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# GENERAL GUIDELINES On

## OPERATIONS PROCESS MANAGEMENT, OSAM

NETWORK ASSET MANAGEMENT 5/F Technical Services Building
Local: 8696/6741 osam.opm@meralco.com.ph

1.0

GENERAL GUIDELINES
1.1

Formulas The following formulas shall be adopted in the calculation of the distribution reliability indicators: Interruption Frequency Rate (IFR) LiE IFRT where:
LI LT T E - Average KW Load of the interrupted circuit - Average KW Load of the office (Load Index) - Office affected (system/franchise, sector, etc) - Extent of the outage (whole or portion, expressed in ratio)

= LT

## Cumulative Interruption Time (CIT) LiEri CITT where:

Li LT T E ri - Average KW Load of the interrupted circuit - Average KW Load of the office - Office affected (system/franchise, sector, etc) - Extent of the outage (whole or portion, expressed in ratio) - Outage Duration for each interruption event)

= LT

## Unserved Energy (UE) UE = Le r i where:

Le rI - Estimated circuit/segment kW load at the time of interruption - Outage Duration for each interruption event

Momentary Power Interruption (MPI) MPI = Count of circuit/segment outages less than one (1) minute in duration

## Demand-base Momentary Power Interruption (DBMPI) LiE DBMPI where:

LI LT T E - Average KW Load of the interrupted circuit - Average KW Load of the office (Load Index) - Office affected (system/franchise, sector, etc) - Extent of the outage (whole or portion, expressed in ratio)

= LT

1.2

Operating Guidelines
Calculation of Load Indices System Load Index The load index for the distribution system is used for determining the aggregate average demand, in kW, of all the circuits during the reporting period. To compute for this value, the following procedures shall be followed: a. At the beginning of each reporting year, gather from the Utility Economics the forecasted annual Net System Inputs (NSI) in kWhrs and Peak Demand in kW. b. Divide the above forecasted annual NSI by the hours in a year, i.e., 8760 hours. c. The result would be the average kW demand or load index of the system for the reporting period/year. Circuit Load Index Each circuit, based on certain parameters, must also have an annual average kW demand as a proportion of the annual system average demand. To provide this information, the following procedures shall be followed: a. At the beginning of each reporting year, gather the previous years KWHR registration of all TLN/circuits from the OTMS Circuit-TLN connectivity. b. Get/Calculate the net annual energy registration of each TLN with respect to its circuit. c. For circuits energized during the previous reporting year that did not complete one year energy delivery, it must be normalized

proportionately to cover the unreported period. For example, if a circuit was energized on the month of July and was able to register 10,000 KWHR by the end of the year, its resulting annual energy delivery X shall be:
10,000 5 months X = X 12 months 24,000 KWHR

d. Get the sum of all annual energy registration, including normalized values discussed above. e. Calculate the share of each feeder in total energy registration by dividing its annual energy registration and total annual registration of all feeders. f. To get the circuit average KW Demand, multiply the ratio derived and the forecasted system average KW Demand. Sector Load Index Proportionate share of each Sector from system average KW demand must also be determined in order to compute for the Sectors reliability performance. To compute for this value, the following steps must be followed: a. After determining the circuits average KW demands in the previous section, compute the Sector average KW Demand by aggregating the KW demand of all the circuits under its responsibility based on the approved Circuit-Sector database.
1.3

Validation of Interruption Events for Reliability Computation Interruption Frequency Rate (IFR) Data Source All outages available in the Daily Interruption Report (DIR) that resulted in customer interruption shall be the input for the calculation of IFR. Rules for Validation The following rules shall be applied in the IFR validation of an interruption event: a. Circuit or segment interruption duration should be one (1) minute or longer. b. Multiple/successive circuit/segment tripping with an interval of less than or equal to five (5)-minute duration shall be counted as one.

c. IFR of circuit/segment outage shall be computed based on the extent of outage multiplied by circuit average KW demand for the month/ year. d. Segment extent shall be computed based on the ratio of energy sales of the affected segment/s and the total energy sales of the circuit. e. IFR of a circuit outage event may not be divided among different responsible offices. Example1: Outage History of Circuit A
Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 To 12:01:07 12:01:22 Duration 2 sec 15 sec Extent 1.00 1.00 Remarks No IFR because the duration of the outage is less than 1 minute

## Example 2: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 To 12:01:07 12:03:07 Duration 2 sec 2 min Extent 1.00 1.00 Remarks Only 1 IFR. The first tripping event is less than 1 minute

## Example 3: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:02:40 12:04:00 To 12:02:07 12:03:40 12:06:00 Duration 1 min 2 sec 1 min 2 min Extent 1.00 1.00 1.00 Remarks Only 1 IFR for this series of tripping because the trippings interval is within 5 minutes.

## Example 4: Outage History of Circuit A: Step-Restoration

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:02:07 12:02:07 12:02:07 To 12:01:07 12:03:40 12:07:07 12:08:37 Duration 2 sec 1 min 33 sec 5 min 6 min 30sec Extent 1.00 0.60 0.25 0.15 Remarks No IFR shall be charged on the first tripping event because its duration is less than 1 minute. The IFR for each portion in the steprestoration process shall be equal to circuit average KW demand multiplied by the extent.

Cumulative Interruption Time Data Source All outages available in the Daily Interruption Report (DIR) that resulted in customer interruption shall be the input for the calculation of CIT. Rules for Validation The following rules shall be applied in the CIT validation of an interruption event: a. Circuit or segment interruption duration should be one (1) minute or longer. b. For step restoration process in a circuit/segment outage, IFR shall be applied only once. CIT of each restored portion shall be computed incrementally based on the progress of restoration. Outage of circuit/ segment previously restored shall be treated separately. c. CIT of circuit/segment outage shall be computed by multiplying the extent of outage, circuit average KW demand for the month/ year and the duration of the interruption. d. Segment extent shall be computed based on the ratio of energy sales of the affected segment/s and the total energy sales of the circuit. e. CIT of an outage event can be divided among different offices based on each offices share in the prolonging of outage. Each office that will share in the CIT must have its own outage cause and percent share in the duration. Example1: Outage History of Circuit A
Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 To 12:01:07 12:01:22 Duration 2 sec 15 sec Extent 1.00 1.00 Remarks No CIT because the duration of the outage is less than 1 minute

## Example 2: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 To 12:01:07 12:03:07 Duration 2 sec 2 min Extent 1.00 1.00 Remarks Only the 2nd tripping shall be charged with CIT. The first tripping event is less than 1 minute.

## Example 3: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:02:40 12:04:00 To 12:02:07 12:03:40 12:06:00 Duration 1 min 2 sec 1 min 2 min Extent 1.00 1.00 1.00 Remarks Individual CIT shall be computed for each tripping event because the outage is not continuous.

## Example 4: Outage History of Circuit A: Step-Restoration

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:02:07 12:02:07 12:02:07 To 12:01:07 12:03:40 12:07:07 12:08:37 Duration 2 sec 1 min 33 sec 5 min 6 min 30sec Extent 1.00 0.60 0.25 0.15 Remarks No CIT shall be charged on the first tripping event because its duration is less than 1 minute. The CIT for each portion in the step-restoration process shall be equal to circuit average KW demand multiplied by the extent and the duration of the outage of each portion.

## Example 5: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time From To Duration Extent Remarks At 12:03:05, Distribution Sector declared the circuit clear for reenergization but SCADA became inoperative. Crew was sent to close the breaker at the substation.

12:01:05

13:01:05

60 min

1.00

The CIT that will be charged to the Distribution Sector shall be proportionate to the elapsed time they declared the circuit, clear for re-energization. Hence, the sharing of CIT for this outage: 2/60 shall be charged to Distribution Sector, 58/60 shall be charged to SCADA Office.

Unserved Energy Data Source All outages available in the Daily Interruption Report (DIR) that resulted in customer interruption shall be the input for the calculation of Unserved Energy.

Rules for Validation a. Circuit or segment interruption duration should be one (1) minute or longer. b. The KW interrupted shall be computed based on an established index that incorporates day and time of interruption and predominant circuit load type (residential, commercial or industrial), and the duration of the outage. This is different from the CIT as the latter uses the average circuit demand. c. Only outage event charged with CIT shall be entitled for calculation of Unserved energy. Momentary Power Interruption (MPI) Data Source All outages available in the Daily Interruption Report (DIR) that resulted in customer interruption shall be the input for the determination of momentary power interruption. Rules for Validation a. Circuit or segment interruption duration should be less than one (1) minute. b. Successive momentary interruption that led to sustained outages shall still be counted.

## Example 1: Outage History of Circuit A: Step-Restoration

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 12:01:22 To 12:01:07 12:01:22 12:07:35 Duration 2 sec 15 sec 6 min 13 sec Extent 1.00 1.00 1.00 Remarks This outage sequence shall have two (2) MPIs and one (1) sustained interruption. That is chargeable for IFR/CIT

Demand-based Momentary Power Interruption (MPI) Data Source All outages available in the Daily Interruption Report (DIR) that resulted in customer interruption shall be the input for the determination of demand-based momentary power interruption.

Rules for Validation a. Only successful reclosures in a forced interruption are considered, i.e, momentary interruptions preceding sustained interruption are excluded in the computation as these are already charged to IFR. b. Successive reclosures like a 2-second followed by a 15-second reclosure attempt will be counted as one. c. Demand of the interrupted circuit is based on its corresponding years load index. d. kW demands of affected carried (child) circuits are aggregated with the outage of source (mother) circuit. e. OCR momentary outages are also included. f. An interval of greater than or equal to one minute for a two (2) successful reclosures without sustained interruption will be counted as two DBMPI. Example 1: Outage History of Circuit A:
Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 12:01:22 To 12:01:07 12:01:22 12:07:35 Duration 2 sec 15 sec 6 min 13 sec Extent 1.00 1.00 1.00 Remarks This outage sequence shall have no DBMPIs since it is preceded by sustained interruption.

## Example 2: Outage History of Circuit A:

Tripping Time From 12:01:05 12:01:07 To 12:01:07 12:01:22 Duration 2 sec 15 sec Extent 1.00 1.00 Remarks This outage shall have one (1) DBMPI since it is a successive reclosure of same event and it is not followed by a sustained interruption.

## Example 3: Outage History of Circuit A:

Tripping Time Duration From 12:01:05 12:02:08 To 12:01:07 12:02:10 2 sec 2 sec Interval (N) 0 1 min 1 sec

## Extent 1.00 1.00

Tag 5 5

Remarks This outage shall have two (2) DBMPI because it has an interval greater than 1 minute and did not proceed to sustained interruption.

1.4

## Validation of Outage Events

1.4.1

Tagging

For tagging of outage events, it is advisable for the Outage Validator Staff to tag them manually on a printed copy of the Daily Interruption Report. The DIR outage events from the previous day is downloaded from the Operating Trouble Management System (OTMS). The downloaded text file then is transferred to a Microsoft Word file for printing. The DIR outage events could also be downloaded from the Web-OTMS as a Microsoft Word file. The following shall be the valid codes for tagging the outage events from the Daily Interruption Report:
CODES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DESCRIPTION Primary IFR & CIT Secondary IFR & CIT Primary CIT Secondary CIT only Primary SDI/MPI Secondary SDI/MPI OCR SDI/MPI

Here are the definition of terms for tagging purposes: Row entry in OTMS that specifies the start and end of an interruption and the interrupted sections of the circuit Group number of rows with common affected sections not broken by a break Break N that separates groups from each other; > 5 minutes D duration of an interruption in a row N interval of interruptions Rules for Tagging: 1. If D is 1 minute, tag is 1, otherwise, 5 or 7 2. If preceded by 1 in a group, any value of D within N = 5 minutes, tag is 3, otherwise use Rule 1.

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## Example 1: Outage History of Circuit A

Tripping Time Duration From 12:01:05 2:34:04 2:36:07 2:37:23 5:42:47 5:42:55 7:35:16 7:50:23 8:06:33 To 12:01:06 2:35:03 2:37:07 5:42:17 5:42:53 7:25:13 7:38:12 7:54:55 8:06:51 1 sec 59 sec 1 min 3 hrs 54 min 4 sec 6 sec 1 hr 42 min 18 sec 2 min 56 sec 4 min 32 sec 18 sec 0 2 hrs 32 min 58 sec 1 min 4 sec 16 sec 30 sec 2 sec 10 min 3 sec 12 min 11 sec 11 min 38 sec 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5 5 1 3 3 3 1 1 5 D < 1 minute D < 1 minute D N Extent Tag Remarks

1 minute

## Preceded by 1 and N is less than/within 5 minutes and D minute

N is less than/within 5 minutes N is less than/within 5 minutes A break occurred and D A break occurred and D

1 minute 1 minute

## Mother Circuit A Circuit B

Child substation

Circuit C

For tagging of IFR, CIT and MPI, rules on primary and secondary outage shall be observed. From the above illustration, each individual tripping of circuits A, B, and C shall be considered as primary IFR, CIT or SDI. However, if the mother circuit A experienced an interruption, the outage of circuits B and C shall be considered as secondary.

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## Example 2: Outage History of Circuit B

Tripping Time Duration From 12:01:05 2:34:04 2:36:07 2:37:23 5:42:47 5:42:55 7:35:16 7:50:23 8:06:33 To 12:01:06 2:35:03 2:37:07 5:42:17 5:42:53 7:25:13 7:38:12 7:54:55 8:06:51 1 sec 59 sec 1 min 3 hrs 54 min 4 sec 6 sec 1 hr 42 min 18 sec 2 min 56 sec 4 min 32 sec 18 sec 0 2 hrs 32 min 58 sec 1 min 4 sec 16 sec 30 sec 2 sec 10 min 3 sec 12 min 11 sec 11 min 38 sec 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 6 6 2 4 4 4 2 2 6 D < 1 minute D < 1 minute D 1 minute Preceded by 2 and N is less than/within 5 minutes N is less than/within 5 minutes N is less than/within 5 minutes A break occurred and D A break occurred and D N Extent Tag Remarks

1 minute 1 minute

## A break occurred and D < 1 minute

Example 3:
GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ME156105 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: EVENT NO. 5 ( SAN PABLO OPERATION ) [ 1 ] TAYABAS GCB 44ZY4 TRIPPED ( LINE BREAKER ) RELAY TARGET: GROUND RELAY, INSTANTANEOUS - TYPE CO-9 RECLOSED BY: CONTROL SW. CAUSE: 195 - UNDETERMINED ----------------------------------------------------------------------------T I M E DURATION SUBSTATION CIRCUIT FROM TO HHH:MM:SS ( KW LOAD ) SECTION(S) AFFECTED ---- ---- --------- --------------------------- ----------------------------0945 1003 00:18:07 LUCENA II 11ZH GULANG-GULANG ( 497 KW ) ============================ 0945 1003 00:18:07 TAYABAS 44ZY MAYAO SILANGAN,ILAYANG DUPAY GULANG-GULANG,IBABANG DUPAY ( 13,185 KW ) ANDAMAN VILL,RIDGEWOOD PARK PF16: FIRST EVENT PF17: PREVIOUS EVENT PF18: NEXT EVENT 4A 02,001 04/08/08 10:25:52 12/22/06 PAGE 1

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GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 04/08/08 ME156105 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT 10:52:21 (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: 12/22/06 EVENT NO. 5 ( SAN PABLO OPERATION ) PAGE 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------T I M E DURATION SUBSTATION CIRCUIT FROM TO HHH:MM:SS ( KW LOAD ) SECTION(S) AFFECTED ---- ---- --------- --------------------------- -----------------------------BANTIQUE ============================ NOTE(S): 1) 2) 3) FAIR W/ WIND OF 7.2KPH @ SAN PABLO SECTOR. LUCENA II S/S IS FED BY ABOVE GCB. LATE REPORTS OF "NO POWER SINCE 1000H" WERE RECEIVED. SAN PABLO OPERATIONS WAS ADVISED TO CHECK STATUS OF GCB 44ZY4 AT THE SUBSTATION SINCE RTU OF TAYABAS S/S IS OUT. GCB 44ZY4 WAS FOUND AT OPEN POSITION AND WAS RECLOSED THRU CONTROL SWITCH AFTER CONTRACTOR CREW (7945/RHYME CONSTRUCTION) UNDER CAUTION WAS CLEARED. PF17: PREVIOUS EVENT PF18: NEXT EVENT 02,001

## PF16: FIRST EVENT 4A

In the OTMS-DIR, a secondary outage is indicated by a statement similar to the example above. Its tag would then be:
Tripping Time From 9:45:03 To 10:03:06 Duration Extent Circuit Tag Remarks D > 1 minute. Lucena II substation is being fed by Tayabas substation D > 1 minute

18 min 3 sec

1.00

Lucena II 11ZH

9:45:03

10:03:06

18 min 3 sec

1.00

Tayabas 44ZY

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Example 4:

GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ME156105 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: EVENT NO. 3 ( VALENZUELA OPERATION ) [ 1 ] MALABON GCB 55YD8 TRIPPED 3 TIMES ( LINE BREAKER ) RELAY TARGET: OVERCURRENT RELAY PH B & C, I - TYPE CO-9 : GROUND RELAY, INSTANTANEOUS - TYPE CO-9 RECLOSED BY: RCLOSR/SCADA

## 04/08/08 11:18:49 03/28/06 PAGE 1

CAUSE: 114 - CONDUCTOR FAILURE FINDING(S): WIREDOWN (PHASE A, 4/0 BARE CU., 1-SPAN, CONDUCTOR FAILURE) ON POLE #N3-191 ALONG LETRE RD. NEAR LASCANO ST., TONSUYA, MALABON CITY. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------T I M E DURATION SUBSTATION CIRCUIT FROM TO HHH:MM:SS ( KW LOAD ) SECTION(S) AFFECTED ---- ---- --------- --------------------------- -----------------------------0223 0223 00:00:02 MALABON 55YD TONSUYA,GOZON CPD,TAONG(POB.) 0223 0223 00:00:18 PAZ,GEN. SAN MIGUEL,STO. DOMINGO (MATALAHIB),PHASE 4-G ( 9,956 KW ) DAGAT-DAGATAN AVE.,BGY. LONGOS PF16: FIRST EVENT PF17: PREVIOUS EVENT PF18: NEXT EVENT 4A 04,003

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GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 04/18/08 ME156105 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT 10:37:41 (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: 03/28/06 EVENT NO. 3 ( VALENZUELA OPERATION ) PAGE 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------T I M E DURATION SUBSTATION CIRCUIT FROM TO HHH:MM:SS ( KW LOAD ) SECTION(S) AFFECTED ---- ---- --------- --------------------------- ----------------------------LAPU-LAPU,GENESIS INDL GASES CORP,PAMPANO, TANIGUE, DALAGANG,BUKID, KANDULI 0223 0312 ============================ 00:48:31 PORTION OF MALABON 55YD STO. DOMINGO (MATALAHIB),PHAS 4-G,DAGAT-DAGATAN AVE.,BGY. ( 8,139 KW ) LONGOS,LAPU-LAPU,GENESIS INDL GASES CORP,PAMPANO, TANIGUE, DALAGANG,BUKID, KANDULI ============================ PF16: FIRST EVENT 4A PF17: PREVIOUS EVENT PF18: NEXT EVENT 02,001

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GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 04/18/08 ME156105 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT 10:39:47 (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: 03/28/06 EVENT NO. 3 ( VALENZUELA OPERATION ) PAGE 4 TONSUYA, MALABON WAS RECEIVED. VALENZUELA OPTNS. WAS ADVISED TO CHECK. 02:49 ABOVE TROUBLE WAS FOUND. 02:58 LBS 55YD11 WAS OPENED TO ISOLATE THE TROUBLE. 03:12 END PORTION OF CKT. 55YD WAS SHIFTED TO ADJOINING CKT. AFTER LINE WAS PATROLLED CLEAR BY VALENZUELA AND BALINTAWAK CREWS, CLOSED "HOT" LBS 424RD15. 04:52 REPAIR OF TROUBLE WAS COMPLETED. 04:54 VCB WAS RECLOSED. LINE SET-UP WAS SUBSEQUENTLY NORMALIZED.

## PF18: NEXT EVENT 02,001

In some instances only a portion of a circuit is affected by a prolonged outage, similar to the above example. In this case, the exact extent of the outage should be computed. In order to do this, it is crucial to take note of the interrupting device which is the start of the affected/isolated portion of the circuit. In the example above, LBS 55YD11 was opened to isolate the trouble. To compute for the exact extent, the Segment Loading Calculator is used. The Segment Loading Calculator is found in the General Inquiries module of the OTMS.

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Example 5:
GIC7110M ME156105 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - SEGMENT LOADING CALCULATOR 04/18/08 10:46:20

CIRCUIT : 55YD______ MALABON-2 NO. OF SEGMENTS SELECTED : ___ KWH CONSUMPTION March 2008 SEGMENT(S) : ___________0 KWH __________0 __________0 __________0 __________0 KWH KWH KWH KWH RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL STREETLIGHT

CIRCUIT

## PF11: SELECT SEGMENTS PF12: COMPUTE AMPERE LOAD 02,001

After selecting the circuit, press PF11 to select the segments affected by the outage. Then, the segments under the interrupting device which was opened during the outage should be marked with an x.

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GIC7110M ME156105

## DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - SEGMENT LOADING CALCULATOR -

04/18/08 11:05:32

GIC7114M

## - FACILITY CONNECTIVITY SELECTION FOR START BOUNDARIES

PAGE

1 OF

FACILITY STRUCTURE TIE SWITCHES ----------------------------------------------------------- --------------55YD _ |_CB 55YD8 x |_LBS 55YD11 | x |_OCR M3-0580 | | x |_FCO M3-0585 | | | x |_FCO M3-1264 | | x |_FCO M3-0595 | | x |_FCO M3-1455 | | x |_FCO M3-0609 PF5: PAGE UP PF6: PAGE DOWN PF9: EXIT

## PF11: SELECT SEGMENTS PF12: COMPUTE AMPERE LOAD 12,006

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GIC7110M ME156105

## DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - SEGMENT LOADING CALCULATOR -

04/18/08 10:59:08

CIRCUIT : 55YD______ MALABON-2 NO. OF SEGMENTS SELECTED : 20_ KWH CONSUMPTION March 2008 SEGMENT(S) : ___3,998,534 KWH __2,408,423 ____937,679 ____651,910 ________522 KWH KWH KWH KWH RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL STREETLIGHT

CIRCUIT

## PF11: SELECT SEGMENTS PF12: COMPUTE AMPERE LOAD 02,001

The ratio of the affected portion with respect to the whole circuit in the example is 0.8274.
Tripping Time From 2:23:00 To 4:54:00 Duration 2 hrs 30 min 31 sec Extent 0.8274 Circuit Malabon 55YD Tag 1 Remarks D>1 minute

1.4.2

## Office and Cause Codes

All interruptions shall have its corresponding responsible office/s. The following are the valid offices/accounts that could be charged as responsible for the interruption occurrence and/or interruption duration. Office Codes
OFFICE CODE PLDL VLNZ BLWK MNLA ORTG RZAL ALBG CAVT SROS SPAB OFFICE DESCRIPTION PLARIDEL VALENZUELA BALINTAWAK MANILA ORTIGAS RIZAL ALABANG CAVITE STA. ROSA SAN PABLO

Distribution Sectors

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## OFFICE CODE PSP P&D TCOM SCDA SCC BMCT

OFFICE DESCRIPTION POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION PLANNING AND DESIGN TELECOMS SCADA SYSTEM CONTROL CENTER BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL TRANSMISSION BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL DISTRIBUTION BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL SUBTRANSMISSON NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCTION SUBSTATION OFFICE TRANSMISSION TESTING SUBSTATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT OTHERS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Subtransmission Services

BMCD BMCS NPC IPP SUBS TRAN TEST SPM OTHR R&D

Cause Codes for Forced Outages The cause codes in bold are for general description and are not used in determining the cause of the outage. This also applies to Pre-arranged and Generation/Transmission cause codes.

The following are the valid cause codes that will be for MERALCO Distribution:

CODE 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

DESCRIPTION EQUIPMENT FAILURE AGING/WEAR FAILURE DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT DIST TRNSF FAILURE CONDUCTOR FAILURE JUMPER FAILURE LINE CONNECTOR FAILURE DEFECTIVE PRIMARY METERING MANUFACTURING DEFECT OTHER EQUIPMENT FAILURE

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120 121 122 123 124 125 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 170 171 172 173 174 190 191 192 193 194 195

CONSTRUCTION TROUBLE COND. SAG/INSUFF CLEARANCE DT/LCO SWT/CAPACITOR MECH. CONS. FAILURE POOR WORKMANSHIP OTHER CONSTRUCTION TROUBLE DESIGN TROUBLES DEFECTIVE DESIGN INSUFF. CLEARANCE (DESIGN) MISRATING/UNDERRATED OVERLOAD/SYS DEFICIENCY (DESIGN) UNBALANCE (DESIGN) OTHER DESIGN DEFECTS OPERATING TROUBLES DEFECTIVE RELAY/SUPV EMERGENCY REPAIR/SWITCHING TEMPORARY OVERLOAD LOAD DROP. (LINE/EQUIPMENT) UNDERSIRED RELAYING SCADA OFF-LINE OTHER OPERATING TROUBLES HUMAN CAUSES - COMPANY ACCIDENTAL TRIPPING LIVELINE MISHAP SWITCHING ERROR OTHER OPER. ERROR TRANSIENTS/UNDETERMINED TRANSIENT GRD. FLT. TRANSIENT PHASE FLT. TRANS. PHASE/GRD. FLT. CT/SG OUTAGE UNDETERMINED

The following are the valid cause codes that will be for Beyond MERALCO Control Distribution (BMCD) except for trees since Sectors has its Tree Trimming Projects:
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 NATURAL PHENOMENA LIGHTNING WITH THUNDERSTORMS EARTHQUAKE FIRE FLOOD HEAVY RAIN WINDY/FREAK TORNADO TYPHOON

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108 109 150 151 152 153 154 155 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 180 183 184 185 186 188 189

VOLCANIC ERUPTION OTHER NATURAL PHENOMENA HUMAN CAUSES PUBLIC ANTENNA INSTALLATION CONST. WORK EXCAVATION WELL DRILLING OTHER UTILITY POWER CUSTOMER EQUIPMENT FAILURE PILFERAGE/CUSTOMER WILLFUL DESTRUCTION VEHICLES/CRANES OTHER PUBLIC ACTION GUN/SLINGSHOT BALOON FLYING FOREIGN OBJECTS TREES (not BMCD) ANIMALS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS CONTAMINATION KITESTRINGS OTHER FOREIGN OBJECTS

The following are the valid cause codes that will be for Pre-arranged Interruption (PAI):
200 201 202 203 204 205 206 208 209 210 211 212 213 219 220 222 SUBSTATION MAINTENANCE SERVICING OF CIR BRK CIRCT. BRKR. PMT OIL/GAS REPLENISMENT PWR. TRANS. PMT/MAIN SWITCHGEAR MAINTENAN CORRECTION OF OVERHE DISCON. SWT MAINT PWR. TRANS. TAP CHAN OTHER SUBSTATION MAINT INSULATOR WASHING SWTG DUE TO SUBST MA SWTG DUE TO LINE PRO SCADA/TELECOM WORKS PWR. TRANS. REHAB METER FACL. TEST/MAI

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223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 250 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259

SUBSTATION PROJECTS PWR. TRANS. INSTALL CB & DISC SW. INSTAL SWTGEAR ALTER./RET OTHER S/S EQ. INST. OTHER COMM/ENG. PROJ SWT DUE TO PRE ARR JOB RELAY/SCADA COMMISSI LINE MAINTENANCE LINE EQUIP REPLACE LINE EQ. TEST/MAINT POWER CABLE TEST/MAI SWITCH DUE TO PAI REPLACE ROTTEN POLE LINE HARDWARE MAINTE RELAY MAINT/INSTALL. CLEARING HAZARD OTHER LINE MAINT JOB LINE PROJECTS CUSTOMER REQUEST GOVERNMENT PROJECTS RECONDUCT/LINE CONV LINE EXT LINE EQ. INSTAL./RET. LOAD SPLIT TREE WIRE OTHER COMM/ENG. PROJ

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The following are the valid cause codes that will be for interruptions due Generation/Transmission :
300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 340 341 342 343 344 GENERATION/TRANSMISS (NPC) SYSTEM BLACKOUT (NPC) ALD-PLANT OUTAGE (NPC) INSTABILITY/RE (NPC) MLD-INSUFF. GEN (NPC) ALD-LINE TROUBLE (NPC) LD-LINE/OUTAGE (NPC) ALD-SUBST. OUT (NPC) LD-SUBST. OUTAGE GENERATION/TRANSMISS (IPP) SYSTEM BLACKOUT (IPP) ALD-PLANT OUTAGE (IPP) INSTABILITY/RE (IPP) MLD-INSUFF. GEN (IPP) ALD-LINE TROUBLE (IPP) LD-LINE/OUTAGE (IPP) ALD-SUBST. OUT (IPP) LD-SUBST. OUTAGE SUBTRANSMISSION TROUBLE (MERALCO) ALD-LINE TROUBLE (MERALCO) ALD-SUBSTATION (MERALCO) MLD-LINE TROUBLE (MERALCO) MLD-SUBSTATION

Normally, the cause of the outage is already found in the Daily Interruption Report. It is the duty of the Outage Validator to verify the correctness of the cause code. The notes at the end of the DIR is read and analyzed in order to validate the cause code.

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GI3173P1 DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 04/18/08 ME156492 - DAILY INTERRUPTION REPORT 13:15:25 (FORCED INTERRUPTION) DIR DATE: 04/17/08 EVENT NO. 4 ( PASIG OPERATION ) PAGE 1 [ 1 ] PASIG GCB 41ZK4 TRIPPED ( LINE BREAKER ) RELAY TARGET: NOT TAKEN RECLOSED BY: RECLOSER CAUSE: 152 - CONST. WORK FINDING(S): FLASHOVER OCCURRED WHEN A DEFORMED STEEL BAR BEING USED BY AN UNIDENTIFIED LABORER IN A HOUSE UNDER CONSTRUCTION GOT IN CONTACT WITH THE 20KV CONDUCTOR ON POLE #F10-1091 (TLN 012895) AT #4 SAMPAGUITA ST., SITIO KUMUNOY, SAN MIGUEL, PASIG CITY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------T I M E DURATION SUBSTATION CIRCUIT FROM TO HHH:MM:SS ( KW LOAD ) SECTION(S) AFFECTED ---- ---- --------- --------------------------- ----------------------------1348 1348 00:00:15 PASIG 41ZK ( 14,231 KW ) ============================ SUAREZ VILLE, GREENWOODS SUBD.

As a guide for charging, below is the table of cause codes along with the most likely responsible office for that particular cause code. Forced Interruptions:
CODE 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 DESCRIPTION NATURAL PHENOMENA LIGHTNING WITH THUNDERSTORMS EARTHQUAKE FIRE FLOOD HEAVY RAIN WINDY/FREAK TORNADO TYPHOON VOLCANIC ERUPTION OTHER NATURAL PHENOMENA EQUIPMENT FAILURE AGING/WEAR FAILURE DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT DIST TRNSF FAILURE CONDUCTOR FAILURE JUMPER FAILURE LINE CONNECTOR FAILURE DEFECTIVE PRIMARY METERING MANUFACTURING DEFECT OTHER EQUIPMENT FAILURE Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) RESPONSIBLE OFFICE BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD BMCD

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120 121 122 123 124 125 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 150 151 152 153 154 155 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 170 171 172 173 174 180 183 184

CONSTRUCTION TROUBLE COND. SAG/INSUFF CLEARANCE DT/LCO SWT/CAPACITOR MECH. CONS. FAILURE POOR WORKMANSHIP OTHER CONSTRUCTION TROUBLE DESIGN TROUBLES DEFECTIVE DESIGN INSUFF. CLEARANCE (DESIGN) MISRATING/UNDERRATED OVERLOAD/SYS DEFICIENCY (DESIGN) UNBALANCE (DESIGN) OTHER DESIGN DEFECTS OPERATING TROUBLES DEFECTIVE RELAY/SUPV EMERGENCY REPAIR/SWITCHING TEMPORARY OVERLOAD LOAD DROP. (LINE/EQUIPMENT) UNDERSIRED RELAYING SCADA OFF-LINE OTHER OPERATING TROUBLES HUMAN CAUSES PUBLIC ANTENNA INSTALLATION CONST. WORK EXCAVATION WELL DRILLING OTHER UTILITY POWER CUSTOMER EQUIPMENT FAILURE PILFERAGE/CUSTOMER WILLFUL DESTRUCTION VEHICLES/CRANES OTHER PUBLIC ACTION GUN/SLINGSHOT BALOON FLYING HUMAN CAUSES - COMPANY ACCIDENTAL TRIPPING LIVELINE MISHAP SWITCHING ERROR OTHER OPER. ERROR FOREIGN OBJECTS TREES ANIMALS

Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector Equipment owner (STS) Equipment owner (Sector or STS) Equipment owner (Sector, STS, P&D or SCC) Equipment owner (Sector, STS, P&D or SCC) Equipment owner (STS) Equipment owner (STS) Equipment owner (Sector, STS or SCC) BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS BMCD or STS Equipment owner (Sector, STS or SCC) Equipment owner (Sector, STS or SCC) Equipment owner (Sector, STS or SCC) Equipment owner (Sector, STS or SCC) Sector BMCD, or Sector

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185 186 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS CONTAMINATION KITESTRINGS OTHER FOREIGN OBJECTS TRANSIENTS/UNDETERMINED TRANSIENT GRD. FLT. TRANSIENT PHASE FLT. TRANS. PHASE/GRD. FLT. CT/SG OUTAGE UNDETERMINED

BMCD, or Sector BMCD BMCD BMCD Sector or STS Sector or STS Sector or STS Sector or STS Sector or STS

Pre-arranged Interruptions:
CODE 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 208 209 210 211 212 213 219 220 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 DESCRIPTION SUBSTATION MAINTENANCE SERVICING OF CIR BRK CIRCT. BRKR. PMT OIL/GAS REPLENISMENT PWR. TRANS. PMT/MAIN SWITCHGEAR MAINTENAN CORRECTION OF OVERHE DISCON. SWT MAINT PWR. TRANS. TAP CHAN OTHER SUBSTATION MAINT INSULATOR WASHING SWTG DUE TO SUBST MA SWTG DUE TO LINE PRO SCADA/TELECOM WORKS PWR. TRANS. REHAB METER FACL. TEST/MAI SUBSTATION PROJECTS PWR. TRANS. INSTALL CB & DISC SW. INSTAL SWTGEAR ALTER./RET OTHER S/S EQ. INST. OTHER COMM/ENG. PROJ SWT DUE TO PRE ARR JOB RELAY/SCADA COMMISSI LINE MAINTENANCE LINE EQUIP REPLACE LINE EQ. TEST/MAINT POWER CABLE TEST/MAI SWITCH DUE TO PAI REPLACE ROTTEN POLE LINE HARDWARE MAINTE RELAY MAINT/INSTALL. CLEARING HAZARD RESPONSIBLE OFFICE STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS STS Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL

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240 250 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259

OTHER LINE MAINT JOB LINE PROJECTS CUSTOMER REQUEST GOVERNMENT PROJECTS RECONDUCT/LINE CONV LINE EXT LINE EQ. INSTAL./RET. LOAD SPLIT TREE WIRE OTHER COMM/ENG. PROJ

Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector or STL Sector

Generation/Transmission Interruptions:
CODE 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 DESCRIPTION GENERATION/TRANSMISS (NPC) SYSTEM BLACKOUT (NPC) ALD-PLANT OUTAGE (NPC) INSTABILITY/RE (NPC) MLD-INSUFF. GEN (NPC) ALD-LINE TROUBLE (NPC) LD-LINE/OUTAGE (NPC) ALD-SUBST. OUT (NPC) LD-SUBST. OUTAGE GENERATION/TRANSMISS (IPP) SYSTEM BLACKOUT (IPP) ALD-PLANT OUTAGE (IPP) INSTABILITY/RE (IPP) MLD-INSUFF. GEN (IPP) ALD-LINE TROUBLE (IPP) LD-LINE/OUTAGE (IPP) ALD-SUBST. OUT (IPP) LD-SUBST. OUTAGE RESPONSIBLE OFFICE NPC NPC NPC NPC NPC NPC NPC NPC IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP IPP

Determination of Responsible Office for an Interruption Forced and Pre-arranged Interruptions: 1. BMCD (Beyond Meralco Control - Distribution) is charged to circuit/asset owner. 2. If the cause of interruption is undetermined and there is a crew under caution on the circuit, IFR/CIT by default is charged to the responsible office with caution. 3. All foreign objects (except trees), natural phenomena and human causes (public actions) are charged to BMCD if fault is within the circuit. It is charged to STS if fault is inside the substation. 4. Interruptions caused by trees including bamboo stems, plants, vines that are

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maintenance related are charged to the circuit owner. 5. Carried circuits or fed circuits are charged secondary to the office charged with the primary cause. 6. SLEMS and Networks & Underground Office responsibility are charged to the benefiting office or the circuit owner. 7. Line cut-out and breaker relay miscoordination are charged to Sector. 8. Circuit tripping due to grounding bank effect is charged to PSP. 9. Prolonged CIT due to failure of SCADA owned equipments (e.g. SCADA offline, SCADA Equipment failure, RTU Failure) are charged to SCADA office. 9. Telecoms Defective rectifier, non-updating status of SCADA equipment (initially charged to SCADA), Telecom battery charger problem and intermittent signal are charged to TELECOMS. 10. Differential Trippings with undetermined caused are initially charged to PSP. 11. Protective Relay Coordination problem inside the substation is charged to PSP. 12. B. O. trip coil/closing coil is charged to PSP. 13. Defective control cable inside the substation is charged to PSP. 14. 115kV Line troubles (Meralco Owned) are charged to Sub-transmission Lines. 15. Tripping due to temporary overloading (Force or PAJ) brought by loadshifting shall be charged to SCC. 16. SCC has within 5 minutes to put to ON the remote recloser relay switch of a circuit whose caution tag has already been cleared by Sector/STS. CIT will be charged to SCC if the circuit trip out for failure to putting to ON the recloser switch within five (5) minutes. 17. If a circuit is temporarily shifted to a circuit owned by another Sector, the tripping is charged to the owner of the circuit where the fault/trouble is located. If the cause of tripping is undetermined, the default charging is to the owner of the carrier circuit. 18. Interruptions due to customer-owned equipment failure are charged as BMCD. If the customer requested not to be re-energized upon availability of Meralco power, prolonged CIT due to customer shall not be charged to Meralco. 19. Only customers who requested for interruption (RTPI) are excluded in the IFR/CIT calculations.

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20. Other Utility Touching Meralco Facilities are charged to asset owner as BMCD. 21. Load dropping due to critical loading of would be carrier circuit and due to absence of tying facilities are charged to NAP/PMO. 22. Interruptions due to substation equipments (e.g., breaker, disconnect switch, bushing, power cables, bus plate, bus insulator, power transformer, etc) failure are charged to Substation Office.

23. For AVR/OCR/VCR, the default charging is to the office responsible for the maintenance of the equipment. - Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR), Oil Circuit Reclosers (OCR), and Vacuum Circuit Reclosers (VCR) are owned by SLEM. Any requirement on these special line equipment, including controllers, shall be coordinated with SLEM. - AVR's installed inside or within the perimeter of the substation and whose function is to regulate the substation bus voltage shall be maintained by Substation Office. If the AVR function is to regulate the voltage of one of the feeders, then the maintenance shall be by the Distribution Sector. - AVR's installed a span away outside the substation shall be maintained by the Distribution Sector. - OCR/VCR installed inside or within the perimeter of the substation whose function is a feeder breaker shall be maintained by Substation Office. The OCR/VCR controller shall be maintained by PSP if it uses SEL-351 relays and by Testing Office for Cooper brand controllers. For detailed equipment ownership responsibility, refer to the Guidelines on Maintenance Responsibilities, Ownership and Default Charging for Facilities Inside and within Substations made by STSAM. 24. Tripping due to switching/normalization from a Pre-arranged job is charged to requesting office. 25. Pre-arrange IFR/CIT is charged to the requesting office. 26. When charging Sub-transmission lines PAJ, tag is primary for carried circuits that are "de-energized". If these circuits tripped during PAJ, charge is Force. Generation/Transmission Interruptions:

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27. Circuit outages due to tripping of NGCP owned and maintained facilities are charged to NPC. 28. Automatic load dropping (ALD) caused by tripping of Meraclo IPPs are charged to IPP. 29. Automatic Load Dropping (NGCP-IPP and power plants), Manual Load Dropping (generation and transmission deficiency) and System Blackouts are charged to NPC. After manually tagging the outages, the next step is to encode it to the EPM Validation in the OTMS. The EPM Validation is found in the General Data Maintenance of the OTMS. Only authorized users are allowed to encode or make changes in the EPM Validation.

GI3152P1 ME156105

DMS - OPERATING TROUBLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - LIST OF EVENTS FOR EPM VALIDATION CENTER: 8220 SAN PABLO OPERATION STATUS: __ ALL EXTENT -----1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 PRIMARYCAUSE -----------191 TRANSIEN 192 TRANS. P 308 (NPC) LD 308 (NPC) LD 195 UNDETERM 184 ANIMALS 184 ANIMALS 184 ANIMALS 184 ANIMALS 306 (NPC) LD C 5 5 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 1 E 5 5 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 1 OFF. ---SPAB SPAB NPC_ NPC_ SPAB BMCS BMCS BMCS BMCS NPC_

## 04/18/08 11:54:04 PAGE 1

DATE FR : SAT 12 / 22 / 2007 DATE TO : FRI 12 / 28 / 2007 TYPE : ___ ALL CUSTMR DURATION S EVENT CIRCUIT COUNT HHH:MM:SS - ------ ------- ------ ---------_ 01 FRC 41ZC _10305 000:00:01 _ 01 FRC 41D _26427 000:00:03 _ 01 FRC 32WZ __1205 004:53:00 _ 01 FRC 32ZZ ____17 004:53:00 _ 02 FRC 41ZC _10305 000:00:02 _ 01 FRR 322ZV _12706 000:10:00 _ 01 FRR 323ZV __1171 000:13:00 _ 01 FRR 324ZV __8998 000:16:00 _ 01 FRR 325ZV __8411 000:24:00 _ 02 PAI 32WZ __1205 009:54:00 PF02: DTTM/DUR PF13: PRINT EVENT PF17: PRINT LIST 4A

DAMAGECODE ---------0082101123 0082101123 __________ __________ 0082101123 __________ __________ __________ 0033611123 __________

ST -IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR IR

## PF11: FCO & TX PF15: PRINT DIR PF20: DWNLD DATA

PF12: SEC/QUI CAUSE PF16: VIEW EVENT PF21: SEG CALCULATR 05,018

The Customer Count, Extent, Primary Cause Code, Company and ERC Tag, and Damage Code are editable.

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2.0

2.1

Flowchart

Start

## System Operations Engineer (SOE) System Control Center

Detects the outage through the SCADA or reports from customers or other information sources

## System Operations Engineer (SOE) System Control Center

Coordinates circuit/segment outages and prepares the DIR in OTMS. This will include forced, planned and generation/ transmission-related outages

## All engineers/staff of Sectors, Subtransmission Services and Network Asset Management

Reviews all the information inputted by SCC in the DIR. This includes the details of the outage cause, restoration procedures followed, outage remarks, etc

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## 11.2 Tagging, Charging and Encoding

Responsible Person/Office

## Outage Validator/ Staff Operations Network Process

Reviews/validates the extent and duration of outages, cause codes, action taken during restoration and other outage remarks based on the details of the DIR and information in the OTMS-EPM Validation module Tags each part of the outage event with corresponding responsible office/s, appropriate cause codes, validated duration and extent

Checks the initial outage event assessment made by the Outage Validator. raises his concern to their corresponding PCT in case of contestable issues

## All engineers/staff of Sectors, Subtransmission Services and Network Process

For Distribution and Subtransmission line-related outages Maintenance/Network Process For Substation-related outages

## - Substation Process Management/ Network Process

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11.3 Recalculation
B

Responsible Person/Office

## Distribution Services Asset Management and Sub-transmission Services Asset Management

Conducts meeting on a regular basis to settle issues on outage charging among offices under their responsibility. Decision should be raised prior to regular monthly recalculation of Reliability Indicators in OTMSMIS.

## Outage Validator/ Staff Operations Services Asset Management

Encodes the appropriate data on the outage event with corresponding responsible office/s, appropriate cause codes, validated duration and extent based on the decision reached during validation meeting

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## Office Codes for Distribution Sectors

OFFICE CODE PLDL VLNZ BLWK MNLA ORTG RZAL ALBG CAVT SROS SPAB OFFICE DESCRIPTION PLARIDEL VALENZUELA BALINTAWAK MANILA ORTIGAS RIZAL ALABANG CAVITE STA. ROSA SAN PABLO

## Office Codes for Sub-transmission Services

OFFICE CODE PSP P&D TCOM SCDA SCC BMCT BMCD BMCS NPC IPP SUBS TRAN TEST SPM OTHR OFFICE DESCRIPTION POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION PLANNING AND DESIGN TELECOMS SCADA SYSTEM CONTROL CENTER BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL TRANSMISSION BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL DISTRIBUTION BEYOND MERALCO CONTROL SUBTRANSMISSON NATIONAL POWER CORPORATION INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCTION SUBSTATION OFFICE TRANSMISSION TESTING SUBSTATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT OTHERS

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