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ENVIRONMENT 2 PAPER 2 : BUILDING FABRIC 2 26 April 2010 Chairman: External Examiner: Answer any FOUR questions All questions carry equal marks The use of pocket-size electronic calculators is permitted, but you are required to set down all the steps in algebraic and arithmetical solutions to problems. Candidates in the third or later years for the degrees of MA (General), BA, BD, BCom, BSc (Social Science), BSc (Science), BEng and LLB should mark their script book where indicated. This examination paper will be marked anonymously. Use technical diagrams to illustrate your answer where necessary and refer to the design of case studies where appropriate. 1. Continuous structures For each of the following structures, where the spans and lengths are equal: Show the external reactions Sketch the deflected shape due to the applied load, showing the points of contraflexure. Sketch the approximate shape of the bending moment diagram. (a)
Pinned support

09.30 11.30am John Lowrey Professor Steve Sharples

[8 marks]

Fixed support Vertical support


Point load Uniformly distributed load

[8 marks] Question continues on the next page

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(c) [9 marks] 2. Timber construction Answer both questions A) Describe briefly the structural systems where timber is used both for the load-bearing elements and the envelope of a medium-sized building. You should discuss the structural scheme, the types of connections and supports, the construction sequence and the possibilities and limitations of architectural expression. [10 marks] B) Describe briefly the structural systems for large spanning roofs beyond 8 metres where timber is used in a manufactured configuration. Discuss the structural forms, connections, supports and the possibilities and limitations of architectural expression. Illustrate your answer with suitable diagrams and case studies. [15 marks] 3. Timber structural design For the timber frame shown below, determine the cross section dimensions for the primary rectangular beams to resist the uniformly distributed surface load q =2 kN/m2 and the point load P = 2 kN. A strength class of softwood solid timber should be chosen and you need to demonstrate by calculation that your section is suitable in bending, shear and serviceability. Use the tables provided at the end of this exam paper. It is assumed that the strength modification factor kmod = 0.8, there is load sharing between the primary beams, and the moisture and creep factor kdef = 0.60
Secondary beams 2m P 2.7 m Primary beams

2m 2m 5m 4m

[Note: Deflection under a central point load, w = PL3 /(48EI) Deflection due to a uniformly distributed linear load, w = 5/384 (WL4/EI) ] [25 marks]
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4. Masonry construction Answer both questions A) Describe the structural layouts and construction strategy that guarantee the stability of the lateral walls in a single-volume large span building (beyond 10 metres) in load-bearing brickwork, like a theatre or a sports hall. Discuss the traditional and contemporary solutions that ensure vertical and lateral strength of the walls and their effect on architectural expression. [15 marks] B) Outline the issues regarding the materiality of modern brickwork facades and building envelopes. Your answer should cover among other issues the choice of materials, set-up, the detailing for movement and durability, and the construction process. [10 marks] 5. Soils and foundations Answer both parts of the question A) Retaining walls or basements are characterised by the use of exposed foundation walls. Discuss the structural behaviour and construction process of typical examples of such schemes that do not exceed 3 m in depth within stable ground. Your answer should also address how earth pressures are contained and thermal comfort is achieved in basements. [12 marks] B) Describe the main types of soil in terms of their physical composition, their mechanical behaviour and their load-bearing capacity. [13 marks] 6. Structural behaviour Answer both parts of the question A) In the following diagrams of buildings discuss their design and the key structural aspect that characterises their form. Draw the main load path scheme, identify the principal structural elements and moment-resisting mechanism, where applicable, and discuss the behaviour of the building at the principal connections.

Terminal 5, London Heathrow Question continues on the next page

Gaussian vaults, JHO Warehouse, Montevideo (E. Dieste)

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Strathnairn Woodland Shelter [12 marks] B) Discuss the effect of the following actions on the structural behaviour of buildings.
You should describe the strategies that are devised in response to these phenomena to guarantee the stability and integrity of the structure.

1. Thermal movement 2. Wind pressure 3. Snow load

[13 marks]

Tables for Question 3 Table 1: Strength classes and characteristic values for softwood species
C14 2 Strength properties (N/mm ) Bending fmk 14 Compression, fc,0,k 16 parallel Shear fv,k 1.7 Elastic modulus 2 (kN/m ) E 7 C16 16 17 1.8 8 C18 18 18 2.0 9 C20 20 19 2.2 9.5 C22 22 20 2.4 10 C24 24 21 2.5 11 C27 27 22 2.8 11.5 C30 30 23 3.0 12 C35 35 25 3.4 13 C40 40 26 3.8 14 C45 45 27 3.8 15 C50 50 29 3.8 16

Table 2: Recommended limits for the final deflection

Type of member Limiting value for net final deflections of individual beams A member of span A member with a between two supports cantilever, /250 /125 /150 /75

Roof or floor members with a plastered or plasterboard ceiling Roof or floor members without a plastered or plasterboard ceiling

Tables for question 4 continue on the next page

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Table 3 Geometrical properties of regularised softwoods

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