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a) Closed loop response of level control loop

THEORY: The basic control strategy in conventional feedback control is to compare the measured variable with the desired value of that variable and if a difference exists, to adjust the controller output to drive the error towards zero. The hardware that performs this function is the automatic controller. PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER: (P) In this type of controller, the output is proportional to the error. The value of the change in the controller output for a given change in the actuating error signal depends upon the proportional band of the instrument. Proportional band is the range of the controlled variable, which corresponds to the final control element. The relationship between the output of the controller m and the error signal e is given as m = Kp e Kp = a constant, called the proportional sensitivity or the gain. The relationship between proportional band and proportional gain is given as PB= 100/Kp. PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER: (PI) The control action where the output is proportional to a linear combination of the input error is known as the PI control. The control action of this type of control is defined by the equation m = Kp [ e + (1/Ti) (t0 e dt) ] The inverse of integral time Ti is called the reset rate, which is the number of times per minute and is measured in terms of repeats per minute. PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER: (PID) The control action of a PID controller is defined by the equation, m = Kp [ e + (1/Ti) (t0 e dt) + Td (de/dt) ] The controller produces minimum peak overshoot, anticipate the error and reduce the number of oscillations and no offset. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

In the level process station, the level (PV) is measured by the capacitive transducer and is fed to the PC. The PC compares the level with the set point and gives the error signal. According to the error signal the SCR drives the motor. The speed of the motor varies as the output of the SCR varies. By the varying speed of the motor, the inflow of water also varies. This maintains the level at the set point . Here, the capacitive transducer is the sensing element. The computer is the error detector. The variable speed motor is the final control element. The level is the process variable. PROCEDURE: Verify that the process station and the computer are interfacing with each other. Fill the tank with water. Switch ON the computer and the process station. Open the software to do the experiment. Response of level control system for set point changes of P, PI and PID controllers 1. Bring the process variable to steady state by approximate selection of Kp, Ki, Kd 2. Give a set point change and note the response with respect to time. 3. Note down the steady state error if any. 4. Give a load change and note the response with respect to time 5. Repeat the experiment for P, PI and PID control algorithms. 6. Note down the readings. 7. Draw the graph between time versus process variable BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LEVEL PROCESS STATION


TABULAR COLUMN: Set point: Ki: Set point change: Sl. no. Time in sec.

Kp: Kd: Differential gap: Process variable Level in cm. Controller output in %