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TOPICS OF LECTURES

•DESIGN PHILOSOPHY •DESIGN PROCESS •ALTERNATIVE IN DESIGN •INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY IN DESIGN

•DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND OBJECTIVES

COMPREHENSION

•DECISION THEORY AND DECISION MATRIX

•EXAMPLES OF DECISION MAKING IN DESIGN •CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING •CREATIVITY THEORY •BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUE •CREATIVE THINKING TECHNIQUE •RISK, RELIABILITY AND SAFETY •MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS, ETC

WHAT IS DESIGN?

DEFINITION OF DESIGN IS NOT UNIQUE .CREATING SOMETHING NEW THAT HAS NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE .VERY BROAD MEANING AND PRACTICED NOT ONLY BY ENGINEERS BUT BY ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS, SONG COMPOSERS, ETC.

DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN

“Create a component, system or process that can

perform a specific duty optimally and subject to

certain solution constraints”.

This is a general statement that almost always

stated in engineering design. The above statement emphasizes the phrase ‘subject to certain solution constraints’, since an engineering design

problem always has solution constraints.

Mechanical design is part of engineering design which has a more specific scope that covers mechanical systems, components and products. Mechanical systems or products are varied, from very simple devices such as bolts and nuts up to very complex ones such as cars, trains and airplanes.

Concurrent Design Process

. In industry, the design process right now is done concurrently from the concept, research, production and material consideration, as well as market study . This process is done due to the business risk of introducing new product. .In industry, the design process right now is done concurrently from the concept, research, production and material consideration, as well as market study .This process is done due to the business risk of introducing new product.

The Four C’s of Design

•Creativity: Requires creation of something that

has not existed before or not existed in the

designer’s mind before.

•Complexity: Requires decisions on many variables

and parameters.

•Choice: Requires making choices between many

possible solutions at all levels, from basic concepts to

smallest detail of shape.

•Compromise: Requires balancing multiple and

sometimes conflicting requirements.

TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN DESIGN

Basically new inventions are rare although lucky breaks do occur. The following are

categories of ‘innovation’:

•Simple innovation, for example, side steps on minibus

vehicles.

•Direct solution to a problem, for example, new

placement of brake lamps in order to be clearly seen by

the driver of the car behind.

•Adaptation of an old principle to an old problem

to

achieve a new result, for example, GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) technology used in the gasoline engine.

• Application of new principles to a new use,

for example, the ABS(Anti-Lock Braking System) used to improve car brakes performance and GPS(Global Positioning System) for navigation.

• Serendipity, a rare discovery that led to a

great invention, for example, the car invention at the end of the 19th century and the internet invention of the information technology era.

Design is not always a New Idea mr01#002

great invention, for example, the car invention at the end of the 19th century and the

LEVEL OF INVENTION ACCORDING TO “TRIZ”

(Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)

Level 1 : Routine design solution well-known in the specialty area (30%) Level 2 : Minor corrections to an existing system known in the industry (45%) Level 3 : Fundamental improvement to an existing system which resolve contradiction within the industry (20%) Level 4 : Solution based on application of new scientific principle to perform the primary function of the design (4%) Level 5 : Pioneering inventions based on rare scientific discovery (1%)

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR DESIGN :

Public information :

1.From library, books, catalogs, commercial information, brochures, etc. 2.From government sources (usually in the developed countries) for example Mil- Handbook. 3.From professional association,for example SAE(Society of Automotive Engineers- USA), API(American Petroleum Institute), etc. 4.From the internet using Engineering URL.

Copyright and copying should be considered

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR DESIGN :

Patent Information :

1.Intellectual Property Right, its law and

protection 2.Patent search , how to get and read them. 3.Technology Licensing and Royalty.

A short summary of abilities required for a

mechanical design expert :

a.Engineering Analysis, ability to use basic engineering knowledge to analyze components, systems or products that have been designed

b.Production Process, ability to use the knowledge of production processes for manufacturing the product or system that have been designed

c.Material selection, ability to use the knowledge to select the proper specification and characteristic of materials to be used.

a.Creativity, ability to find new ideas or concepts to use in the design.

b.Decision Making, ability to make decision based on sufficient information although sometimes has uncertain factors.

c.Inter-discipline Work, ability to work open- mindedly with people of different background.

d.Communication, ability to transfer or explain one’s opinion clearly both spoken and written.

Design Requirements and Objectives (DR&O) DR&O Philosophy

  • 1. A set of criteria that should be fulfilled designed

product.

  • 2. A tool for formal communication

consumers/buyers and the

  • 3. To form product specification Product Design

Specification).

  • 4. To use as warranty to custemer

  • 5. Contains realistic constraint of designed product

without forcing the unrealistic ones

The PDS definition

PDS is a detailed listing of requirement met to produce successful product.

PDS is a document which contains facts related to the product outcame

PDS is used for basic reference during the design activities.

PDS is used as be evolved and change with the progress the design.

PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF PDS:

Product life span.15. Standard to be followed.16. Ergonomics.17. Quality and 18. Design 19. Testing and inspection 20. Safety problems.21. Company constraints.22. Market constraints.23. Patent problems.24. Social and political

Hybrid Bicycle Design :

1.

Must be driven by electric motor, by human

power or the combination of both ( as a

consequence, it needs a one way clutch at the foot pedal

2.

The power of the electric must be less than

250 watt

 

3.

During braking the electric motor should be off

automatically

 

4.

The battery must be able to store electric

energy for the distance of least 50 km.

5.

Maximum target price is 400 US$.

6.

Production target is 100,000 bicycles per year.

7.

Attractive appearance since

the

targetconsumers are mostly women .8. Maximum target weight is 25 kg.

A lot of factors should be considered design process which can influence (Product Design Specification).Some criteria must be fulfilled by the designed product , while other criteria are possibly fullilled ( wish criteria). It complicates the design process if too many criteria are are the primary Institution of Britain (1984).

PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF PDS:1. Product

performance.2. Environment where the product

  • 3. Service life.4. Maintenance and logistic 5.

Target product price.6. Future or existing 7. Shipping method. 8. Packing.9. Quantity of product 10. Manufacturing facility.11. Dimension and weight of the product 12. Aesthetics, appearance andfinish 13. Available materials.14.