily quota of visitors. A plan for the co-ordination, improvement and promotion of public activities, particularly guided tours, regulated itineraries, educational activities, bird watching and botanical sessions, landscape observation and interpretation activities, as well as other regulated leisure activities (hiking, cycling tourism, horseback riding, climbing, abseiling, hang-gliding, white water rafting on torrents and in gullies, potholing) that do not harm the nominated assets values and contribute to a greater awareness and appreciation of the natural setting, its ethnological heritage and the Mediterranean landscape. These activities will conform to the provisions of the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the Tramuntana Natural Site and subsequent regulations, such as the Master Plan for Management and Use, which will regulate the number of people, zoning, fire-fighting equipment, and allowed permits and licences. The expansion, co-ordination and promotion of the existing network of public spaces for the purposes of tourism and recreation, such as publicly-owned estates, publicly-run hostels, recreational areas and campsites, providing they do not cause any negative impact on natu-

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Figure 98: The network of vantage points must be improved and extended in order to showcase the Tramuntana areas most noteworthy attractions.

ral, cultural and scenic values. This network could be complemented by other associated places through collaboration or land stewardship agreements with private bodies or owners of estates. Through these agreements, as well as offering certain recreational activities, porxos dolivar (olive growers stone shelters) or other traditional agricultural structures could be refurbished or campsites created . An initiative for the dissemination of codes of conduct and existing prohibitions and restrictions within the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape. A study of the supply and demand at tourism offices in the Tramuntana area, as a preliminary step for the improvement of information provided by these information points. Specific studies of those places most commonly visited by tourists in order to identify conservation needs and regulate access. Territorial deployment, the adaptation of signs, and the drafting of the contents of publications and information panels for the four cultural interest routes foreseen in the Mallorca Spatial Plan: the archaeological route, gothic route, castle route and baroque route. It would be interesting to incorporate further attractions into routes in order to consolidate them.

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5.e.7. Implementation of the management plan The actions proposed in the Management Plan have been given a timeframe reflecting all the initiatives to be undertaken, their respective timings and priority: High-priority actions will be those corresponding to the creation of the management body itself, the continuity of existing actions, citizen participation initiatives and those of interest in the conservation of the nominated asset. Medium priority will be given to those depending on other previous actions or ones involving extensive formalities or a search for resources. Minimum priority will be given to those depending on other initiatives with a higher priority or else those that are advisable but not essential for the understanding, conservation or improvement of the nominated asset. 5.f. Sources and levels of funding The funding for the management body will be made up of the following: 1) Finance provided by the authorities making up the body. 2) A sponsorship plan aimed at promoting and channelling financial contributions from institutions, organizations and companies wishing to collaborate with the management body either through a one-off donation or in the longer term. 3) International funding from European development programmes. 4) The sale of products and services related with the project, mainly at interpretation centres.

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5.g. Sources of expertise and training in conservation and management techniques Education The following educational programmes are currently being carried out locally: On the one hand, the Environmental Education Programme run by the Consell de Mallorca, which includes modules devoted to the following subjects: children and the sea; Sa Dragonera Natural Park; the network of publicly run hostels and waterwheels. On the other hand, local institutions provide various educational programmes: The Botanical Education Programme by the Botanical Gardens in Sller, with many activities for schoolchildren of different educational levels. The Natural Science Education Programme by the Balearic Natural Science Museum in Sller, which includes teaching units related to the Tramuntana area. La Trapa Education Programme. An environmental awareness programme prepared jointly by the Sa Nostra savings banks Social Department and the Balearic Ornithology Group (GOB), with the main goal of making all schools on the island aware of this scenic location. Various excursions are organized with explanations for attendant children of the importance of protecting the ecosystem and restoring heritage. There is currently a wide range of activities on offer: Aix era i no era Cala en Basset and Aix era i no era La Trapa, which take place in schools; and El Bosc mar de La Trapa and La Trapa s viva which take place at La Trapa.
Figure 99. The flora of the Tramuntana area is dealt with in a specific module on botany.

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Thus, the Tramuntana area features in all levels of schooling, but it is still possible to go further in this task of increasing awareness. To this end, it is of vital importance for the management body to establish links with schools and socio-cultural agents locally in order to implement awareness-raising and educational measures for the resident school population. Training Local training activities currently under way focus on two main areas: drystone work and farming activities. A major training activity, in terms of its longevity and intensity, is the Consell de Mallorcas Escuela de Margers (dry-stone wall builders school), which was a response to an evident need since dry-stone building is a technique that requires specific training. In 1986, there were hardly any professionals left and the Consell de Mallorca promoted the creation of an Escuela de Margers, offering two years of professional training to young people between 16 and 24 years of age and 1year occupational workshops for those over 25 years of age.
Figure 100: Schools for drystone wall builders have trained professionals capable of conserving this craft

In addition, the Palma Margers Employment Workshop, promoted by the Institute for Training, Occupation and Public Works (IMFOF in Spanish), also introduced a course for the recovery and conservation of dry-stone features. Thus, multiple activities at a practical level will be used to train young people in a variety of skills.

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Additionally, a vocational training programme in agriculture is being run by the Balearic Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, which offers numerous training activities to boost a marginal sector with great social benefits. Among the different courses on offer, key examples are those devoted to the incorporation of young farmers into agricultural ventures, agro-environmental training, specialization in agriculture and livestock farming, pruning and grafting, farm management, crop diversification, food technologies and training in the application of phytosanitary products. These training activities are complemented by technical seminars on the determination of the shelf life of food products, autochthonous breeds, jaundice or piroplasmosis, western-style horse riding, advanced quality labels and designations, and possible drawbacks.
Figure 101. Aid programmes for farmers represent a double benefit for the Tramuntana area: a source of employment and environmental conservation.

Research The main research actions implemented in the area are: Every year, the Spanish Government organizes a call for applications for complementary research actions in the field of the 26 thematic areas of the Ministry of Science and Technologys ANEP programme. These allow, among others, for the development of the following: The organization of scientific and technical conferences and seminars. Concerted scientific and technical initiatives. The preparation of proposals for the participation of Spanish research teams in the EU Framework Programme, and complementary aid for approved research projects in execution of the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes. Actions on scientific and technological policy.

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Within the Balearic Islands, among other measures to stimulate research, the Regional Government provides two major types of support to study the Tramuntana area. On the one hand, there are Introduction to Research scholarships in the fields of agricultural and livestock farming and fisheries in the Balearic Islands, financed by the Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish) of the Government of the Balearic Islands. On the other hand, there is an annual call for financial aid for applied research projects on agriculture and livestock farming and fisheries within the Balearic Islands, financed by the Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA) of the Government of the Balearic Islands. The projects last for twelve months (January-December) and must focus on the following aspects: Improvements in production and processing in the fields of farming and fishing. Obtaining and manufacturing safe, healthy, high-quality food products. Agricultural food production from the standpoint of environmental conservation and the global use of the Tramuntana area. Improvements in food product marketing. Improvements in energy savings, and the harnessing of waste and application of renewable energy sources in agriculture. The characterization and conservation of native plant species in the Balearic Islands. Improved awareness of the fishing industry and fishing resources in the Balearic Islands. For its part, the Consell de Mallorca has a scholarship programme for the Sa Dragonera Natural Park, of which it has now organized ten editions to honour two research projects each year, one focused on the parks natural values and the other on cultural issues, oral memory and ethnography. In recent decades, local, island and regional authorities have been involved in various European projects related to the recovery, study and dissemination of the areas heritage (TERRISC, REPS, MEDSTONE, PATTER, PROTERRA, REPPIS, TRIMED (CULTURE 2000) and CULTURED (INTERREG IIIC OEST). The Consell de Mallorca is currently still engaged in the following projects: TCAST: For the production of an inventory on traditional construction techniques and the identification of ways of transmitting them and existing initiatives in Mallorca. COMMONS (INTERREG IVC) Common land for sustainable management for the reconciliation of regional policies and strategies for the management of public and communal estates.

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Furthermore, the Consell de Mallorca is currently chairing the Arco Latino organization, one of whose working groups deals with the relationship between cultural landscapes and World Heritage Sites. Finally, mention must be made of the activities of the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). Its various research groups have promoted or participated in - either jointly or with the public authorities - numerous research projects relating to the Tramuntana area, from the standpoints of physical and ecological issues, heritage, history, tourism, economics and social issues, and the UIB is a key academic reference in understanding the past, present and future of the area. In addition, the Geographic Information Systems and Tele-detection Service - a support body for teaching, exploration and development in the fields of cartography, geographic information systems, spatial planning (particularly with regard to tourism), territorial affairs and the environment, as well as other related fields that may be developed in future - has taken part in various projects at a regional, national and international level, specifically on the creation of territorial databases, the preparation of telematic, synthesized and digital maps, the design and implementation of geographic information systems, an analysis of geographic information and the digital analysis of satellite images. 5.h. Visitor facilities and statistics The Tramuntana area currently has a large number of tourism accommodation establishments, including numerous rural and inland tourism centres offering personalized service by small family-run businesses. This influx of tourists has led to the development of trade and services bringing wealth to the area. In recent years, the number of rural or inland tourism accommodation centres has seen a notable increase and the number of corresponding beds available in the Tramuntana area now exceeds 2,500, although this figure should be added to other beds in Pollena, Sller and Andratx that are counted as summer-holiday accommodation. While the small municipalities of Dei and Valldemossa are consolidating their hotel supply, Mancor de la Vall and Escorca have no accommodation for tourists.

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Municipality Andratx Banyalbufar Bunyola Dei Esporles Estellencs Fornalutx Pollena Puigpunyent Selva Sller Valldemossa Total:

Total no. of establishments 8 6 13 7 5 4 6 11 6 9 8 8 203

Total no. of beds 306 231 195 430 90 137 100 404 106 152 209 251 2.611

Figure 102. Accommodation available in the Tramuntana area.

The Balearic Regional Government is also setting its sights on European social tourism. Mallorca is one of the destinations with the highest demand among Spaniards over 65 years of age (represented by the IMSERSO) and efforts are being focused on attracting this kind of tourism from other parts of Europe. Through European-level agreements of this kind, many more foreign tourists would be able to enjoy the historic, cultural and environmental heritage of Mallorca, encouraging the year-round opening of a larger number of establishments, a fact that would favour hotels in the Tramuntana area. Apart from regulated hotel accommodation, throughout the extensive area covered by the Tramuntana, visitors can find a series of publiclyowned hostels that offer accommodation to hikers and ramblers. These hostels provide backup services for the network of hiking routes, with cheap accommodation aimed mainly at hikers. Eleven such hostels are currently operational in the Tramuntana area:

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Name Refugio de la Trapa (Andratx) Refugio de Can Boi (Dei) Refugio Tossals Verds (Escorca) Refugio de Can Josep (Escorca) Son Amer (Escorca) Refugio de Cber (Escorca) Refugio del Gorg Blau (Escorca) Refugio Pont Rom (Pollena) Refugio Muleta (Sller) SHostatgeria del Castell dAlar (Alar) Refugio Son Moragues (Valldemossa)
Figure 103. Publicly owned hostels operating in the Tramuntana area.

Owner Balearic Ornithology Group (GOB) Consell de Mallorca Consell de Mallorca

Managed by Consell de Mallorca Consell de Mallorca Consell de Mallorca

Status Under restoration In operation since July 1st 2006 In operation. Open all year round

Beds 30 32 30 26

Consell de Mallorca Ibanat

Consell de Mallorca

In operation. Open all year round

52 10 5-10

Consell de Mallorca Sller Town Council Alar Town Council and the Bishopric of Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca Consell de Mallorca Castell dAlar Foundation

In operation. Open all year round In operation. Open all year round In operation

38 30 16-30

15

A solid, extensive network of rural tourism establishments is being created in the Tramuntana area, providing tourists with the kind of accommodation that the management body wishes to maintain and promote in order to contribute to the general economic development of the area. As well as offering accommodation and therefore contributing to the development of tourism, these rural tourism centres have a conservationist function in terms of the natural setting and traditional architecture. In addition, they can provide specialist gourmet cuisine. Over and above the good food available at rural tourism centres (an initiative still to be further developed), the Balearic Ministry of Tourism is encouraging the enjoyment of typical Mallorcan cuisine by organizing a series of gastronomic routes. Two of these routes are currently active, thanks to the Institut dEstrategia del Turisme (INESTUR, Tourism Strategy Institute): Mountain cuisine: The Tramuntana Mountains are the link between different towns that offer typical Mallorcan cuisine, based on the gastronomy of the islands mountain range. This route begins in Binnis-

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salem, passes through Lloseta, Alcdia, Mortitx valley, Lluc Monastery, the reservoirs of Cber and Gorg Blau, and then Pollena, before finishing in Fornalutx. The Olive Oil Route: Olive groves and the production of olive oil are the common thread linking routes that visit ancient olive oil presses, with recommended restaurants specializing in traditional cooking. Routes The Tramuntana area offers a wide variety of scenery and attractive excursions of cultural, natural and ethnographic interest, giving visitors added value as they discover the historic and scenic reality of the area. More experienced hikers are already familiar with its hiking routes and know the rambles that suit their tastes and abilities. But for those who wish to discover the world of hiking or tourists who do not know the Tramuntana area, a series of thematic hill walking routes has been introduced to cover such topics as dry-stone building and olive groves while climbing the highest peaks in the chain or more general ones covering the whole range, its towns and its picturesque corners. The Tramuntana Cultural Landscapes management body will boost these initiatives and co-ordinate the signage, monitoring and safety of these routes. The hiking routes currently available in the Tramuntana area include several that also offer an insight into the areas values: its dry-stone architecture, traditional farm products, ethnological features, and natural and scenic values. The main route through the Tramuntana area is the Dry-Stone Route, devised as a long hiking trail (GR 221) covering a distance of over 50 kilometres, appropriately signposted and approved by the Spanish Federation for Climbing and Mountain Sports, with the backup of a network of publicly-run hostels located in refurbished houses owned by the Consell de Mallorca. The trail is divided into eight stages with ten variants, and ramblers can take advantage of a hostel managed by the Consell de Mallorca at the end of each stage. This project has sown the seeds of major inter-institutional collaboration, as the conservation of the Tramuntana area involves the conservation of its dry-stone features, particularly its hillside terraces. Mountain paths have been restored thanks to the co-operation of town councils and private landowners, while the creation of publicly-run hostels has been supported by the GOB (Balearic Ornithology Group) in the case of the one at

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Figure 104. The Tramuntana area receives large numbers of hikers attracted by its views.

La Trapa, Sller Town Council (in the case of the Muleta one), the Castell dAlar Foundation (the sHostatgeria hostel) and Pollena Town Council (the Pont Rom hostel). Nowadays, this hiking trail is the most important of its kind in the Tramuntana area, attracting a million and a half ramblers every year. For this reason, the Consell de Mallorca is making concerted efforts to conserve the dry-stone constructions that are the backbone of these routes. Hillside terraces, water galleries, walls, huts and ice stores all form part of the heritage that can be enjoyed by hikers, as well as the villages that the routes pass through, encompassing the entire Tramuntana mountain range. The Dry-Stone Route is completed by and connects with the Art-Lluc Route (GR-222), which runs through the municipalities of Art, Capdepera, Santa Margalida, Petra, Ariany, Maria de la Salut, Muro, Llub, and Inca, and, once in the Tramuntana Mountains, Selva and Escorca. The routes are based on the entire network of publicly-owned paths, some of which linked different villages until they were replaced by modern roads. Work is currently under way to recover and signpost other paths forming part of the route. The signposting of stage2 between SArenalet des Verger and Betlem has now been completed and stage5 in the part between Caimari and Lluc, following the old road to Lluc restored by the Consell de Mallorca between 1989 and1994. Along the fifth stage of the trail, through the Tramuntana Mountains, the route runs through ecosystems comprising woods of holm oaks, wild

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Figure 105. The olive oil routes showcase the agricultural heritage and olive production

olive trees, cliffs and agricultural land (particularly olive groves), offering fine examples of Mallorcas traditional architecture, ethnological features (charcoal-making sites, mountain huts, reservoirs, and springs) associated with farming and forestry uses and religious elements. Like the Dry-Stone Route, the Mallorca Spatial Plan considers the Art-Lluc Route to be a scenic one whose creation and regulation are legally binding. For its part, in its efforts to reduce the seasonality of tourism, the Balearic Institute for Tourisme (IBATUR) offers a wide range of hiking trails on the Balearic Islands. The Tramuntana area includes the Green Olive Oil Route, the main goal of which is to showcase agricultural heritage and olive production during the course of hikes through the oldest, most significant groves. The specific routes are: a. The Caimari-Binibona-Ses Figueroles-Coll de sa Batalla route: This goes from the main square of Caimari, along Calle de Sant Jaume, to Binibona. The trail runs alongside some country estates with traditional rural architecture characteristic of the area, such as SAlqueria, Son Sastre, Son Riera and Subies, finishing up at Sa Vedelleta. b. The Caimari-Puig de nAl route: This is one of the least frequented routes, due to the difficulty of the climb. The name of the peak dates from 1037 and it is an example of the survival of Islamic culture and the Islamic language in some of the toponyms associated with the village of Caimari.

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c. The Caimari-Lluc Monastery route: The trail begins by leaving Caimari along Calle Nostra Senyora de Lluc (that is, the Ma2130 road from Inca to Lluc), the site in olden days of many inns providing shelter for pilgrims prior to their ascent to the shrine. For its part, the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries promotes a series of Good Tasting Routes, with visits, in the case of the Tramuntana area, to production sites to look round their facilities and find out, in conversation with the producer, the characteristics of the foods manufactured there. In particular, these routes facilitate a better understanding of three products: olive oil, wine and sobrassada cured meat: The Oli de Mallorca Protected Designation of Origin Route includes stops in Esporles and Sller. The Vins de la terra Serra Tramuntana-Costa Nord Wine-Producing Route includes visits to wineries in SArrac, Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Alar and Pollena. The Sobrassada de Mallorca Protected Geographical Indication Route includes a visit to the firm Embotits Aguil - La Lluna in Sller. The same ministry, through its Illes Balears Qualitat programme, is promoting olive oil tourism routes, enabling visitors to explore nature through some of the most emblematic olive groves on the islands. It has already prepared 4 routes (Camino de Muleta, the Biniaraix ravine, Camino de la Font Garrover and El Olivar de Comasema) as well as tours of several oil presses in the Tramuntana area. To conclude, mention must be made of the proposal in the Mallorca Spatial Plan (2004) to create four cultural routes, currently in preparation, following the publication by the Consell de Mallorca of an informative guide on the features of these routes: The Archaeological Route: The only included landmark in the Tramuntana area is the necropolis at Cala Sant Vicen (Pollena). The Gothic Route: In the Tramuntana, the route includes the Church of Sant Miquel (Campanet), the parish church of Sant Lloren (Selva), the Church of Sant Pere (Escorca) and the Church of Santa Llcia (Mancor). The Baroque Route: This includes several places in the Tramuntana area, such as the parish churches of Santa Mara del Cam, Alar, Binissalem, Bunyola, Dei and Campanet; the convent and cloister of La Soledad or the Minims and Town Hall of Santa Mara del Cam; the gardens of Raixa and Alfbia country estate in Bunyola; Sa Granja rural mansion in Esporles; the hamlet of Orient in Bunyola; the shrine of Lluc in Escorca;

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Can Forcimanya in Dei; and the convent of San Domingo and convent of the Jesuits in Pollena. The Castles Route: This includes the two fortifications located in the Tramuntana area: the Castillo del Rey (Pollena) and Castle of Alar. Museums and interpretation centres The traditional roads and paths that pass through the Tramuntana area lead to various places of cultural and natural interest and to a variety of cultural and scientific amenities of interest to tourists that are open to the public. By municipality, the most popular ones are: Bunyola: The estate and gardens of Raixa. The estate and gardens of Alfbia: Visitors to this estate can see the various rooms of the manor house and stroll through one of the most unique gardens in Mallorca. Campanet: Biniatr Inn: A former inn run by Messrs.Biniatr, currently with a permanent display of the Artists of the Mediterranean collection, featuring more than two hundred works by artists from the Balearic Islands created in the last half century, including Miquel Barcel. It also arranges temporary exhibitions. Dei: Dei Archaeological Museum: Founded in 1962 by Dr. William H. Waldren, this displays a collection of archaeological objects from digs carried out in nearby caves. It is housed in a converted mill, one of the oldest buildings in the mediaeval village of Dei. Ca nAlluny, the former home of Robert Graves and now a museum: The house and garden surrounding it still retain most of their original appearance and it is possible to visit the kitchen, lounge, printing works, writers study, the study occupied by writer Laura Riding between 1932 and 1936, and the study of Gravess second wife, Beryl. The tour also allows visitors to see original documents, photographs, letters and personal documentation and it includes the projection of an audio-visual film about the author. Son Marroig House and Museum: This contains objects and mementos belonging to Ludwig Salvator, a collection of ceramic articles and another of 19th century paintings from Mallorca. Outside the house, it is possible to visit a small neo-Classical temple in Carrara marble. Every year since 1978, Son Marroig has hosted the Dei International Festival, devoted to chamber music.

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Escorca: Lluc Monastery. Lluc Museum: Inaugurated in 1952, it currently has several rooms devoted mainly to archaeology, traditional jewellery, religious objects, sacred images, ceramics, an art collection built up by Josep Coll Bardolet and an art gallery that mainly displays works from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Lluc Botanical Gardens: It currently has 200 varieties of plants, as well as an area devoted to aromatic and medicinal plants and a selection of fruit trees. Esporles: Sa Granja: This estate boasts an ethnographic museum and a varied range of typical farm animals. During a visit to Sa Granja, you can learn about traditional farming activities and the mansion, courtyards and emblematic gardens of the estate. Visitors can also watch traditional craftsmen working, taste wines and nuts or learn the traditional dances of Mallorca. Pollena: Dions Bennssars House and Museum: The home where this artist from Mallorca spent half his life and produced his most important paintings. It houses a large part of his artistic legacy: oils on canvas, watercolours, post-Impressionist and Expressionist drawings as well as many personal objects, furnishings etc. It is also the headquarters of the foundation of the same name: a private not-for-profit foundation for the promotion, dissemination and defence of artistic and cultural expression in general, which organizes different activities such as temporary exhibitions, lectures, courses, seminars, publications, talks, musical concerts etc. Pollena Museum: Located in a former Dominican convent, it is currently a cultural centre offering concerts of classical music and other musical performances. It also houses a contemporary art museum with works from the International Plastic Arts Competition, originally started 34 years ago, plus the collection of the landscape artist Atilio Boveri, resident on Mallorca between 1912 and 1915, and a collection of paintings from the first decades of the 20th century, particularly works by Anglada Camarassa and Tito Cittadini. Mart Vicens Museum: Featuring a permanent exhibition of this artists oeuvre, along with a small ethnological collection with objects related to the textile industry. Selva: The former oil press of Cas Menescal: This museum and oil press, located in the town of Caimari, offers an insight into traditional ways of pressing olives and the progression from ancient beam presses (driven by animals) to modern hydraulic systems. The ground

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floor contains the oil press itself, comprising millstones to crush the fruit, two hydraulic presses, a mixer, cauldron for heating water and a centrifuge to separate the oil. The upper floor still has the olive stores with small tanks to store the different types of olives while awaiting their conversion into oil. It only operates during the Olive Fair (in November). The museum is complemented by a new oil press in a building at the entrance to the village with modern machinery and installations (Oli Caimari) where it is possible, during the olive harvesting season between November and February, to watch the process of producing olive oil. Caimari Ethnological Park: This offers visitors the opportunity to see several of the most representative constructions used in traditional activities locally and throughout the Tramuntana for centuries: the llosa and coll de tords for catching thrushes; the rotlo de sitja and barraca de carboner used by woodsmen to turn timber into charcoal; the casa de neu for storing ice; and forn de cal for producing lime. Sller: Sller Botanical Gardens: These are home to the largest collection of native species of flora from the Balearic Islands and other parts of the Mediterranean, with plants from Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and Crete. The 13 collections of live plants included in the gardens are divided into three sections: Balearic flora, flora from other Mediterranean islands or places of Mediterranean influence, and ethnobotany, which comprises ornamental and medicinal plants and native fruit and vegetables of the Balearics. In addition, a seed bank has been created to preserve the genome of the species. The Balearic Natural Science Museum in Sller: The ground floor houses a permanent exhibition devoted to the history of natural sciences in the Balearic Islands and the first floor contains the recently inaugurated Joan Bauz Room, with a permanent display explaining the geological history of the archipelago through fossils. The museum holds different collections of fossils, rocks, fungi, insects and crustaceans, including collections by Guillem Colom Casasnovas and Joan Bauz Rullan, naturalists from Sller. Sller Museum: This occupies a manor house built in 1740. It focuses on the traditional history of the town, with a collection of archaeology and palaeontology, ethnology, ceramic and artistic works. The Museum of the Sea (Oratory of Santa Catalina): An interpretation centre focusing on the history of Sller and its ports relations with the sea. The link between humans and the sea is presented in relation to different contexts, highlighting the most widely differing characteristics of this relationship in the history of Sller. Work is currently under way to

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extend the museums collection so as to turn the oratory into a genuine exhibition, research and cultural centre. Can Prunera The Museum of Modernist Architecture: Soon to be opened, this museum is an initiative by the Tren de lArt Foundation (a body linked to the company licensed to run the railway service to Sller), Sller Town Council and the Government of the Balearic Islands, with funding from the European Union. It will house a permanent collection of Modernist art by Spanish and international artists who formed part of the movement or were inspired by it, with work by local painters or artists related with the islands. In addition to exhibition rooms with temporary displays, it will also have a library specializing in art for the display of books illustrated by Joan Mir. Its gardens will host concerts and other cultural events. Valldemossa: Valldemossa Monastery: Visits to the Carthusian buildings include the church (1751), cloister (one of the oldest parts of the current buildings) and former pharmacy of the monks. The visit continues with the garden and priors rooms (chapel, library, reception room, bedroom), which conserve the historic and artistic legacy of the Carthusian order. Cells2 and4 contain documents and mementos of Chopin and George Sands stay in Valldemossa (1838-1839), such as original scores by the composer and literary manuscripts by G.Sand, alongside portraits, furniture and letters by both. This is also the venue of the F.Chopin International Piano Festivals. The Municipal Museum: This can be found in rooms3 and4 of Valldemossa Monastery. It contains a collection of landscapes by 19th and 20th century local and non-local painters and a collection of contemporary art, with outstanding works by Juli Ramis, Picasso and Mir. In addition, it displays items from the former Guasp printing works, including its presses (among the best preserved in Europe) and part of the 1,450 xylographic plates in its collection. It also has a room devoted to Archduke Ludwig Salvator. The Palace of King Sancho: This currently forms part of the visit to Valldemossa Monastry, as the music room hosts demonstrations of folklore by El Parado de Valldemossa and piano concerts. The Coll Bardolet Foundation: This preserves and displays the legacy of the late Catalan painter Josep Coll Bardolet (1912-2007), a resident of Mallorca, with particularly noteworthy landscapes and representations of local folklore. It also contains works by Anglada Camarassa and Tito Cittadini, among others. The Costa Nord Cultural Centre: An interpretation centre dedicated to Archduke Ludwig Salvator. It organizes seasons of concerts, exhibitions

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and creative and artistic activities. Costa Nord was an initiative by the actor Michael Douglas, who discovered, like many others before him, the charms of the islands northern coast on his arrival in Mallorca, but today it is owned by the Balearic Government and is the headquarters of the Foundation for the Sustainable Development of the Balearic Islands. Miramar Monastery: It contains a museum with objects, documents and works of art related to the worlds of Ramon Llull and Archduke Ludwig Salvator. Inside the house there is a sculpture by Tantardini in memory of Vratislav Vyborny, Ludwig Salvators first secretary, and a partial reproduction of the interior of the NixeII, with some authentic parts of the Archdukes ship. The visit also includes the Ramon Llull conference room, with various items of graphic work related to his work and thought, such as a reproduction of the 12 miniatures of the Breviculum, and a small library located in a former stable, containing books and objects related to the life and work of Ramon Llull. Each town also has the following cultural amenities:
Municipality Alar Andratx Banyalbufar Bunyola Calvi Escorca Esporles Estellencs Fornalutx Lloseta Mancor de la Vall Pollena Puigpunyent Santa Maria del Cam Selva Sller Valldemossa Cultural Amenities Municipal cultural centre, exhibition gallery in Calle Petit, dispensary rooms, municipal library Municipal theatre of Sa Teulera, municipal library

Figure 106. Cultural amenities in the Tramuntana area. Source: Inventory of cultural amenities in the Balearic Islands, 1999

Municipal library Parish hall, theatre of municipal cultural centre, municipal library Town Council exhibition room, El Toro cultural centre, Son Ferrer municipal cultural centre, Palmanova-Magaluf cultural centre, Palmanova exhibition room, eight municipal libraries Municipal library Municipal library Lloseta theatre, Ca nHereu, Sa Nostra cultural exhibition room, municipal library Mancor exhibition room, theatre of municipal cultural centre, municipal library Llompart Gallery, cultural centre, Bennssar Gallery, Joan XXIII Gallery, Actual Art, Galeria Mayor, municipal library xhibition room of municipal cultural centre, theatre, multipurpose building, E municipal library La Caixa exhibition room, municipal library Social club, municipal centre, Ca ses Monges, Selva municipal cultural centre, Can Roig, 4 municipal libraries Municipal library Municipal library

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Cultural activities Every year, the Tramuntana area is the setting for countless cultural activities, founded recently or longer ago, offering tourists with an interest in culture the opportunity to discover the natural charms and heritage of the Tramuntana area: cultural visits, gastronomic routes, music festivals and popular celebrations. The regional authorities and local municipalities strive to create initiatives that extend the cultural activities on offer and attract a larger number of visitors. Currently, the cultural amenities and historic monuments of the Tramuntana area host major musical events, including the following internationally renowned concerts and festivals: The Pollena Festival is a musical season created in 1962 by the distinguished English violinist Philip Newman. Now in its 48th annual edition, it is a classic event on the summer programme of activities in Mallorca. It always includes a select programme of different styles of music (classical music, jazz, gospel, pop and rock). Its concerts are held in the incomparable setting of the cloister of the Dominican monastery, a 17th century building with exceptional acoustics. Since 1998, the Pollena Festival has been a member of the European Festivals Association, which unites the most prestigious musical events on the continent. The Rotger Villalonga Foundation, in collaboration with Pollena Town Council and the family of the musician Miquel Capllonch (1861-1935), organizes a tribute to the latter during the Nits de Capllonch (Capllonch Evenings), normally held in the Church of Montisin in Pollena, during the winter season. The choral concerts held at the Torrent de Pareis have taken advantage of the natural walls of the torrent since 1964 to ensure concerts with excellent acoustics. In the beginning, they were intimate gatherings. Sa Nostra savings bank later took over the organization of the concert and, year after year, the event has become better consolidated. The concert currently attracts thousands of people, lured by the marvellous combination of the beauty of the landscape and the harmony of the music. The Sa Nostra International Folklore Festival in Sller is an important festival founded by the Aires Sollerics group in 1980. Since then, groups from all over the world have gathered in the month of July in different municipalities across the island. The festival lasts for eight days, during which groups perform to audiences and also participate in a cultural

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exchange that allows them all to learn more about their art. The performances are free of charge and take place in different towns across the island, with Sller as the main hub. Son Marroig, the house and museum devoted to Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, is the venue every year for the Dei International Festival, specializing in chamber music. The festival is a wonderful chance to enjoy classical music in the unparalleled setting of this emblematic location on the north coast of Mallorca. Since 1930, the cloister of Valldemossa Monastery has hosted the Chopin Festival with the performance of works by Chopin and other composers. The main goal of this annual series of concerts, every Sunday in the month of August, is for work by Chopin to be performed by prestigious pianists and young talents. In addition to these musical activities, it organizes installations and exhibitions by avant-garde artists, performances etc. in order to modernize and update the message of those heterodox controversial Romantic figures, Chopin and Sand, who struggled in their day to achieve greater individual and collective freedom. A more recently-created event is the Costa Nord Mediterranean Nights programme, which attempts to recreate the spirit of Archduke Ludwig Salvator and so many other artists and writers who discovered and fell in love with the Tramuntana area, its culture, scenery and customs. Through a series of concerts characterized by a mixture of styles and traditions, a respect for different cultures living in the Mediterranean and a curiosity for new ways of creating and experimenting, Mediterranean Nights defines itself as a unique unprecedented event on Mallorcas cultural agenda. The concerts are held in the open air during the summer, under the stars that guided sailors and under the branches of a centuries-old olive tree. To conclude, mention must be made of the programme of classical music in Banyalbufar, organized each year since 1991 from June to October by the Banyalbahar Cultural Association at the Parish Church of Banyalbufar. It contributes toward enriching the islands cultural activities and allows audiences to enjoy music in one of the most emblematic settings on the coast of Mallorca. Finally it is also worth highlighting the existence of a varied programme of activities designed to add to the programme of events for tourists in the autumn and winter months, called Un Hivern a Mallorca (A Winter in Mallorca). Since 1982, between the months of October and April, the Bal-

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earic Ministry of Tourism has organized and sponsored a series of activities for residents and visitors, including a noteworthy season of musical and dance performances in different theatres and concert halls across the island, and a season of organ music played on historic instruments by musicians from numerous countries, performing works by different composers in the islands churches. In addition to these events, it sponsors and collaborates in other cultural programmes so as to extend the available shows and performances and contribute to reducing the seasonality of the tourist industry. This programme also includes excursions on foot or bicycle in the company of specialist guides, guided cultural tours of historic centres, as well as tastings of local dishes and wines. Furthermore, the towns of Dei and Pollena also currently organize literary events, with the Hotel Formentor - in the case of Pollena - hosting the direct successor of the Formentor Literary Conversations originally devised by Camilo Jos Cela, at which poets and intellectuals from all over Europe reflected on and discussed the situation of literature during the summers of 1959 and 1961. Within the framework of these meetings, in 1961 the Formentor International Literature Award was founded, with subsequent editions in Corfu, Salzburg and Tunis, where it concluded in1969. Tourism-related services The Tramuntana area offers tourism services that allow residents and tourists to come and enjoy its local amenities and natural and cultural attractions. Particular reference must be made to the Sller tourist train: a historic train that has operated without interruption since 1912, connecting the city of Palma with the town of Sller. Many visitors disembarking there join organized excursions that visit the area and return them to their hotels by coach. Other visitors using this form of transport stay in the town of Sller or set off on hikes in the vicinity. In both these cases, they tend to use the train to return to Palma. In addition, at the train station in Sller, you can take a tram to the Port of Sller that crosses through groves of orange trees. At the same time, several boats cross daily to Sa Dragonera Natural Park from Sant Elm (a half-hour crossing, although some services sail right round the island) and Santa Pona (a five-hour round trip). There is also a regular ferry service from the Port of Sller to Sa Calobra (one hour each way), Cala Tuent and Sa Foradada. From the Port of Pollena, there are also boats to Formentor. There are occasional services between Sller and Formentor. There is no regular service by sea from Sant Elm to Sller.

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In addition, there is a regular coach service interlinking different towns and linking them with the islands capital. These are normally used by residents or ramblers, who use this form of transport to return after their hike. Most visitors however make use of private vehicles, leading on many occasions to congestion on the narrow roads of the Tramuntana area. Limiting the use of private cars is a very complex issue, as the same roads are also used by numerous residents in the area. Finally, INESTUR offers a regular service of guided tours through the most picturesque streets, squares and nooks and crannies, so that visitors can explore places that witnessed the French writer George Sand and Polish composer Frdric Chopins time in Mallorca, as well as visiting Valldemossa Monastery where they stayed.

5.i. Policies and programmes related to the nominated propertys restoration and promotion Actions to recover the agricultural landscape Of the actions currently being carried out by the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries with co-funding from the European Agricultural Rural Development Fund (EARDE), the Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish) and Balearic Regional Government, the following are noteworthy: Aid to increase the added value of agricultural produce: Financial assistance to encourage agricultural produce with increased added value is aimed at micro-companies that invest in the implementation of new technologies in their companies day to day activities and adjust their products in line with market demands. Aid for the setting up of new farms: Farmers between 18 and 40 years of age who set up an agricultural operation for the first time can apply for financial and training aid allowing them to execute their projects as efficiently as possible. Compensation for losses derived from the difficulties of mountainous areas: Within the field of protection and in order to avoid environmental hazards due to erosion and social risks arising from the lack of use and maintenance of the traditional landscape, financial resources are allocated to compensating farmers for loss of income due to natural difficulties posed by mountainous areas. These losses mean that ag-

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ricultural and livestock farmers in the Tramuntana area are at a competitive disadvantage in comparison with other less rugged parts of the island. Aid to encourage organic farming practices: In view of the changing demands of society, the Balearic Governments Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries encourages organic crop and livestock farming, not only as new practices, but also by promoting the conversion of conventional farms to organic crop and livestock ones. Aid for the breeding of autochthonous species contributing to environmental sustainability and the conservation of traditional species on Mallorca or on the Balearic Islands (such as Mallorcan sheep, the Balearic ass, black pigs or Mallorcan horses) is available from the Balearic Governments Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries. The Consell de Mallorca is promoting the recovery of these autochthonous breeds through the Board for the Recovery and Defence of Balearic Autochthonous Breeds and the various livestock farming associations collaborating in the creation or consolidation of genetic registers of the different species. Plans to revitalize agriculture in the area are contributing to an improvement in hillside terraces affected by the march of time, as well as creating added value for farming activities. Public institutions are creating routes to promote dry-stone architecture, olive-oil tourism and other ethnological and cultural values. Nowadays, few companies located in the Tramuntana area are devoted to the industrial sector and they mostly have strong links with tourism, except for those devoted to the production of craftwork and the processing of farm produce. The Government of the Balearic Islands regulates quality accreditations through the Instituto de Calidad Agroalimentaria (IQUA, Food and Agriculture Quality Institute). It has created a series of quality labels for products grown and/or manufactured in the Balearic archipelago and it aids their commercialization by awarding them two distinctions: Producte Balear and Producte Balear Selecte. These distinctions identify products made with autochthonous raw materials that have been processed or manufactured partly or entirely in the geographical context of the Balearic Islands. They also certify the provenance of the products, thus providing an element of differentiation for both consumers and for their producers and retailers.

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These accreditations have currently been awarded to the following food products present in the Tramuntana area:

Vino de la Serra Tramuntana Costa Nord / Vi de la Serra


Tramuntana, Costa Nord. This is one of the protected designations of origin for wines made on Mallorca and it was created in 2002. There are currently 10 wineries registered under this Tramuntana north-coast denomination, producing several varieties of red wine (Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Monastrell, Tempranillo, Callet and Mantonegro) and white wines (Malvasa, Moscatel, Moll, Parellada, Macabeo and Chardonnay).

Aceite de Mallorca / Oli de Mallorca. In order to comply with


this designation of origin, the extra virgin olive oil has to have been produced on the island of Mallorca from olives of the Mallorquina, Arbequina and Picual varieties.

Pork. PMS is a brand guaranteeing that the pork meat comes from
selected breeds and crossbreeds of pigs chosen for their quality and for having been fed a diet based on grain, legumes and carob beans.

Almendra Mallorquina / Ametla Mallorquina. Almonds from


Mallorca have a unique flavour and oiliness.

Lamb / M Mallorqu Selecte. Lamb with the MMS guarantee


comes from animals bred on approved farms. Other quality products prepared and/or marketed in the Tramuntana area are:

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The ensaimada de Mallorca (a typical Mallorcan pastry) has a recognized Protected Geographical Indication. For some years now, ensaimadas de Mallorca have been monitored by a Regulatory Council to ensure the quality of the ingredients and the production process. Various bakers in the Tramuntana area make ensaimadas that conform to this indication. Sobrasada de Mallorca (a cured pork meat) is also considered a Protected Geographical Indication, with two varieties: Sobrasada de Mallorca, made with pork, and Sobrasada de Mallorca de Porc Negre, made solely with pork from black Mallorcan pigs packed into natural tripe. The pigs are bred and fed on the island in accordance with traditional practices. In the Tramuntana area there are some renowned sobrasada producers and of course their products can be purchased at shops in the district. Almonds produced in Mallorca are marketed under the Ametlla de Mallorca guarantee. It is also possible to find products derived from the fruit and flowers of this unique tree in cosmetic stores. The islands Herbes de Mallorca (a herb liqueur) and Palo de Mallorca (an aperitif) are identified by a Geographical Indication. The ESMEL guarantee, an initiative by the Agrupaci per a la Defensa de lAbella Autctona Mallorquina, authorizes honey producers and packagers to use this apiculture associations distinction when the honey is of distinctive, guaranteed quality. There is also a local denomination, Fet a Sller (Made in Sller), applied to products from the valley of Sller, citrus fruits and other traditional food products, although it is also used on all kinds of handcrafted and manufactured products. Informative materials The different bodies involved in the management of the Tramuntana area (the Regional Government, Consell de Mallorca, town councils, municipalities, and social, cultural and ecological organizations) have published informative materials to explain the local values of the area and publicize the services currently available. In addition to maps and leaflets for tourists, several general guides have been published of the whole area, as well as other thematic guides or specific local ones for certain areas. In order to disseminate the values and available resources and services for tourists, there are numerous websites promoting and providing information about different cultural activities:

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www.artescenic.es, on theatrical activities www.illesbalears.es, devoted to museums and monuments open to visitors www.balearsculturaltour.es, proposing cultural and natural routes www.conselldemallorca.cat/altramallorca, proposing cultural routes www.conselldemallorca.cat/mediambient/molins/, focusing on windmills on Mallorca www.conselldemallorca.cat/mediambient/pedra/, devoted to dry-stone building techniques http://www.mallorcamedieval.com/, focusing on Mediaeval Mallorca http://www.possessionsdemallorca.es/, devoted to possessions (country estates)

5.j. Staffing levels (professional, technical, maintenance) Human resources linked to the management of Tramuntana area can be divided into two great groups: 1) Staff at Consell de Mallorca, which works under the legal framework provided by legal powers in the public administration of the island of Mallorca. The staff that has direct links to the Tramuntana area works in the Territory Department (Urban and Spatial Planning), Environmental Department, Heritage and Culture Department, and Economy and Tourism Department. 2) Management team linked to the management body, to be created. The management bodys team of staff will be made up of a multidisciplinary team of individuals covering the following areas: 1) Management (manager, administration, secretary), 2) Technical Department (economic development programmes, dissemination, heritage protection and conservation, visitor management), 3) Communication and Participation.

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6 Monitoring

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6.a Key indicators in measuring states of conservation The technical monitoring report will be based on an analysis of certain pre-defined indicators or indices, with quantifiable analytical variables related to each of the programmes and goals stipulated in the management plan. By way of indication, the assessed variables will be those shown in the table below.
MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT INDICATORS

Programme
Communication and participation

Assessment Indicators
The number of people attending participatory sessions and workshops directly associated with the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape project. The number of fora related to the Local Agenda 21 programme supporting the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape project. The number of proposed, reviewed actions for inclusion in the management plan at sessions and workshops involving citizen participation. The evolution of the annual budget for actions related to economic development programmes. The number of agricultural and livestock farms participating in economic development programmes. Variations in the hectares devoted to crop growing involved in programmes for the recovery of traditional crops. The number of shops included in economic development programmes. Variations in tourist occupancy figures at accommodation establishments associated with the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape brand. Occupancy of tourist accommodation establishments in the core area during the low season. Variations in employment in the agricultural, retail and tourism sectors in the core areas municipalities. The impact of communication-related actions on the population of the Tramuntana area. The degree of awareness of the world heritage nomination. The annual number of publications in thematic fields relating to the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape project. The impact of educational and teaching initiatives within the framework of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape project. The annual budget for investment dedicated to the restoration and recovery of heritage. The number of restored hillside terraces and dry-stone features. The number of professionals engaged in the restoration and refurbishment of heritage. The number of approved applications for heritage to be catalogued and declared Items of Cultural Interest. Variations in catalogued and inventoried heritage. The number of visitors to interpretation centres in the Tramuntana area. The intensity of traffic and occupation of parking areas in the core area. The number of hikers on hiking trails in the core area. The occupancy of publicly-run hostels in the core area. The degree of saturation of landscape observation infrastructure (paths, vantage points)

Economic development

Dissemination

Heritage

Visitor management

6.b Administrative provisions for the monitoring of the nominated property The management body of the nominated property shall be responsible for establishing mechanisms ensuring the fulfilment of goals set out in the management plan with regard to the development of strategies,

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programmes and projects intended to ensure the protection and dissemination of the assets unique exceptional values. This management body will also be responsible for the execution of specific actions or tasks to be decided, such as direct actions for the restoration and conservation of cultural and scenic heritage, and, in particular, asset monitoring actions, including the drafting of an annual technical control report as a fundamental tool in the monitoring and achievement of the said goals. This annual report will also be used to verify which proposed goals are being achieved from time to time. In order to carry out the monitoring process, the management body will count on the support of the scientific community of the Balearic Islands, through an agreement signed between the authorities responsible for the management body and the University of the Balearic Islands for the establishment of a scientific advisory committee to take charge of this monitoring. In addition, the diagnosis and assessment made by the advisory committee - in which representatives of key economic and social agents in the Tramuntana area shall be represented as a body for citizen participation linked to the management body - must be validated. 6.c Results of previous reporting exercises Main studies and reports related to the Tramuntana area can be classified as follows: 1) Main reports about Tramuntana area and its landscape values BLQUEZ, M.; DAZ, R.; RULLN, O. (1998): La Serra de Tramuntana. Natura i Cultura. Ed. Moll. Palma. p. 234. COLOMAR, A. (dir.) (1997): Guia de la Serra de Tramuntana. Fodesma. Government of the Balearic Islands. Consell Insular. Consortium for the Economic Vitalization of Rural Zone 5B. DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR BIODIVERSITY (2005): PORN Tramuntana [cartographic material]: Scope PORN. Department of the Environment, Directorate General for Biodiveristy, Geographical Technical Team. EQUIP SERRAT (2002): Estudi ambiental, cultural I de desenvoluopament sostenible de la Serra de Tramuntana. Balearic Ministry of the Environment. Palma.

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EQUIP TRAMUNTANA (1988): Pla territorial parcial de la Serra de Tramuntana (6 Vols.). Balearic Ministry for Public Works and Spatial Planning and University of the Balearic Islands. Palma . GOVERNMENT OF THE BALEARIC ISLANDS, MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE & FISHERIES (1995): Inventari de biodiversitat de les finques pbliques de la Serra de Tramuntana (Mallorca). Directorate General for Agricultural Structure & the Environment, 1995. p. 211 + 4 plans. Technical conservation documents. 2nd part. 2,3. GOVERNMENT OF THE BALEARIC ISLANDS, MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE & FISHERIES, DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES & THE ENVIRONMENT (1995): Inventari de biodiversitat de les finques pbliques de la Serra de Tramuntana (Mallorca). Technical conservation documents.1st part ; 1. Vol. I (1st Part). p. 82. GOVERNMENT OF THE BALEARIC ISLANDS, MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE & FISHERIES (1995): Inventari d biodiversitat de les finques pbliques de la Serra de Tramuntana (Mallorca). Directorate General for Agricultural Structures & the Environment. Technical Conservation Documents. 2nd part. 1. p.165. RODRGUEZ PEREA A. (coord.) (1998): La Serra de Tramuntana : aportacions per a un debat. RUIZ ALTABA, C. (1996): Pla dOrdenaci dels Recursos naturals de la zona central de la Serra de Tramuntana (Unpublished document). Balearic Ministry of Agriculture. Palma. p.161 + map. 2) Dry Stone works and catalogues: ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; MUS, M.; REYNS, A.; RODRGUEZ, R. (2000): Les marjades i el medi ambient a la Vall de Sller i Fornalutx. Aubana. Bulletin of the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences. 1: 13-17. - (2000): Cartographie des espaces en terrasses dans la Serra de Tramuntana, Majorque, Balare in ACOVITSIOTI-HAMEAU P.S.: Regards Croiss. Minutes of 6th International Congress on Dry Stone. Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p.75-82. - (2000): Fonctionnement hydraulique des champs en terrasses de la Serra de TramuntanaMajorque, Balares in ACOVITSIOTIHAMEAU, Pierre Sche: Regards Croiss. Minutes of 6th International Congress on Dry Stone. Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p. 83-86.

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FODESMA (1997): La Pedra en sec. Obra, paisatge i patrimoni. Minutes of 4th International Congress on Dry Stone. Grfiques Miramar. Palma. REYNS, A.; ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; RODRGUEZ, R. (2000): The PATTER project, an innovative European initiative for the cataloguing and preservation of the terrace cultivation in the Mediterranean area in RUBIO, J. L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.: Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation. Valencia. p. 165. RODRGUEZ, R.; ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; REYNS, A. (2000): Typologies of disposition of dry stone contention walls on the terrace cultivation area of Majorca Island in RUBIO, J.L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.: Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation. Valencia. p.178. GRIMALT, M.; BLZQUEZ, M.; RODRGUEZ-GOMILA, R. (1992): Physical factors, distribution and present land-use of terraces in the Tramuntana Mountain Range. Pirineos. 139. 14-.5 3) Heritage paths reports COLOMAR, A. et al. (1993): Catleg dels antics camins de la serra de Tramuntana. Consell Insular de Mallorca. Palma. VERGER POCOV, J. (1992 & 1994): Catleg dels antics camins de la serra de tramuntana. Consell Insular de Mallorca. Palma. p. 380 . 4) Natural heritage ALCOVER, J. A. (1979): Els mamfers de les Balears in Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed Moll. Palma. p. 190. ALOMAR CANYELLES, G. (2006): Vegetaci dels canyons crstics de la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca (Balears, Espanya), in the journal Endins, issue 30. p. 109-120. SASTRE, V. & ROMAN, A. (1997): El ferreret: tesoro de la Serra de Tramuntana. Balearic Ministry for Agriculture & Fisheries, Directorate General for Agricultural Structures & the Environment.

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TBAR, F J. (1990): La Flora y los ecosistemas vegetales en Plan de ordenacin de los recursos naturales del sector norte de la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca. Unpublished. 5) History and Cultural Heritage ARAMBURU, J.; GARRIDO, C.; SASTRE, V. (1995): Gua Arqueolgica de Mallorca. Olaeta Editors. La Foradada collection. BYNE, A. y STAPLEY, M. (1982): Cases i Jardins de Mallorca. Palma. CAELLAS SERRANO, N.S (1997): El paisatge de lArxiduc. Institut dEstudis Balerics. Government of the Balearic Islands. Palma. CARBONERO GAMUND, M. A. (1984): Terrasses per al cultiu irrigat i distribuci social de laigua a Banyalbufar (Mallorca). Geographical analysis, issue 4, p. 31-68. http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/dag/02121573n4p31.pdf - (1986): Els molins hidrulics de lilla de Mallorca. In Quinze anys de premis dinvestigaci Ciutat de Palma. Palma City Council. p. 137-155. - (1992): LEspai de laigua. Petita hidrulica tradicional a Mallorca. Consell Insular de Mallorca. Palma. GORRIAS, A. (2001): Les Cases de neu de Mallorca. El Far. Palma. KIRCHNER, H. et al. (1986): Molins dorigen musulm a Banyalbufar. Estudis Balerics, 21, pp. 77-86. - (1994): Espais irrigats andalusins a la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca i la seva vinculaci amb el poblament. 711/1229, Moslem period a. Afers (0213-1471), vol. 9, no. 18, p. 313-336. - (1994a): Espais irrigats i assentaments andalusins a la Val de Bunyola (Mallorca). 4th Congress on Spanish Medieval Archaeology. Societies in transition, Alicante. Vol. H, pp.517-523. - (1994b): Espais irrigats andalusins a la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca i la seva vinculado amb el poblament. Afers. IX-18, pp. 313-336. - (1995a): Construir el agua. Irrigacin y trabajo campesino en la Edad Media. Arbor. CLI, 593, pp. 36-64. - (1995b):Espacios irrigados de origen andalus en la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca. El caso de Coanegra, 1st Congress on Peninsular Archaeology. Minutes VI, Oporto, pp. 351-359. - (1996): Colonitzaci de Lo Regne de Mallorques qui s dins la mar. La subversi feudal dels espais agraris andalusins a Mallorca, in P. SNAC (comp.): Histoire et Archeologie des Terres Catalanes au Moyen Age, Perpignan, Perpignan University Press, pp. 279-316.

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- (1997): La construcci de lespai pags a Mayurqa: les valls de Bunyola, Orient, Coanegra i Alar. University of the Balearic Islands. Palma de Mallorca.. MASCAR PASARIUS, J. (1960-1965): Corpus de toponimia de Mallorca. Palma. MURRAY, D. G.; LLABRES, J. ; PASCUAL, A. (1990): Jardines de Mallorca. Tradicin y estilo. Ed. Olaeta. SEGURA, M. & VICENS, J. (1987): Possessions de Mallorca. Vol. II (113116). Teix. Palma-Campos SEGURA, M. ; VICENS, J. (1988): Possessions de Mallorca. Vol. 1. Teix, Campos. SEGURA, M.; VICENS, J. (1992): Possessions de Mallorca. Vol. IV. Bitzoc, Palma.

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7 Documentation

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7.a Photographs, slides, inventory of images, photograph authorization form and other audiovisual materials
No Format Caption Date of Photo Photographer/ Director of the video Aina Lleuger Copyright owner Contact details of copyright owner Non exclusive cession of rights

001

DVD

Serra de Tramuntana

October, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca C/ General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

002 003 004 005 004 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017

Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography

Andratx island of Sa Dragonera

November, 2007

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Dei Son Marroig March, 2007 Dei Llucalcari Font de Montcaire Dei Llucalcari Valldemossa Valldemossa Valldemossa Pollena Formentor Bunyola Escorca Valldemossa Pollena Banyalbufar Valldemossa Son Marroig Pollena Pollena March, 2007 November, 2002 March, 2007 February, 2007 January, 2007 July, 2007 June, 2008 February, 2008 May, 2008 July, 2007 January, 2008 April, 1998 June, 001 February, 1989 September, 1994

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No

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Photographer/ Director of the video Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Tolo Oliver

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018 019 020

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Ariany

September, 1994

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Consell de Mallorca

Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

Dei Sa Foradada February, 1994 Raixa 013 December, 2009

021

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Raixa 047

December, 2009

Tolo Oliver

Consell de Mallorca

022

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Raixa 070

December, 2009

Tolo Oliver

Consell de Mallorca

023

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Raixa 145

December, 2009

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024

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Biniaraix 009

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025

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026

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027

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028

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029

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030

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December, 2009

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

032

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December, 2009

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033

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034

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December, 2009

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035

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Sller 030

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036

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Dei 056

December, 2009

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037

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Deia 062

December, 2009

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038

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Deia 072

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039

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Deia 101

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040

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Deia 120

December, 2009

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041

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Deia 141

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042

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Deia 146

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No

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043

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Valldemossa 052

December, 2009

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

044

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Valldemossa 063

December, 2009

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045

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December, 2009

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046

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047

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048

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14 Capilla Alar

December, 2009

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Consell de Mallorca

049

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28 detalle baldosas November, 2007

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Consell de Mallorca

050

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barraca

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

051

Digital Photography

casa de neu Fartritx

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

052

Digital Photography

casa de neu Tossals

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

053

Digital Photography

Font es Verger

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

054

Digital Photography

Forn de cal (Santa Maria)

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

336

7. Documentat ion

No

Format

Caption

Date of Photo

Photographer/ Director of the video Consell de Mallorca

Copyright owner

Contact details of copyright owner

Non exclusive cession of rights

055

Digital Photography

margers

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

056

Digital Photography

mol de roda vertical

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

057

Digital Photography

pedra en sec barran, Biniaraix

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

058

Digital Photography

Pont clot dAlmadr

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

059

Digital Photography

porxo olivar barran Biniaraix

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

060

Digital Photography

Porxo olivar

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

061

Digital Photography

senderisme

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

062

Digital Photography

ses Rotes Fredes Alar

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

063

Digital Photography

Snia

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

064

Digital Photography

Tafona Son Torrella

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

065

Digital Photography

Torre de Lluc

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

066

Digital Photography

3 acequia Sller

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

337

Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana

No

Format

Caption

Date of Photo

Photographer/ Director of the video Consell de Mallorca

Copyright owner

Contact details of copyright owner

Non exclusive cession of rights

067

Digital Photography

4 fuente pblica

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

068

Digital Photography

11 noria 4

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

069

Digital Photography

12 desviador de agua

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

070

Digital Photography

13 acequia Coanegra

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

071

Digital Photography

16 fuente Escorca

November, 2007

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

072

Digital Photography

Ca NEixartell (8)

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

073

Digital Photography

Calvari Pollena

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

074

Digital Photography

Cam Barran somera passadores

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

075

Digital Photography

Camps cultivats muntanya

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

076

Digital Photography

Dei

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

077

Digital Photography

Finestra

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

078

Digital Photography

La Granja Esporles

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

338

7. Documentat ion

No

Format

Caption

Date of Photo

Photographer/ Director of the video Consell de Mallorca

Copyright owner

Contact details of copyright owner

Non exclusive cession of rights

079

Digital Photography

Marges dolivar

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

080

Digital Photography

Mirador Miramar Foradada

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

081

Digital Photography

Miramar

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

082

Digital Photography

Origen Fonts Ufanes

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

083

Digital Photography

Possessi muntanya

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

084

Digital Photography

Possessi

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

085

Digital Photography

SEstaca possessi mar

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

086

Digital Photography

Templet Son Marroig postasol

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

087

Digital Photography

Torrent

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell de Mallorca

088

Digital Photography

PCE0093-042

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

089

Digital Photography

PCE0093-060

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

090

Digital Photography

PCE0093-064

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

339

Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana

No

Format

Caption

Date of Photo

Photographer/ Director of the video Govern Balear

Copyright owner

Contact details of copyright owner

Non exclusive cession of rights

091

Digital Photography

PCE0093-079

June, 2008

Consell de Mallorca

Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Consell yes de Mallorca General Riera, 113 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

092

Digital Photography

PCE0093-080

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

093

Digital Photography

PCE0093-085

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

094

Digital Photography

PCE0093-087

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

095

Digital Photography

PCE0093-091

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

096

Digital Photography

PCE0093-091

June, 2008

Govern Balear

Consell de Mallorca

097

Digital Photography

27777

November, 2008

Estop SA

Consell de Mallorca

098

Digital Photography

34837

November, 2008

Estop SA

Consell de Mallorca

099

Digital Photography

70212

November, 2008

Estop SA

Consell de Mallorca

100

Digital Photography

70216

November, 2008

Estop SA

Consell de Mallorca

101 102 103 104

Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography

002 Calvi - Finca Galatz (faana) - presa 005 Calvi - Finca Galatz (aqueducte) 013 Coll de Sller, finca Es Teix (font) 014 Coll de Sller, finca Es Teix (font)

September, 2009 September, 2009 December, 2008 December, 2008

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

340

7. Documentat ion

No

Format

Caption

Date of Photo

Photographer/ Director of the video Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Copyright owner

Contact details of copyright owner

Non exclusive cession of rights

105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography

019 Alar - Castell dAlar 026 Caimari - Marjades 031 Valldemossa - Miramar (els 13 ponts) 039 Sller - Era de batre (Can Prohom) 041 Sller - finca Can Bard/ prensa olives 043 Sller - Biniaraix, es Cornadors 046 Sller Fornalutx 050 Sller - Barranc de Biniaraix 055 Escorca - Sa Canaleta des Massanella (Pont) 062 Escorca - Bosc des Prat - Sitja carboners, Forn de cal

March, 2009 September, 2009 December, 2008 December, 2008 April, 2009 March, 2009 December, 2008 December, 2008 September, 2009 September, 2009

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa Can Socies 46-A no 07010 Palma (Mallorca) Espaa

115 116 117 118 119 120

Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography Digital Photography

074 Escorca- Cam September, de sa Costera (Cala 2009 Tuent-Blitx) 080 Escorca - finca Albarca (Lluc) 087 Escorca - Font de Montcaire 093 Pollena - Castell del Rei 101 Banyalbufar/ poble, marjades (panormica) 102 Sller - Fornalutx/poble, marjades (panormica) May, 2009 December, 2008 August, 2009 December, 2008 December, 2008

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina Marcos Molina

341

Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana

7.b. Texts related to the protective designation, copies of management plans of the nominated property or documented management systems, and extracts of other plans applicable to the property

SYSTEM OF PROTECTION FOR DESIGNATED PICTURESQUE SITES JOS V. FERNNDEZ-VENTURA LVAREZ Attorney at law of the Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands A PICTURESQUE SITE IN LEGISLATION GOVERNING HISTORIC HERITAGE 1. The appearance of this designation in legislation pertaining to the Spanish Republic in 1931. Possible confusion with categories from other legislative fields. Scarcely one and a half years after the introduction of the Act of December 10th 1931 regulating artistic, archaeological and historic property and objects of over one hundred years of age and transfer of ownership (N. Dicc. 23161*), in compliance with the provisions of article 18 of the said act, an Act of May 13th 1933 was passed on the defence, conservation and accrual of national historic and artistic heritage (RCL* 729 and N. Dicc 21163). Article 3 of the latter assigns authority over everything relating to the defence, conservation and accrual of the aforementioned heritage to the Directorate General for Fine Art, entrusting it amongst other duties with the creation of an inventory of the nations historic and artistic heritage, with the inclusion of all buildings worthy of it, and also urban ensembles and picturesque sites that must be conserved from destruction or harmful alterations in a Catalogue of Historic and Artistic Monuments Although it is clear that the 1933 legislator did not have a fully-defined idea of the new categories of assets to be protected, particularly the picturesque site category, his aim in this respect was evident, as can be seen in the provisions of article 33 of the said act, where the principles relating to an already well-known figure in legislation from the time historic and artistic monuments were extended to encompass certain urban and rural ensembles that fulfilled certain specified characteristics (beauty, monumental value, or historical reminders).15 As for picturesque sites, the option chosen by the legislator was much more daring, because it interfered with another scope of protection: legislation on national parks, defined in an Act of December 7th 1916 (N. Dicc.

Translators note: Nmero diccionario (reference to law collection by Arazandi and dictionary no.) Translators note: Repertorio cronolgico de legislacin. (Chronological statutory law collection)

15

See, among others, the Decree of June 3rd 1931 (N. Dicc. 23160) on historic and artistic monuments of national artistic heritage.

342

7. Documentat ion

14509) as outstandingly picturesque wooded or wild places in Spain. In this act, protected categories such as national places, places of national interest and national monuments16 are described, with little or nothing to differentiate them from the not very highly esteemed concept of a picturesque site contained in the Act of May 13th 1933. The confusion grew from the moment that, in some of the said legislation that regulated the protection of what we would today call natural spaces, favourable circumstances for a place to be officially protected included the fact that the beauty of the landscape to be protected and any corresponding items of interest were enhanced by their religious, scientific, artistic, historic or legendary value17, so that the protection of a certain site and its regulation under one law or another was totally up to the administrative body that opened proceedings for its official protection. 2. Picturesque sites from 1939. The effective use of the designation through to Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces. The situation did not improve much when, once the Spanish Civil War was over and powers had been assigned to the Spanish Ministry of Education for the defence of what was known as artistic heritage, former legislation on national parks was contained in forestry legislation. Article 1 of the Act of December 7th 1916 was simply transcribed in article 78 of the Forestry Act of June 8th 1957 (RCL 776 and N. Dicc. 21569), while article 190.5 of the Forestry Regulations, approved by virtue of Decree 485/1962 of February 22nd (RCL 1657), was a mere transcription of article 1 of the Royal Order of July 15th 1927 with regard to the favourable circumstance for the natural sites protection being the enhancement of its beauty by those values indicated in the old law dating back to the days of dictator Primo de Rivera. Due to a lack of any other definition of the concept that was not the literal one given in the 1933 legislation on historic heritage18, which continued to remain in effect, and due to confusion with similar designations in legislation on natural parks, the picturesque site category went almost unnoticed until the early 1970s. Until then, as well as the well-known designation a historic and artistic monument (of which there are thousands of examples in Spain), another form of protection was mainly used, provided for in the Act of May 13th 1933 and its regulations: a historic and artistic ensemble. This was applied to realities as widely differing as the Plaza Mayor (main square) in Tembleque (Toledo)19, Jewish quarter of Hervs (Cceres)20, cities of Ibiza and Alcdia21, old quarter of the town of Muro22, iron and ceramic manufacturing complex at Sargadelos23, and

16

On this subject, see the Royal Decree of February 23rd 1917 whereby the regulations of the Act of December 7th of 1916 are passed; the Royal Order of July 15th 1927 (N. Dicc. 14510) on the declaration of places and monuments of national interest; and the Decree of April 13th 1934 (N. Dicc. 14513) whereby the regulations of the National Parks Committee are passed.

17

Article 1 of the Royal Order of July 15th 1927, mentioned in the previous note.

18

Nothing had been clarified by the regulations of the act, approved by virtue of a Decree of April 16th 1936 (RCL 794 and N. Dicc. 23164), which only contains the occasional reference to picturesque sites in articles 19 and 29. Decree 445/1973 of February 22nd (RCL 451) Decree 308/1969 of February 13th (N. Dicc. 23238)

19

20

21

Decree 307/1969 of February 13th (N. Dicc. 23238) and Decree 2141/1974 of July 20th (N. Dicc. 2318). Decree 3710/1974 of December 20th (N. Dicc. 23324).

22

23

Decree 2642/1972 of August 18th (N. Dicc. 23290).

343

Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana

24

Decree 2224/1962 of September 5th (N. Dicc. 23193)

whole of the pilgrim route known as the Camino de Santiago24, to cite some examples. It is true, however, that by virtue of a Decree of June 12th 1953 (RCL 840 and N. Dicc. 23176), the Spanish Ministry of Education had been ordered to proceed with the immediate formalization of a General Inventory of National Artistic Heritage, reiterating the need to include, as stated in article 2, prehistoric ruins or sites, buildings declared or registered as being national monuments, artistic gardens, urban ensembles and picturesque sites that must be preserved from destruction or damaging alterations. There was now a comprehensive set of regulations that made it possible to take advantage of the extensive experience built up through the protection of historic and artistic ensembles and apply it to the practically unused picturesque site designation 25. Another favourable factor that must be mentioned was the creation of the Historic and Artistic Ensembles Service, by virtue of an Order of January 19th 1971 (RCL 530), with extensive powers in this matter (relating to monumental cities, historic and artistic ensembles, historic gardens and picturesque sites), plus one circumstance that might initially seem irrelevant but which, in our opinion, no doubt boosted the development and application of the picturesque site category. This was the amendment, by virtue of Decree 3768/1972 of December 23rd (RCL 244) of articles 189 to 201 of the aforementioned Forestry Regulations of 1962, which now came to contain the contents of former article 190.5 in a new article 192.3, with the following text: 3. A favourable circumstance for the declaration of national parks and natural places of national interest will occur when the reasons for this declaration are further enhanced by the religious, artistic, archaeological, historic or legendary value of the place. However, these values will be complementary to the barely modified anthropic state of the natural space to be protected, because otherwise it will be incumbent upon the Ministry of Education and Science to adopt the necessary legal measures to protect these values. In this way, a clear criterion (or difference in grade) was introduced between picturesque sites in legislation governing historic and artistic heritage and protected designations in legislation governing natural spaces (albeit formally governing forestry): the greater or lesser human imprint on the place in question (through a variety expressions, including cultural and artistic ones).

25

Among others, the Decree of July 22nd 1958 (RCL 794 and N. Dicc. 26164) on provincial and local monuments of historic and artistic interest and an Order of November 20th 1964 (N. Dicc. 23207), by virtue of which institutions for the defence of historic and artistic ensembles are approved.

344

7. Documentat ion

With this decisive boost to Historic & Artistic Heritage Committees, which had assumed authority in this field from the Directorate General for Fine Art, and with the inclusion of the occasional mixed category (known as artistic and picturesque ensembles and historic and picturesque ensembles), it was from 1970 well into 1976 that most picturesque sites were declared in Spain that can now be found in the pages of the Spanish Official Gazette and in in-vogue collections and dictionaries of legislation.

THE NORTHWEST COAST OF MALLORCA AS A PICTURESQUE SITE Decree 984/1972 of March 24th By virtue of Decree 984/1972 of March 24th, published in Spanish Official Gazette no. 94 of April 19th, the northwest coast of the island of Mallorca was declared a Picturesque Site. It appears in the Inventory of Spanish Artistic and Archaeological Heritage, published in deluxe style in 1973 as Spains contribution to European Architecture Year, held the same year. In this inventory, in the section on declared historic and artistic monuments and ensembles, picturesque sites and artistic gardens in the Balearics, the northwest coast of Mallorca is cited as a Picturesque Site under reference no. P-P:D0821P-P. Justification for this designation is given in the preamble to Decree 984/1972 of March 24th, with the expressive, carefully chosen words reproduced here: The northwest coast of Mallorca, praised by Spanish and foreign pens, transferred to paintings by eminent paintbrushes, the cradle of illustrious figures, with marvellous landscapes of international renown where it is hard to find a parallel for its rich monuments and historic assets, is an appealing area of outstanding beauty, with a unique character worthy of being conserved in its entirety. Among its numerous rich variety of monuments, a special mention must be made of the Gothic oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, the Gothic palace of King Sancho and Valldemossa Monastery and, from a decorative point of view, its gardens and vantage points, strategically situated mainly on the coast of Miramar; its urban ensembles, monasteries and rural churches, and a multitude of natural or scenic places of interest like the valleys of Son Brondo, Sller, Ternalles, Cala Tuent and so many others of incomparable beauty.

345

Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana

All this makes it advisable for the northwest coast of Mallorca to be placed under State protection by declaring it a Picturesque Site. This was followed by the provisions of the decree, with the usual cautions regarding the delimitation of the Picturesque Site on a plan attached to the procedural documents, warnings to municipal councils and owners of affected property on the strict observance of legislation governing artistic heritage and, finally, the declaration that the site came under State protection, under the direction of the Directorate General for Fine Art of the Ministry of Education and Science (later the Directorate General for Artistic and Cultural Heritage of the same ministry). The peculiarities of the Picturesque Site of Mallorcas northwest coast There can be no doubt that the Picturesque Site of the northwest coast of Mallorca was the most extensive of all those declared within that category up until that point (and of all those declared afterwards), with a surface area that covered ten Mallorcan municipalities either totally or in part, all situated on the said northwest coast, largely coinciding with the Tramuntana Mountain Range26. This picturesque site in turn included other assets protected under legislation governing historic heritage, like Valldemossa Monastery, declared a Historic and Artistic Ensemble under Decree 1856/1971 of July 8th (RCL 1431 and N. Dicc. 23278). Evidently these municipalities were largely excluded, by virtue of the declared protection, from the model of development and prosperity that other municipalities on the island followed, mainly based on the construction of accommodation for visitors who started to flock to Mallorca in mass numbers to spend their summer holidays there. This was also the case of the owners of rural estates situated within this big protected area, without this sacrifice being properly compensated for by other measures to promote the area that might have alleviated, insofar as was possible, the drawbacks of such strong protection as that emanating from legislation governing historic heritage (which was swiftly joined by other systems of protection). As a result, from the date that it was declared a Picturesque Site, the northwest coast of Mallorca has been marked by numerous attempts by affected municipalities and individuals with economic interests there to reduce the level of protection or to avoid protective measures. This high-

26

Going round the coast, Andratx (excluding the town), Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Valldemossa, Dei, Sller (excluding the town), Fornalutx, Esccorca, Campanet and Pollena (excluding the town).

346

7. Documentat ion

lights, among other things, the substantial legal conflicts that this protection has aroused. THE NORTHWEST COAST OF MALLORCA, A CULTURAL ASSET WITH THE CATEGORY OF A HISTORIC SITE. A FRUSTRATED ATTEMPT TO REDIRECT PICTURESQUE SITES TOWARD LEGISLATION ON PROTECTED NATURAL SPACES 1. Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces. The final and transitional provisions. As explained in article 1 of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces (RCL 914), the aim of the said act was to contribute toward nature conservation, granting special protective regimes to those areas or spaces in need of such protection due to their singular nature or the interest of their natural values. From the articles of the act, it can be inferred that the target of this protection coincided almost exactly with former legislation on natural parks that had been incorporated in the 1957 Forestry Act. As a result, the contents of section 1 of the final provision are plausible in terms of the incorporation of categories contained in the Forestry Act into the new legal regime, together with the fact that, in the repeal clause, articles of the Act of June 8th 1957 and its regulations, where these figures were contemplated, were repealed. However, a problem arose from the moment that, in the final provision of the act, the category of a picturesque site was added to typical figures from natural parks regulations (national parks, natural places of interest, and natural monuments of national interest). As we know, picturesque sites came under the scope of protection of legislation on historic and artistic heritage. It was evident that the 1975 legislator thus overlooked the aforesaid distinction, established in article 192.3 of the Mountain Regulations (after the amendment made by virtue of Decree 3768/1972 of December 23rd), regarding the level of human imprint, human presence or anthropic change to the area to be protected. Likewise, the legislator overlooked that fact that, in accordance with this criterion, many picturesque sites that had been thus declared were far removed from those almost unspoilt places referred to in relation to new recently established categories, based on the familiar model of a national park. This incompatibility was much more evident in picturesque sites like the northwest coast of Mallorca (or

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mountain of Montserrat), where the presence of human settlements and constructions of cultural or artistic importance was more than obvious. The legislators desire to modify the traditional system of protection governing picturesque sites by shifting it toward categories included in the Natural Spaces Act was, however, clearly expressed, while in its transitional provision the regulation of historic heritage (and forestry affairs) was maintained until former categories were adapted and reclassified.27 2. The first additional provision and transitional provision eight of Act 16/1985 of June 25th on Spanish historic heritage. Its effects on picturesque sites. While the categories contained in forestry legislation were not hard to adapt to the type of legislation of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces (since it was, in essence, the same), what is true is that when Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th (RCL 1547) entered into force, the respective final provisions of the Natural Spaces Act and its regulations on picturesque sites had still not been fulfilled. (It is very likely that the Ministry of Education and Science, which had been entrusted with the reclassification, did not put much effort into it). What is more, during 1976, when Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces was already in effect, the occasional picturesque site was still declared, like Valles de Gistain in Huesca. Although some already declared picturesque sites (like the mountain of Montserrat or the northwest coast of Mallorca) fitted in exactly with the definition of some of the new protective designations created in the Spanish Historic Heritage Act (particularly the category of a historic site in article 15.4), the desire of the1985 legislator seems to have followed the same thinking as before in noting the serious difficulties involved in the reclassification of picturesque sites in accordance with the typology established in the Protected Natural Spaces Act and the application of protective regimes contemplated in the latter to the said sites. It is reflected thus in memories of Parliaments drafting of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, described by Jos Luis LVAREZ in his work Estudios sobre el Patrimonio Histrico Espaol (Madrid: Civitas, 1989, page 467), where he states: With regard to picturesque sites, the 1985 act opted to leave them unregulated, because it was understood that they should be protected

27

In this respect, point 2 of the additional provision of Royal Decree 2676/1977 of March 4th (RCL 2298), by virtue of which the regulations of Act 15/1975 were passed, stipulated that as for places already declared Picturesque Sites in accordance with the National Artistic Heritage Act, at the proposal of the Ministry of Education and Science, they shall necessarily be reclassified in accordance with the provisions of point one of the final provision of the Natural Spaces Act.

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under the scope of legislation on natural spaces. However, as this could give rise to an absence of protection, if the legislation repealed by the 1985 act no longer applied, and specific legislation governing them had still not been created (what happened in reality could already be envisaged to a certain extent), we could achieve the inclusion of transitional provision eight through an amendment in the Senate. Indeed Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th started out from the premise of a mistaken reality: picturesque sites had not been reclassified and the express repeal of the Act of May 13th 1933 and all previous legislation on artistic and historic heritage (sole repeal provision of Act 16/1985) left them with no adequate legal coverage. It was in this way that the new Historic Heritage Act adopted two measures that we must regard as fully appropriate: In its first additional provision, it declares that all assets previously declared to be of historic or artistic interest or included in the Inventory of Spanish Artistic and Archaeological Heritage (we have already seen that picturesque sites were included) become regarded as and designated items of cultural interest. Transitional provision eight states that picturesque sites shall conserve the condition of items of cultural interest (obviously that granted in additional provision one, since before this protected category did not exist) provided that they were not reclassified in accordance with the final provision of Protected Natural Spaces Act 15/1975 of May 2nd. As indicated in legal grounds number five of the ruling by the High Court of January 26th 1999 (Ar. * 356), it was thus that, without the need for an administrative declaration for each of the picturesque sites, they all achieved the condition of items of cultural interest through legal effect (a possibility expressly admitted in article 9 of the same Historic Heritage Act). 3. Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna and its effects with regard to picturesque sites. The northwest coast of Mallorca: an item of cultural interest with the category of a historic site. The transitional situation of picturesque sites as items of cultural interest was resolved with the entrance into force of Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna (RCL 660), whose repeal provision expressly repeals former Protected Natural Spaces Act 15/1975.

Translators note: Arazandi. Published collections of jurisprudence.

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In the new act, reference is no longer made to picturesque sites (which were still not reclassified in accordance with the categories contemplated in Act 15/1975 of May 2nd) and still less is there any mention of a hypothetical reclassification, even within the protective framework of new regulations. With the repeal of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd, as we see it, the stipulations contained in the transitional and final provisions of the latter therefore became null and void, making it impossible to reclassify picturesque sites in accordance with categories that no longer existed and invalidating the caveat contained in transitional provision eight of Act 16/1985 of June 25th. This meant that picturesque sites once and for all assumed the condition of items of cultural interest, protected by legislation governing historic heritage. This is how the law courts saw it too. They systematically rejected appeals by development companies and town councils that questioned the survival of picturesque sites by arguing that the repeal of Protected Natural Spaces Act 15/1975 and consequently the repeal of transitional provision eight of Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 meant that, from then on, the regulations and protective regime of legislation governing historic and artistic heritage could not be applied to picturesque sites. As for all the above and its relation to the northwest coast of Mallorca, the following rulings by the Contentious Administrative Chamber* of the Balearic High Court of Justice all speak for themselves: rulings no. 434 of December 11th 1989 (on the subject of the path to Llucalcari; no. 459 of October 31st 1991 (on the subject of Cala Tuent); no. 179 of May 6th 1992 (which allowed an appeal filed by the Grup de Ornitologia i Defensa de la Natura); and no. 275 of June 17th 1992 (on the subject of the construction of homes in Valldemossa). The same is true of a ruling by the High Court made on January 23rd 1995 (Ar. 64), confirming that of December 11th 1989 of the Balearic High Court of Justice; a ruling of January 26th 1998 (Ar. 334) confirming that of the Balearic High Court of Justice of October 31st 1991; and another ruling of January 26th 1999 (Ar. 356), rejecting an appeal by Dei Town Council against a ruling by the said court of May 6th28. Also understanding that the protective regulation of picturesque sites could no longer be any other than that of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, the State authorities proceeded to fulfil the stipulations of article 12.1 of the said act, which makes it compulsory for all declared items of cultural interest to be record-

Translators note: Court that hears appeals against administrative decisions.

28

With reference to picturesque sites, see too the rulings of the High Court of June 9th 1979 (Ar. 2377), January 23rd 1980 (Ar. 267), February 22nd 1982 (1332), November 24th 1983 (Ar. 6090) and February 20th 1984 (Ar. 1063).

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ed in a general register dependent on this body and, furthermore, to do it in one of the categories established in article 14.2 of the same legal text. For this purpose, once a Register of Items of Cultural Interest had been created and regulated by virtue of Royal Decree 111/1986 of January 10th (RCL 275), which partially develops the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, the Picturesque Site of the northwest coast of Mallorca was recorded in it, now as an Item of Cultural Interest in the category of a Historic Site with a new reference number, R-I-54-0038, corresponding to this category29. THE BALEARIC HISTORIC HERITAGE ACT AND PICTURESQUE SITES First additional provision of Act 12/1998 of December 21st, and the northwest coast of Mallorca. The typology of article 6 of the act. During the process of drafting Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st, the last attempt to exclude the northwest coast of Mallorca from falling under the protective regime governing artistic and historic heritage was made. In one of the final drafts of the bill, it had five additional provisions (instead of the four in the finally approved text). The second said: SECOND

29

The Partial Spatial Plan for the Tramuntana area referred to in article 9 of Act 1/1991 of January 30th shall include among its provisions the following, in addition to those indicated in article 17 of Act 8/1987 of April 1st: Specific rules for the protection of immovable property included as cultural heritage. The delimitation of places of archaeological interest. Building guidelines aimed at ensuring the survival of traditional architecture in the area. When the Plan mentioned in the previous section comes into force, the Tramuntana areas declaration a Picturesque Site shall finally become null and void. Powers held by the Mallorca Historic & Artistic Heritage Committee stemming from the areas designation a Picturesque Site shall be understood to be assumed by the Mallorca Cultural Heritage Island Committees until the Partial Spatial Plan for the Tramuntana Area enters into force.

During the submission of evidence of appeal no. 1435/1994 before the Contentious Administrative Chamber of the Balearic High Court of Justice, at the request of the defendant self-governing region, the Inventory Service of the Sub-Directorate General for the Protection of Historic Heritage issued a certificate dated March 13th 1995 certifying this circumstance. The appeal had been filed by ARCA with the wellintentioned aim that the Dei-Sller section of secondary road 710 (which already formed part of the Item of Cultural Interest and Historic Site known as the northwest coast of Mallorca) should be declared an Item of Cultural Interest. The appeal was turned down in ruling no. 525 of September 27th 1996 by the Balearic High Court of Justice.

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We shall not comment on this provision, the aim of which was clear. We shall simply point out that the author confused the northwest coast of Mallorca with the Tramuntana area (which only partly coincide from a spatial point of view) and that the author did not bear in mind that the northwest coast of Mallorca had stopped being a Picturesque Site and become an Item of Cultural Interest within the category of a Historic Site, as explained in the previous section. Fortunately, in our opinion, the aforementioned additional provision was not integrated in the final text of Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st, which, in its recitals, expressly declares itself to be the continuation of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act insofar as the techniques and principles that mainly give shape to it. This continuity is emphasized both in the third provision of the regional act, where the subsidiary application of the State act is declared, and in its first additional provision: First additional provision Items in the Balearic Islands declared to be of cultural interest or included in the General Inventory of Moveable Property in accordance with Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th shall henceforth be regarded as Balearic items of cultural interest or items listed as Balearic historic heritage. Items mentioned in the above point must be officially recorded in the following registers. In Act 23/1988 of December 21st, what is missing is a precept similar to that contained in the additional provision of the regulations of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act in order to reclassify items of cultural interest envisaged in the State act in accordance with the new typology established in the regional one. Notwithstanding this, the difference between the two typologies is of such little importance that there is no noticeable difficulty in the Historic Site of the northwest coast of Mallorca, declared an Item of Cultural Interest by legal effect as indicated in the ruling by the High Court of January 26th 1999 (Ar. 356), being recorded in both the Mallorca Register of Items of Cultural Interest (art. 12 of the act) and the Balearic Register of Items of Cultural Interest (art. 13 of the act) within the category of a Historic Site, which, in the classificatory system established in article 6 of the Balearic Historic Heritage Act, is no doubt the one it best fits in with. Additionally, we believe that the definition given in the act (taken essentially from the definition of historic sites given in article 15.4 of the

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Spanish Heritage Act) seems expressly dedicated to the northwest coast of Mallorca as a historic site par excellence. At the same time, this issue is not an insignificant one but a matter of considerable importance, given the different level of protection given to the different designations or types established in the regional act. Thus, for example, the regulation of pre-emption rights granted to Island Councils (and in a subsidiary way to the Government of the Balearic Islands) in the event of the financial transfer of property or any real right over items of cultural interest is not applicable in the case of property forming part of historic ensembles (art. 32.5 of the act) but it is, we understand, in the case of historic sites like the northwest coast of Mallorca30. Multiple protection of the northwest coast of Mallorca Act 1/1991 of January 30th governing natural spaces and the urban planning regime of areas under special protection in the Balearic Islands represented more intensified protection of the northwest coast of Mallorca (understanding that the latter forms part of the Tramuntana area) under two different scopes of authority. We understand that it is complex and thus reinforces the protection already granted under the Historic Heritage Act. On the one hand, under the specific scope of environmental protection, Act 1/1991 of January 30th takes as a starting point basic legislation represented by the previously mentioned Act 4/1989 of March 27th governing the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna. In both title II of Act 1/1991 of January 30th and its third additional provision, it contains some of the additional protective regulations which, in article 149.123 of the Constitution, self-governing regions are allowed to issue in this matter. In what concerns us here, the third additional provision of the Natural Spaces Act establishes that, in accordance with basic State legislation, the Government of the Balearic Islands shall promote the declaration of protected natural spaces to encompass different areas of the islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza. These shall include, the said provision states, the declaration of places representative of the Tramuntana area31. The most important impact of Act 1/1991 of January 30th on the northwest coast of Mallorca occurs in more general scopes of authority, however, like spatial and urban planning, given that in article 3 of the Natural Spaces Act, the Tramuntana area (as defined spatially in Annexe I of the act) is declared to be an area under special protection (AEP according to its acronym in Spanish) in turn made up of (article 6 of the act) other

Act 6/1994 of December 13th on the allocation of powers to Island Councils in matters concerning historic heritage, sociocultural promotion, sociocultural entertainment, the legal deposit of books and sports (Balearic Official Gazette no. 159 of 29/12/1994) had already granted Island Councils authority to exercise pre-emption rights in the event of the transferred ownership of items declared as being of cultural interest. 31 In practice, protective measures in this sphere have been introduced within the framework of the general activities of the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries (and later the Balearic Ministry of the Environment) through the Nature Conservation Service and public companies like Servicios forestales de Baleares, SA (SEFOBASA), with regulations on fire prevention (Decree 28/1995 of March 23rd), aid for replanting woodland (Decree 98/1993 of July 29th and an agreement of the Cabinet of the Government of the Balearic Islands on March 13th 1995), limitations or prohibitions on hunting in some parts of the Tramuntana area (Order of June 1st 2000), the drafting of a Catalogue of Endangered Plant Species (Decree 24/1992 of March 12th) or the acquisition of land for a nature reserve of species native to the area, like the well known toad, the ferreret (Alytes muletensis), among other initiatives.
30

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designated areas of established typologies, like natural areas of special interest (ANEI), rural areas of scenic interest (ARIP) and settlement areas in landscapes of interest (AAPI). As for the different established designations, the Natural Spaces Act lays down the minimum conditions for protection that all spatial and urban planning instruments must comply with, although for the Tramuntana area and Amunts in Ibiza at this point only developable land or land suitable for development is detailed (Annexe II of the act) pending definitive regulations which will have to be done, according to article 9 of the act, through the creation of partial spatial plans. It was not clear whether, with this instrument and references to the Tramuntana area, the regional legislator aimed to comply with article 20 of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, which establishes that the municipality or municipalities where there is a declared item of cultural interest (whether a historic ensemble, historic site, or archaeological site) will have to draft a special protective plan for the area affected by the declaration, or another planning instrument contemplated in urban planning legislation, which fulfils in all cases the requirement of this Act. This imprecision is maintained in the fourth additional provision of Decree 54/1995 of April 6th by virtue of which the Plan for the Regulation of Mallorcas Tourism Supply is approved (Balearic Official Gazette no. 69 of 30/5/1995 and no. 79 of 22/6/1995), amended subsequently by Decree 98/1998 of November 6th (Balearic Official Gazette no. 147 of 17/11/19989), which is written as follows:

FOURTH ADDITIONAL PROVISION 1. Given that the Tramuntana areas special conditions and singular values call for distinctive treatment, the regulation of the tourism supply there must be incorporated in the provisions of the Partial Spatial Plan for this area, which must be created within a maximum of one year from the entering into effect of the Plan for the Regulation of the Tourism Supply (POOT according to its Spanish acronym). 2. Until it is approved, no new buildings will be approved or extensions or improvements to existing buildings when they are aimed at a tourism use or activity. 3. What is provided for in the previous point is not applicable to activities that comply with the specific requirements of sections 1A and 1B of article 19 of these regulations.

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It might be understood that any doubts would have been cleared up with Act 6/1999 of April 3rd32 on planning guidelines and tax measures (Official Balearic Gazette no. 48 of 17/4/1999), which, with the backup of the precepts of the Constitutional Court expressed in ruling 149/1998 of July 3rd (partially transcribed in the recitals of the act) and in the development of article 11 of Act 8/1987 of April 1st on Balearic Spatial Planning, establishes the following, as we understand it: a) That the spatial scope of partial spatial plans can no longer encompass a specific area like the Tramuntana area but so-called uniform areas of a trans-municipal nature, coinciding with the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera (articles 6, 7 and 13 of the act). b) That envisaged partial spatial plans shall be approved by decree by the Government of the Balearic Islands, with the prior notification, in accordance with their respective scopes of authority, of Island Councils, the State representative to the Balearic Islands, and affected group of municipalities and town councils (article 14 of the act). c) That partial spatial plans must contemplate, among other things, anticipated objectives relating to historic heritage, for which measures must be established in all cases to complete catalogues of this heritage, promote restoration, research, refurbishment or possible uses, and regulate new activities related to the restoration and new uses of this historic heritage (article 15.1.d and 15.2.e of the act). d) That the Partial Spatial Plan of Mallorca must regulate the entire area of the island of Mallorca and its islets and inland waters, bearing in mind that part of the Tramuntana area is a Picturesque Site and that, in consequence, the plan must regulate and protect monumental and historic heritage, thus fulfilling article 9 of Act 1/1991 of January 30th on natural spaces and the urban planning regime of areas under special protection in the Balearic Islands (article 41 of the act). Without prejudice to the incorrection of continuing to maintain the classification of a picturesque site for an item of cultural interest that currently corresponds to another typology, what is not said is whether, with this Partial Spatial Plan of Mallorca, the provisions of article 36 of Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st will be complied with. With a similar drafting to article 20 of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, this article states: Article 36 Urban planning The terms under which a property is declared to be of cultural interest shall bind any urban plans and regulations that affect the said property.

32

This act was subsequently amended by Act 9/1999 of October 6th on preventive and emergency measures relating to spatial and urban planning in the Balearic Islands (Balearic Official Gazette no. 128 of 12/10/1999). In turn, Act 8/1987 of April 1st was repealed by the new Balearic Spatial Planning Act (Act 14/2000 of December 21st), the fourth additional provision of which indicates that references contained in current regulations relating to partial spatial plans regulated by Act 8/1987 of April 1st must be understood as being made to island spatial plans regulated in the new act.

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In the case of urban plans or regulations in force before the declaration, the town council shall carry out all necessary adaptations. When it is a historic ensemble, historic garden, historic site, place of ethnological interest, or archaeological or paleontological site, the corresponding town council must draw up a special plan of protection or protective urban planning instrument or adapt a current one that fulfils the requirements of this act. The approval of this planning instrument shall require a favourable report by the Island Historic Heritage Committee. A favourable report shall be understood to have been issued if three months pass from the submission of the planning proposal. The respective Island Council may, at any time, propose with good motives that the town council modify urban plans affecting items of cultural interest and it may suspend current plans insofar as is necessary to protect historic heritage in the affected area.

Given that in another part of this work, a specific analysis is made of links between the Balearic Historic Heritage Act and legislation on spatial planning and land use, we simply outline the issue here and refer to explanations in the said section. To conclude this study, we must insist that the provisions of the decree by virtue of which the Mallorca Partial Spatial Plan is approved regarding the Historic Site and Item of Cultural Interest known as the northwest coast of Mallorca cannot contradict in any way the provisions established for this kind of asset in the Balearic Historic Heritage Act or reduce the amount of protection established in the said act. This is not only due to the different legislative levels of both the latter but also due to the predominance that we believe must be granted to this areas specific unique links for almost thirty years with the regime governing the historic, cultural and artistic heritage of Spains people, the components of which, according to article 46 of the Spanish Constitution, must be conserved, protected (and any harm to them sanctioned) whatever the legal regime and ownership33.

33

In this regard, see legal ground seven of the High Court ruling of January 26th 1999 (Article 356), mentioned on different occasions.

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ACT 5/2005 OF MAY 26th FOR THE CONSERVATION OF PLACES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPORTANCE (LECO ACCORDING TO ITS SPANISH ACRONYM). This act was approved in order to protect places of environmental importance and promote their sustainable development, making the conservation of natural resources compatible with their regulated use, taking into account the rights of citizens and socio-economic progress. General provisions A general legal regime is established for the declaration, protection, conservation, restoration, improvement and proper management of places of environmental importance in the Balearics. The values that were taken into account are: - The maintenance of essential processes and basic living systems. - The preservation of the diversity, singularity and beauty of natural ecological systems and landscapes, particularly everything relating to native species of the Balearics. - The sustainable use of the biodiversity and rational use of natural resources. - The social, economic and cultural promotion of these areas. - Stimulating the participation and collaboration of owners and titleholders of other rights in the declaration, conservation and management of these places. - To promote environmental training and research. The right of citizens to enjoy these places is acknowledged through a respect for them, without this being detrimental to owners of property there. Systems of finance are envisaged to fulfil established goals, including funding by public authorities, loans from European funds, and contributions by people and legal entities. A Consultancy Committee on Places of Environmental Importance is created. This consultative professional scientific body provides information on planned provisions in matters concerning places of environmental importance and provides the authorities with guidance in decision-making when required. The regulation of natural resources As a management tool for places of environmental importance, plans for the regulation of natural resources (PORN according to the Spanish acronym) will be created that will comply with the provisions of Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna. These plans shall respect the scopes of authority of those bodies in charge of urban and

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spatial planning and fishing. Mechanisms for the participation, collaboration and guidance of the affected population shall be established. A description is given of the process for the approval of plans for the regulation of natural resources, which shall be drafted by the competent regional ministry of the Government of the Balearic Islands. Protected natural spaces They are places designated thus in accordance with the above act, taking into account the representativeness, singularity, fragility or interest of their elements. With regard to the regulation of protected natural spaces, categories are established depending on the assets and values to be protected: Natural parks. Natural sites. Nature reserves. - Integral nature reserves. - Special nature reserves. Natural monuments. Protected landscapes. Places of scientific interest and micro-reserves. At a regional level, two new categories are created: natural sites and places of scientific interest and micro-reserves, and a distinction is made between integral nature reserves and special nature reserves. A natural landscape encompasses a relatively large area of land that contains populations where traditional activities (agriculture, fishing, livestock farming) coexist with others that are compatible with sustainable, harmonious development and an improvement in living conditions, in addition to environmental values that must be conserved. Places of scientific interest and micro-reserves are smaller places containing threatened species of flora and fauna or which deserve special protective measures, whether temporary or permanent. The general regime governing uses and zoning is described and procedures for the declaration of each of the categories. Natural spaces shall be approved in accordance with article 31 and planned using the following instruments: master plans for the use and management of natural parks, natural sites and nature reserves, and regulations for the protection of natural monuments, protected landscapes, and places of scientific interest and micro-reserves.

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Master Plans for Use and Management must, as a bare minimum, contain details of: The zoning of the area, with the delimitation of priority uses in each zone. Regulations regarding uses and activities (if necessary completing those of the PORN). Criteria and regulations for the protection, management and improvement of natural values. A communication strategy for the dissemination of the areas natural values. An economic and financial programme. Measures to boost the quality of life of populations and compensatory and incentive-related measures. In the event of the existence of a marine area, basic criteria for the drafting of a fisheries plan. For the management and administration of protected natural spaces, management authorities shall be constituted (with representatives of affected town councils) and a representative body of owners and other titleholders of rights within these places. Owners, representatives of affected social and economic interests, and organizations may consult and take part in the management and administration of natural spaces protected by means of Consultancy Committees. Integration in the Natura 2000 European Ecological Network The legal regime is incorporated for places that form part of the Natura 2000 European Ecological Network: Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas for Birds. They shall be declared by the Cabinet, and a system for the assessment of the repercussions of plans or projects in these places is contemplated. National Parks in the Balearic Islands Competent bodies attached to the Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands are established for processes involving the declaration, management and planning of national parks. Regime governing offences, sanctions and administrative policies Also contained and classified in this act are different types of administrative offences committed within areas of environmental importance and their respective sanctions and periods after which the offences lapse. The Regional Ministry of the Environmental is granted powers of inspection and surveillance to ensure compliance with the act.

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BALEARIC ACT 1/1991 OF JANUARY 30th ON NATURAL SPACES AND THE URBAN PLANNING REGIME FOR AREAS OF SPECIAL PROTECTION IN THE BALEARIC ISLANDS Balearic Act 1/1991 of January 30th on natural spaces and the urban planning regime governing areas under special protection in the Balearic Islands (LEN according to the Spanish acronym) represents the first set of regulations, in terms of environmental protection in the Balearic Islands, that expressly defines and delimits different areas of protection in the Balearics based on their exceptional ecological, geological and scenic values. Likewise, in innovative style, it establishes a protective urban development regime to facilitate conservation and prevent the degradation of these places. This need for protection was demanded by citizens of the Balearic Islands, motivated by both the intrinsic values of this natural and scenic heritage and in order to sustain the quality of life of a community. In this sense, it must be highlighted that the LEN was preceded, among others, by Act 1/1984 of March 14th on the regulation and protection of natural areas of special interest: the first Balearic act pronounced following the promulgation of the Balearic Statute of Autonomy in 1983. LEN is based on the definition of three different categories of protection for land that falls under its scope, subject to conditions governing land use and restrictive building conditions as follows: Areas known as Natural Areas of Special Interest (ANEI), which include and protect places of singular natural values. For the Tramuntana area, we can find up to eight areas of this type, as well as areas corresponding to islands, islets, stacks or crags and groves of holm oaks. Areas known as Rural Areas of Scenic Interest (ARIP), which are mainly the result of the lands transformation through traditional activities whose preservation is justified by their scenic interest. The designation a Settlement Area in a Landscape of Interest (AAPI) was also created for those urban nuclei whose singular scenic values or situation in demarcated areas make them worthy of special treatment. The act specifically defines the protected territorial scope of the Tramuntana area, which includes areas designated ANEI, ARIP and AAPI. The former include:

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A1. Mountains and peaks of the Tramuntana Mountain Range. A2. Formentor and Sierra de Cavall Bernat. A3. Sierra de Gaieta. A4. Pea en Jeroni. A5. SExtremera. A6. Punta de Sller. A7. From Punta de Dei to Port des Canonge. A8. From Coma del Rei to Puig den Basset.

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SPECIAL PLAN FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE HISTORIC SITE OF THE ESTATES OF ARCHDUKE LUDWIG SALVATOR April 8th 2002 In application of the provisions of Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th and Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st, it is mandatory to protect the estates purchased by Archduke Ludwig Salvator and their surroundings. These are situated in the municipalities of Valldemossa and Dei and they are listed as Items of Cultural Interest belonging to Balearic Heritage within the category of a Historic Site (place or site that can be linked in with past events or memories or cultural or natural creations, with an outstanding interest from a historic, artistic, archaeological, industrial-historic, paleontological, ethnological, anthropological, social, scientific or technical perspective). In order to regulate the use and/or activities carried out in the Historic Site and guarantee the conservation of its components, this Special Plan was drafted. GENERAL DETAILS OF THE SPECIAL PLAN
Miramar 1872 SEstaca 1873 Son Glaceran 1875 Son Marroig - 1877 Son Moragues - 1883 Son Ferrandell 1890 Son Gual 1894 Son Gallard 1896 Sa Font Figuera 1898 Sa Pedrissa 1898 Can Costa - 1901

The Special Plan does not cover a continuous area, encompassing a total of 1,756 hectares. The estates that make up the Plan and their year of purchase are: 40 paths and 39 vantage points have also been catalogued. METHODOLOGY During an initial phase, a diagnosis of the estates and their buffer area was made. During this basic stage of the Special Plan, the environmental indicators that form part of the surroundings were identified; items of heritage that make up the Historic Site were chosen, like immovable property of architectural and scenic value (houses, estate houses, outhouses), vantage points, ethnological features (hillside terraces, silos, kilns etc) and paths. Uses, types of protection and measures for their conservation were proposed, and a map was drawn up that reflects all the built and environmental features.

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All the data that was initially compiled served to draft the Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site of the Estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator, which will contain regulations for the improvement and maintenance of items of heritage with a view to preserving the architectural and scenic values of the said heritage. PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION LANDSCAPE PROTECTION In the first section, protective regulations for the landscape that comes under the scope of the Special Plan are established in order to preserve it. All activities within the territorial scope of the Special Protective Plan are regulated and they must be compatible with the said landscape. This protection refers to abiotic and biotic characteristics and to the anthropic and visual landscape. Uses and activities that are compatible or incompatible in areas are listed and defined, together with their corresponding limitations. THE PROTECTION OF ELEMENTS THAT COMBINE TO FORM THE HISTORIC HERITAGE In this section, the elements that make up the Protective Catalogue of the Special Protective Plan are defined: paths and vantage points, oratories or chapels, acquired properties, movable property, gardens, constructions of an ethnological nature and others associated with the landscape. For each one, a file is opened in the Catalogue containing the following sections: Identification and description. Protection and guidelines for intervention. Situational plan and delimitation of area. Graphic documents and photographs.

Protective ratings are established for the foresaid elements. They are: Total global protection (architectural, construction-related and/or environmental and scenic): A1. Partial global protection (architectural, construction-related and/or environmental and scenic): A2. Structural architectural protection: B. Environmental and scenic protection.

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For each category, the intervention work and uses that can be carried out are detailed. General regulations are also established, applicable to the area on which the Special Protective Plan is focused, together with specific regulations for paths.

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MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN (DEFINITIVE APPROVAL 13/12/04) LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK AND GENERAL CRITERIA Spatial Planning Act 14/2000 of December 21st (LOT according to its acronym in Spanish) develops the powers that the Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands holds in matters concerning spatial planning and establishes the objectives, instruments and procedures for the effective exercise of these powers. In this way, current regional legislation creates three spatial planning instruments: the Spatial Planning Guidelines (DOT in Spanish), Island Spatial Plans (PTI) and Sectoral Master Plans (PDS). The DOT are currently the basic, highest planning tool for spatial planning in the Balearic Islands. The other spatial planning tools (the PTI and PDS) are plans that develop the DOT, except for some exceptional PDS. In accordance with the provisions of the LOT, the following points are cornerstones for action by the public authorities, thus affecting the PTI: The regulation of the physical dimensions of settlements, including those linked in with secondary and tertiary production sectors. The regulation of the spatial distribution of production facilities from the primary and secondary sectors by means of incentive-based or dissuasive procedures relating to existing or future facilities. The identification of urban nuclei whose characteristics and potential make them the driving force behind the socio-economic development of an area. The definition of spatial areas whose current or potential suitability for agricultural, forestry or livestock activities or whose scenic or ecological value requires that they are the focus of special protection. The regulation of infrastructure, installations, facilities and services and the definition of their design criteria, functional characteristics and location so that a rational configuration of these networks is achieved, structured each islands. The establishment of a system for the coordination of different sectoral policies by different members of the authorities so as to achieve their integration in a global vision of spatial problems. The promotion and formalization of citizen participation in the process of spatial planning so that this process meets the aspirations and needs of the population. At the same time, the DOT contain specific guidelines for the drafting of the Mallorca Spatial Plan (PTI) in accordance with the islands specific characteristics, based on the following criteria:

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An inter-territorial balance. Trans-municipal coordination among town and city councils, particularly in the Bay of Palma. The promotion of natural heritage and agricultural activities. Territorial conversion and structured urban development processes. The incorporation and planned envisagement of the islands spatial structure in accordance with spatial planning instruments and the Balearic Hydrological Plan, taking into account the Palma-Alcdia and Palma-Manacor axes, based on the road, railway and motorway network, and their integration into the landscape. Likewise, the Plan bears in mind that part of the Tramuntana area is designated a Picturesque Site and, in consequence, it specifically regulates and protects its monumental and historic heritage. Lastly, it regulates the tourism supply outside areas regulated by the Master Plan for the Regulation of Mallorcas Tourism Supply, particularly that of the Tramuntana area. The DOT establish uniform areas of a trans-municipal nature throughout the whole of the Balearic Islands and define Mallorca as a single uniform trans-municipal area with the pertinent consideration of differences among the Tramuntana area, Bay of Palma and west coast, Mallorca plain, Bays of Alcdia and Pollena, and south-east of Mallorca and Raiguer area. FUNDAMENTAL CONTENTS OF ISLAND SPATIAL PLANS (PTI) The provisions of the PTI must be specified in relation to the LOT and DOT. The DOT establish general criteria to be observed in Island Spatial Plans when their contents are drafted. The LOT establishes the fundamental contents of all Island Spatial Plans (PTI), which the Mallorca Spatial plan must comply with. These trans-municipal contents consist of: A spatial diagnosis of the area, particularly in relation to the use of natural resources, the population, current urban planning and the socio-economic situation. A study of the potential for socio-economic development of different areas of uniform characteristics, with the specification of objectives. The establishment of maximum growth limits for each use and spatial distribution. The delimitation of natural spaces, areas with protected buildings or places of historic or artistic interest, indicating the protective measures to be adopted. The definition of land devoted to agriculture or forestry activities of special interest.

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The establishment of specific criteria for the drafting of Sectoral Master Plans to be approved by the Islands Councils. The location of infrastructure of trans-municipal interest. The location and characteristics of large infrastructure, with special attention to infrastructure that must be created or modified to boost socio-economic development. Indications of services that must or can be created for the common use of municipalities. The establishment of criteria for the regulation of land adjoining different municipalities. Support measures aimed at encouraging activities that help achieve the established goals of the DOT and plan itself. Basic criteria relating to the sustainable use of natural resources. As the basis for the plan, four strategies, defined by the Mallorca Committee for Urban Planning and Housing on December 18th 2998, were taken as a starting point. They are: Spatial Strategy 1: The regulation of the accommodation supply as a mechanism to help limit and stabilize the growth of the population: - The regulation and redirection of the residential accommodation supply. - The categorization and management of second homes and tourist accommodation. Spatial Strategy 2: The assessment and protection of agricultural, forestry and natural areas: - The management and assessment of natural spaces. - The reassessment of rural agricultural spaces. Spatial Strategy 3: The reclassification of urban and tourist areas: - The reclassification of inland nuclei. - The reclassification and limitation of coastal urban nuclei and tourism resorts. Spatial Strategy 4: The adaptation of infrastructure to ensure sustainable development: - The spatial structuring of the island, bearing in mind the environmental carrying capacity and functional diversity of each area. - The dimensioning, design and location of infrastructure as backup features in the spatial structuring of the island.

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Based on these strategic criteria, five basic cornerstones have been developed that make up the global strategy behind the plan. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Coherently distributed growth. Global protection of the island. New parameters for settlements. Communication links between all points of the island. The promotion of a new economy. Focuses of activity.

By lending strategic importance to these five main points, the whole projects firm consolidation can be achieved, with clearly identified objectives to be achieved. This does not mean that there are not other sectoral and non-sectoral components of the Plan, but that these are the five main cornerstones on which all the rest is based. The Plan bears in mind the fact that part of the Tramuntana area is designated a Picturesque Landscape and, in consequence, it regulates and protects its monumental and historic heritage in a specific way, thus complying with the provisions of article 9 of Act 1/1991 of January 30th on natural spaces and the urban planning regime for areas under special protection. Within the regulations of the Spatial Plan specifically associated or related to the Tramuntana area, we can find: SPECIFIC REGIME GOVERNING THE TRAMUNTANA AREA, Regulations 30 to 33, with the following contents: Delimitation. For the purposes of the Plan, the Tramuntana area is defined in Natural Spaces Act 1/1991. Catalogued elements. Regime of uses on rural land. Types of uses on rural land. SPATIAL CONVERSION AREA (ART according to its Spanish acronym). Regulation 39 In order to free land; introduce new facilities, infrastructure and services or make improvements to them in urban development areas; and make improvements to urban and rural landscapes, the Plan creates a number of Spatial Conversion Areas. These include:

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ART 1. ANEI (Natural Area of Special Interest). Tramuntana Area, ecological and environmental assessment and restoration. A- For this area, the creation of Special Plans for the management of accesses, leisure and tourism are foreseen. A Special Plan for each ART will be drafted to regulate it, establishing planning guidelines and a system of activities in accordance with the availability of infrastructure there and the backup capacity of the area in question, without this representing a threat for the natural environment. General regulations will be drafted with regard to public use and access and the development of cultural, educational and recreational activities in the area will be regulated (visits, outings, environmental education activities, picnics, camping etc). Among the activities to be taken into account, the regulation of internal accesses to each ANEI must be mentioned, through the creation of dissuasive car parks close to the protected area, with informative posters on the subject, the creation of recreational areas, the adaptation and signing of footpaths for the most commonly used routes, and the prohibited or controlled access to paths that might pose a threat for local species of flora and fauna. B- In the application or development of the above measures, it is also recommended that the following activities are taken into account: a. The delimitation, protection and monitoring of protected areas. The creation of a guard-based surveillance service is proposed, with coercive powers in matters relating to agriculture, the environment, forestry activities and hunting. It could act in coordination with SEPRONA. b. The prevention and fight against forest fires. Fires are a constant threat for Mallorcas natural environment, aggravated in summer by the coincidence of factors like high temperatures, low rainfall, high numbers of people, the presence of substantial dead combustible material in certain areas that has not been removed, a steep topography, and the presence of continuous woodland not well adapted to the local environment. There are also chance fires originating in rubbish dumps or places where human waste has built up and much less common fires in the subsoil in hygromorphic areas. c. Sustainable maintenance, within the framework of priority initiatives to be carried out in areas whose size, situation, characteristics or current state displays a high degree of vulnerability or areas that have been used in such a way that their biotic potential and/or capacity for self-maintenance has been altered or reduced. The main measures that are proposed are: physical links, the development of management and finance instruments, and reclassification, with collaboration agreements between owners and the authorities.

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C- Management and finance. The management of these activities could be performed by using existing planning instruments (spatial improvement projects, special plans, management plans etc) and by means of collaboration agreements among local, island and regional authorities. The participation of private institutions and civil society in general is advised. The funding of this programme could be achieved by means of public funds or contributions by different authorities, and there is the possibility of EU co-funding via programmes like LIFE - Nature or Interreg. URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN THE MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN (PTM) The SPECIFIC REGULATION of ethnological elements and routes of cultural and scenic interest. Regulations 48, 49, 50. In order to make the reality of this heritage known, promote its conservation and foster a better knowledge and understanding of it, among other things, nature routes have been created: - The Dry-Stone Route Without prejudice to the possible drafting of Special Plans by the Consell de Mallorca for the development of these provisions, the itineraries of these routes must be included in municipal plans and they will be binding when making adaptations to urban plans or drafting new ones. A buffer zone must be envisaged around each of the elements, where activities are forbidden that might damage listed heritage, views, the environment or the scenic value of the route and, at the same time, they must be maintained in usable condition and kept open to the public. HISTORIC HERITAGE IN THE MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN (PTM). ADDITIONAL PROVISIONIA It is proposed that proceedings be opened to declare the historic towns of Sller, Pollena, Biniaraix, Ullar and Galilea Items of Cultural Interest within the category of Historic Ensembles.

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DECREE 19/2007 OF MARCH 16th WHEREBY THE PLAN FOR THE REGULATION OF THE TRAMUNTANA AREAS NATURAL RESOURCES IS APPROVED This decree is an application of article 7 of Act 5/2005 of May 26th for the conservation of places of environmental importance (LECO according to the Spanish acronym), which urged the Government of the Balearic Islands to plan and regulate natural resources via plans for the regulation of natural resources. The whole of the Tramuntana area is declared a Natural Site in order to conserve its landscape and its existing natural and ethnological values and, at the same time, to ensure the sustainable development of towns and villages there. In turn, the following categories of protected natural spaces are declared: Integral nature reserves seeking to ensure the protection and conservation of different species of flora and fauna. Human occupation is only allowed for scientific purposes. Special nature reserves containing sites, geomorphological formations and habitats that must be preserved for their interest appeal and singularity. Places of scientific and technical interest. The Fonts Ufanes, Torrente de Pareis, Gorg Blau and Lluc continue to be declared natural monuments. The main objectives of the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources (PORN according to the Spanish acronym) are: The protection and conservation of natural, scenic and ethnological assets and values and the improved living conditions of the population residing in the area. The conservation of rural estates and maintenance of agricultural, livestock, forestry and environmental uses to avoid their abandonment, with the promotion of traditional and complementary uses and activities, seeking the involvement of owners in the environmental management of their land. The promotion of public activities in the field of environmental education to allow people to get to know and value the environment and Mediterranean landscape. The promotion of scientific and research tasks to achieve a deeper insight into the area. A biological link with other nearby protected natural spaces.

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To establish general regulations, the area is zoned according to its level of protection and permitted uses and activities: Exclusion zones - Fragile, very rich areas biologically. The main function of these areas is the global protection of ecosystems. Scientific and technical activities are allowed. Zones of limited use - Areas of high biological value, where limited public use is allowed based on traditional means, with no permanent facilities in order to preserve the quality of the landscape and maintain traditional activities. Zones of compatible use - Conservation work is compatible with human activities that are not detrimental to the environment (environmental interpretation and education, the primary sector, and recreational activities). Zones of general use - Given their lesser relative value, facilities and services are allowed for the benefit of nearby local communities. Zones with a socio-economic influence - Aimed at involving those municipalities that are integrated to a greater or lesser extent in the plan in goals relating to conservation, maintenance and the management of natural resources. A Master Plan for Management and Use (PRUG according to its Spanish acronym) will be created that regulates and manages different natural resources and related activities. This plan will list, locate, and catalogue on-land and marine resources, define permitted and prohibited activities, and establish measures to guarantee the sustainable use of these resources, their protection, conservation and management. Provisions common to on-land and marine areas. Historic, archaeological, ethnological and cultural heritage. The necessary measures will be adopted to protect and conserve items of heritage, regulating visits and activities. Their deterioration or alteration will be forbidden. The PRUG will catalogue items of heritage and make an inventory that gives special attention to ethnological, archaeological and paleontological heritage. Collaboration agreements will be sought with the owners of properties containing items of heritage.

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Environmental research and education. The authorities will promote and foster research, with the establishment of priority fields of research that might receive aid and subsidies. Environmental education and interpretation will be integrated in the management of protected areas, with the promotion of social participation. The necessary routes, facilities and activities will be defined to help transmit the values of the Tramuntana area. Tourism. Eco-friendly tourism will be promoted (bird watching, botany, hunting) and cultural tourism. New initiatives in the field of sustainable tourism will be facilitated. The PRUG will establish guidelines so that tourist establishments limit their environmental impacts. Provisions regarding on-land areas. The decree will tackle the protection of on-land areas, classifying resources by type. Protection of the physical environment. Regulations will be established for the protection of geological, geomorphological and edaphic resources, prohibiting new quarries and the destruction or rocks and minerals unless it is done for scientific reasons. The PRUG will locate sensitive areas, such as scree, limestone pavements, watercourses, areas of rocky ground and other karstic units and morphologies. It will also regulate quarrying and earthworks, indicating where this is possible and in accordance with what measures. The protection of underground systems like caves, potholes and other karstic cavities will be one of the main goals of the PRUG. This will also regulate accesses and protective measures, and collaboration may be sought with affected federations and scientific bodies. Water resources One of the main goals is the conservation and recovery of natural springs and the maintenance of aquifers. Activities are prohibited that might damage them. The dumping of wastewater or industrial water is forbidden without its prior treatment. The PRUG will catalogue existing springs (their state of conservation and an analysis of the water) for their conservation and protection. If applicable, protective perimeters will be established that include traditional dry-stone structures. The restoration and recovery of springs in private estates will be encouraged and collaboration agreements will be sought.

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Initiatives to maintain, clean and improve torrents will be carried out, paying special attention to riparian vegetation and adjoining dry-stone structures. The use of heavy machinery will require the authorization of the management body of the natural space. As for the extraction of water supplies and pertinent licences, authorization will be required by the authority in charge of water. The PRUG will regulate the requirements that must be complied with for pertinent installations. The possibility of the construction and/or adaptation of swimming pools will also be considered, although they will be forbidden in exclusion zones. Water tanks must be tied in with farming activities. Flora, natural vegetation and their use. The aim is to eradicate the existence of invasive allochthonous species and give priority to the use of native non-invasive species of flora. The PURG will list species of flora considered to be native or allochthonous and, among the latter, invasive and non-invasive ones. Plant protection criteria will be established in order to guarantee the recovery, regeneration and restoration of native species of vegetation. The PRUG will determine those species and plant communities that are a priority in terms of their protection, conservation and recovery, and the necessary measures to ensure their predominance over invasive allocththonous species. On-land fauna. Species of fauna that are a priority in terms of their protection, conservation and recovery will be listed in the PRUG, together with all necessary measures to eradicate the impact of allochthonous species. In the drawing up of the catalogue, special attention will be given to migratory birds and the native fauna found on islets. Criteria governing genetic affinity will be established for the creation of any plan for the reintroduction and control of populations. Forest fires and resources. The public authorities will promote forestry activities compatible with the conservation of natural characteristics that also contribute to the regeneration of woodland, and the use of forestry waste will be encouraged. Through the PRUG, forestry management instruments will be established, together with criteria for the recovery of crops and other spatial planning criteria, like land protection, the preservation of the biodiversity and sustainable use of resources. Extended groves of holm oaks (Quercus ilex) will be promoted in suitable places, as a species characteristic of the landscape of the Tramuntana area.

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Forest hydrology restoration initiatives will be incorporated in the PRUG, which shall also establish replantation priorities. Special plans for the prevention of forest fires shall encompass preventive, surveillance and fire extinction activities and they shall be declared of general interest. They will contemplate silvicultural treatments, fire barriers, and accesses and water collection points in the area. In this section, controlled fires will also be regulated. Agricultural and livestock activities. Traditional agricultural and livestock activities will, in general, be permitted, except in exclusion zones. The competent authorities will promote the introduction of good practices in the agricultural and livestock sector, seeking to sensitize individual farmers and offering technical guidance. One of the objectives of this plan is maintenance as a characteristic feature of the olive grove scenery of the Tramuntana area, with protective mechanisms developed by the PRUG. The use of fertilizers and plant protection products will be regulated, together with the livestock carrying capacity. Hunting. The PRUG will determine the contents of technical hunting plans. It may establish hunting timetables and seasons for safety purposes and the compatibility of zones. Leisure activities. Any activity carried out under the scope of this plan shall be done in such a way that it is not detrimental to the environment, heritage or people in any way. The authorities shall establish areas and routes for public use in accordance with any involved owners. Environmentally-friendly sporting and recreational activities will be promoted. A table of permitted and forbidden recreational and sporting uses will be drawn up, depending on the zone in question. The PRUG will establish general criteria and the permitted characteristics of sports, risk activities, camps, festivities, concerts, and shooting areas. Provisions relating to marine areas. The removal of aggregates for building purposes, sand and other sediments shall be forbidden. Marine transport and different types of fishing (professional, recreational and underwater) will be regulated, together with anchoring and scuba diving. In accordance with the competent body, the PRUG may establish more exhaustive regulations relating to the aforementioned activities.

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SUMMARY OF THE SPECIAL PLAN REGULATING THE DRY-STONE ROUTE. The Special Plan for the Regulation and Protection of the Dry-Stone Route is based on the need for a legal and technical document aimed at regulating uses and activities within the framework defined by the Plan. SCOPE The Dry-Stone Route is a long footpath that crosses Mallorcas Tramuntana Mountains. Its eight stages cover a total of 135.26 km, while the combination of its ten variants cover 156.27 km. In total, this comes to about 291,43 km. The width of the paths along the Dry-Stone Route must vary, with a buffer of 15 metres on each side, measured from the middle. The route crosses the municipalities of Andratx, Calvi, Puigpunyent, Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Alar, Mancor, Dei, Sller, Escorca and Pollena. OBJECTIVES The main objectives to be achieved with the approval of the Plan are: To regulate the area affected by the Dry-Stone Route in accordance with guidelines derived from the Mallorca Spatial Plan and other planning instruments. To establish provisions relating to the protection and conservation of the path-based heritage that the Dry-Stone Route comprises and the natural and rural environment, ethnological features and items of heritage along the route. To guarantee users safety. To promote local sustainable development in the Tramuntana area. The end product is an open-ended route, with a series of services, which promotes an activity that has a low environmental impact and encourages local development in the Tramuntana area. In this way, a sustainable, environmentally-friendly, complementary form of tourism is also fostered that contributes to the revitalization of non-coastal areas. The Plan starts with a spatial analysis of the area, taking into account the climate; geomorphological, hydrological and edaphological features; vegetation, flora and fauna.

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It analyses one of the most important conditioning factors of the Plan: ownership of the rural estates that the route crosses. Most sections run through publicly owned estates, but there are also sections that pass through private ones. In such cases, an agreement is reached with the owners for rights of use. Subsequently, the Plan is set within the context of current legislation, analysing State and regional legislation and other laws and decrees that affect paths, hiking and activities in the natural environment. Obviously it is also set within the context of the Mallorca Spatial Plan. An analysis is made of the effects of the approval of the Special Plan and aspects relating to its formalization, validity and review. In the development of the Special Plan, a description is made of the different stages of the route and its variants and established sections, defining the type of paths, how they are zoned, and the application of the route. Factors are also analysed that affect the fragility of the route and its potential use in stages, variants and sections. Accesses, services and facilities relating to the route are listed and defined, together with associated items of historic heritage and publicly run hostels. Their location along the route is defined. Lastly, the body in charge of managing the Special Plan is established and the attached staff, together with the system of surveillance and control. That is, impact indicators of public use of the Dry-Stone Route.

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7.c. Form and date of registers or inventories of the most recent assets A list of the last inventory of cultural heritage in the Tramuntana area (Inventario de Bienes de Inters Cultural, Consell de Mallorca), with details of classification and date of declaration, is attached as Annex C. 7.d. Address where the inventory, registers and archives can be found Consell de Mallorca Departament de Cultura i Patrimoni C/ Via Roma,1 (Centre Cultural La Misericordia) 07012. Palma de Mallorca. Illes Balears Spain

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7.e. Bibliography Dry Stone ALCARAZ, F. (1999): Les terrasses mditerranennes, entre terroirs et paysages (Nord-Ouest du Bassin Mditerranen). Thesis for PhD in geography. University of Toulouse-Le Mirail. 2 volumes, p. 659. ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; MUS, M.; REYNS, A.; RODRGUEZ, R. (2000): Les marjades i el medi ambient a la Vall de Sller i Fornalutx. Aubana. Bulletin of the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences. 1: 13-17. (2000): Cartographie des espaces en terrasses dans la Serra de Tramuntana, Majorque, Balare in ACOVITSIOTI-HAMEAU P.S.: Regards Croiss. Minutes of 6th International Congress on Dry Stone. Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p.75-82. (2000): Fonctionnement hydraulique des champs en terrasses de la Serra de TramuntanaMajorque, Balares in ACOVITSIOTI-HAMEAU, Pierre Sche: Regards Croiss. Minutes of 6th International Congress on Dry Stone. Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p. 83-86. AMBROISE, R.; FRAPA, P.; GIORGIS, S. (1989): Paysages de terrasses. Ed. disud. Aix-en-Provence. p.176. FODESMA (1997): La Pedra en sec. Obra, paisatge i patrimoni. Minutes of 4th International Congress on Dry Stone. Grfiques Miramar. Palma. PROVANSAL, M. (1990): Les terrasses de culture mditerranennes. Mditerrane, Vol. 71, no. 3-4, Minutes of seminar held on 03/02/1990 in Aix-en Provence. 94 p. REYNS, A.; ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; RODRGUEZ, R. (2000): The PATTER project, an innovative European initiative for the cataloguing and preservation of the terrace cultivation in the Mediterranean area in RUBIO, J. L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.: Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation. Valencia. p. 165. RODRGUEZ, R.; ALOMAR, G.; FERRER, I.; GRIMALT, M.; REYNS, A. (2000): Typologies of disposition of dry stone contention walls on the terrace cultivation area of Majorca Island in RUBIO, J.L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.: Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation. Valencia. p.178. TATONI T. (1992): volution post-culturale des agrosystmes de terrasses en Provence calcaire. Doctoral thesis at the University of Provence. Laboratoire de Biosystmatique et cologie Mditerranenne. Marseille. p. 191. Hiking. BLZQUEZ, M. & ROIG, M. (1999): Labast de lexcursionisme a Mallorca. Bollet de Geografia Aplicada 1. p. 11-31. MASSOT TEJEDOR, J.; ORDINAS MARC, G.; REYNS TRIES, A. (1998): Els camins tradicionals a la Serra de Tramontana in Serra de Tramuntana : aportacions per a un debat. Grup Excursionista de Mallorca (GEM). Ed. SA NOSTRA. p. 86-98. ORDINAS MARC, G.: Les rutes de la neu: els camins de nevaters a la Serra de Tramontana. La pedra en sec. p. 513-530.

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ORDINAS GARAU, A. (2000): El cam vell de Lluc : un exemple de les potencialitats del senderisme com a modalitat turstica a la serra de Tramunta, in Evoluci turstica de la darrera dcada i disseny de futur. p. 399-404 VERGER POCOV, J. (1992 & 1994): Catleg dels antics camins de la serra de tramuntana. Consell Insular de Mallorca. Palma. p. 380 . Biogeography. ALCOVER, J. A. (1979): Els mamfers de les Balears in Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed Moll. Palma. p. 190. ALOMAR CANYELLES, G. (2006): Vegetaci dels canyons crstics de la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca (Balears, Espanya), in the journal Endins, issue 30. p. 109-120. ALTABA, C. (1999): La diversitat biolgica. Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma. BATAGLINI, P. (1967): Un nuovo procedimento per estrarre la meso e macrofauna del suolo. Ann. Ist. Mus. Zool. Napoli. BONAF, F. (1977): Flora de Mallorca (4 vols). Ed. Moll. Palma. BONNER, A. (1976): Les Plantes de les Balears. Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma. p. 154. BOLS, O. de ; MOLINIER, R. (1958): Recherchesphytosociolologiques dans lille de Majorque in Collectania Botanica, V. Phases 3-4. COLOM, G. (1957): Biogeografa de las Baleares. La formacin de las islas y el orgen de su flora y su fauna. Ist Local Studies Seminar. Estudio General Luliano. p. 568. - (1964): El medio y la vida en las Baleares. Grficas Miramar. Palma de Mallorca. p. 292. - (1975): Nuevas nociones sobre la evolucin paleogeogrfica del archipilago balear desde el Eoceno al Cuaternario. Revista Balear, 10. p. 38-39. - (1978). Biogeografa de las Baleares. Institut destudis Balerics. Palma. - (2003): Insectes de les Illes Balears. in Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma. CANYELLES, X. & MAS, X. (2003): Peixos de les Illes Balears in Manuals dIntroducci a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma. GOLDSMITH, F.B. (1974): An assessment of the Nature Conservation. The Value of Majorca. Biological Conservation, 6(2). IUCN (1983): The UICN invertebrate red data book. JAUME, D. & GARCIA, LL. (1993). Burrimysis Palmeri, a new genus and species of Heteromysini (crustacea; Mysidacea) from an anchialine cave lake of Cabrera (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean). Bijragen tot de Dierkunde, 62 (4). p. 227-235. JAUME, D. (1995): Una llista de crustaceos de sAlbufera in Martnez-Taberener, A. & Mayol, J.: SAlbufera de Mallorca. Ed. Mon. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears, p. 4. p. 119-124. IMANOL, E.; PREZ-OBIOL, R.; JULI, R. (1994): Vegetation change in the Balearic Islands (Spain) during the Holocene. Historical Biology. Vol 9, p. 83-89. KNOCHE, H. (1921-23): Flora Balearica. tude phytogeografique sur les illes, 4t + liste alphabetique des localits. Montpeller. Romgous. Zurich. Int Polygraphiques- Leipzig. 534,585, VX.411 XLVII illustration, 3 maps. MAY, R.M. (1992): Nmero de especies que Habitan en la Tierra. Investigacin y ciencia. p. 6-12.

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8 Contact information of responsible authorities

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8.a. Person who prepared the document Name: Jaume Mateu Llad Post: Director Insular dOrdenaci del Territori (Head of Spatial Planning). Consell de Mallorca. Address: C/ General Riera, 113 City, province/state, country: Palma, Illes Balears, Spain Tel.: 0034 971 219921 Fax: 0034 971 173947 E-mail: jamateu@conselldemallorca.net / serradetramuntana@conselldemallorca.net 8.b Institution / local official body Consell de Mallorca 8.c Other local institutions Govern de les Illes Balears (Balearic Islands Government) 8.d Official websites Consell de Mallorca www.conselldemallorca.net Govern de les Illes Balears www.caib.es

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9 Signature on behalf of state party

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9. Signat ur e on behalf of s tat e p ar t y

ngeles Albert de Len


Directora General de Bellas Artes y Bienes Culturales

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