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Chemistry

Unit 1
Formulae, equations and amounts of substance :.

@ Isotopes have same chemical properties because they have the same electronic configuration. @ When finding no. of particles in soln for an ionic compound, multiply by the no of particles per atom. (if Al2(SO4)3, no. of particles x 3 for SO42-).
Energetics:.

@ In ionization energy trends, there are 'dips' on B, O, Al and S. @ The more the difference in reactivities of the elements involved in displacement , the more negative the H value for substitution reactions.
Atomic structure and the periodic table:.

@ Mass spectrometer always produces +vely charged ions. @ When mentioning molecules or ions of a mass spectrometer, always put + sign. @ Mass spectrometer gives bigger deflection to a species with a more positive charge. @ Electric field (i.e. charged plates) is used to accelerate ions. @ For ionization trends in a period comment on: -increasing nuclear charge with proton no. -outer e- added in same shell, so no e- shielding -decrease in atomic radius -greater force of attraction between nucleus and e@ In Mg and Al, Al has a lower ionization energy bcuz of shielding from 3s sub-shell. @ Always write electronic configuration for comparison questions.
Bonding:.

@ For comparison of melting points in metals compare: -charge -relative radii [together, charge density] -attraction for sea of e-energy required to overcome force of attraction @ Covalent bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between the two nuclei and the shared pair of electrons.

@ For comparison of melting points in ionic compounds compare: -charge -ionic radius -distance btw center of charges -charge density -force of attraction @ In ionic solutions, conductivity depends on the size of ions in hydrated state.
Introductory organic chemistry:.

@ Liquid paraffin comes from crude oil. @ Mechanism means show e- movement with curly arrows as well. @ Alkenes always undergo electrophilic addition.
Chemistry

Unit 2
Shapes of molecules and ions:.

@ Ammonia is a polar molecule.


Intermolecular forces:.

@ Main intermolecular force in BF3 is London forces because the molecule is not polar. @ When asked about bond angles, explain in terms of no. of e- pairs around central atom + bond pair-lone pair, etc. repulsions. @ Organic solvents with a polar bond can dissolve a range of substances because they have both London and dipole-dipole forces (i.e. both polar and non-polar characteristics)
The periodic table groups 2 and 7:.

@ In group 2, only hydroxide solubility increases down the group. @ Thermal stability of compounds increases down Groups 1 and 2 due to same charge but larger cation radius and thus lesser polarization of anion (C-O bond). @ Salts with 2+ cation and 2-anion are generally insoluble in water.
Green chemistry:.

@ Chlorine free radicals act as catalysts in the conversion of ozone to oxygen.