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Notes On The Periodic Table

Periodic Law = the chemical properties of the elements are dependent, in a systematic way, upon their atomic numbers Elements are arranged in periods (rows) and groups (columns). There are seven periods, representing the principle quantum numbers n = 1 to n = 7. Each period is filled sequentially. Groups represent elements that have the same electronic configuration in their valence, or outermost shell, and share similar chemical properties. The electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons and they are involved in chemical bonding and determine the chemical reactivity and properties of the element. The Roman numeral above each group represents the number of valence electrons. There are two sets of groups, designated A and B. A elements => representative elements - representative elements have either s or p sublevels as their outermost orbitals B elements => nonrepresentative elements - nonrepresentative elements include the transition elements (which have partially filled d sublevels) and the lanthanide and actinide series (with partially filled f sublevels). The electron configuration for the valence electrons is given by the Roman numeral and letter designations (ex. An element in Group VA will have a valence electron configuration of s2p3 (since 2 + 3 = 5 valence electrons)). Periodic Properties of the Elements All elements seek to gain or lose electrons so as to achieve the stable octet formation possessed by the inert or noble gases of Group VIII. Two important trends: - As one goes from left to right across a period, electrons are added one at a time. The electrons of the outermost shell experience an increasing amount of nuclear attraction, becoming closer and more tightly bound to the nucleus. - As one goes down a given column, the outermost electrons become less tightly bound to the nucleus. This is because the number of filled principle energy levels (which shield the outermost electrons from attraction by the nucleus) increases downward within each group. Both of these trends explain elemental properties such at atomic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

Atomic Radii The atomic radius of an element is equal to one-half the distance between the centers of two atoms of that element that are just touching each other. In general, the atomic radius decreases across a period from left to right and increases down a given group. Ionization Energy The ionization energy (or ionization potential) is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. Removing an electron from an atom is always endothermic (energy requiring). First ionization the energy required to remove one valence electron from the parent atom. Second ionization the energy required to remove a second valence electron from the univalent ion to form the divalent ion. Successive ionization energies growing increasingly large. Ionization energy increases from left to right across a period (as the atomic radius decreases). Ionization energy decreases from up to down across a group (as the atomic radius increases). Electron Affinity Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom, and it represents the ease with which the atom can accept an electron.. The stronger the attractive pull of the nucleus for electrons (the effective nuclear charge or Zeff), the greater the electron affinity will be. Standard sign convention: a positive electron affinity value represents energy release when an electron is added to an atom. Group IIA elements (the alkaline earths) have low electron affinity values. Group VIIA elements (the halogens) have high electron affinity values. Group VIII elements (the noble gases) have electron affinities on the order of zero since they already possess a stable octet. Other elements generally have low value of electron affinity. Electronegativity Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond. The greater the electronegativity of an atom, the greater its attraction for bonding electrons. The electronegativity increases from left to right across periods. In any group, the electronegativity decreases as the atomic number increases.

Note: Cs (Cesium) is the largest, most metallic, and least electronegative (most electropositive) of all naturally occurring elements. It also has the smallest ionization energy and the least exothermic electron affinity.