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March 6, 2013 The Respiratory System Guyton: Chapters 37 44

Physiology

Properties of Gasses o Pressure = Force/Area o Absolute Pressure: in relation to complete vacuum o Gage Pressure: in relation to atmospheric pressure Really looking at the gage pressure o Types of pressure Physical pressure Partial pressure of gasses Adding up all the partial pressures of gasses gives you the total pressure o Across a membrane 7 layers to go through ? Alveolar space, alveolar basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, capillary endothelium Drawing How do you manipulate the ventilation? o You have to have two sensor (a chemoreceptor) must be in the arterial side o One in carotid sinus and one in the aortic arch o The carotid sinus is the more sensitive o The sensor goes to a respiratory control center, which gives feedback to the ventilation step o More sensitive to the amount of CO2 so the amount of arterial and venous CO2 is more balanced at around 40 ???? Cardiopulmonary reserve and cardiopulmonary fitness work together and _____ High altitude Trotal pressure reduced, so CO2 and O2 pressure is reduced, so ___ - hypoxia Into the ocean Pressure increases, so now oxygen toxicity is an issue Pulmonary ventilation o Daltons Law In a gas mixture, the pressure exerted by each individual gs in a space is independent of the pressure exerted by other gasses Patm = Ph20 + PO2 + ___ o Boyles Law o Ficks Law defines diffusion of gas

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March 6, 2013

Physiology

GAS Diffusion = Area * Pressure *Diffusion coefficient /distance o Diffusion coefficient = solubility/(molecularweight)^ Ficks Law o Ventilation of the lungs occurs because of a negative pressure being created in the lungs air is sucked in o Given the single cell nature of the alveolar epithelium, its a fragile tissue a negative pressure helps protect them o Expiration is normally passive To expand the chest, you have to lift the ribcage and drop the diaphragm (lifted by the external intercostals) If theyre already lifted, expiration occurs because of the relaxation of the muscles o Inspiration is faster because its an active process Insipration occurs via the rectus abdominus and external intercostals Transport of Carbon Dioxide o Dissolved Solubility 20X Oxygen Venous blood: 2.7 ml/100ml blood Arterial blood: 2.4 ml/100 ml blood Transported: 0.3 ml/100 ml blood 7% total _____ Important because oxygen doesnt diffuse on site ____ Transport of CO2 from tissue o HCO3- has a transport that can transport chloride in exchange of bicarbonate Chloride Shift 70% in HCO3 form o 23% in Hgh CO2 Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve o Linear There is a direct relationship between the ______ o _______ Oxygen Transport o Partial Pressure (mm Hg) Driving force for diffusion o Percent saturation (no units) HBO2 (Hb+HbO2) o Content (ml O2/100 ml blood) Absolute quantity of oxygen in blood o ?

March 6, 2013

Physiology Normally the PP of O2 blood in the alveolar space is 104 mm Hg therefore, the PP of O2 in the capillary space is also 104 mm Hg ____

o PP o Percent saturation shouldnt change if Hg is normal o Its important to know the concentration of hg in the blood required to know 15 g / 100 ml blood Each gram holds 1.34 g Oxygen o Dissociaction curve Myosin Found in muscles Has 2 binding sites Shifting curve to the right Hg has a lower affinity for O You want Hg to release into the tissue and pick up O into the lungs conditions of the tissue must therefore be for lower affinity and conditions in the lungs must be for increased affinity Decreased pH = increased hydrogen ions???? o Bohr affect Affects??? o Haldane effect When O binds Hg, its a stronger acid because its a stronger acid, it tends to drive CO2 from the blood because it drives the equibilrium reaction toward ____ Occurs in the lungs Regulation of Respiration o Sensors Gather information o _ o Effectors Muscles Respiratory center o Pneumotaxic center Shutoff of __ o Respiratory group plays a role by assisting in accelerating the respiratory effect Chemical control o CO2 Sensitive to peripheral o Hydrogen Ions Central control (central chemorecptors in the pons)

March 6, 2013 o Oxygen Peripheral -

Physiology

Mechanics of Inhalations o As you make the chest cavity larger, pressure b/w the visceral and parietal pleura drops alveolar pressure drops sucks in o Exhalation is the opposite you put pressure on the alveolar space and the pressure increases Dead space o Anatomical 150 ml Resides in the airways anatomically o Physiological Depends on ventilation-perfusion ratio o Knowing the difference between the two is important Movement of air in and out of the lungs o Depends on different pressures o Pleural o Alveolar o Compliance Of lungs alone Twice as compliant as it would be as it is with the chest wall Of the chest wall o Difference between alveolar and ___ pressure Trick question relates to as I expire (arrow to far rght side of screen) how can a pressure that is lower (a pleural p that is more negative) than the alveolar p cause gas to be expelled Mechanics of Respiration o Insipratory Muscles Exterinal intercostals External cleidomastoid Scalenes Obliques o Expiratory muscles ? ? o Expiration Based on elastic __ of the rib cage Rectus abdominis actively pushes the diaphragm back up Why, in pregnant women or obesity (ect), the person has trouble breathing they have increased pressure Cell types in alveoli

March 6, 2013

Physiology

o Capillary endothelial cells o Alveoli epithelial cells Type 1 squamous Type 2 Columnar Secrete surfactant important to releave surface tension in the lungs, letting them be more compliant o Fibroblasts o Macrophages o Mast cells Chest wall and lung compliance o Ease of breathing is from lung walls themselves o Restriction Idea that the chest wall is non compliant, so the lungs cant stretch Prevents you from expanding your chest cavity Ex. Broken ribs o Obstruction Blocking an airway Compliance of lungs o Function of leastic forces of lung tissue and surface tension o Compliance curve o EXAM Q; WHY IS THE INHILATION CURVE DIFFERENT FROM THE EXHALATION CURVE? The thickness of that loop is a reflection of the surface tension surfactant can make that loop thinner or almost non-existent o Pleural pressure Lower pressuer = greater force causing lungs to expand o Saline filled loop Difference disappears because if you fill the lungs with water, youve removed surface tension (bc theres no air-water interface) o Surface tension Prevented by surfactant Attraction of h20 molecules at air-water inerfface _____ Airway resistance o Flow o Resistance o Upper airways major resistance o Decrease in lung vlume results in an increase in resistance o ???? o ???? o ??? ?

March 6, 2013

Physiology

o residual volume whats left in the lungs after you breath everything out o