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Dogs as Omnivores

Feeding Dogs

Carnivore
Taxonomic

classification

Carnivora: diverse order including carnivores (e.g. cats) & herbivores (e.g. pandas)

David L. Hammond, DVM, DACVIM

Feeding

behavior

Dogs as Omnivores Eating


Canis

Dogs as Omnivores

behavior
4

Energy Metabolism
Hepatic Glucokinase Activity (U/g liver)

lupus = nearest ancestor Canis latrans = close relative


eat large, infrequent meals opportunistic predators & scavengers consume herbivore feces viscera considered choicest part consume plant matter (e.g. fruits, berries, melons, etc.)

0
Rat
Soling & Kleineke (1976)

Pig

Dog

Cat

Dogs as Omnivores

Dogs as Omnivores

Starch Digestibility in Dogs


100
% Digestibility

Minimum Protein Requirement


Young Rat Dog Fox Cat Mink 12 12 24 26 31 Adult 4 4 17 17 20

99.4

99.5

98.8

98.5

75 50 25 0

Corn

Rice

Barley

Oats

Walker, et.al., 1993. J. Animal Sci.

% Protein Calories (ideal protein source)

Feeding Puppies Brodie


12

Feeding Puppies Puppy/growth

foods

week-old, intact male puggle

Specific-purpose

What

are the key nutritional factors (KNF)? What should he be fed? How should he be fed?

for growth + gestation/lactation Passed feeding trial/test for growth Feed until ~ 80% of adult size then transition to adult food

Key Nutritional Factors - Puppies Energy Protein Fat Calcium

Key Nutritional Factors - Puppies <

density

25 kg adult body weight:


3.5-4.5 kcal/g 22-32% DMB 10-25% DMB 0.7-1.7% DMB 0.6-1.3% DMB 1.1-1.8:1

Energy Crude

& phosphorus Soluble carbohydrate Digestibility

Protein Crude Fat Calcium Phosphorus Ca:P ratio

Key Nutritional Factors - Puppies


Do

Puppies - Feeding Methods Free-choice


free-choice

different dog breeds require different levels of nutrients?


marketing or science? toy-breeds: puppy hypoglycemia

vs. food-limited meal feeding


for obesity

feeding = risk factor

energy-dense puppy foods

puppy hypoglycemia
food-limited divide

large/giant-breeds: developmental bone disease

avoid excess calories & Ca2+

meal feeding food dose into 3-4 small meals per day

house

training

Puppies - Large & Giant-Breeds Presents


11

Feeding Errors

for puppy vaccinations


week-old, female intact, Irish wolfhound Normal PE BCS = 3/5; B. Wt. = 34 lbs What food would you recommend? How should the food be fed?

Excessive food/nutrient intake is a risk for:


Obesity Developmental orthopedic disease

Developmental Orthopedics

Feeding Errors

Examples of developmental orthopedic disease


Effects of Overfeeding
Inactivity Skeletal pain Splayed feet Angular deformity Physitis Wobblers syndrome Osteochondrosis Slight hip dysplasia Hip dysplasia
Free Choice Group
Adapted from Hedhammer/Krook, Cornell Vet, 1974

Hip dysplasia Osteochondrosis Panosteitis Hypertrophic osteodystrophy Other bone and cartilage dysplasias

Restricted Group

Feeding Errors

Feeding Errors

Effects of overfeeding
Labrador retrievers Fed until 2 years age Free choice group: hip
dysplasia 16/24

Effects of excess dietary Ca2+


5-10 week old Great Dane pups Control group - NCR diet (1.1% Ca2+, 0.9% P) Treatment group - NRC diet + Ca2+ (3.3% Ca2+, 0.9% P) Time restricted meal fed, 1 hr, bid
Hazewinkel, et al, JAAHA, 1985

Restricted group (25% less food): hip dysplasia 5/24


Kealy, et al JAVMA,1992

Feeding Errors

Feeding Errors

Over consumption of Calcium

Mechanism: Hypercalcitoninism
Osteoclast activity Bone remodeling Bone/cartilage maturation

Feeding Errors

Feeding Errors

Nutritional risk factors:

Growth Performance
Free Choice 20% less than free choice

Excess protein has not been associated with skeletal diseases Over consumption - protein Evidence: Tvedten 1977 Nap 1991, 1993

Weight

Length

Height

Bone Size

Muscle Mass

Kendall-Proc Kal Kan Symp. (1979)

Feeding Errors

Developmental Orthopedics

Effects of Overfeeding
200
Growth Rate (g/day)

50
Body Wt @ 16 mo (kg)

Recommended levels of key nutrients for large breed puppies


Amount (dry matter basis)
Nutrient Protein Fat* Calcium* ME (kcal/g) Phosphorous Range 25-30% 8-12% 0.7-1.2% 3.2-3.8 0.7-1.45%

100

25

Restricted

Free Choice

Restricted

Free Choice

Adapted from Hedhammer/Krook, Cornell Vet, 1974.

* Nutrients proven to be risk factors for developmental skeletal disease

Developmental Orthopedics

Feeding Adult Dogs Young

Weigh

Adjust

Feed

to middle age Obese - prone Working / athletic Reproducing Older

Evaluate
Feed to an Ideal (lean) Body Condition

Obese-Prone Adults

KNF - Obese-Prone Adults Energy Calcium

Body Condition Score by Age


% Proportion Overweight
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10
0-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16

Dog % Overweight Cat % Overweight

density Protein Fat Fiber Food texture

& phosphorus Sodium & chloride Antioxidants

Age Group (Years) Lund EM, et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214(9);1336-1341

Obese-Prone Adults Non-dietary


Gender

Obese-Prone Adults

risk factors

Breed/genetics

Health issues associated with obesity


Metabolic
Hyperlipidemia Hyperinsulinemia Glucose intolerance

& reproductive status Age Sedentary life style

Functional
Joint stress Dyspnea Hypertension

Disease Risk
Diabetes mellitus Dermatopathy Immune dysfuntion Tumors

Lund L, Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 2005

KNF - Feeding Working/Athletic Dogs Energy Calcium

Feeding Working/Athletic Dogs

density Protein Fat Fiber Food texture

& phosphorus Sodium & chloride Antioxidants

Food Effects on K-9 Performance


Dry Matter
Digestibility (%) Dig. Energy (kcal/g) Protein (%) 78.0 3.9 22.9 81.5 5.3 30.5 85.6 5.3 48.7

Performance
Fatigue Time (Min.) Distance (Miles)
Downey et al: JAAHA (1980)

103.7 15.5

137.6 20.6

136.1 20.4

Key Nutritional Factors - Fat


Only

KNF - Reproducing Dogs


Energy Protein Fat Soluble Fiber Calcium Sodium

practical means of significantly increasing energy density of a food


density

dry matter intake = 3.5% of body wt.

performance-limiting factor

carbohydrate

each non-essential gram of protein or carbohydrate potentially robs the dog of 5 kcal

Enhances

palatability of food
appetite

fatigue & dehydration

& phosphorus & chloride Digestibility

Feeding Reproducing Dogs

Feeding Reproducing Dogs


Puppies

Body Weight and Food Intake During Gestation and Lactation


12 800

Body 10 Weight (kg)


11

600

Dry Food Intake (g)

400 9 200 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7

Weeks of Gestation Weeks of Lactation

should gain 2-4 g/kg of adult weight/day (average) Begin feeding puppies a growth/lactation food at 3 wks of age Wean puppies at 6-7 weeks Free-choice feeding of puppies not recommended until 80-90% adult size

Feeding Reproducing Dogs Feeding


Day

KNF - Older Adults Energy Calcium

bitch during weaning:

prior = little/no food Weaning day = 1/4 DER Day after= 1/2 DER 2nd day after = 3/4 DER 3rd day after = full DER

density Protein Fat Fiber Food texture

& phosphorus Sodium & chloride Antioxidants

Feeding Older Dogs Common


Obesity Musculoskeletal Chronic

Feeding Older Dogs

% of Dogs Overweight

health problems in aging dogs

Effects of age on obesity


50

30

kidney disease Decreased cognitive function

10

1-4

5-7

8 - 11

> 12

Source: Mason, Vet Rec 86:612 (1970)

Age (years)

Feeding Older Dogs - Katie


A

Feeding Older Dogs - Katie

10 year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever Retired hunting dog (one litter) Owner reports that she is a bit stiff in the mornings & seems a bit forgetful Otherwise the owner thinks she is in good health

Physical
grade

examination

3/6 systolic heart murmur moderate dental tartar mild nuclear sclerosis BCS 3/5, 30 kg

Feeding Older Dogs - Katie What

Feeding Older Dogs - Katie


Senior

recommendations would you make for feeding Katie? What feeding method would you suggest?

dog foods

No scientifically established nutrient profile All Life Stage diets vs. feeding trial/tests for adult dogs? Assess individual patients needs Avoid nutrient excesses

Summary Obesity
easier

is the most common form of malnutrition


to prevent than to treat

Feed

each dog according to its individual needs Older dogs do not tolerate nutrient excesses