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LINGUA INGLESE

B1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR

DOTT.SSA FREDERIKA GEBHARDT

INDEX TEST YOUR GRAMMAR UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6 UNIT 7 WORD ORDER VERB TENSES VERB FORMS -INFINITIVE AND ING, PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARIES, CONDITIONAL FORMS, REPORTED SPEECH NOUNS, QUANTIFIERS, PRONOUNS, ARTICLES ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS,PREPOSITIONS, CO-ORDINATION PREPOSITIONAL AND PHRASAL VERBS, EXPRESSIONS, WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED, FALSE FRIENDS p. 3 p. 5 p.10 p.25 p.30 p.37 p.45 p.51

PRACTICE TEST

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APPENDIX I APPENDIX II APPENDIX III

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TENSES IRREGULAR VERBS NUMBERS AND TRENDS

p.62 p.64 p.67 p.69

KEY TO EXERCISES

TEST YOUR GRAMMAR Choose the correct alternative. 1. I have __________ breakfast at seven oclock. / a / the / -- / 2. Whose are __________ bags? / this / these / that / 3. Susan is __________ sister. / my / the my / mine / 4. Give __________ the book, please. / to him / he / him / 5. Im afraid I dont have __________ information. / an / much / many / 6. They __________ to the disco. / go never / ever go / never go / 7. Janet is a medical student and studies __________. / hardly / hard / lot / 8. In the Antarctic __________ a lot of snow. / it is / there is / it has / 9. Im not going __________ this weekend. / somewhere / nowhere / anywhere / 10. When __________ football? / do play Peter / plays Peter / does Peter play / 11. Ann is a __________ cook than I am. / best / good / better / 12. Im reading a very __________ book. / interesting / interested / interest / 13. __________ colour is the new car? / Which / What / How / 14. Water __________ at 100C. / boils / is boiling / boiled /

15. Where is __________? / the Johns book / the book of John / Johns book / 16. Im learning English __________ find a job. / to / for / for to /

17. I read the article __________ the newspaper. / in / on / at /

18. He was born __________ 10 April. / in / on / at / 19. The man __________ lives next door is French. / who / what / which / 20. His mother wants __________ a dentist. / that she be / her to be / her to do / 21. I __________ to the cinema last night. / have gone / went / have been / 22. They __________ their mother in hospital tomorrow. / going to / will to / are going to / 23. The painting __________ yesterday. / was finished / had finished / was finishing / 24. I enjoy __________ tennis. / to play / playing / play / 25. I ___________. / like very much coffee / very like coffee / like coffee very much / 26. Hes lived in London __________ five years. / for / since / from / 27. She would like to study in England if her English__________. / would improve / improved / will improve / 28. Ill call you as soon as I ___________ home. / will get / get / shall get / 29. He __________ speak French fluently when he was in France. / should / could / might / 30. Do you know what __________ ? / is the time / the time is / time / 31. I have lived in Venice for ten years, so I __________ everywhere. / used to walk / am used to walking / used to walking / 32. We didnt hear what the teacher was ___________. / telling / saying / speaking / 33. It is hard to __________ children nowadays. / grow up / bring up / pull up /

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UNIT 1 WORD ORDER The fundamental word order in an English sentence rarely changes. The usual affirmative construction is Subject + Verb + Direct Object and time expressions are generally placed at the end of the sentence: Subject He The artist John Verb made painted spent Direct Object a cake the picture some money

yesterday th in the 15 century last week

Transitive verbs may have an indirect object which precedes the direct object: Subject Verb Indirect Object Direct Object He gave Jane a flower They sent me a letter I will buy her a book If the indirect object follows the direct object, then a preposition (usually for or to) is required: Subject Verb Direct Object Preposition Indirect Object He gave a flower to Jane They sent a letter to me I will buy a book for her Some verbs that are not immediately followed by the indirect object are: explain, describe, mention and discuss. He explained the plan to me They described the project to us The interrogative construction is also S+V+O, but the subject may be preceded by the question word in a content question, and an auxiliary: Q word Auxiliary Subject Verb Complement What did you do this morning? Did he see the film? Is he coming tomorrow? Question words are: why, where, which, when, who, whose, how + long/far/big/much/many/old etc. If the element questioned is the subject, there is no variation from the affirmative form: Q word Who What Which book Whose How many students INTERROGATIVE Exercise 1 Formulate questions asking about the underlined words. 1. I went to Susans house yesterday. 2. Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. 3. They went to Rome to study the architecture there. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Verb wrote caused won bag came Complement the play? the fire? the Booker prize? was stolen? to the lesson?

4. She prefers white wine to red. 5. Theyre going to Scotland this summer. 6. Dave loves Susan. 7. Nothing happened. 8. Theyre going to Venice by train. 9. It took them 30 years to build the bridge. 10. Stephen King has written over 40 novels. Exercise 2 Formulate questions for the following answers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. She can speak four. We had fish and salad. She plays tennis every day. Because its cold! Last year. John wrote the letter. I saw Susan and Jane. Hes twenty-two. My favourite food is pasta. At ten oclock. I think they are in the kitchen. I prefer the blue dress. To get some money. The book is hers. She is blonde with blue eyes.

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

The negative construction of a sentence is formed by the word not placed directly after the auxiliary verb and before the main verb: Subject He We They Aux + not does not are not have not Verb like going been

music home to the museum

Negation can also be provided by adverbs and sometimes by another element in a sentence, which is more formal, but remember that sentences can only contain one negative element to convey negation: He has never been to France (= He hasnt ever been to France) They have no money (= They dont have any money) NEGATIVE Exercise 3 Write the following sentences in the negative form. 1. He lives in a house. 2. They work in an office. 3. Theyre eating at the moment. 4. Shakespeare wrote novels. 5. Anne has got three dogs. 6. Weve been to Africa. 7. He can play the piano very well. 8. The train left at six.

____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

9. I found the books I wanted. 10. Hes going to buy a new car. 11. They were cleaning the windows yesterday afternoon. 12. We have to wear a uniform at school. 13. He will be in his office. 14. The film had started when we arrived at the cinema.

____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

Exercise 4 Rewrite the negative sentence using a more formal construction. 1. There wasnt anything to do. ___________________________________ 2. I dont have any money. ___________________________________ 3. I decided not to give him any help. ___________________________________ 4. She cant find her keys anywhere. ___________________________________ 5. We didnt see anybody. ___________________________________

WORD ORDER INVERSION Word order is often reversed for: 1) emphasis: It is Bach that I most appreciate ( I most appreciate Bach) 2) inversion after negative adverbs: Never have I seen such a wonderful picture (I have never seen such a wonderful picture) 3) in reported questions: Do you know what the time is? He asked me if I could swim 4) in more formal relative sentences: The girl to whom you spoke / The girl who you spoke to (informal) 5) in conditional structures when if is omitted (more formal): Had I arrived earlier, I would have seen her Be careful with the position of adjectives and adverbs (manner, place, time): He ran fast to the station yesterday morning. (See Unit 6 for the position of adjectives and adverbs of time, manner and place) Make sure affirmative sentences start with the subject, also in the passive form: The windows were cleaned The documents are being photocopied

WORD ORDER Exercise 5 Write the words in the correct order. 1. spend / he / in Japan / next year / his holiday / will 2. where / the post office / you / know / do / is? 3. last week / had / at school / an exam / they 4. him / she / did / why / tell / a lie? 5. never / to / we / been / Germany / have 6. play / you / tennis / how often / do? 7. me / you / going to / help / are ? 8. likes / she / very much / jazz 9. what / does / he / look / like? 10. gave / present / they / me / a wonderful 11. to / meaning / the / explained / she / me 12. who / present / you / that / gave /? 13. who / is / Tim / it / the / wrote / letter 14. is / long / the / how / lesson? 15. photocopied / documents / the / were

_______________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

EMPHASIS Exercise 6 Rewrite the sentence with the emphatic form It is/was. that/who, with emphasis on the underlined word. 1. John gave me the flowers. ___________________________________ 2. Vermeer painted the picture. ___________________________________ 3. I went to Paris. ___________________________________ 4. Columbus discovered America in 1492. ___________________________________ 5. We are learning French. ___________________________________ Exercise 7 Rewrite the sentence in a more emphatic form beginning with the underlined negative adverb. 1. I have never seen such a wonderful painting. ___________________________________ 2. He rarely went to the cinema. ___________________________________ 3. We seldom speak to our neighbors. ___________________________________ 4. They had hardly arrived at the beach when it started raining. ___________________________________ 5. We had never heard such terrible news. ___________________________________ SUBJECT Note that the English language must always have a subject in the sentence. Some exceptions are the imperative form, but the subject (you) is implied: Sit down! Dont laugh! If there is no natural subject, then a dummy subject is required, such as It and There. It can refer to time, the weather, distance and temperature: Its 4 oclock Its raining Its 3 kilometres to Venice Its hot today It can also be followed by an adjective and that phrase or an infinitive form: It is likely that prices will go up Its nice to see you again It can also introduce a formal passive construction: It is said that power corrupts It is thought that the government will raise taxes There refers to something that exists in a particular place: There is a cat in the garden There are a lot of people dying of hunger IT/THERE + BE Exercise 8 Complete the sentence with it or there and a form of the verb to be. 1. If __________ any difficulty with this exercise, let me know. 2. ___________ ages since I saw you. 3. __________ too cold to swim today. 4. __________ plenty of time before we catch the train. 5. __________ a terrible flood yesterday. 6. Look ! __________ snowing . 7. How far ________ to Milan from Venice? 8. ___________ dangerous to drive in the fog. 9. __________ a lot of nice people here. th 10. __________ 8 December today. 11. ___________ said he is French. 12. ___________ a very strong wind tomorrow.

POSITION OF ADJECTIVES IN A SENTENCE Adjectives generally precede the nouns they modify: She bought a green dress. I caught an early train. When more than one adjective precedes the noun, there is usually a precise order: opinion age
th

shape square

colour origin

material

purpose

a magnificent 18 -century

brown French mahogany table

It is unusual, however, to find so many adjectives in the same sentence. (See Unit 6 for more about adjectives). Exercise 9 Write the adjectives in the following sentences in the correct order. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. brown / a pair of / leather / shoes / dirty _________________________________________________ yellow / some / long / curtains / cotton _________________________________________________ shirt / white / a / Italian / beautiful / silk _________________________________________________ antique / an / teapot / silver _________________________________________________ authentic / typewriter / an / Victorian _________________________________________________

POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE (see Unit 6 for more about adverbs) Order of adverbs: manner, place and time: I usually go to the cinema at the weekend. He usually arrives home at 6 p.m. Note the position of the following adverbs: Manner: He likes music very much She softly spoke into his ear Time: We left the meeting early They are arriving on Monday January 4th Place: We have lived there all our life They sang loudly here yesterday Frequency: We often order a takeaway pizza He is always late She has never been to Venice Purpose: He went to the shops to buy some bread He studied hard to pass the exam Degree: The exam we did was quite difficult They worked well enough Sentence: Unfortunately, he arrived too late to catch the train Sadly, it was her last performance Exercise 10 Put the adverb in brackets in the appropriate place in the sentence. 1. She plays the piano. (well) 2. The scientists hold the annual conference in the hall. (usually) 3. I would like to see your house. (very much) 4. He didnt run fast to catch up with her. (enough) 5. Her latest novel is good. (rather) 6. I got lost, but someone gave me directions to the station. ( fortunately) 7. I have finished your book and will return it. (tomorrow) 8. They like the new design. (quite) 9. She was the centre of attention. (often) 10. Im sure that he told me. (fairly)

UNIT 2 VERBS AND TENSES Exercise Match a verb with a phrase. 1. become at 6 oclock 2. begin a house 3. break a book with you 4. bring a glass 5. buy a doctor 11. eat 12. fall 13. find 14. fly 15. forget 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. hear hold keep lay lead pay read ride rise run speak stand steal swim take treasure someones name off a chair a sandwich in a plane a promise the table someones hand a song a group of people fast a bike early a book for the meal a photo English at the bus-stop the jewels in the sea

6. catch 7. choose 8. do 9. drink 10.drive 16. get 17. give 18. go 19. grow 20. hit 26. lie 27. lose 28. let 29. make 30. meet 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. see sell send sing sit teach tell think understand write

some milk a car a dress something a train a plant to London a ball a present a sandwich a cake someone do something down on the bed at the station the keys a song on a chair a film a car a letter the lesson about someone a letter somebody something how to do something

TENSE AND ASPECT English has few verb forms: Present infinitive and base form: (to) walk run Present simple third person: walks runs Past simple: walked ran Present participle/Gerund: walking running Past participle: walked run

Tense refers to the location of an event or action in time. There are only two tenses in English: present simple and past simple. The tense is marked by an inflection of the verb: Susan watches television every evening. (present tense) Susan watched television last night. (past tense)

Reference to other times can be made in different ways, using modal auxiliaries, for instance:

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Susan thinks she will watch the news tonight if she has time. (simple future time) Susan has watched a really exciting tennis match. (present perfect) Aspect refers to how an event or action is to be viewed with respect to time, rather than its location in time. Aspect always includes tense, and the auxiliaries are in the past, present or future. There are three aspects: simple (base form, past form) progressive (to be + present participle), perfect (to have + past participle) . Look at Appendix I for the various verb forms in the active voice. IDENTIFYING ASPECT Exercise 12 Say whether the following aspects are simple, perfect or progressive. 1. Jane bought a new car. _________________________________________________ 2. I think we have already seen this film. _________________________________________________ 3. They are driving to the theatre. _________________________________________________ 4. Simon has left his book on the bus. _________________________________________________ 5. We are leaving today. _________________________________________________ 6. Ok, well go at six. _________________________________________________ 7. Jane took a photo. _________________________________________________ 8. The sun was shining. _________________________________________________ 9. He wants a new computer. _________________________________________________ 10. Theyll be coming on the 8 oclock train. _________________________________________________

IDENTIFYING TIME AND ASPECT Exercise 13 Identify the verb tense and aspect or time of the following sentences. The table in Appendix I will help you. e.g. I was having a bath when the doorbell rang. (past progressive and past simple) He will be thirty tomorrow. (future simple) 1. He is looking for his keys. 2. She wakes up at 6.00 am every day. 3. I have been writing letters all morning. 4. The meeting will start at 4 oclock. 5. He fell off his chair. 6. They have decorated their room. 7. They will have finished all their exams by next month. 8. The film had started when they arrived at the cinema. 9. Susan had been gardening all morning before it started to rain. 10.We will be lying on the beach at this time tomorrow. _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

SIMPLE ASPECT The simple aspect is used for actions that occur at a specific time: Susan rarely watches television. (habitual action) Susan watched a good film last night. (action completed in time before speaking) The present and past simple require a form of the auxiliary do followed by a verb in the infinitive form in the interrogative and negative form of the verb: Do you like music? I dont eat meat. Does he go to school? He doesnt understand. Did they see the film? They didnt go out.

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Present simple: In the affirmative form the third person verb adds -s or -es to the base form: He calls me every day she watches TV at night . Verbs ending in a consonant + -y drop the -y and add ies: she studies a lot Verbs ending in a vowel + -y add s: He often plays tennis Past simple: In the affirmative form the verb is either regular (base form + ed) or irregular (altered) and the same form is used for all persons: I / he / we / they liked the film He / we / you bought a newspaper Verbs ending in a consonant + -y drop the -y and add ied: she studied all night Verbs ending in a vowel + -y add ed: They stayed in a luxury hotel Short verbs ending in one vowel and one consonant double the final consonant: He dropped his glass Note: the auxiliary do is never used with the verb to be: Are you English? He isnt at home Was I too early? They werent busy that day PRESENT SIMPLE general truths: Christmas is on 25th December habitual action: I go to the gym every evening describing art/literary works: The painting represents the artists dream timetables: The train leaves at 6 oclock programmed future event: Term ends on Friday subordinate clause in future time: Well phone you if we have an answer TIME EXPRESSIONS Every (day), on (Saturdays), now, nowadays, these days, once/twice/three times a week/month, in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night, at weekends, adverbs of frequency (usually, never etc.) , all the time.

Exercise 14 Complete the sentences in the present simple with a verb from the box. send listen speak watch wake up drive play work live arrive

1. They __________ in Venice in a large flat by the Grand Canal. 2. I ___________ to the radio every morning. 3. He often __________ to the coast at weekends. 4. She always __________ me a postcard when shes on holiday. 5. The train __________ at 7 pm this evening. 6. I __________ early every morning. 7. We both __________ the piano at school. 8. That boy __________ a lot of television in the evenings. 9. He __________ in a bank in London. 10. She __________ three languages fluently. Exercise 15 Write questions using the auxiliary do or does. 1. where / you / live? _________________________________________ 2. you / smoke? _________________________________________ 3. when / the train / leave? _________________________________________ 4. what / you / do? _________________________________________

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5. she / work / a lot? 6. what time / he / catch/ the train in the morning? 7. why / they / run every morning? 8. we / need / a ticket to see the show? 9. where / you both / usually / meet? 10. he / often go / to the cinema?

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Exercise 16 Complete the sentences with a verb in the present simple. Jane 1. ___________ from London. She 2. ___________ 24 and she 3.__________ in a bank. She 4. ___________ got 2 brothers and 1 sister. She 5.__________ with her parents in a house in the suburbs. Every day Jane 6.__________ the bus to work and it 7.__________ often crowded in the morning. Jane 8.__________ her job because there _________ a lot of nice people there. Every summer she 9. __________ on holiday to Italy because she 10. __________ Italians and especially Italian food. In fact, she 11. _________ a lot of pasta and 12. __________ a lot wine while she 13. _________ there. In her spare time, Jane 14. __________ novels and biographies, and she 15. __________ films. PAST SIMPLE completed action occurring in past before time of speaking: Susan came an hour ago habitual actions in the past: I walked to school every day when I was young past subjunctive in hypothetical conditions: If I won the lottery, I would travel reported speech: She asked me if I played the piano TIME EXPRESSIONS yesterday, the day before yesterday, last night / week / month / year/, ago, at one time, at that time, in those days, in th the 16 century, in the last century, in 1950, in the 1960s, on Monday, when I was young.

Exercise 17 Rewrite the sentences in the past simple. 1. I always wake up at 6 oclock. I ______________________________________________________ yesterday. 2. They have a shower every day. They ___________________________________________________ last night. 3. He makes a cup of tea in the morning. He _____________________________________________________ yesterday morning. 4. We eat Indian food at the weekend. We _____________________________________________________ last weekend. 5. She drives to work. She ____________________________________________________ yesterday. 6. We always go home by train. We ____________________________________________________ yesterday afternoon. 7. He runs every evening. He _____________________________________________________ yesterday evening. 8. They drink red wine at night. They ___________________________________________________ last night. 9. He writes letters to his friend every week. He _____________________________________________________ last week. 10. We spend our holidays in Ireland. We ____________________________________________________ last month.

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PAST SIMPLE- INTERROGATIVE/NEGATIVE Exercise 18 Write the interrogative and negative forms of the sentences. 1. you / learn / French / at school? _________________________________________________ 2. why / he / go / out / so early? _________________________________________________ 3. when / they / arrive / at the airport? _________________________________________________ 4. he / not-stay / at home / yesterday. _________________________________________________ 5. we / not-see / her / for a long time. _________________________________________________ 6. who / you / speak to / at the meeting? _________________________________________________ 7. which / dress / you / choose? _________________________________________________ 8. I / not-pay / a lot / for the jacket. _________________________________________________ 9. he / understand / the question? _________________________________________________ 10. we / not-know / about the accident. _________________________________________________ Exercise 19 Complete the sentences with a verb in the past simple. Last summer I 1. ___________ my holiday in Venice. I 2. ___________ in a lovely hotel near St. Marks Square and the people there 3. _____________ very friendly. I 4. _____________ for long walks around Venice and I 5. __________ a lot of beautiful monuments. I also 6. __________ a water-bus to the islands, which 7. ___________ fascinating, especially Murano which 8. _____________ glass ornaments and lamps. In fact, I 9. ___________ some souvenirs for my friends- a beautiful glass necklace and a colourful vase. I also 10. __________ the Biennale art exhibition, which 11. __________ very interesting. I 12. __________ up the Bell tower, too- there 13. ___________ a lot of steps! I 14. _____________ quite a few postcards to my friends and I 15. __________ sad to leave. PROGRESSIVE ASPECT The progressive aspect indicates an incomplete action. The progressive auxiliary be in the present, past or future form is followed by the present participle form of the verb in the interrogative, negative and affirmative: Present: Past: Future: He is listening. They were singing. We will be travelling. He isnt listening. They werent singing. They wont be travelling. Is he listening? Were they singing? Will they be travelling?

Verbs ending in e remove the e and add ing: take taking Verbs ending in ie change to y: die dying Short verbs ending in one vowel and one consonant double the final consonant: stop stopping Verbs ending in -y add ing: stay staying PRESENT PROGRESSIVE temporary action: Hes studying at the moment future event: Im meeting my professor tomorrow TIME EXPRESSIONS at present, at the moment, for the time being, now, currently, this week/month/year. Exercise 20 Write the sentences in the affirmative, interrogative and negative forms of the present progressive. 1. She / study/ now. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. We / listen / to the politician.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. They /write/ to the bank. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I / have / lunch / at the moment. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. He / teaching / his friend to speak English. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ PRESENT SIMPLE/PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Dynamic and state verbs Dynamic verbs (describing an action) can be used in the progressive form. State verbs (describing a state) are not usually used in this form. Some verbs can be both dynamic and state, depending on their meaning. Some state verbs are: like prefer mean need doubt matter concern Some verbs that can be both: think have see look hear appear feel taste smell be weigh remember seem know recognize contain detest love forget understand belong cost suppose wish hate believe want own owe astonish satisfy

Exercise 21 Write the correct form of the verb in brackets according to the meaning. 1. I _________ (think) you are wrong. 2. He __________ (have) a shower at the moment. 3. Jane ________ (not see) what I mean. 4. This box __________ (weigh) a lot! 5. We __________ (prefer) the sea to the mountains. 6. The actor __________ (appear) in the new film that comes out tomorrow. 7. They _________ (seem) to know what they are talking about. 8. He ___________ (not understand) anything. 9. What do these words __________ (mean)? 10. I certainly __________ (agree) with you.

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Exercise 22 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. stay is thinking speaks take doesnt think is having are taking is speaking do you have is staying

1. She _____________________ about buying a car. 2. We ______________________ 2 exams next week. 3. We always __________________ in a hotel when we are on holiday. 4. ________________________ a computer in your office? 5. She ____________________ at the conference next week. 6. He __________________________ with his friends during the holidays. 7. She _________________________ its a good idea. 8. I __________________________ the bus every day. 9. He _________________________ a bath at the moment. 10. She _________________ French and German fluently. Exercise 23 Choose the correct form and pay attention to the time expression. 1. What (are you doing/do you do) under the table? Whats the matter? 2. Where (is he going / does he go) every day with that suitcase? 3. I (am reading / read) a fascinating book in this period. 4. They (arent working / do not work) at the moment. 5. (Is it raining / does it rain) hard? I need to go out. 6. We never (are listening / listen) to what he says. 7. I usually (am cleaning / clean) my house on Saturdays. 8. He (is smoking / smokes) a lot nowadays. 9. I (am taking / take) the dog for a walk as its sunny now. 10. (Do you ever dream/ Are you ever dreaming) at night? SHORT ANSWERS Exercise 24 Match the answers to the questions. 1. Are they coming to the party? 2. Do we have to pay for it? 3. Is she coming back? 4. Does she eat meat? 5. Is it still raining? 6. Does it always rain a lot here? 7. Do they have everything they need? 8. Are you waiting to see the doctor? 9. Do you see your cousin very often? 10. Are we going to Greece this year? a. No, she doesnt. b. No, they arent. c. No, we arent. We dont have any money. d. Yes, it is. e. No, I dont think she is. f. No, they dont. g. Yes, I am. Hes very late. h. No, I dont. i. Yes, it does at this time of year. j. Yes, we do.

PAST PROGRESSIVE description of unfinished action at exact time in the past: At 3.30 we were travelling on the train. continuing action in the past often in relation to action in simple past which may interrupt progressive action : I was watching TV when the lights went out. describing scenes or simultaneous actions: While I was cooking my husband was gardening. Note: State verbs are not used in the past progressive.

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TIME EXPRESSIONS while, when, at + time, during. Answer the following questions. What were you doing at: 1. 6 p.m. yesterday evening? 2. 9 a.m. this morning? 3. 11 p.m. last Saturday? 4. 3 p.m. on Sunday afternoon? 5. 2 a.m. 3 days ago?

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Exercise 25 Write the questions in the past progressive and answer them. 1. the girls / play / basketball? No, they / play / football. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Jane / sing? No, she / listen to / music. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. you / wait / for the bus? No, I / look at / the shop. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. he / laugh /? No, he / cry. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. the cat / sleep? No, it / eat. WHILE/WHEN Exercise 26 Match the sentences and insert while or when. 1. I was driving a. we saw the strange man. 2. He was cooking b. they were listening to Jazz. 3. They were having a drink c. I had an accident. 4. We were leaving the theatre d. he cut himself. 5. She fell asleep e. she was watching the film.

_____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

PAST PROGRESSIVE / PAST SIMPLE Exercise 27 Write the verbs in the past progressive or past simple form. 1. When I last ___________ (see) him, he ___________ (run) along the street. 2. Jane _________ (wait) for me when I ___________ (arrive) late last night. 3. Mike __________ (not / believe) me when I __________ (tell) him the news. 4. While I __________ (tidy) up my room, I _________ (find) some old letters. 5. What _________ (you / do) when I ___________ (phone) you this morning? PERFECT ASPECT The perfect aspect describes a complete action: Present perfect: Susan has watched a wonderful programme. Past perfect: Susan had watched the documentary before. The perfect auxiliary have in the present, past or future tense is followed by the past participle form of the verb regular ed or irregular in the interrogative, negative and affirmative: Present: He has taken some photos. He hasnt taken any photos. Has he taken any photos? Past: They had robbed the bank. They hadnt robbed the bank. Had they robbed the bank? Future: We will have finished our exams by June.

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PRESENT PERFECT action started in past and influences present: The cat has broken the vase again unspecified time of action in the past: Hes been to Australia twice period not finished at time of speaking: Ive written 3 letters so far this morning Note: contrary to the perfect form in Italian, the present perfect in English is not only a past tense. Think of it as a bridge connecting the past to the present. The verb to go has two past participles: She has been to London = she went there and she came back. She has gone to London = she went and she hasnt come back yet. Adverbs of frequency go between the auxiliary and the past participle: He has never been to Rome. TIME EXPRESSIONS since (specific point in time), for (period of time), ever, never, yet, already, lately, recently, this week/month/year, until now, up to now, so far, its the first/second/third time, al l my life, before. Exercise 28 Write the sentences in the affirmative, interrogative and negative forms of the present perfect. 1. I (pass) my exam. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He (lose) his keys. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We (tidy) the room. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. She (finish) her work. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. They (send) me some money. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 29 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb. 1. I _______________ (be) very busy lately. 2. _______________ (you-see) a film recently? 3. We ________________ (not-finish) our meal, yet. 4. They _______________ (buy) two new chairs for the garden. 5. What _______________ (you-do) with my book? I cant find it! 6. Mary _______________ (teach) for 30 years now. 7. He ________________ (write) 3 letters so far. 8. Where _______________ (he-go)? He should be here now. 9. Thank you for inviting me. I ________________ (have) a wonderful time here. 10. We _______________ (meet) a really nice person. His names Mike.

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FOR/SINCE Exercise 30 Complete the following sentences with for or since. 1. It hasnt rained __________ June. 2. We have been married __________ 10 years now. 3. Ive known John __________ a long time. 4. We have known each other _________we were children. 5. They have had this car __________ 2008. 6. She has been ill _________ several days. 7. We havent seen her _________ last summer. 8. He hasnt eaten anything _________ this morning. 9. This jacket is very old. I have had it _________ ages. 10. It has been hot __________ May. JUST/ALREADY/YET/EVER/NEVER/STILL Apart from still, which goes before the auxiliary have, the other adverbs go between the auxiliary and the past participle: He still hasnt found his keys. Have you ever been to France? We have just arrived. Yet is used in the interrogative and negative form and expresses expectation of something to happen: Has your lesson started, yet? We havent finished the course, yet. Note: Yet placed at the beginning of a sentence expresses but or nevertheless: Jane says shes speaks French fluently, yet I have never heard her speak it. just already yet ever never still

Exercise 31 Complete the sentences with one of the words from the box. 1. Bob __________ hasnt phoned me. Im getting worried. 2. Have you ___________ eaten porridge? 3. We have ___________ seen this film, but well watch again as its a classic. 4. Sue has ___________ come back form her holiday in Greece-shes so brown! 5. Have you finished your exams, ___________? 6. I have ___________ been to Turkey, but I would love to go. 7. They havent installed my phone, __________. 8. Has she __________ worked in a restaurant? 9. The books I ordered __________ havent arrived. Where are they? 10. I have ___________ visited Rome, but it would be nice to go there again. PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE Exercise 32 Put the verb in brackets in the correct form. Use the present perfect or past simple and pay attention to the time expression. 1. Everything is ok. We __________ (not / have) any problems so far. 2. Mary __________ (not / go) to work yesterday because she was tired. 3. John __________ (be) to Australia, but he is back now. 4. They __________ (not / finish) building the bridge, yet. 5. My sister __________ (get) married in London 10 years ago. 6. Is Bob still here? No, he __________ (just / go) out. 7. How many plays __________ (Goldoni / write)? 8. How long __________ (you / know) Tom?

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9. I __________ (never / meet) that man in my life. 10. He __________ (drive) to London last week. Exercise 33 Choose the most appropriate verb form. 1. Susan has lived/lived in Venice for 10 years, but she left in 2006. 2. The Titanic has sunk/sank in 1912. 3. Someone has stolen/stole my bike! Now what shall I do? 4. Janet has been/went to Scotland three times this month. 5. Maria has graduated/graduated from University last February. 6. I have seen/saw the film The Matrix five times. Im going to see it again tomorrow. 7. She has walked/walked to work for the last four weeks. 8. When they were young, they have lived/lived in France. 9. Oh dear! I have torn/tore the page. Ill have to write everything again. 10. We have lost/lost our way to the house yesterday, but then found it eventually. 11. I havent seen/didnt see you since you went on holiday. 12. Shakespeare certainly hasnt written/didnt write this play. 13. We havent completed/didnt complete the exercise, yet. 14. She last has gone/went to the theatre 5 years ago. 15. More details have emerged/emerged about the death of the politician now. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE emphasis of continuing character of action from past to present: It has been raining for 3 hours now action that has recently stopped: John is hot. He has been gardening. action or situation that is temporary: We have been living in Venice for 2 weeks now. The present perfect progressive focuses on the duration of an action, not on the finished action and its result. Compare: How long have you been writing letters? Ive been writing letters all morning. How many letters have you written so far? I have written 5 letters. TIME EXPRESSIONS for, since, how long, all morning/week/month/year, lately, recently. Exercise 34 Complete the sentence with the present perfect continuous form. 1. They _______________ (work) for 4 hours now. 2. She ________________ (dream) ever since she saw that lovely man. 3. Why are you crying? I_________________ (watch) a sad film. 4. Im so tired. I _____________ (study) all night. 5. We ____________ (collect) rare books for several years. 6. It ______________ (rain) since yesterday. 7. He ______________ (learn) English since last year. 8. I ______________ (wait) for the bus for over an hour. 9. He _________________ (work) in the bank for over a year. 10. She _________________ (sleep) for 12 hours now.

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PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Exercise 35 Choose the correct form of the present perfect. 1. His face is familiar, but I (have forgotten / have been forgetting ) his name. 2. You look tired. Yes, I (have run / have been running) all day. 3. We (have seen/ have been seeing) this film several times. 4. (Have you watched/ Have you been watching ) the new crime series on TV? 5. He (hasnt been eating/hasnt eaten) anything for ages. 6. The baby (has cried/ has been crying) all night. 7. He (has had / has been having) a shower and now he feels better. 8. We (have been listening/ have listened) to music all evening. 9. They ( have done / have been doing) these exercises for over two hours now. 10. I (have been knowing / have known) them for a long time. PAST PERFECT The perfect auxiliary had followed by the past participle form of the verb regular ed or irregular. action taking place in the past preceding another action in the past: the train had left when I arrived at the station past unreal events in hypothetical statements: If I had studied English better, I wouldnt have failed the exam reported speech: He said he had gone to the shops the day before The past perfect is generally used together with the past simple form, to denote an earlier action. Compare: When I arrived home, the children went to bed. (First I arrived and then the children went to bed) When I arrived home, the children had gone to bed. (First the children went to bed and then I arrived) TIME EXPRESSIONS since (specific point in time), for (period of time), ever, never, yet, already, this week/month/year, it was the first/second/third time, all my life, before, by the time. Exercise 36 Write the sentences in the interrogative and negative form. 1. I had forgotten to bring my ticket. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. I had slept the night before. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. She had lost her wallet on the train again. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. We had visited London before. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. They had seen a lion before. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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PAST PERFECT/PAST SIMPLE Exercise 37 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. When I __________through Bologna I __________about the good times I __________ there as a student. ( walk; think; spend) 2. As soon as she __________ cleaning the floors she __________ gardening. ( finish; start) 3. After I ___________ the letter, I _________ that I ___________ the wrong address. ( post; realize; write) 4. John __________ me if I __________ away on holiday. (ask; be) 5. When I __________ home last night, my family ___________ to bed. ( get; go) 6. We __________ worried about John because we _________ several times but he ____________ the phone. (be; call; not answer) 7. When I __________ home, I __________ that a burglar __________ my computer. ( arrive; see; steal) 8. She __________ James on the street yesterday and he _________ her that he __________ ill for two weeks. He still ____________ well. (meet; tell; be; not look) 9. I __________ out of the window last night because I _________ some noises and I ___________ that my cat _________ in a tree. (look; hear; find; get stuck) 10. I ____________ Susan to the party but she _______________ come because she ___________other plans. (invite; can; make) PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE continuing action in the past preceding or interrupted by another past action : I had been reading for ten minutes before the lights went out emphasis of continuing character of action from earlier past to more recent past: It had been raining for 3 hours now action or situation that was temporary: We had been living in Venice for 2 months. The past perfect progressive focuses on the duration of an action, not on the finished action and its result. Compare: How long had you been writing letters? Id been writing letters all morning. How many letters had you written? I had written 5 letters. TIME EXPRESSIONS for, since, how long, all morning/week/month/year, before. Exercise 38 Look at the situation and write a sentence with the past perfect progressive form of the verb. 1. There was a smell of burnt chips. Someone / fry. _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The children were dirty. They / play / in the garden. _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Jane was crying. She / cut / onions. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. David was very red. He / sunbathe / all day on the beach. __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The garden was under a foot of snow. It /snow/ all night. __________________________________________________________________________________ PAST PERFECT SIMPLE / PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Exercise 39 Complete the sentences with the past perfect simple or progressive form. 1. It was the first time that he ________________ (invite) me to lunch. 2. We _______________ (drive) for about an hour when we saw the hotel. 3. It ____________ (be) a tiring day and I was exhausted. 4. What _____________ (you-do) before I phoned you?

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5. They ______________ (watch) TV when the earthquake happened. 6. We ____________ (never-see) a snake before. 7. By the time he ________________ (finish) his homework it was well after midnight. 8. When we arrived at the cinema the film ______________ (start). 9. He ______________ (study) English for 3 years when he started the new course. 10. When the waiter arrived with our food, we _________________ ( wait) half an hour. USED TO DO / TO BE USED TO DOING / WOULD To be used to doing (adjective + preposition + gerund) expresses being accustomed to doing something in the present: I am used to getting up at 6.00 am. Are you used to going to bed late? Used to do (verb + infinitive) expresses an action done regularly in the past, but not now (or vice versa): I used to swim a lot when I was young. He didnt use to drive a car to work, but now he does. Would + infinitive without to describes a past routine without contrasting it with the present: Every day he would take the n 34 bus to the station and then he would catch the train to London. Exercise 40 Complete the sentences using one of the expressions above with the verb in the correct form. 1. He ______________________ (smoke) cigarettes, but now he smokes cigars. 2. We ______________________ ( work) in this small room, despite the conditions. 3. I ______________________ (drive) on the left now Im living in Britain. 4. My mother ______________________ (tell) me a story at bedtime when I was young. 5. ______________________ (you/play) the piano when you were young? 6. We ______________________ (not/eat) so early in the evening. We usually eat at 8.00 pm. 7. This contemporary artist ____________________ (do) a lot of sketches before painting the final portrait. 8. I never ______________________ ( walk) to work, but now I need the exercise. 9. There _______________________ (be) a bookshop here, but now there is a clothes shop. 10. He _______________________ (take) the dog out for a walk every evening. FUTURE TIME There are no inflected forms to express the future, so other alternative forms are used: Arrangement: He is having lunch with Mary on Friday. (present continuous) Fixed programme: The train arrives in Venice at 10.40. (present simple) Personal intention: We are going to have a party tomorrow. (be + going to + infinitive) Immediate future: Careful! You are going to fall. (be + going to + infinitive) Immediate future: Google is about to buy a social network. (to be + about to + infinitive) Spontaneous decision: There are no buses now. I think I will get a taxi. (will + infinitive without to) Offering to do something: Ill help you with those bags. Shall I open the door? Request: Will you open the window, please? Asking for suggestion: What shall I / we do this evening? (shall + infinitive without to) Promise: Ill write to you when I get there. (will, shall + infinitive without to) Prediction: Dont worry about her. Im sure she will arrive. (will + infinitive without to) Time clause: He will phone when/ if /as soon as he gets home. (will in main clause, present tense in subordinate clause) Formal future arrangement: The Queen is to visit Italy soon. (to be + infinitive of verb) Continuing action in the future: I will be studying every evening next week. (will + be + present participle) Action completed some time in the future: We will have finished painting the room by the time you get back from your holidays. (will + have + past participle)

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Continuing action completed at some time in the future: She will have been studying English for one year by the end of term. TIME EXPRESSIONS next weekend /week/month/year, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in three days/weeks/months time, by. Exercise 41 Complete the sentences using one of the future forms above and the correct form of the verb. 1. Look out! We _______________ (crash) the car! 2. The phone is ringing. I _______________ (answer) it. 3. The film _______________ (begin) at 10. 4. I ________________ (not / work) tomorrow, so we can go to the beach. 5. I havent got any money. What ________________ I (do)? 6. If you ________________ (touch) that plate, you _____________ (burn) yourself. 7. She ________________ (apply) for the job that was advertised in the newspaper. 8. The Pope ______________ (visit) Turkey in November. 9. You _______________ (go) to France, I promise. 10. I dont think the exam ______________ (be) very difficult. 11. Jane ________________ (work) on her thesis for the next 3 months. 12. By the time I arrive home, the workers _______________ ( repair) my TV. 13. During the next century the climate _______________ (become) warmer. 14. The guided tour ________________ (leave) from the hotel at 8 a.m. tomorrow. 15. I think I___________________ (go) to bed early tonight Im tired. TIME CLAUSES WITH FUTURE EVENTS In time clauses with reference to future time, the main (independent) clause has a future reference, but the subordinate (dependent) clause remains in the simple present. The subordinate clause usually starts with a time adverbial such as when, after, before, as soon as, until. main clause: subordinate clause: Ill come home as soon as I finish the test. Were going to speak to her when we see her. If the sentence starts with a subordinate clause, the two clauses are separated by a comma: When we get home, well have a shower. Before he goes, hell phone you. Exercise 42 Match the clauses with a time adverbial. 1. We wont get home 2. Ill phone him 3. She wont have breakfast 4. I will go mad 5. He will go for a swim tomorrow 6. We will go to the restaurant 7.He isnt going to sign the contract 8. You wont pass the exam 9. They are going to celebrate 10. You will recognize him a. he reads it carefully. b. I have a holiday. c. the weather is fine. d. you study hard. e. they have finished their exams. f. you see him. g. after midnight. h. I get into the office. i. the concert. j. she goes out to work.

when after before as soon as until if unless

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Exercise 43 Write the verbs in brackets in the present or future form. 1. Unless you ___________ (do) some shopping, you _____________ (not-eat) this evening. 2. I __________ (get) in touch with Joe when I ______________ (arrive) in France. 3. As soon as you ___________ (finish) your test, you ___________ (have) the results. 4. By the time they _________ (return), he _____________ (be) ready. 5. We _________ (go) into the garden after you _________ (visit) the house. 6. He _________(think) about the restoration before he _________ (consider) buying the house. 7. What __________(you-do) if you ___________(not-have) enough money? 8. What __________(happen) when the company __________ (be) reorganized? 9. I _________ (ask) Mary about her mother when I ____________ (phone) her. 10. As soon as you _____________(get) off the bus, you ____________ (see) my house.

UNIT 3 INFINITIVE AND ING FORM, THE PASSIVE FORM INFINITIVE Note the forms of the infinitive: present infinitive: to tell continuous infinitive: to be telling perfect infinitive: to have told perfect continuous infinitive: to have been telling present infinitive passive: to be told perfect infinitive passive: to have been told INFINITIVE AS NOUN The infinitive or an infinitive phrase can be used as a noun: To play the piano is her dream / Her dream is to play the piano. If the action is used in a general sense, the -ing form can be used: Learning English is not easy. ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE However, it is more usual to use the construction introduced by it: It is her dream to play the piano. It is not easy to learn English Sometimes the infinitive may be part of a construction with for: It is easy for you to say that. Exercise 44 Write the infinitive form of the verb in brackets. 1. He was lucky __________ (be) alive. 2. It was nice __________ (meet) you. 3. Im glad _________ (hear) that you are better. 4. It is important ________ (have) a meeting. 5. Are you ready _________ (eat) now? ADJECTIVE WITH TOO AND ENOUGH The following constructions take the infinitive form: too + adjective + infinitive: The tea is too hot to drink. adjective + enough + infinitive: It is not warm enough to go out. Note: we do not say too much before an adjective. Enough precedes a noun: There are enough chairs.

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Exercise 45 Rewrite the sentence with too or enough. 1. She is too old. She shouldnt drive. ______________________________________________________. 2. He is not old enough. He shouldnt drink alcohol. ____________________________________________. 3. We are too tired. We cant continue studying. ______________________________________________. 4. The child is too short. He cant reach the biscuits. ___________________________________________. 5. I am not strong enough. I cant lift the box. ________________________________________________. NOUN and PRONOUN + INFINITIVE The infinitive can follow the noun and pronoun to show what can be done to them: I have a lot of work to do. (I have a lot of work that I must do). Would you like something to eat? (would you like something that you can eat?). Exercise 46 Replace the phrase in italics with a phrase with an infinitive form. 1. I have nothing that I can wear this evening. ________________________________________________. 2. He hasnt got anything that he can do at the moment. _______________________________________. 3. There is a lot that we can talk about. _____________________________________________________. 4. There are so many books that I must read for my studies. ____________________________________. 5. There is nowhere that we can go on Saturdays. _____________________________________________. VERB + INFINITVE Some of the most common verbs followed by the infinitive form: aim expect allowed fail arrange forget ask hope attempt manage be *mean begin offer care plan choose prefer continue proceed decide promise *Can have both infinitive and ing form with different meanings: Compare: a) I remember seeing the Queen when I was young b) Remember to lock the door when you go out a) I stopped seeing my friend as we had quarrelled b) I stopped to visit my friend on the way back from Venice a) I tried taking an aspirin for my headache b) I tried to lift up the heavy box a) I didnt mean to hurt you b) Going to university means studying a lot a) I suggest you go to the library tomorrow b) He suggested having a picnic Exercise 47 Replace the phrase in italics by an infinitive form. 1. She threatened that she would shoot him. _________________________________________________. 2. We hope well arrive early. _____________________________________________________________. 3. I promised that I would send a postcard. __________________________________________________. 4. He reminded me that I had to see my lawyer. _______________________________________________. 5. We remembered that we had to lock the door._______________________________________________. VERBS + BARE INFINITIVE Apart from modal auxiliary verbs, the following verbs take the bare infinitive:

refuse *remember say start *stop threaten *try want wish

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make: They made him work twice as hard as the others. let: My parents let me stay out at night when I was young. dare: He didnt dare go out in the snow because it was dangerous. help: I will help you do your homework. suggest: I suggest you study more. would rather: Id rather stay at home than go out this evening. Had better: youd better study if you want to pass your exam. INFINITIVE OR BARE INFINITIVE Exercise 48 Choose the correct infinitive form. 1. I want __________ (go) on holiday. 2. He planned ___________ (build) a house. 3. They suggested I ____________ (buy) a car. 4. We will arrange ____________ (meet) as early as possible. 5. He refused ____________ (participate) in the project. 6. Hed better ___________ (hurry) up or hell be late. 7. I darent __________ (tell) him about the broken vase! 8. Will your parents __________ (let) you go to the party? 9. He managed __________ (finish) the essay on time. 10. We stopped ____________ (admire) the shops on the way. VERB + COMPLEMENT + INFINITIVE Some verbs require a complement before the infinitive of the verb: He told me to go home. The most common verbs are: advise forbid recommend allow force remind challenge invite request command order tell enable permit encourage persuade Note: The verb want if followed by a complement follows the same rule: They wanted him to be a doctor. Exercise 49 Complete each sentence with your own ideas. 1. Hot weather encourages people to _____________________________________________. 2. Why did they allow__________________________________________________________? 3. We have told _______________________________________________________________. 4. He persuaded _______________________________________________________________. 5. My doctor has advised_________________________________________________________. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE The infinitive is also used to express purpose: He went to the bank to get some money (He went there because he wanted to get some money). Note: do not use for in this case. For + gerund is used to express the general purpose of a noun: This is a tool for cutting things. Exercise 50 Replace the phrase in italics by an infinitive form of purpose. 1. We went to the travel agents because we wanted to book a flight. ______________________________.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

He started the course because he wanted to learn French. _____________________________________. They went to Egypt because they wanted to see the pyramids. _________________________________. I am studying because I want to become a doctor. ___________________________________________. He will buy a car because he wants to drive to work. _________________________________________.

-ING FORM The ing form has a wide variety of functions:

It is a present participle used as part of a progressive aspect: The bus is waiting. the -ing form (gerund) acts as a noun: Smoking is bad for you. It is used as an adjective: It was a boring film. the -ing structure takes the place of a relative clause: Students wishing to enrol (students that wish to enrol) the -ing form follows a preposition: I look forward to meeting you.

VERBS + -ING FORM avoid consider dislike enjoy imagine like practice remember spend(time) stop waste (time)

deny finish love resist suggest

detest hate mind risk try

Exercise 51 Complete the sentences with your own ideas. 1.I enjoy _______________________________________________________________________________________. 2. I hate _______________________________________________________________________________________. 3. I spend my evenings ___________________________________________________________________________. 4. I dont mind __________________________________________________________________________ ________. 5. I cant resist _______________________________________ ____________________________________________. 6. I dont want to waste my time ____________________________________________________________ _________. 7. I have tried to avoid ____________________________________________________________________________. 8. I suggest ______________________________________________________________________________________. VERB + INFINITVE /-ING Exercise 52 Put the verb in brackets in the infinitive with or without to or ing form. 1. Put that cigarette out! You are not allowed _________ in here. (smoke) 2. Its hot in here. Would you mind _________ the window? ( open) 3. He found the work difficult but he managed _________ the exam. (pass) 4. I never read Shakespeare now, because they made me _________ it at school. (study) 5. Where would you like _________ tonight? (go) 6. I suggest we __________ of a plan. (think) 7. Her doctor advised her _________ a specialist. (see) 8. He spends all his time _________ comics. ( read) 9. My parents werent very strict. They let me __________ out late in the evenings. (stay) 10. This new job means __________ to get up early. (have) 11. They avoided ___________ the subject. (mention) 12. He doesnt enjoy __________ TV at all. ( watch)

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13. I stopped ___________ at the view halfway up the mountain. (look) 14. He remembers ___________ a horse in the mountains when he was young. ( ride) 15. If you dont know his telephone number, try ___________ it up in the phone book. ( look) Exercise 53 Film titles often begin with a gerund or infinitive form of the verb. Write the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. _____________________________(save) Private Ryan. 2. _____________________________(catch) a Thief. 3. _____________________________(be) John Malkovich. 4. _____________________________(kill) a Mockingbird. 5. _____________________________(regard) Henry. 6. _____________________________(have) and Have Not. 7. _____________________________(raise) Arizona. 8. _____________________________(die) For. 9. _____________________________(educate) Rita. 10. ____________________________ (be) or Not ______ (be).

THE PASSIVE VOICE The Passive form (see Appendix I) of the verb is made up of a tense of the verb to be plus the Past Participle: Active: Someone has borrowed my book. Passive: My book has been borrowed. The Passive is used when there is little interest in, or knowledge of, the agent of the action, and more interest in the action or its result. If it is necessary to identify the agent of the action, the preposition by is used: The project was undertaken by an architect. Note: In English there is also the passive form of the progressive aspect: They are cleaning the windows. The windows are being cleaned They were photocopying the documents. The documents were being photocopied. A more formal passive construction to describe beliefs, opinions etc. uses the impersonal It: It is said he has won numerous awards. (They say he has won numerous awards). It is believed that the Government is thinking of imposing new taxes. (They believe the Government is thinking of imposing new taxes).

Exercise 54 Complete the sentences with a passive construction, using the verbs in brackets and in the tense suggested. 1. The play (write) by Shakespeare. (past simple) 2.These books (not read) by children. (present simple) 3. A new art gallery (open) next month. (future simple) 4. I (tell) to go to the information desk. (past simple) 5. She is lucky as she (leave) a lot of money by her aunt. (present perfect) 6. I realized that I (rob) when I opened my bag. (past perfect) ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Exercise 55 Rewrite the sentences in the passive form. Add the agent only where necessary. 1. The police have arrested the thief. ___________________________________ 2. The fierce dog bit the man on his leg. ___________________________________ 3. Christopher Wren designed this church. ___________________________________ 4. The government is going to increase taxes next month. ___________________________________

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5. Scientists are making progress in cancer research. 6. They were painting the room when I came in. 7. Someone has taken my phone. 8. They will mend the roof next week.

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

MODAL AUXILIARY PASSIVE FORM The Passive can be used with modal auxiliary verbs: Modal + be + past participle: The work must be done today. The coat should be taken to the dry cleaners. Modal + have been + past participle: The painting should never have been sold. Exercise 56 Rewrite the sentences in the passive form. 1. You must walk the dog every day. 2. He should post the letter now. 3. They will handle the vase with care. 4. They have to photocopy the documents. 5. Somebody could have called the doctor.

____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

UNIT 4 MODAL AUXILIARIES AND OTHER AUXILIARIES, CONDITIONAL FORM, REPORTED SPEECH MODAL AUXILIARIES Modal auxiliary verbs have the following characteristics: There is no infinitive form of these verbs; they are followed by the bare infinitive of the verb (apart from ought to); there is no s in the third person singular present; they do not need the auxiliary do to form the interrogative and negative forms; they have no ed and ing forms. The modal auxiliaries are: can, could, will, would, shall, should, ought to, may, might, must Some forms are known as semi-modals, as they share some, but not all the characteristics: to be able to, have to, to be allowed to, would rather, to be going to, had better Ability: I can swim. I could ride a bicycle when I was 5. I have been able to speak English since I was at school. Permission: Can/Could/May/Might I use your phone? We were allowed to leave the lesson early. Obligation: You must study more. You have to drive on the left in Britain. They had to go to hospital. Did you have to tidy your room when you were young? I will have to climb the stairs. The lift is out of order. Prohibition: You mustnt touch that dog. Its dangerous. He wasnt allowed to go out. Necessity: The child needs to have his own room. Her hair needs cutting. No necessity: You dont have to / dont need to / neednt come with me if you dont want to. Advice: You should / ought to go to bed - you look tired. He had better study harder. Offers: Ill help you with your homework. Shall I open the window? Requests: Can / Could / Will / Would you buy me a newspaper, please? Past habit: He used to / would play football when he was ten. Preference: We would rather stay at home than go out.

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Probability: Stephen may/might be here, but Im not sure. The bus should be here by now. Dogs can be difficult to educate. This painting cant be a Picasso-theres no signature. You must be tired after such a hard day. She must have been tired. He cant have known. Exercise 57 Rewrite the sentences using one of the modal verbs above. e.g. I want permission to go home early = Can/Could/May I go home early? 1. I would like to use your phone. _______________________ 2. Jane has the ability to play the violin. _______________________ 3. The doctor has advised me to stop smoking. _______________________ 4. I would like to help you pick up that heavy suitcase. _______________________ 5. It is prohibited to smoke in here. _______________________ 6. It is not necessary to wear a uniform. _______________________ 7. I order you to tidy your room. _______________________ 8. When I was six, I was able to play the piano. _______________________ 9. Open the door, please. _______________________ 10. It would be better if you studied harder. _______________________ 11. He can drive now. He started to drive when he was 18. _______________________ 12. I advise you to read that book. _______________________ 13. It isnt necessary for you to go to the shops today. _______________________ 14. It was obligatory for me to take the dog for a walk every day. ______________________ 15. It is prohibited to wear a miniskirt in church. Change your clothes. _______________________ 16. It is necessary to clean the floor. _______________________ 17. It is possible that the painting is by Vermeer. _________________________ 18. It isnt possible that your brother is here -hes in America! ________________________ 19. I would prefer to go to the cinema. _________________________ 20. It would be better if you left early to catch the train. ________________________ MUST / HAVE TO Exercise 58 Complete the sentences with a form of must or have to. 1. Im tired. I __________ go to bed early tonight. 2. Mary ___________ go to school on Saturdays. 3. We __________ fly to London for a meeting next week. 4. You __________ visit us again soon. 5. He __________ cook because his wife is away. 6. __________ (you) pay taxes if you live abroad? 7. He __________ study harder if he wants to pass the exam. 8. She __________ go to the post office to renew her passport. MUST NOT / DONT / DOESNT HAVE TO Exercise 59 Complete the sentences with a form of must not or dont/doesnt have to 1. Passengers __________ speak to the bus driver. 2. Im lucky. I __________ go to work on Saturdays. 3. My daughter __________ ask permission to go out at night. 4. You __________ go near that building. Its falling down! 5. Schoolchildren __________ wear a uniform in Italy. 6. You ___________ smoke in the restaurant. 7. You __________ come to the party if you dont want to. 8. There is enough bread for lunch. You __________ buy any more.

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Exercise 60 Need(s) doing / Need(s) to do / Neednt do 1. You __________ (buy) any more milk. There is enough in the fridge. 2. He __________ (feed) the cat twice a day. 3. We __________ (bring) our umbrellas today. Its sunny. 4. The car __________ (repair). 5. They __________ (provide) more information. MODALS EXPRESSING DEDUCTION AND POSSIBILITY The modals must, will, may, might, cant and could also express deduction and possibility. Present The man must be extremely rich to own a Rolls Royce. She must be working a lot at the moment. Shes never at home. Youve just had lunch. You cant be hungry. Ask Susan, she may/might know the answer. The phone is ringing. It could be my mother. If you speak to her, she will tell you she doesnt want to know. Exercise 61 Complete the sentences using one of the modal verbs above. 1. Youve been working all day. You ___________ be very tired. 2. The restaurant __________ be very good because its always empty. 3. Wheres John? He __________ be in his office. 4. Dont phone Mary now. She ___________ be busy. 5. I dont know when they are coming. They __________ be here any time now. Past The phone rang but I didnt hear it. I must have been asleep. Jo is very tired. She must have been studying all night. Tom drove straight into the wall. He cant/couldnt have seen it. Wheres my dictionary? You may/might have left it on the bus. I think he will have finished his exam by now. Exercise 62 Complete the sentences using one of the modal verbs above. 1. The house is empty next door. The neighbours __________ gone away. 2. The exam __________ been very easy as only half the students passed. 3. -Wheres my mobile phone? I dont know. You __________ put it in your bag. 4. Jenny isnt at home. She ___________ gone to work. 5. He ____________ been feeling depressed after his wifes death. DIDNT NEED TO DO / NEEDNT HAVE DONE I didnt need to get up early, so I didnt. I neednt have got up early, but it was sunny, so I did. Exercise 63 Rewrite the sentence using one of the modals above. 1. I bought some bread but there was already plenty in the cupboard. ______________________________________________________________________________

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2. He took an umbrella when he went out, but it didnt rain. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. It wasnt necessary to hurry to catch the train as there was still lots of time, so we had a coffee. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. She took her camera on holiday, but she never used it. ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. It wasnt necessary for Tim to explain the situation, as everybody already knew. ______________________________________________________________________________ SHOULD HAVE DONE / HAD TO DO I should have got up early this morning. Now Ill be very late! I was late home because I had to finish some work in the office. Exercise 64 Rewrite the sentence using one of the modals above. 1. Why didnt you go to see the doctor? You _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Jane couldnt come yesterday evening because there was a lot of work to do. Jane _________________________________________________________________________ 3. We left before the end of the meeting to go home early. We ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. It was a great party last night. Why didnt you come? You ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. I waited a very long time for the bus. I _____________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 65 Choose the correct alternative. 1. The box looks heavy. (Would/Will/Shall) I help you? 2. I dont understand this exercise. (May/Could/Shall) you explain it to me? 3. The water is too deep. You (mightnt/mustnt/dont have to) go swimming. 4. Im really tired. I (could/should/ought) go to bed. 5. He (cant/shouldnt/might) have stolen the car. He was abroad at the time. 6. Susan is late again. She (cant/must/should) have missed the train. 7. Jane (had to/should have/must have) work at the weekend. 8. The bus is usually on time. It (ought to/ might/can) be here by now. 9. Its the law. You (might/could/have to) pay taxes. 10. Im really sick. I know I (mustnt/shouldnt/cant) have eaten all that ice-cream last night! OTHER FUNCTIONS OF AUXILIARY VERBS Auxiliary verbs can be used: in short answers: Is he Italian? Yes, he is. Can he swim? No, he cant. agreements and disagreements with statements: London is very expensive. Yes, it is. This film is terrible. No, it isnt.

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additions to affirmative statements: so + auxiliary verb + subject She is English and so am I. He likes music and so do I. additions to negative statements: neither/nor + auxiliary verb + subject I dont have much money and neither does he. He cant swim and nor can I. question tags: after affirmative statements a negative interrogative is used: He is coming, isnt he? She went there, didnt she? after negative statements a normal interrogative is used: They didnt go there, did they? He hasnt come, has he? He never arrives on time, does he? Im early, arent I? Lets eat, shall we?

Some colloquial exceptions are:

Affirmative additions to negative statements: He doesnt like Bach, but I do. They didnt go there, but I did. Emphasis: You do look well! Do sit down.

Exercise 66 Complete the sentences with the correct form of an auxiliary verb. 1. She was out all day and so ___________ I. 2. They didnt see him and neither ___________ we. 3. He doesnt write as well as I __________. 4. You cant speak French, __________ you? 5. Lets have a drink, ___________we? 6. Im slow, __________ I? 7. I dont like meat, but he __________. 8. They never listen, _________ they? 9. Has he arrived? Yes, he __________. 10. Hes been to Paris, __________ he? CONDITIONAL Conditionals are made up of a main clause and a subordinate clause beginning with if or unless: If they dont study, they will never pass the exam. Unless you turn off the music, Ill get angry. I would go now if I were you. He would never do that job unless he were paid enough. Conditional 0 (situation always true if something happens): If Im late for school, my father gives me a lift. Conditional 1 (possible result): If I find your watch, Ill tell you. If you dont sleep, youre going to be tired. Conditional 2 (imaginary result): Im sure Jane would understand if you explained the situation to her. If I were you I would go to the doctor. Conditional 3 (past situation with hypothetical result): If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.

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CONDITIONAL 1 Exercise 67 Match the phrases and connect them with if. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ill drive to work we have enough money they will buy the car you give me the phone number well fall asleep a. b. c. d. e. they can afford it. if he continues speaking. well go on holiday. I miss the bus. Ill phone her.

CONDITIONAL 2 Exercise 68 Put the verbs into the correct tense. 1. If I _________ (have) enough money, I ___________ (buy) a house. 2. It __________ (be) lovely if we ___________ (can go) on holiday together. 3. If I __________ (be) you, I __________ (consult) a lawyer. 4. We __________ (come) to the party if we __________ (not-have) so much work. 5. If I __________ (win) the lottery, I __________ (travel). CONDITIONAL 3 Exercise 69 Rewrite the sentences using the third conditional form. e.g. I didnt know you were ill, so I didnt visit you = If I had known you were ill, I would ha ve visited you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I didnt listen to him, so I got lost._______________________________________________________. My teacher didnt explain the rule, so I didnt understand. ___________________________________. I fell down the stairs because I didnt see the cat. ___________________________________________. She wasnt careful so she broke the glass. _________________________________________________. He met his future wife because he went to the rock concert. ___________________________________.

Exercise 70 Complete the sentences using one of the conditional forms above. 1. If we __________ (catch) the 10.30 train to Venice, we __________ (arrive) in time. 2. You dont look healthy. If you __________ (take) more exercise, you _________ (feel) better. 3. If I ___________ (be) president, I _________ (change) a lot of things. 4. If you __________ (break) a bone, it ________ (hurt) a lot. 5. The view was great. If I _________ (have) a camera, I _________ (take) some pictures. 6. We _________ (enjoy) the holiday more last week if the weather ___________ (be) better. I WISH/IF ONLY Reference to present time: Wish /If only + noun/pronoun + simple past: I dont have much time now = I wish / If only I had more time. Wish / If only + noun/pronoun + past subjunctive of verb to be: You are not here but I would like you to be here = I wish / If only you were here. Wish / If only + same noun/pronoun as subject + could: I cant fly = I wish / If only I could fly. Wish / If only + different noun/pronoun from subject + would: You dont tidy your room, but I want you to tidy it = I wish you would tidy your room. Exercise 71 Rewrite the sentences with I wish + present time reference. e.g. I want a new car = I wish I had a new car. 1. You are not here. I wish _______________________________________________________________. 2. She wants to be young again. She wishes__________________________________________________.

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3. He wants to be able to fly. He wishes _____________________________________________________. 4. I dont want to be fat. I wish ____________________________________________________________. 5. They want to have more time. They wish __________________________________________________. Reference to past time: Wish / If only + noun/pronoun + past perfect: I didnt go to university. Now I have a badly -paid job = I wish / If only I had gone to university. Exercise 72 Rewrite the sentences with I wish + past time reference. e.g. I didnt study hard at University = I wish that I had studied hard at University. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We didnt know about the train strike. We wish____________________________________________. I said some terrible things. I wish ________________________________________________________. He forgot to post the letter. He wishes ____________________________________________________. She broke the precious vase. She wishes __________________________________________________. I didnt tell her about the change in the timetable. I wish __________________________ ___________.

Write a few of your own wishes, relating to the present or past. 1. I wish ______________________________________________________________________________. 2. I wish ______________________________________________________________________________. 3. I wish _______________________________________________________________________________. 4. I wish ______________________________________________________________________________. REPORTED SPEECH When reporting what somebody says, unless we report the speech on the same day, we go back a tense. Always check pronouns, place and time expressions and tenses and aspect. Direct speech Present simple Present progressive Past simple +progressive Present perfect simple +progressive Past perfect simple + progressive Future is / are going to Future will Conditional 1 Conditional 2+3 Yesterday Tomorrow Reported speech Past simple Past progressive Past perfect simple + progressive Past perfect simple + progressive No change Was/ were going to Would Conditional 2 No change The day before The next day, the following day, the day after

Reporting statements: I speak French = She said that she spoke French. I am going to University = He said that he was going to University. Reporting questions: Why do you smoke? = He asked me why I smoked. Do you like beer? = He asked me if / whether I liked beer. Requests: John, sit down, please. = She told John to sit down. Jane, dont open your book. = He told Jane not to open her book.

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Other reporting verbs: promise, refuse, offer, decide, agree + (not) to do; ask, advise, encourage, remind, invite + someone + (not) to do. Exercise 73 Report the following statements. 1. He said, This is my chair. He said ___________________________________________________. 2. She said, I went to the cinema yesterday. She said ________________________________________. 3. He said, I am writing a book. He said ___________________________________________________. 4. She said, Ill do it tomorrow. She said ___________________________________________________. 5. They said, We have never been to Paris. They said ________________________________________. 6. He said, I would do it if I could. He said ____________________________ _____________________ . 7. Were waiting for the new teacher. They said ____________________________________________. 8. I have made a mistake. She said _______________________________________________________. Exercise 74 Report the following questions. 1. Whats the time? she asked. She asked _______________________________________________. 2. How are you? Jane asked me. Jane asked me __________________________________________. 3. Wheres the bank? he asked. He asked me __________________ __________________________. 4. Where have you been? His mother asked. His mother asked_______________________________. 5. Do you like chocolate? Tom asked. Tom asked _________________________________________. 6. "How many people live in this town?", asked Robert. Robert asked ___________________________. 7. Why is he leaving?, asked Susan. Susan asked ___________________________________________. 8. Was the party a success?, asked Tom. Tom asked _________________________________________. REPORTING VERBS Exercise 75 Complete the sentences with one of the reporting verbs from the box. refused advised 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. promised reminded offered invited decided agreed

You really should go to the doctor. He ______________ _____________________________________. I will certainly post the letter. She ______________________________________________________. Ok, Ill help you. He __________________________________________________________________. Im going to wash the car. She __________________________________________________________. I certainly wont pay the bill. He ________________________________________________________. Well help you to cook. They ______________________________________________ ____________. Dont forget to lock the door. He _______________________________________________________. Would you like to go for a pizza? They __________________________________________________.

UNIT 5 NOUNS, QUANTIFIERS, PRONOUNS, ARTICLES COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns have a singular and plural form, whereas common uncountable and proper nouns only have a singular form and are followed by a singular verb. Here are some examples: news luck weather behaviour advice economics work music furniture luggage traffic literacy information progress homework environment knowledge permission money perspective

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Plural nouns can have both singular and plural forms, but sometimes only have a plural form: people clothes police pyjamas clergy binoculars trousers glasses scissors scales

Collective nouns, which are countable, are followed by the singular when considered as a group and plural when considered as individuals. Some examples are: audience class committee crowd family public staff team jury group Some nouns are both countable and uncountable, and may change their meaning as a result: work hair glass space talk cold light evil time wood experience rubber business iron paper

Exercise 76 Choose the most appropriate alternative. 1. His advice (is/are) helpful. 2. There is still (a/-) light on in your bedroom. 3. Its difficult to find (a/-) work at this time of year. 4. She has (a/-) long blonde hair. 5. I cant come out because I have (homework/homeworks) to do. 6. She wants (a/-) permission to look at the documents. 7. This information (is/are) useful. 8. The news on television (was/were) terrible. 9. You can find the complete (work/works) of Shakespeare on the Internet. 10. The students are making a lot of (progress/progresses). 11. We had (a/-) lovely time on holiday. 12. They are carrying out (a/-) research on medieval manuscripts. 13. She didnt have (a/-) luggage when she travelled. 14. Do you have (an/-) iron I can borrow? 15. The lecturer will read out (a/-) paper on archaeology in Greece. 16. I have (an/-) experience in teaching children. 17. The (talk/talks) between China and the USA will take place on Monday . 18. You have (a/-) wonderful furniture. 19. The people (is/are) not happy with this idea. 20. The police (is/are) investigating the incident.

QUANTIFIERS WITH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Quantifiers go before a noun and modify it. Countable nouns Many a few Few Neither None all / both Uncountable nouns much a little little A good/great deal of Both Some/any most enough a lot of/lots of plenty of

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A few /few, a little/ little There is a difference between using few / little with or without the indefinite article: A few students came to the lesson means not many students came, but this is still positive. Few students came to the lesson means not enough students came and this is negative. I have a little time to help you means I have not much but enough time. I have little time to help you means I dont have enough time. Some / any with singular countable nouns some means unspecified: Some idiot broke my camera. Some day Ill travel. any means almost every or no particular in affirmative sentences: Take any book you want. Phone any time. Exercise 77 Complete the sentences with one of the quantifiers above. More than one answer is possible in some cases. 1. I think I have __________ sugar left if you need it. 2. __________ Jane nor Mary lives in Venice. 3. _________ of the people I know have a computer. 4. Would you like ___________ wine? 5. _____________ of the time I just go out to eat. 6. He doesnt like meat very ___________. 7. There are _________ chairs in the classroom. We need to get others. 8. How __________ children do you have? 9. There isnt _________ pasta for everyone. Buy some more. 10. She has two cats. __________ are very sweet. 11. The train leaves in 30 minutes, so we have ____________ time. Lets have a coffee. 12. How ___________ information do you need? FORMAL NEGATION Formal written English tends to use a negative form with a positive verb form to give a negative meaning: There isnt any evidence = There is no evidence They didnt see anybody = They saw nobody Not much and not many can be replaced by little and few: Not much evidence is left = Little evidence is left There are not many chairs = There are few chairs Exercise 77 Write the negative sentences in a more formal way. 1. I dont know anybody. _____________________________________________________ 2. He didnt go anywhere. _____________________________________________________ 3. We havent done anything wrong. _____________________________________________________ 4. Some people dont have any respect. _____________________________________________________ 5. They dont have any money left. _____________________________________________________ 6. They didnt ever confess to the crime. _____________________________________________________ 7. I dont need any more chairs. _____________________________________________________ 8. We didnt have much difficulty. _____________________________________________________ 9. There arent many possibilities. _____________________________________________________ 10. Not many people know this. _____________________________________________________

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POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS In the possessive form the apostrophe goes before the -s after singular nouns, but after the -s after plural nouns: My brothers name is Peter The doctors responsibilities If the word has an irregular plural form, the apostrophe comes before the s: womens rights childrens toys The possessive can also be used with time expressions: todays lesson in three weeks time Note: Do not put an apostrophe before a plural used with figures or acronyms: the 1960s Exercise 79 Insert the apostrophe where appropriate. 1. I think Mozarts best opera is The Marriage of Figaro. 2. The musicians wives are accompanying them on the tour. 3. Tom and Susans house is very old. 4. The Womens Movement was very strong in the 1970s. 5. I only had five hours sleep last night. Inanimate objects generally avoid using the possessive form and form a compound noun. A compound noun is a combination of two or more nouns: coffee cup history book In compound nouns, nouns are used in their singular forms: processor of words = word processor The plural is added to the principal noun in the compound: tea cups toothbrushes mothers-in-law Do not confuse the possessive of it (its) with the contraction its (it is): its location is unknown church. their IQs are high

its in the

Exercise 80 Rewrite the following sentences as compound nouns. 1. Course for the study of computers. __________________________________________ 2. Research concerned with ancient manuscripts. __________________________________________ 3. Issues regarding university reform. __________________________________________ 4. Texts used for art history. __________________________________________ 5. Course for the appreciation of oil painting. __________________________________________ PRONOUNS Exercise 81 Complete the table. Subject I He She You We object you him hers it ours theirs itself yourselves themselves possessive mine reflexive yourself

Exercise 82 Substitute the words in italics with a pronoun. 1. I borrowed a book from Eric. ____________________________________________________________. 2. Why dont we invite Tom and Sue to our party? ____________________________________________. 3. Is this your coat? _____________________________________________________________________. 4. Jack phoned my husband and me. _______________________________________________________. 5. Did you say you gave Mary a present? ____________________________________________________. 6. Is that coat Harrys? __________________________________________________________________. 7. I dont like the smell of fried fish. ________________________________________________________.

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8. This house is Stephen and Samanthas. ___________________________________________________. 9. She will send Bill and you a postcard. _____________________________________________________. 10.Tom and I would like to go away for the weekend. __________________________________________. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS These are not so common in English as in other languages. Some examples of verbs that use a reflexive pronoun are: remind, teach, blame, cut, hurt, help, enjoy. They can be used to emphasize a noun or pronoun: We met the President himself. Other verbs may use a reflexive pronoun, but only if the action is unusual: He managed to wash himself despite his broken arm. Do not confuse the reflexive pronouns with the reciprocal pronouns each other and one another: Susan and Jane looked at each other = Susan looked at Jane and Jane looked at Susan Susan and Jane looked at themselves in the mirror = Susan looked at herself and Jane looked at herself Exercise 83 Complete the sentences with a reflexive pronoun or reciprocal pronoun where necessary. 1. He enjoyed ___________ on holiday. 2. You should relax ___________more often. 3. My parents met ___________ when they were in Paris. 4. I taught __________how to play chess. 5. I dont feel ___________ well today. 6. You dont look well. You should take care of ___________ better. 7. Children should help ________ at school. 8. I could not concentrate ___________ on the lesson. 9. The couple gave ____________ a kiss and said goodbye. 10. I made this cake ___________. RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS Relative pronouns and adverbs are used in relative clauses to join sentences together to avoid repetition. Relative pronouns relative pronoun Who Which Whose Whom That

use subject/object pronoun -people subject/object pronoun -things possession people + things object pronoun people (formal) subject/object pronoun people + things (only in restrictive relative clauses)

example The man who gave you a lift The book which is on the table The man whose wife is a writer The woman to whom I wrote The picture that hangs on the wall The girl that I met yesterday

Relative adverbs relative adverb When Where Why

use time expression place reason

example The year when we got married The house where he lived The reason why he left

RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES Restrictive relative clauses define a general term or expression. No commas are used: The man who gave you a lift is my father.

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Object pronouns (but not subject pronouns) in restrictive clauses can be omitted: The girl (that) I met yesterday is French. Exercise 84 Join the restrictive clauses with a relative pronoun or adverb. 1. People live in Italy. They are called Italians. The people ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. I chose the dress. It was the cheapest. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We slept in the hotel. It was very comfortable there. The hotel ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. That is the professor. His wife is Russian. That is the professor _________________________________________________________________ 5. The dictionary is on the table. It is mine. The dictionary _______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 85 Say whether the following pronouns are subject (S) or object (O) pronouns. Which sentences can omit the relative pronoun? 1. Do you know the man who I was talking to? 2. Do you know the man who was talking to me? 3. The books that are on the shelf are dusty. 4. The books that we borrowed from the library must go back. 5. That is a museum which I love. 6. That is a museum that is 500 years old. 7. Ill stay in a town which is near the sea. 8. Ill stay in a town that I have never visited before. NON-RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES Non-restrictive relative clauses add information to the initial term, but do not define it. Commas are used, and the relative pronoun that cannot be used. The relative pronouns cannot be omitted: Professor Smith, who teaches Biology, is very nice. I went to a see play by Goldoni, which was performed at the Fenice Theatre. Compare the following statements: a) My sister who lives in London came to visit me. b) My sister, who lives in London, came to visit me. Which sentences states that I have only one sister? Which sentence states that I have more than one sister? Exercise 86 Join the relative clauses with a relative pronoun. Remember to use commas. 1. Charles Darwin was the grandson of a physician. Charles Darwin was born in 1809. Charles Darwin__________________________________________________________________________ 2. He met John Henslow at Cambridge. John Henslow was professor of biology. He met _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Darwin sailed on the HMS Beagle. Darwin acted as a naturalist on board the ship. Darwin ____________________________________________________________________________

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4. The voyage took 5 years. It included Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The voyage _________________________________________________________________________ 5. In 1859 Darwin completed the Origin of the Species. It sold out the day of publication. In 1859 ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. The Church upheld creationism. It attacked him as a blasphemous radical. The Church ________________________________________________________________________ FORMAL / INFORMAL RELATIVE CLAUSES Formal The woman to whom I spoke This man about whom I was telling you The book for which we were looking The year in which we got married The house in which he lived The reason for which he left

Informal The woman (who) I spoke to This man (who) I was telling you about The book (which) we were looking for The year when we got married The house where he lived The reason why he left

Exercise 87 Change the sentences from formal to informal. 1. These are our friends with whom we went on holiday to Greece. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. That was the month in which there was the flood. __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Do you know the reason for which she lost her job? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The professor to whom I spoke was in a hurry. __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. We climbed to the top of the mountain, from which we had a wonderful view. ___________________________________________________________________________________ CLAUSES WITH PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS Relative pronouns can be substituted with a present or past participle: Past participle: The vase which was broken by Jane has now been repaired = The vase broken by Jane has now been repaired Present participle: The manual which contains all the instructions is helpful = The manual containing all the instructions is helpful. Exercise 88 Rewrite the sentences substituting the relative pronouns with a present or past participle. 1. The painting that was stolen from the gallery has been found recently. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The girl who brought our meal was Spanish. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Students who wish to do the exam must enrol by Friday. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The mushroom which was eaten by my friend was poisonous. __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. People who think about going on holiday should book early. ____________________________________________________________________________________

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ARTICLES a + singular noun with initial consonant; an + singular noun with vowel sound; a + singular noun with initial consonant sound; a + job; What + a + adjective + countable noun; The + singular or plural countable nouns when noun is specific; the + uncountable nouns indicates specific reference; omission of articles expresses a generic meaning; omission of article in the case of member of an institution; the + noun to indicate a category; the + hotels, newspapers; the + decades, but not for specific years; the + superlative form, but omission before possessive adjectives Geographical uses of the: groups of islands, federal states, rivers, seas, oceans, areas, deserts, forests, gulfs and peninsulas.

A temple. An arch. A European. He is a doctor. What a beautiful day! The queen The old lady is feeding the cats in the park. Tea is a popular drink in Britain. He goes to university. He went to hospital The tourist is becoming very selective. The Ritz. The Times. The 1960s. 1969 The best wine. His car The Philippines, the USA. The Mediterranean. The Nile. The Atlantic Ocean. The Middle East. The Sahara Desert. The Black Forest. The Gulf of Mexico.

Exercise 89 Complete the sentences with a, an, the or no article. 1. He studies the relation between ___________ experience and ___________ knowledge. 2. __________my theory was correct. 3. The holiday was _________ best I had ever had. 4. She lived for many months in ___________ USA. 5. He works as __________ dentist. 6. I love __________ classical music. 7. Have you ever been on ___________ River Seine? 8. That sounds like __________ European name to me. 9. We usually have ___________ lunch at 1.00 pm. 10. Do you remember __________ 1980s? 11. __________ smoking is not permitted here. 12. He didnt feel well so he went to ___________ hospital. 13. ___________ dog is said to be mans best friend. 14. __________ Henry VIII was famous for his many wives. 15. ___________ Lake Como is in northern Italy. 16. __________ power leads to __________ corruption. 17. He comes to Italy twice __________ year. 18. She is __________ best known for her work in medicine. 19. Did you play tennis __________ last year? 20. This is __________ last time I clean the floor!

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UNIT 6 ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, LINK WORDS ADJECTIVE POSITION Adjectives have only one form used for singular and plural nouns and they generally precede the nouns they modify: a magnificent table two beautiful girls Note: Demonstrative adjectives change before plural nouns: This cat these cats that bag those bags When more than one adjective precedes the noun, the nouns are usually not separated by and, except after verbs such as be, seem appear and look: There is a large, red box. The box is large and red. Adjectives of quality can also be used as nouns when they represent a class of person: Rich people = the rich poor people = the poor Note: this expression refers to a group of people, not to an individual. For individuals we say: a poor man or a young person. There is also a precise order (see unit 1): th a magnificent 18 -century square brown French mahogany table. It is unusual, however, to find so many adjectives in the same sentence. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES Compound adjectives may be formed with a noun, adjective or adverb and a present participle or a past participle: middle-aged lady a well-preserved tower a brightly-coloured dress long-lasting fame Exercise 90 Complete the sentences to form compound adjectives. 1. The castle is known very well. It is a _______________________________________________________. 2. The work on this house never ends. The work is ____________________________________________. 3. The student speaks English. She is an _____________________________________________________. 4. The consequences of these actions reach far. They are _______________________________________. 5. The vase is painted by hand. It is_________________________________________________________. 6. That dress is made very well. It is ________________________________________________________. Many compound expressions contain numbers: The tower is 90 feet high = It is a 90-foot high tower. The walls are 15 feet thick = They are 15-foot thick walls. Note: the plural forms remain singular, as adjectives do not have a plural form. Exercise 91 Complete the following sentences as shown above. th 1. The castle was built in the 12 century. It is a ______________________________________________. 2. The bridge is 400 years old. It is a ________________________________________________________. 3. The table is 3 feet long. It is a ___________________________________________________________. 4. The wall is 5 metres thick. It is a _________________________________________________________. 5. The project will continue for 5 years. It is a ________________________________________________. th 6. The poem was written in the 16 century. It is a_____________________________________________. 7. The boy is 14 years old. He is a _________________________________________________________. 8. The walk is 5 miles. It is a ______________________________________________________________. 9. The tree is 10 metres high. It is a ________________________________________________________. 10. The holiday lasted 3 weeks. It was a ____________________________________________________.

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PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES Present participle adjectives are active and mean having this effect: The book is interesting. Past participle adjectives are passive and mean affected in this way: I am interested in this book. Exercise 91 Complete the sentences with ing or ed. 1. I was __________ (surprise) when he passed the exam. 2. The film was very __________ (excite). 3. She is __________ (bore) with her job. 4. These exercises are __________ (confuse). 5. When he finished studying he was __________(exhaust). 6. The news isnt at all __________ (interest). 7. The children thought the documentary was __________ (fascinate). 8. He is __________ (convince) that he will win the race. 9. The ancient castle is __________ (amaze). 10. She doesnt seem to be __________ (interest) in the project.

ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS Prepositions that follow adjectives can often be different from those used in Italian. Always learn the adjective with the preposition. Some examples are: interested / involved / rich / located /situated + IN accustomed / adjacent / close / contrary /dedicated/connected/opposed/related/similar/attached /exposed/ limited/opposed/relevant + TO aware/capable/afraid / conscious/ convinced / full/made + OF suitable/famous/responsible / known + FOR doubtful/worried/serious + ABOUT associated / pleased/popular/ compatible / consistent/ covered / equipped/ familiar + WITH good/bad + AT surprised/astonished/amazed + BY Exercise 93 Complete the sentences with an appropriate preposition. 1. The archeological site is located _________ Crete. 2. Are you interested _________ philosophy? 3. We werent aware __________ the danger involved. 4. Hes worried _________ the exam. 5. Im not good _________ mathematics. 6. The place is famous _________ its cooking. 7. You cant be serious _________ moving abroad! 8. Hes afraid __________ spiders. 9. Im trying to find websites relevant __________ Astrology. 10.This house is suitable __________ a large family. ADJECTIVES AND COMPARISON One-syllable adjective: comparative bigger superlative the biggest The house is older than mine. It is the oldest in the neighbourhood Two-syllable or more adjectives: comparative - more important superlative the most important The book is more interesting than the film. It is the most interesting book Ive read this year. However, adjectives ending in y add ier and iest:

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The kitchen is dirtier than I thought. It is the dirtiest. Exercise 94 adjective good happy interesting farther/further modern Exercise 95 Write sentences with the comparative form. 1. Im __________________________ my sister Jane. (young) 2. His room is ______________________ hers. (tidy) 3. That sport is ____________________ it looks. (dangerous) 4. We need _____________________ details about the holiday. ( far) 5. Her French accent is _____________________ mine. (bad) Exercise 96 Write sentences using the superlative form of the adjective in italics. 1. Hes a good driver, probably ____________________. 2. Its a fascinating film, ________________________ Ive ever seen. 3. The dress is pretty, in fact its ______________________ I have. 4. This book is boring, _____________________ Ive read so far. 5. The house is modern, ______________________ in town. Exercise 97 Choose the comparative or superlative form. 1. Johns car is newer than /newest mine. 2. Your work is better than / the best in the class. 3. Have you read his later / latest novel? 4. The film is the longest / longer than two hours. 5. This tea is the worst / worse than Ive drunk. To reinforce comparative structures much, far, a great deal can be added: His house is much bigger than mine. She is far more intelligent than I am. They can work a great deal better. For parallel increase we use the + comparative form the + comparative form : The bigger the house, the better. To express equality we use as + adjective + as: Jane is as tall as Tom. Exercise 98 Rewrite the following sentences with as/not as + adjective + as. 1. Jane is less tall than Simon. Jane _________________________________________________________. 2. The box is very light, like a feather. The box _______________________________________________. 3. The lake is less deep than the sea. The lake ________________________________________________. 4. Ive had 4 drinks, the same number as you have had. Ive had _________________________________. 5. John eats less than Tony. John __________________________________________________________. The absolute superlative in English is usually formed by adding very before the adjective: Its very important. However, we often substitute the adjective with an absolute adjective: very big = huge very small = tiny very hungry = starving very tired = exhausted very cold = freezing Comparative and relative superlative Complete the table. comparative worse

superlative

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ADVERBS (for position of adverbs see Unit 1). Adverbs of manner are usually formed by adding the suffix ly to an adjective: slow = slowly There are some exceptions: good = well Some adverbs retain the same form as the adjective: hard, fast, early, late, high, low Some adjectives ending in ly cannot be used as adverbs: lovely, friendly, daily, weekly Exercise 99 Choose the most appropriate form. 1. The children listened careful / carefully to the teacher. 2. He drives fast/fastly. 3. I didnt sleep very good / well last night. 4. They have a week / weekly grammar test. 5. She always gives me a friendly / friendlily smile. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS OF MANNER The comparative and superlative of adverbs is formed by adding more and most to the positive form: She speaks French more quickly than I do There are some exceptions: well better best badly worse worst fast faster fastest hard harder hardest early earlier earliest little less least much more most He sings well, but she sings better. He sings best. The train arrived earlier than I expected. He writes worse than I do. Exercise 100 Complete the sentences with a form of the adverb in brackets. 1. He drove ____________ than ever along the motorway. (fast) 2. She plays tennis __________ than me. (good) 3. I think he works __________. (hard) 4. He acts __________ than anyone I know. (badly) 5. If you can come ___________ that would be fine. (early) Adverbs of time are usually placed at the end of the sentence. However, they can start a sentence to emphasize the time element: We will start working today. Today we will start working and tomorrow we will continue. Adverbs of frequency are usually placed after the simple tenses of to be: The train is often late Before the simple tenses of other verbs: They rarely go out Before the past participle in compound sentences: She has always tried to improve her English Adverbs of purpose use the infinitive form of the verb with to: Shes learning English to find a job. (see Unit 3). Exercise 101 Put the adverbs in the correct place in the following sentences. 1. They have been to London. (never) 2. We went to the sea when we were young. (rarely) 3. This phenomenon hadnt been seen before. ( ever) 4. We are in a hurry. (always) 5. She spoke very. (softly) 6. I dont know him. (well)

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7. Well see him. (tomorrow) 8. Do you go to the cinema on Saturdays? (usually) 9. How do you play football? (often) 10. She drives. (fast) PREPOSITIONS ON / AT / IN / TO Exercise 102 Complete the sentences with on, at, in or to where necessary. 1. She works _______Saturdays. 2. I was born ________August. rd 3. I was born _______December 3 . 4. What are you doing _______this evening? 5. Ill see you again _____ Monday. 6. See you _______the morning. 7. Lets go ______ the country _______the weekend. 8. Are you free ______next Monday? 9. Im seeing the dentist________10 oclock. 10. The train leaves____ten minutes. 11. He is going _________ today. 12. She was born _______1970. 13. They prefer to work______night. 14. The plane arrives _____the airport _______five oclock. 15. They arrived _______England yesterday_____ afternoon. PREPOSITIONS AFTER VERBS Some of the most common verb and preposition combinations: account / apply / apologise / care / search + FOR accuse / approve / consist / take advantage / take care / think + OF adapt / adjust / agree / belong / listen / look forward / prefer /relate / talk + TO comment / concentrate / congratulate (someone) / depend / rely / + ON agree / deal / provide (someone) + WITH argue / care /complain / talk / speak / think / laugh / worry + ABOUT Note: Verbs such as tell, discuss, phone, meet, and enter are not followed by a preposition: We had to discuss the problem. Please phone me as soon as possible. Exercise 103 Complete the sentence with an appropriate preposition where necessary. 1. I am certainly looking forward __________ seeing you at Christmas. 2. We will have to deal ___________ the problem as soon as possible. 3. Dont worry ________ the exam! 4. Please concentrate __________ the lesson. 5. I want to apologise _________ the delay. 6. I dont think he approves _________ us at all. 7. You will have to adjust __________ your new lifestyle. 8. He phoned _________ me last night. 9. What were you laughing __________ when I saw you? 10. It all depends _________ whether it will be sunny or not.

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CO-ORDINATION Joining independent clauses The following coordinating conjunctions are used to join independent clauses: For (because), And, Nor, But, Or, Yet (but), So A comma usually precedes the conjunction: The weather was hot, so I went to the beach. Exercise 104 Join the independent clauses with an appropriate conjunction. 1. This film is particularly interesting, __________ the director was blind when he made it. 2. She walked into the room, __________ she looked for her friend. 3. She has been to France for a long time, __________ she cant speak French. 4. We could go out, __________ we could stay at home and watch a DVD. 5. I was extremely tired last night, _________ I went early to bed. 6. She hasnt written, __________ has she phoned me. Conjunction pairs Conjunction pairs show the relationship between ideas in a sentence. The most common are: both and, either or, neither nor, rather than, whether or, not only but also. He has both a computer and a mobile phone. I should either exercise more or eat less. I am neither rich, nor famous. We would rather watch a video than go out. Have you decided whether you will apply for the job or not? He is not only very good-looking, but also rich. Exercise 105 Complete the sentences with one of the pairs above. 1. I will finish my work ____________ today _________ tomorrow. 2. I dont like him very much. He is _________ intelligent __________ ambitious. 3. I dont know __________ I will call them __________ not. 4. She would __________ have a pizza __________ pasta. 5. The lecture was __________ long, _________ boring. 6. I hate __________ cleaning __________ ironing. Joining dependent and independent clauses Subordinate conjunctions usually introduce dependent clauses. The most common are: Although / though + verb phrase: Although / Though it was raining, they still played the football match. Because / As / Since + verb phrase: We ate quickly because / as / since we had to return to work. Unless / if + verb phrase : Unless you study / If you dont study harder, you wont pass the exam. In spite of / Despite + noun phrase: In spite of / Despite the bad weather, we still had a picnic. While + verb phrase: He is American, while she is Dutch. So that + verb phrase: We are saving money, so that we can buy a house. Exercise 106 Choose the most appropriate alternative. 1. Although / Despite he was tired, he carried on working 2. She has a job, while / unless I am unemployed. 3. The price of petrol is high because / so that I wont use my car so often. 4. In spite of / Though what you say, I still think we should talk to him. 5. He bought a new computer as / while the old one no longer worked. 6. Unless / If you hurry up, you will miss the train.

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7. He wont believe me, although / so that I told the truth. 8. She spoke to him although / since she didnt recognize him. 9. So that / As you have finished early, you can go home. 10. Because / Although we are busy, we are hardly ever at home. UNIT 7 PREPOSITIONAL AND PHRASAL VERBS, EXPRESSIONS, WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED, FALSE FRIENDS PREPOSITIONAL VERBS A prepositional verb is a verb + preposition: Im waiting for you. Im looking at the proposal.

The preposition is placed before the object: I looked for the book. ( not I looked the book for)

Prepositions: about, after, at, for, from, in, into, of, on, to, with. Some of the most common prepositional verbs: account for agree with associate with believe in consist of cope with depend on listen to look for look into see to suffer from Inseparable verb constructions Exercise 107 Match the verb with a definition. call for carry on come across get on/off get over get on with go up / down go on look after look for run out of take off find by chance recover from an illness etc. increase / decrease continue take care of seek require enter / leave bus, train, plane continue have good relationship begin flight be short of

apply for care about deal with look at pay for talk about

ask for care for decide on look after rely on talk to

Exercise 108 Rewrite the sentences substituting the formal phrase in italics with a prepositional verb in its correct form. 1. Prices will increase next month.____________________________________________________________ 2. Doctors are seeking a cure. _____________________________________________________________ 3. He continued speaking for 3 hours. _________________________________________________________ 4. We have to take care of 5 children. _________________________________________________________ 5. I think we are getting short of bread. There is only one loaf left. _________________________________

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6. This emergency requires a lot of helpers. ____________________________________________________ 7. Leave the bus at the next bus-stop. ________________________________________________________ 8. While I was cleaning my room I found some old letters. ________________________________________ 9. I have a good relationship with my sister. __________________________________________________ 10. She is slowly recovering from a long illness. _______________________________________________ Exercise 108 Complete the sentences with an appropriate prepositional verb in its correct form in each space. apply for look after ask for pay for see to deal with suffer from take on explain to get on with

Hes a nurse at St. Marys Hospital. He 1. __________ the job last year and was 2. __________ at Christmas. Nurses don't earn much and they even have to 3. __________ their own uniforms. The nurses are all 4. __________ a pay rise. It is very tiring work 5.__________ the elderly patients and 6.__________ all their needs, but he 7. ___________ all of them. He often 8.__________ backache and has to 9.__________ the administration that he needs time off to 10. __________ this problem. PHRASAL VERBS A phrasal verb is a verb + adverb: He took the patient away. It is time to go out now. The adverb can be placed either before or after the object: I turned down the job. I turned the job down. I turned it down. (Note: do not place the pronoun after the particle). Adverbs: about, away, back, down, in, off, on, out, over, round, through, up. Some phrasal verbs are easy to understand: I put the book back on the shelf then looked round for another book to take out of the library. Sometimes the phrasal verb corresponds to another one-word verb: She always turns up (= arrives) at the last minute. He turned down ( = refused) all the jobs he was offered. Adverbs used in phrasal verbs often have common meanings: UP (= completely) UP (= increasing) I have used up all my spare money buying CDs. The numbers of deaths are going up all the time DOWN (= completely to the ground) I fell down and broke my arm. ON (= connect) Please switch on the heating. DOWN (= decreasing) The price of petrol is going down. ON (= continue) After secondary school, many young adults go on to study at university. OFF (= disconnect) She broke off her relationship.

OFF (= away, departing) Dont put off going to the doctor any longer. OVER (= from beginning to end) It is always important to think over the issue carefully.

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Separable phrasal verbs Exercise 110 Match the phrasal verb with a definition. break off bring about look up make out put off put up set up take off turn on/off turn down

recognise, distinguish raise cause (something to happen) start a business etc. Remove Discontinue lower; reject connect/disconnect an appliance consult a reference book Postpone

Exercise 111 Rewrite the sentences substituting the formal phrase in italics with a phrasal verb. 1. Please lower the volume of the radio. _____________________________________________________ 2. Initiatives were launched to cause government change. ______________________________________________ 3. You will have to remove your clothes for the x-ray. ___________________________________________ 4. The government has just raised the price of gas. _____________________________________________ 5. The meeting will be postponed until next Monday. __________________________________________ 6. I find it difficult to distinguish these signs. __________________________________________________ 7. They discontinued their relationship. ______________________________________________________ 8. He refused the invitation. _______________________________________________________________ 9. They have decided to start their own commercial activity. _____________________________________ 10. If you dont know the meaning of the word, find it in a dictionary. _____________________________ Exercise 112 Complete the sentences with an appropriate particle from the box. up down off on out for

1. Im afraid weve missed the flight. The plane took __________ five minutes ago. 2. Try looking __________ his phone number in the directory. 3. The number of births in Italy has gone __________ in the last decade. There are fewer children around. 4. Please turn _________ the radio. The music is giving me a headache. 5. I hope to be taken ___________ as an accountant in the near future. 6. Were you looking ___________ me? I was out in the garden. 7. He was so drunk that it was difficult to make __________ what he was saying. 8. I hope he will carry ________ with his English. 9. They are generous. They will pay __________ my courses. 10. The appointment has been put _________ until next month.

OTHER COMMON EXPRESSIONS TO BREAK to break down Their marriage broke down after only two years. to break off John broke off our engagement only a week before the wedding. to break out The First World War broke out in 1914. to break up with Breaking up with your girl or boy friend may be a cause of stress.

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to break the law Google has broken Internet privacy laws. to break a habit I want to break the nasty habit of biting my fingernails. to take a break If you are feeling tense, take a break and go for a walk. Exercise 113 Complete the expressions with break. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The car broke __________, so we had to walk. An epidemic of cholera has broken _________ in India. Nobody could agree and the meeting broke _________ early. You must break that annoying _________ of chewing on your hair. Apparently, Britons break ________ regularly through speeding and not wearing a seat-belt.

TO BRING to bring about to bring down to bring up a child to bring up a subject To bring back

The Mediation service will try to bring about a reconciliation. I wont buy that computer until they bring down the price. It isnt easy to bring up children nowadays. Human trafficking is a difficult subject to bring up. It is thought that the Italian lire might be brought back.

Exercise 114 Complete the expressions with bring. 1. What made you bring ________ that terrible subject? 2. They were brought __________ never to tell lies. 3. Some people want to bring _________ the death penalty. 4. Land reform brought __________ a great change in the lives of common people. 5. The ministers agreed that oil prices should be brought __________. TO LOOK to look after to look out to look for to look into to look forward to

Please look after the dog while Im away. It is crucial that you look out when you cross the street. If you have enough money, you should look for another flat. The Government is looking into the possibility of launching a new 24-hour help-line. The children were looking forward to Christmas.

Exercise 115 Complete the expressions with look. 1. He is looking __________ to a nice meal at home. 2. The police are looking __________ the robbery. 3. I have looked ___________ my glasses everywhere, but i still cant find them. 4. Look __________! Youre going to hit the car. 5. She will help look _________ my mother when Im out. TO PUT to put off to put out to put in to put by to put (somebody) up to put up with (something/someone)

He has put off his appointment with the doctor until next week. The firemen put out the fire while the policemen held back the crowd. You should put in an application for that vacant post. Im putting by some money for my holidays. While my room was being painted my neighbour put me up for a few days. I dont know how you can put up with that awful noise!

Exercise 116 Complete the expressions with put.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I cant put __________ the visit any longer. We have to put __________ that terrible barbecue smell every evening. Please put _________ your cigarette now. If I put ___________ a little money every week, Ill be able to buy a computer. Joe very kindly put me _________ for the night, as it was too late to go home.

TO TAKE to take into account to take on to take place to take advantage of to take up to take over

Employers must take into account the needs of people working for them. In English nouns can often take on the function of adjectives. The event will take place at the weekend. You should take advantage of the discounts in that shop. Bob wants to take up golf when he retires. Steve will take over his fathers business.

Exercise 117 Complete the expressions with take. 1. I have always wanted to take __________ yoga. 2. There were no funds so the exhibition never took __________. 3. He took _________ the job when I left. 4. You really should take __________ of his offer. 5. The book doesnt take __________ recent scientific research.

TO GET to get (receive) to get (find/buy) to get (become) to get (arrive) to get (catch) to get on /off to get on with to get in / out of to get over to get to get rid of to get used to

help, treatment, advice tickets, clothes, food worried, better, worse, ill, pregnant, close to someone, old home, to the airport a bus, train, plane a bus, train, plane your work, job, someone a car, taxi an illness, a shock, a death dressed, changed, married, divorced something something, doing something

Exercise 118 Substitute the phrase in italics with an expression for get. 1. I was becoming really bored with the lesson. ______________________________________________ 2. We have decided to divorce. ___________________________________________________________ 3. Continue with your work, please. ________________________________________________________ 4. He found it difficult to recover from his wifes death. ________________________________________ 5. We must throw out all that old furniture in the garage. ______________________________________ 6. Ill come as soon as I have put some clothes on. ____________________________________________ 7. When tourists come to Venice they have to get accustomed to walking. ________________________ 8. Where did you find that lovely dress? ____________________________________________________ 9. He became really angry when I told him.__________________________________________________ 10. Were catching the train at 6 p.m. _______________________________________________________

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TO KEEP to keep to keep + noun/pronoun + adjective to keep (on) + -ing to keep up to keep up with an appointment, a promise, in touch, track of something, an eye on, a record of something Exercise will keep you fit. He keeps asking stupid questions. If you want to keep up your English you must practise. Its difficult to keep up with him- he walks too fast!

Exercise 119 Substitute the word or phrase in italics with an expression for keep. 1. If you travel on business you need to know what is happening with your expenses. _________________ 2. If at first you dont succeed, continue to try. ________________________________________________ 3. This coat will help you stay warm. ________________________________________________________ 4. Could you watch the children while I go out?. ______________________________________________ 5. You must maintain the repayments to your creditors. ________________________________________ WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED MAKE / DO Make means to produce something while do means to perform an action. MAKE: friends, an excuse, a mistake, a photocopy, an effort, an excuse, an improvement, a decision. DO: your homework, the shopping, someone a favour, exercises, your best, well/badly, research, a course. Exercise 120 Complete the sentence with a form of make or do. 1. It is not easy to ___________ friends in a new town. 2. Lets ___________ an excuse and not go out tonight. 3. I _________ quite well in my test yesterday. 4. Redecorating the house has really __________ an improvement. 5. Could you ___________ the shopping today? Im too busy. 6. We will have to __________ a decision quite soon. 7. You havent __________ too many mistakes on your homework. 8. Could you __________ me a favour and buy me a newspaper? 9. How many photocopies do we need to __________? 10. There are a lot of exercises to __________. HAVE / TAKE HAVE: a bath, a meal, fun, a party, a look, an argument, an experience, a chat, a dream. TAKE: a train/bus/plane, a photo, a seat, time off, an interest in something, a trip, charge of something. Exercise 121 Complete the sentence with a form of have or take. 1. I __________ a lot of experience in accounting. 2. Im sure youll __________ fun on holiday. 3. Yesterday we __________ a trip to the seaside. 4. I think hes __________ an interest in me. 5. Unfortunately we __________ an argument about the car. 6. She has _________ a lot of photos of her cat. 7. Come in and ____________ a chat.

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8. I really need to __________ some time off and relax. 9. Please come in and __________ a seat. 10. Would you like me to ___________ a look at your homework? ALL / WHOLE / EVERY + -THING/BODY All + noun has a general meaning: All animals should be respected. All (of) the+ noun is more specific: All of the animals in the zoo need to be moved. All can be used with singular, countable and countable nouns and adjectives. It is not preceded by an article: All of the time They are all old Whole is used with singular countable nouns. It is preceded by the article the: We played the whole day Every (thing, body) is used with singular nouns: Everybody is so nice. We meet every week Exercise 122 Choose the most appropriate answer. 1. I spent the all / whole month preparing for my exam. 2. Everybody / All wants to have a mobile phone. 3. She remembered all / everything that she had learned. 4. Have you read the whole / all of War and Peace? 5. Physical exercise should be a part of whole / every day. 6. Lets forget the all / whole thing. 7. When I was young the milkman brought the milk every / all morning. 8. Yesterday it snowed all / every day. 9. All / Whole the people at the meeting were professionals. 10. I spoke to all / every of them. OTHER (S) / EACH OTHER / ANOTHER Other can be used with countable or uncountable nouns: I saw her only the other day. I prefer the other chocolate. Each other is a reciprocal pronoun referring to two people: They never talk to each other. One another is a reciprocal pronoun referring to more than two people: They all nervously looked at one another. Others refers to nouns in the plural: Jane is here, but where are the others? Another is used with countable nouns and refers to something which is extra or different: Have another drink. Have you got this dress in another colour? Exercise 123 Choose the most appropriate answer. 1. They phone each other / another every day. 2. Could I have other / another cup of coffee, please? 3. The other / others people were surprised when they heard. 4. Please come back other / another time. 5. We havent told the other / others, yet. 6. I saw him the other / another day. 7. She borrowed some others / other books from the library. 8. Some another / other people have rented the house. 9. We go there every other / another day. 10. They really love one another / other. SAY / TELL Say and tell are reporting verbs. Say does not require and indirect object, but tell must have an indirect object: He says that he is going to University. She told me she would phone.

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You can tell a joke/the truth/ a lie. Exercise 124 Complete the sentences with a form of say or tell. 1. He didnt __________ a word. 2. You should _________ the truth. 3. Could you _________ me the time, please? 4. What did you just __________? 5. He _________ he wasnt coming. 6. We _________ them not to go. 7. He _________ a funny joke. 8. She was always good at _________ stories. 9. At the moment I cant _________ whether Ill be there or not. 10. He _________ a lie. AS / LIKE Like is a preposition and means similar to. It is followed by a noun, pronoun or present participle. Some music, like disco, is awful. Hes a student, like me. This cereal is like eating paper. As is a conjunction and can also mean similar to. It is followed by a subject + verb. As can also be a preposition, but in this case it means in the position/form of. Write the essay as I showed you. He has to make important decisions as the curator of the museum Exercise 125 Complete the sentences with as or like. 1. He worked _________ a doctor in Africa. 2. Sometimes she behaves _________ a child. 3. Ill do it _________ agreed. 4. We regard them ___________ friends. 5. He was late, _________ usual. SUCH / SO Such a + adjective + noun: Its such a nice day. They were such nice people. So + adjective/adverb: Youre so kind. He went so fast. Exercise 126 Complete the sentences with such or so. 1. Ive never seen __________ many students in class. 2. It was __________ a lovely day that we went out for a walk. 3. Shes __________ a kind person. 4. She painted ___________ well. 5. Were having __________ bad weather. FALSE FRIENDS Many words to be found in the English language seem familiar to Italian students, but the meaning is often different. See Appendix III for the most common words. Exercise 127 Substitute the following words in italics with the correct word. 1. We went to buy some books from the local library. 2. The museum is actually undergoing restoration. 3. Admission prices were extremely economic. 4. The professor spoke on the argument of archaeology in the Near East.

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5. Control your letter when you have finished it. 6. Students must assist the seminars. 7. Did you see the notice on television last night? 8. Have you seen Jane ultimately? 9. The historic spoke about WWI. 10. The number of visitors to the museum this year has broken all primates. PRACTICE TEST Choose ONE alternative. 1. When you come out of the lift, you (will see / see / are seeing) 2 doors. 2. The information you gave me (were / was / have been) interesting. 3. I do the same things every day. My job is very (boredom / bored / boring). 4. We (have already / already have / has already) finished the test. 5. The phone's ringing. (Might / Will / Do) you answer it? 6. There is too (many / lot of / much) traffic in London. 7. I attended the course (for / to / for to) perfect my French. 8. Who (does live / lives / living) in that strange house? 9. I went there to see (what was the problem / what the problem / what the problem was). 10. I've worked here (since / from / by) I left school. 11. While you were in Rome you should (visit / have visited / be visiting) the Coliseum. 12. My sister and I send e-mails to (ourselves / each other / one another) every week 13. You won't change her mind, so there is (any / none / no) use in trying. 14. The company (founded / was founded / has been founded ) in 1920. 15. I think you are (doing / making / taking) a big mistake! 16. Did you come to lessons (on / -- / the) last week? 17. When we (got / reached / arrived) at the station, the train was leaving. 18. If I lost my job, I (will / would / --) have problems finding another one. 19. I enjoyed the meal. -So (do / did / am) I. 20. We went to Mestre, (that / -- / which) is a town in Italy. 21. They are looking (for / forward / after) a hotel for the night. 22. I dont know what (is the time / the time is / the time). 23. I wish you (dont / cant / wouldnt) talk so much! 24. Never (seen I / I have seen / have I seen) such terrible art! 25. Would you like (some / any / a) wine? 26. I am going (to / in / at) New York this summer. 27. Could you (take / make / do) this photo of the sea? 28. He is very interested (to / at / in) philosophy. 29. When I was young, I (used to play / used to playing / would playing) the guitar. 30. Does she work in the bank? Yes, she (is / does / works). 31. Im early, (amnt /am /arent) I? 32. She (still / yet / already) hasnt written to me! 33. I love (-- / the / a) Italian wine. 34. I knocked on the door, but (anybody / nobody / nothing) answered. 35. The floor needs (clean / cleaned / cleaning). 36. I remember (to see / see / seeing) the famous actor when I was young. 37. Id like (to meet / meeting / meet) that person one day. 38. Did your parents make you (tidy / to tidy / tidying) your room when you were young? 39. Im really worried (for / at / about) the exam tomorrow.

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40. He has a (four-years-old / four-year / four-year-old) son. Translate the following sentences. 1. Queste informazioni sono interessanti. 2. Non pu venire ora. Sta facendo il bagno. 3. Che bella giornata! 4. Maria studia filosofia? 5. Quale penna voi? Quella blu o quella nera? 6. Ha i capelli lunghi. 7. Guarda! Nevica. 8. Ha vissuto qui fino a ieri. 9. Sono qui da ore. 10.Sono qui dalle nove. 11. E mai stata allestero? 12.E tutta la mattina che scrivo lettere. 13. Vado in palestra una volta a settimana. 14.Mr Smith fa il medico. 15.Sono le sue. 16. Dovresti mangiare di pi sei troppo magra. 17.Non devo alzarmi presto domani domenica. 18.So parlare il francese da 2 anni. 19.Non occorre che tu venga domani. 20.Susan non pu aver preso il libro. 21.Partiamo sabato sera. 22.Se fossi in te non andrei l. 23.Lauto che Tom ha comprato italiano. 24.Stephen King, i cui libri sono molto famosi, molto ricco. 25.Volevano che gli studenti comprassero i libri. 26.Ho paura di volare. 27.Questo quadro fu dipinto da Rembrandt. 28.Si pensa che Jack sia molto ricco. 29.Il ragazzo mi chiese se conoscevo la citt. 30.Jane mi disse di rilassarmi. 31.Mi disse di non aprire la finestra. 32.Guarda laereo che sta decollando.

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Choose the correct alternative. Controversy over 'Caravaggio' painting A painting 1. __________ (that / what / who) was sold for 75,000 three years ago 2. __________ (had to / could / couldn't) be worth millions after experts authenticated it as a 3. __________ ( opera / works / work) by Italian master Caravaggio. Art dealer Clovis Whitfield said he 4. __________ (did / made / found) the discovery when he examined Apollo the Luteplayer for a 5. __________ (clientele / client / customer). It had been sold at Sotheby's in New York 6. __________ (in the / in / at) 2001, where the catalogue listed it 7. __________ (as / such as / like) possibly by Carlo th Magnone. But Sotheby's insists that the painting is not by Caravaggio. Mr. Whitfield, an expert in 17 Century art, said th his interest 8. __________ (in / on / at) the painting started when he saw it in the auction catalogue. He said a 17 Century description of a 9. __________ (Caravaggio's / Caravaggios' / Caravaggio) painting by biographer Giovanni Baglione corresponded with Apollo the Luteplayer, making it worth investigating. After the painting 10. _________ (was cleaning / was cleaned / cleaned), x-rays were taken, which showed changes in the painting, suggesting it was an original, rather 11. __________ (that / than / then) a copy. There were incisions that are characteristic of Caravaggio. There is a version of the 12. __________ (similar / like / same) painting in Russia's Hermitage Museum, which might be a second original. Sotheby's said a 13. __________ (great deal / number / numerous) of experts had attributed the painting to Magnone. They remain confident with 14. __________ (there / their / they're) cataloguing and 15. __________ (research / researches / researcher).

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APPENDIX I PAST: simple I watched

TENSES: ACTIVE VOICE progressive I was watching They were watching perfect I had watched perfect progressive I had been watching

He graduated in Archaeology in 1996. I was having a bath when the telephone rang. When they arrived at the cinema, the film had already started. When she first met him he had been learning English for 2 years. PRESENT: simple I watch He watches progressive I am watching He is watching perfect I have watched He has watched perfect progressive I have been watching He has been watching

She never eats meat. They often have pizza for dinner. He is studying French at the moment. They have visited most European countries in the last 20 years. I have been reading all morning. FUTURE: simple I shall/will watch He will watch progressive I shall/will be watching He will be watching perfect I shall/will have watched He will have watched perfect progressive I shall/will have been watching He will have been watching

The meeting will start at 2 oclock. At this time tomorrow we will be travelling by train to Vienna. He will have finished all of his exams by this time next year. How long will she have been studying when she graduates? PARTCIPLES: Present: INFINITIVES: simple To watch watching Past: watched

progressive To be watching

perfect To have watched

perfect progressive To have been watching

It is important to arrive on time. She would prefer to be reading a good book now. We would like to have seen the Queen when we were in London. He seems to have been drinking a lot recently.

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TENSES: PASSIVE VOICE PAST: simple I was watched They were watched progressive I was being watched They were being watched perfect I had been watched

The letter was sent yesterday. The windows were being cleaned when I arrived home. The rubbish had already been taken away before 7 oclock this morning. PRESENT: simple I am watched He is watched progressive I am being watched He is being watched perfect I have been watched He has been watched

The documents are usually created in Word format. The article is being written at the moment. He has been told that he will get a promotion. FUTURE: simple I shall/will be watched He will be watched perfect I shall/will have been watched He will have been watched

That man will be arrested if he drinks and drives! The exhibition will have been visited by 500,000 people by the end of the year. PARTCIPLES: Present: being watched Past: having been watched

INFINITIVES: simple To be watched

perfect To be have been watched

The pills are to be taken twice a day after meals. He is thought to have been captured in Africa.

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APPENDIX II IRREGULAR VERBS BASE FORM arise awake be beat become became begin bend bite bleed blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go PAST SIMPLE arose awoke PAST PARTICIPLE arisen alzarsi, sorgere awoken svegliarsi essere, stare battere, picchiare iniziare piegare, piegarsi mordere sanguinare soffiare rompere portare costruire bruciare, scottare comprare afferrare, prendere scegliere venire costare tagliare

was/were been beat beaten become diventare began begun bent bent bit bitten bled bled blew blown broke broken brought brought built built burnt/burned burnt/burned bought bought caught chose came cost cut caught chosen come cost cut

dealt dealt trattare dug dug scavare did done fare drew drawn disegnare dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed sognare drank drunk bere drove driven guidare ate fell felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went eaten fallen felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen got /gotten (Am. E) given gone mangiare cadere sentire, sentirsi combattere trovare volare dimenticare perdonare congelare diventare, ottenere dare andare

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grow hang hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing

grew hung hanged had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learnt/learned left lent let lay lit/lighted lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang

grown hung hanged had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learnt/learned left lent let lain lit/lighted lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung

crescere appendere impiccare avere sentire, udire nascondere, nascondersi colpire, picchiare tenere far male, ferire mantenere, tenere sapere distendere, porre condurre, guidare imparare lasciare, partire prestare lasciare, permettere giacere, star sdraiati accendere, illuminare perdere creare, fare significare, voler dire incontrare, conoscere pagare mettere leggere cavalcare, andare (in) suonare sorgere correre dire vedere vendere mandare, spedire mettere, sistemare agitare, tremare brillare sparare mostrare, far vedere chiudere cantare

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sink sit sleep smell speak spell spend stand steal stick strike swim take teach tear tell think throw

sank sunk sat sat slept slept smelt/smelled (Am.E) smelt/smelled spoke spoken spelt/spelled (Am. E) spelt/spelled spent spent stood stood stole stolen stuck stuck struck struck swam swum took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

affondare sedere, sedersi dormire annusare, sentire parlare formare con lettere spendere stare (in piedi) rubare attaccare, attaccarsi colpire, scioperare nuotare portare (via), prendere insegnare strappare dire, raccontare pensare lanciare, tirare capire svegliare, svegliarsi indossare, portare vincere scrivere

understand wake wear win write

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APPENDIX III NUMBERS AND TRENDS Cardinal numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty

31 40 50 60

thirty-one forty fifty sixty

70 80 90 100

seventy eighty ninety a hundred

1,000 a thousand 1,000,000 a million

1) When reading a number of three or more figures or writing it in words, we place and before the word denoting tens or units: 104 a hundred and four 2,986 two thousand nine hundred and eighty-six 2) Numbers after twenty are written with a hyphen: twenty-one thirty-four Otherwise all numbers are written as separate words: 101 one hundred and one 3) Either a or one can be used before hundred, thousand, million: 100 a/one hundred 150 a/one hundred and fifty 4) The words hundred, thousand, million are never made plural unless used with general reference to a large number: two hundred There were hundreds of birds in the trees. five thousand Thousands of people went to the concert. 5) Unlike Italian, in English the comma is used to divide groups of numbers: 1,000 is used to indicate decimals: 1.5 (one point five) 4.56 (four point five six) 6) The definite article is never used before percentages: The value of the shares increased by 10% He got a 5% pay rise 2,300 45,000 and the point

Ordinal numbers 1 nd 2 rd 3 th 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9
st

first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth

11 th 12 th 13 th 14 th 15 th 16 th 17 th 18 th 19

th

eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth

21 nd 22 rd 23 th 24 th 25 th 26 th 27 th 28 th 29

st

twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth twenty-sixth twenty-seventh twenty-eighth twenty-ninth

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10

th

tenth

20

th

twentieth

30

th

thirtieth
th

31 th 40 th 50 th 60

st

thirty-first fortieth fiftieth sixtieth

70 th 80 th 90 th 100

th

seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth

1,000 thousandth th 1,000,000 millionth

1) Ordinal numbers written as figures add the last two letters of the written word: first - 1st second - 2nd third - 3rd fourth - 4th 2) Ordinal numbers are usually preceded by the definite article: the first day the twentieth week the eighth day 3) The titles of Kings, Wars etc. are written with Roman figures but are read with ordinal numbers: Elizabeth II (Elizabeth the second) World War II (the second World War) 4) Ordinal numbers are used when reading dates: 9th December = the ninth of December 25th June = the twenty-fifth of June 5) Dates can be written in different ways: 9th December December 9 December 9th Note that American English tends to put the month before the day: December 9 This requires attention when writing dates in figures: 9.12.1999 = 9th December 1999 (British English) = 12th September 1999 (American English) 5) Years are usually read in pairs: 1900 = nineteen hundred 1450 = fourteen fifty 1990 = nineteen ninety 1066 = ten sixty-six but 1901 = nineteen oh one 6) Decades are expressed with the plural form: the 1900s = the nineteen hundreds the 1850s = the eighteen fifties

the 1920s = the nineteen twenties the 1660s = the sixteen sixties

Approximate reference may be made with early, mid and late: the early 1980s = 1980 to 1984 the mid 1980s = 1984 to 1986 the late 1980s = 1986 to 1989

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KEY TO EXERCISES Exercise 1 1. Whose house did you go to? 2. Who wrote Romeo and Juliet? 3. Why did they go to Rome? 4. Which wine does she prefer? 5. When are they going to Scotland? 6. Who loves Susan? 7. What happened? 8. How are they going to Venice? 9. How long did it take them to build the bridge.? 10. How many novels has Stephen King written? Exercise 2 (suggestions) 1. How many languages can she speak? 2. What did you have for lunch? 3. How often does she play tennis? 4. Why are you closing the window? 5. When did you go to Scotland? 6. Who wrote the letter? 7. Who did you see? 8. How old is he? 9. Whats your favourite food? 10. Whens your appointment? 11. Where are the cups? 12. W hich dress do you prefer? 13. Why did you go to the bank? 14. Whose book is this? 15. What does she look like /What is she like? Exercise 3 1. He doesnt live in a house. 2. They dont work in an office. 3. They arent eating at the moment. 4. Shakespeare didnt write novels. 5. Anne hasnt got three dogs. 6. We havent been to Africa. 7. He cant play the piano very well. 8. The train didnt leave at six. 9. I didnt find the books I wanted. 10. He isnt going to buy a new car. 11. They werent cleaning the windows yesterday afternoon. 12. We dont have to wear a uniform at school. 13. He wont be in his office. 14. The film hadnt started when we arrived at the cinema. Exercise 4 1. There was nothing to do. 2. I have no money. 3. I decided to give him no help. 4. She can find her keys nowhere. 5. We saw nobody. Exercise 5 1. He will spend his holiday in Japan next year 2. Do you know where the post office is? 3. They had an exam at school last week. 4. Why did she tell him a lie? 5. We have never been to Germany. 6. How often do you play tennis? 7. Are you going to help me? 8. She like jazz very much. 9. What does he look like? 10. They gave me a wonderful present. 11. She explained the meaning to me. 12. Who gave you that present? 13. It is Tim who wrote the letter. 14. How long is the lesson? 15. The documents were photocopied. Exercise 6 1. It was John who gave me the flowers. 2. It was Vermeer who painted the picture. 3. It was Paris that I went to. 4. It was in 1492 that Columbus discovered America. 5. It is French that we are learning. Exercise 7 1. Never have I seen such a wonderful painting. 2. Rarely did he go to the cinema. 3. Seldom do we speak to our neighbors. 4. Hardly had they arrived at the beach when it started raining. 5. Never had we heard such terrible news. Exercise 8 1. there ; 2. It is; 3. Its; 4. There is; 5. There was; 6. It; 7. Is it; 8. Its; 9. There are; 10. It is; 11. It is; 12. there is. Exercise 9 1. A pair of dirty brown leather shoes. 2. Some long yellow cotton curtains. 3. A beautiful whote Italian silk shirt. 4. An antique silver teapot. 5. An authentic Victorian typewriter. Exercise 10 1. She plays the piano well. 2. The scientists usually hold the annual conference in the hall. 3. I would like to see your house very much. 4. He didnt run fast enough to catch up with her.5. Her latest novel is rather good. 6. I got lost,

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but fortunately someone gave me directions to the station. 7. I have finished your book and will return it tomorrow. 8. They quite like the new design. 9. She was often the centre of attention. 10. Im fairly sure that he told me. Exercise 11 1. become a doctor. 2. begin at 6oclock. 3. break a glass. 4. bring a book with you. 5. buy a house. 6. catch a train. 7. choose a dress. 8. do something. 9. drink some milk. 10. drive a car. 11. eat a sandwich. 12. fall off a chair. 13. find treasure. 14. fly in a plane. 15. forget someones name. 16. get a sand wich. 17. give a present. 18. go to London. 19. grow a plant. 20. hit a ball. 21. hear a song. 22. hold someones hand. 23. keep a promise. 24. lay the table. 25. lead a group of people. 26. lie down on the bed. 27. lose the keys. 28. let someone do something. 29. make a cake. 30. meet at the station. 31. pay for the meal. 32. read a book. 33. ride a bike. 34. rise early. 35. run fast. 36. see a film. 37. sell a car. 38. send a letter. 39. sing a song. 40. sit on a chair. 41. speak English. 42. stand at the bus-stop. 43. steal the jewels. 44. swim in the sea. 45. take a photo. 46. teach how to do something. 47. tell somebody something. 48. think about someone. 49. understand the lesson. 50. write a letter. Exercise 12 1. simple; 2. Perfect; 3. Progressive; 4. Perfect; 5. Progressive; 6. Simple; 7. Simple; 8. Progressive; 9. Simple; 10. Progressive. Exercise 13 1. present progressive; 2. Present simple ; 3. Present perfect progressive; 4. Future simple; 5. Past simple; 6. Present perfect simple; 7. Future perfect; 8. Past perfect; 9. Past perfect progressive; 10. Future progressive; Exercise 14 1. They live in Venice in a large flat by the Grand Canal. 2. I listen to the radio every morning. 3. He often drives to the coast at weekends. 4. She always sends me a postcard when shes on holiday. 5. The train arrive at 7 p.m. this evening. 6. I wake up early every morning. 7. We both play the piano at school. 8. That boy watches a lot of television in the evenings. 9. He works in a bank in London. 10. She speaks three languages fluently. Exercise 15 1. Where do you live? 2. Do you smoke? 3. When does the train leave? 4. What do you do? 5. Does she work a lot? 6. What time does he catch the train in the morning? 7. Why do they run every morning? 8. Do we need a ticket to see the show? 9. Where do you both usually meet? 10. Does he often go to the cinema? Exercise 16 1. comes; 2.is; 3. Works; 4. Has; 5. Lives; 6.catches/takes; 7.is 8. Likes/loves; 8. Are; 9. Goes; 10. Likes/loves; 11. Eats/has; 12. Drinks; 13. Stays; 14. Reads; 15. Watches. Exercise 17 1. woke up; 2. Had; 3. Made; 4. Ate; 5. Drove; 6. Went; 7. Ran; 8. Drank; 9. Wrote; 10. Spent. Exercise 18 1. Did you learn French at school? 2. Why did he go out so early? 3. When did they arrive at the airport? 4. He did not stay at home yesterday. 5. We did not see her for a long time. 6. Who did you speak to at the meeting? 7. Which dress did you choose? 8. I did not pay a lot for the jacket. 9. Did he understand the question? 10. We did not know about the accident. Exercise 19

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1. spent; 2. Stayed; 3. Were; 4.went; 5.saw; 6. Caught/took; 7.was; 8. Had/ sold; 9. Bought; 10. Visited; 11. Was; 12. Went; 13. Were; 14. Sent/wrote; 15. Was. Exercise 20 1. She is studying now/ She isnt studying now. Is she studying now? 2. We are listening to the politician/We arent listening to the politician/Are we listening to the politician? 3. They are writing to the bank/They arent writing to the bank/ Are they writing to the bank? 4. I am having lunch at the moment/Im not having lunch at the moment/ Am I having lunch at the moment? 5. He is teaching his friend to speak English/ He isnt teaching his friend to speak English/ Is he teaching his friend to speak English? Exercise 21 1. think; 2. is having; 3. doesnt see; 4. Weighs; 5. Prefer; 6. Is appearing; 7. Seem; 8. Doesnt understand; 9. Mean; 10. Agree. Exercise 22 1. is thinking; 2. are taking; 3. Stay; 4. having; 10. Speaks.

do you have; 5. is speaking; 6. is staying; 7. doesnt think; 8. Take; 9. is

Exercise 23 1. are you doing; 2. Does he go; 3. Am reading; 4. Arent working; 5. Is it raining; 6. Listen; 7. Clean; 8. Is Smoking; 9. Am taking; 10. Do you dream. Exercise 24 1. Are they coming to the party? b. No, they arent. 2. Do we have to pay for it? j. Yes, we do. 3. Is she coming back? e. No, I dont think she is. 4. Does she eat meat? a. No, she doesnt. 5. Is it still raining? d. Yes, it is. 6. Does it always rain a lot here? i. Yes, it does at this time of year. 7. Do they have everything they need? f. No, they dont. 8. Are you waiting to see the doctor? g. Yes, I am. Hes very late. 9. Do you see your cousin very often? h. No, I dont. 10. Are we going to Greece this year? c. No, we arent. We dont have any money. Exercise 25 1. Were the girls playing basketball? No, they were playing football. 2. Was Jane singing? No, she was listening to music. 3. Were you waiting for the bus? No, I was looking at the shop. 4. Was he laughing? No, he was crying. 5. Was the cat sleeping? No, it was eating. Exercise 26 1. I was driving when I had an accident.2. While he was cooking he cut himself. 3. They were having a drink while they were listening to Jazz. 4. We were leaving the theatre when we saw the strange man. 5. She fell asleep while she was watching the film. Exercise 27 1. saw, was running; 2. Was waiting, arrived; 3. Didnt believe, told; 4. Was tidying, found; 5. What were you doing, phoned. Exercise 28

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1. I have passed/ I havent passed/ Have I passed? 2. He has lost/ he hasnt lost/ has he lost? 3. We have tidied/We havent tidied/ Have we tidied? 4. She has finished/ she hasnt finished/ has she finished? 5. They have sent/ have they sent? / they havent sent. Exercise 29 1. have been. 2. Have you seen? 3. havent finished. 4. have bought. 5. have you done? 6. has taught. 7. has written. 8. has he gone? 9. have had. 10. have met. Exercise 30 1. since. 2. for. 3. for. 4. since. 5. since. 6. for. 7. since. 8. since. 9. for. 10. since. Exercise 31 1. still. 2. ever. 3. already. 4. just. 5. yet. 6. never. 7. yet. 8. ever. 9. still. 10. already. Exercise 32 1. havent had. 2. didnt go. 3. has been. 4. havent finished. 5. got. 6. has just gone. 7. did Goldoni write. 8. have you known. 9. have never met. 10. drove. Exercise 33 1. lived. 2. sank. 3. has stolen. 4. has been. 5. graduated. 6. have seen. 7. has walked. 8. lived. 9. have torn. 10. lost. 11. havent seen. 12. didnt write. 13. havent completed. 14. went. 15. have emerged. Exercise 34 1. have been working. 2. has been dreaming. 3. have been watching. 4. have been studying. 5. have been collecting. 6. has been raining. 7. has been learning. 8. have been waiting. 9. has been working. 10. has been sleeping. Exercise 35 1. have forgotten. 2. have been running. 3. have seen . 4. have you been watching. 5. hasnt eaten. 6. has been crying. 7. has had. 8. have been listening. 9. have been doing. 10. have known. Exercise 36 1. Had you forgotten to bring your ticket?/I hadnt forgotten to bring my ticket. 2. Had you sle pt the night before? / I hadnt slept the night before. 3. Had she lost her wallet on the train again? / She hadnt lost her wallet on the train again. 4. Had we visited London before? / We hadnt visited London before. 5. Had they seen a lion before? / They hadnt seen a lion before. Exercise 37 1. was walking; thought; had spent. 2. had finished; started. 3. posted; realized; had written. 4. asked; had been. 5. got; had gone/went. 6. were; had called; didnt answer. 7. arrived; saw; had stolen. 8. met; told; had been; didnt look. 9. looked; heard; found; had got stuck. 10. invited; couldnt; had made. Exercise 38 1. Someone had been frying. 2. They had been playing in the garden. 3. She had been cutting onions. 4. He had been sunbathing all day on the beach. 5. It had been snowing all night. Exercise 39 1. had invited. 2. had been driving. 3. had been. 4. had you been doing. 5. had been watching. 6. had never seen. 7. had finished. 8. had started. 9. had been studying. 10. had been waiting.

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Exercise 40 1. used to smoke. 2. are used to working. 3. am used to driving. 4. used to / would tell me. 5. Did you use to play. 6. are not used to eating. 7. would /used to do/ is used to doing. 8. used to walk. 9. used to be. 10. is used to taking. Exercise 41 1. we are going to crash. 2. Ill answer. 3. begins. 4. am not working. 5. shall I do. 6. touch; will burn. 7. is applying/is going to applying. 8. is to visit. 9. shall go. 10. will be. 11. will be working. 12. will have repaired. 13. will become. 14. will be leaving. 15. Ill go. Exercise 42 1. We wont get home until after midnight. 2. Ill phone him as soon as I get into the office. 3. She wont have breakfast before she goes out to work. 4. I will go mad unless I have a holiday. 5. He will go for a swim tomorrow if the weather is fine. 6. We will go to the restaurant after the concert. 7. He isnt going to sign the contract until he reads it carefully. 8. You wont pass the exam unless you study hard. 9. They are going to celebrate after they have finished their exams. 10. You will recognize him when you see him. Exercise 43 1. do; wont eat. 2. will get; arrive. 3. finish; will have. 4. return; will be. 5. will go; have visited. 6. will think; considers. 7. will you do; do not have. 8. will happen; is. 9. will ask; phone. 10. get; will see. Exercise 44 1. to be. 2. to meet. 3. to hear. 4. to have. 5. to eat. Exercise 45 1. She isnt old enough to drive. 2. He isnt old enough to drink alcohol. 3. We are to tired to continue studying. 4. The child is too short to reach the biscuits. 5. Im not strong enough to lift the box. Exercise 46 1. I have nothing to wear. 2. He hasnt got anything to do. 3. There is a lot to talk about. 4. There are so many books to read. 5. There is nowhere to go. Exercise 47 1. She threatened to shoot him. 2. We hope to arrive early. 3. I promised to send him a postcard. 4. He reminded me to see my lawyer. 5. We remembered to lock the door. Exercise 48 1. to go. 2. to build. 3. buy. 4. to meet. 5. to participate. 6. hurry. 7. tell. 8. let. 9. to finish. 10. to admire. Exercise 49 (suggestions) 1. stay outside. 2. her to leave? 3. him not to use the computer. 4. me to buy the coat. 5. her to do some tests. Exercise 50 1. to book a flight. 2. to learn French. 3. to see the pyramids. 4. to become a doctor. 5. to drive to work. Exercise 51 (suggestions) 1. playing tennis. 2. eating fish. 3. watching TV. 4. taking the dog for a walk. 5. eating that cake. 6. discussing this matter. 7. going to the dentist. 8. going to the park.

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Exercise 52 1. to smoke. 2. opening. 3. to pass. 4. study. 5. to go. 6. think. 7. to see. 8. reading. 9. stay. 10. having. 11. mentioning. 12. watching. 13. to look. 14. riding. 15. looking. Exercise 53 1. Saving Private Ryan. 2. To Catch a Thief. 3. Being John Malkovich. 4. To Kill a Mockingbird. 5. Regarding Henry. 6. To Have and have Not. 7. Raising Arizona. 8. To Die For. 9. Educating Rita. 10. To Be Or Not To Be. Exercise 54 1. was written. 2. are not read. 3. will be opened. 4. was told. 5. has been left. 6. had been robbed. Exercise 55 1. The thief has been arrested. 2. The man was bitten on his leg by the fierce dog. 3. This church was designed by Christopher Wren. 4. Taxes are going to be increased next month. 5. Progress is being made in cancer research. 6. The room was being painted when I came in. 7. My phone has been taken. 8. The roof will be mended next week. Exercise 56 1. The dog must be walked every day. 2. The letter should be posted now. 3. The vase will be handled with care. 4. The documents have to be photocopied. 5. The doctor could have been called. Exercise 57 1. Can I use your phone? 2. Jane can play the violin. 3. I should stop smoking. 4. Shall I help you pick up the suitcase? 5. You mustnt smoke in here. 6. You must /have to wear a uniform. 7. You must tidy your room. 8. I co uld play the piano. 9. Will you open the door? 10. Youd better study harder. 11. He has been able to drive since he was 18. 12. You should read that book. 13. You neednt go to the shops today. 14. I had to take the dog for a walk every day. 15. You mustnt wear a miniskirt in church. 16. The floor needs cleaning. 17. The painting may be by Vermeer. 18. It cant be your brother. 19. Id rather go to the cinema. 20. Youd better leave early. Exercise 58 1. must. 2. has to. 3. have to. 4. must. 5. has to. 6. Do you have to? 7. must. 8. has to. Exercise 59 1. mustnt. 2. dont have to. 3. doesnt have to. 4. mustnt. 5. dont have to. 6. mustnt. 7. dont have to. 8. dont have to. Exercise 60 1. neednt buy. 2. needs to feed. 3. neednt bring. 4. needs repairing. 5. need to provide. Exercise 61 1. must. 2. cant . 3. may/might. 4. will. 5. may/might. Exercise 62 1. must have. 2. cant have. 3. may/might. 4. will have. 5. must have. Exercise 63 1. I neednt have bought some bread. 2. He neednt have taken an umbrella. 3. We didnt need to hurry. 4. She neednt have taken her camera. 5. He didnt need to explain the situation.

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Exercise 64 1. You should have gone to see the doctor. 2. Jane had a lot of work to so. 3. We had to leave before the end of the meeting. 4. You should have come to the party. 5. I had to wait for the bus a very long time. Exercise 65 1. Shall. 2. Could. 3. mustnt. 4. should. 5. cant. 6. must. 7. had to. 8. ought to. 9. have to. 10. shouldnt. Exercise 66 1. was. 2. did. 3. do. 4. can. 5. shall. 6. arent. 7. does. 8. do. 9. has. 10. has. Exercise 67 1. Ill drive to work if I miss the bus. 2. If we have enough money, well go on holiday. 3. They will b uy the car if they can afford it. 4. If you give me the phone number, Ill phone her. 5. Well fall asleep if he continues speaking. Exercise 68 1. had; would buy. 2. would be; could go. 3. were; would consult. 4. would come; didnt have. 5. won; would travel. Exercise 69 1. I wouldnt have got lost if I had listened to him. 2. If my teacher had explained the rule I would have understood. 3. If I had seen the cat, I wouldnt have fallen down the stairs. 4. If she had been careful, she wouldn t have broken the glass. 5. If he hadnt gone to the rock concert, he wouldnt have met his future wife. Exercise 70 1. catch; will arrive. 2. took; would feel. 3. were; would change. 4. break; hurts. 5. had had; would have taken. 6. would have enjoyed; had been. Exercise 71 1. I wish you were here. 2. She wishes she were young again. 3. He wishes he could fly. 4. I wish I werent fat. 5. They wish they had more time. Exercise 72 1. We wish we had known about the train strike. 2. I wish I hadnt said some terrible things. 3. He wishes he had posted the letter. 4. She wishes she hadnt broken the precious vase. 5. I wish I had told her. Exercise 73 1. that was his chair. 2. she had gone to the cinema the day before. 3. he was writing a book. 4. she would do it the day after. 5. they had never been to Paris. 6. he would do it if he could. 7. they were waiting for the new teacher. 8. she had made a mistake. Exercise 74 1. She asked what the time was. 2. Jane asked me how I was. 3. He asked me where the bank was. 4. His mother asked him where he had been. 5. Tom asked me if/whether I liked chocolate. 6. Robert asked him how many people lived in the town. 7. Susan asked why he was leaving. 8. Tom asked if /whether the party was a success. Exercise 75 1. He advised me to go to the doctor. 2. She promised to post the letter. 3. He agreed to help me. 4. She decided to wash the car. 5. He refused to pay the bill. 6. They offered to help him cook. 7. He reminded me to lock the door. 8. They invited us to go for a pizza.

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Exercise 76 1. is. 2. a. 3. --. 4. --. 5. homework. 6. --. 7. is. 8. was. 9. works. 10. progress. 11. a. 12. --. 13. --. 14. an. 15. a. 16. --. 17. talks. 18. --. 19. are. 20. are. Exercise 77 1. some. 2. Neither. 3. Most. 4. a little. 5. Most. 6. much. 7. few. 8. many. 9. enough. 10. Both. 11. plenty of. 12. much. Exercise 78 1. I know nobody. 2. He went nowhere. 3. We have done nothing wrong. 4. Some people have no respect. 5. They have no money left. 6. They never confessed to the crime. 7. I need no more chairs. 8. We had little difficulty. 9. There are few possibilities. 10. Few people know this. Exercise 79 1. I think Mozarts best opera is The marriage of Figaro. 2. The musicians wives are accompanying them on the tour. 3. Tom and Susans house is very old. 4. The Womens Movement was very strong in the 1970s. 5. I only had 5 hours sleep last night. Exercise 80 1. A computer study course. 2. Ancient manuscript research. 3. University reform issues. 4. Art history texts. 5. An oil painting appreciation course. Exercise 81 Subject I You He She It You We They

object me you him her it you us them

possessive mine yours his hers its yours ours theirs

reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself yourselves ourselves themselves

Exercise 82 1. him. 2. them. 3. yours. 4. us. 5. her. 6. his. 7. it. 8. theirs. 9. you. 10. We. Exercise 83 1. himself. 2. --. 3. each other. 4. myself. 5. --. 6. yourself. 7. each other. 8. --. 9. each other. 10. myself. Exercise 84 1. The people who live in Italy are called Italians. 2. I chose the dress which was the cheapest. 3. The hotel where we slept was very comfortable. 4. That is the professor whose wife is Russian. 5. The dictionary that is on the table is mine. Exercise 85 The following sentences have object pronouns so the relative pronouns can be omitted: 1, 4, 5, 7. Exercise 86

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1. Charles Darwin, who was the grandson of a physician, was born in 1809. 2. He met John Henslow at Cambridge, who was professor of biology. 3. Darwin, who sailed on the HMS Beagle, acted as a naturalist on board the ship. 4. The voyage, which took 5 years, included Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 5. In 1859 Darwin completed the Origin of the Species, sold out the day of publication. 6. The Church, which upheld creationism, attacked him as a blasphemous radical. Exercise 87 1. These are our friends we went to Greece with. 2. That was the month when there was the flood. 3. Do you know the reason why she lost her job? 4. The professor i spoke to was in a hurry. 5. We climbed to the top of the mountain, where we had a wonderful view. Exercise 88 1. stolen from the gallery. 2. bringing our meal. 3. wishing to do the exam. 4. eaten by my friend. 5. thinking about going. Exercise 89 1. --; --. 2. --. 3. the. 4. the. 5. a. 6. --. 7. the. 8. a. 9. --. 10. the. 11. --. 12. --. 13. The. 14. --. 15. --. 16. --; --. 17. a. 18. --. 19. --. 20. the. Exercise 90 1. well-known castle. 2. never-ending. 3. English speaking teacher. 4. far-reaching. 5. hand-painted. 6. well-made. Exercise 91 th 1. 12 -century castle. 2. 400-hundred-year-old bridge. 3. 3-foot-long table. 4. 5-metre-thick wall. 5. 5-year project. th 6. 16 -century poem. 7. 14-year-old boy. 8. 5-mile walk. 9. 10-metre-high tree. 10. 3-week holiday. Exercise 92 1. surprised. 2. exciting. 3. bored. 4. confusing. 5. exhausted. 6. interesting. 7. fascinating. 8. convinced. 9. amazing. 10. interested. Exercise 93 1. in. 2. in. 3. of. 4. about. 5. at. 6. for. 7. about. 8. of. 9. to. 10. for. Exercise 94 Adjective Good Bad Happy Interesting Far Modern

comparative better worse happier more interesting farther/further more modern

superlative the best the worst the happiest the most interesting the farthest/furthest the most modern

Exercise 95 1. younger than. 2. tidier than. 3. more dangerous than. 4. further than. 5. worse than. Exercise 96 1. the best. 2. the most fascinating. 3. the prettiest. 4. the most boring. 5. the most modern. Exercise 97

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1. newer. 2. the best. 3. latest. 4. longer. 5. the worst. Exercise 98 1. not as tall as Simon. 2. is as light as a feather. 3. is not as deep as the sea. 4. as many drinks as you. 5. doesnt eat as much as Tony. Exercise 99 1. carefully. 2. fast. 3. well. 4. weekly. 5. friendly. Exercise 100 1. faster. 2. better. 3. hard. 4. worse. 5. earlier. Exercise 101 1. They have never been to London. 2. We rarely went to the sea when we were young. 3. This phenomenon hadnt ever been seen before. 4. We are always in a hurry. 5. She spoke softly. 6. I dont know him well. 7. Well see him tomorrow. 8. Do you usually go to the cinema on Saturdays? 9. How often do you play football? 10. She drives fast. Exercise 102 1. on. 2. in. 3. on. 4. --. 5. on. 6. in. 7. to; at. 8. --. 9. at. 10. in. 11. --. 12. in. 13. at. 14. at; at. 15. in; --. Exercise 103 1. to. 2. with. 3. about. 4. on. 5. for. 6. of. 7. to. 8. --. 9. at. 10. on. Exercise 104 1. yet/for. 2. and. 3. yet. 4. or. 5. so. 6. nor. Exercise 105 1. either...or. 2. neither ... nor. 3. whether ... or. 4. rather ... than. 5. not only ... but also. 6. both ... and. Exercise 106 1. Although. 2. while. 3. so. 4. In spite of. 5. as. 6. unless. 7. although. 8. although. 9. As. 10. Because. Exercise 107 call for carry on come across get on/off get over get on with go up / down go on look after look for run out of take off Exercise 108

require continue find by chance enter / leave bus, train, plane recover from an illness etc. have good relationship increase / decrease continue take care of seek be short of begin flight

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1. go up. 2. looking for. 3. went on. 4. look after. 5. running out of. 6. calls for. 7. Get off. 8. came across. 9. get on with. 10. getting over. Exercise 109 1. applied for. 2. taken on. 3. pay for. 4. asking for. 5. looking after. 6. seeing to. 7. gets on with. 8. suffers from. 9. explain to. 10. deal with. Exercise 110 break off bring about look up make out put off put up set up take off turn on/off turn down

discontinue cause to happen consult a reference book recognise, distinguish postpone raise start a business etc. remove connect/disconnect an appliance lower; reject

Exercise 111 1. turn down. 2. bring about. 3. take off. 4. put up. 5. put off. 6. make out. 7. broke off. 8. turned down. 9. set up. 10. look it up. Exercise 112 1. off. 2. up. 3. down. 4. off/down. 5. on. 6. for. 7. out. 8. on. 9. for. 10. off. Exercise 113 1. down. 2. out. 3. up. 4. habit. 5. the law. Exercise 114 1. up. 2. up. 3. back. 4. about. 5. down. Exercise 115 1. forward. 2. into. 3. for. 4. out. 5. after. Exercise 116 1. off. 2. up with. 3. out. 4. by. 5. up. Exercise 117 1. up. 2. place. 3. over. 4. advantage. 5. into account. Exercise 118 1. getting. 2. get a divorce. 3. get on with. 4. get over. 5. get rid of. 6. got dressed. 7. get used to. 8. get. 9. got. 10. getting. Exercise 119 1. keep track of your expenses. 2. keep on trying. 3. keep you warm. 4. keep an eye on. 5. keep up with.

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Exercise 120 1. make. 2. make. 3. did. 4. made. 5. do. 6. make. 7. made. 8. do. 9. make. 10. do. Exercise 121 1. have. 2. have. 3. took. 4. taken. 5. had. 6. taken. 7. have. 8. take. 9. take. 10. take. Exercise 122 1. whole. 2. Everybody. 3. everything. 4. whole. 5. every. 6. whole. 7. every. 8. all. 9. All. 10. all. Exercise 123 1. other. 2. another. 3. other. 4. another. 5. others. 6. other. 7. other. 8. other. 9. other. 10. another. Exercise 124 1. say. 2. tell. 3. tell. 4. say. 5. said. 6. told. 7. told. 8. telling. 9. say. 10. told. Exercise 125 1. as. 2. like. 3. as. 4. as. 5. as. Exercise 126 1. so. 2. such. 3. such. 4. so. 5. such. Exercise 127 1. bookshop. 2. currently. 3. economical. 4. topic/subject. 5. Check. 6. attend. 7. news. 8. lately. 9. historian. 10. records. Practice Test 1. will see. 2. was. 3. boring. 4. have already. 5. Will. 6. much. 7. to. 8. lives. 9. what the problem was. 10. since. 11. have visited. 12. each other. 13. no. 14. was founded. 15. making. 16. --. 17. arrived. 18. would. 19. did. 20. which. 21. for. 22. the time is. 23. wouldnt. 24. have I seen. 25. some. 26. to. 27. take. 28. in. 29. used to play . 30. does. 31. arent I. 32. still. 33. --. 34. nobody. 35. cleaning. 36. seeing. 37. to meet. 38. tidy. 39. about. 40. four-year-old. Translation 1. This information is interesting. 2. He cant come now. Hes having a bath. 3. What a lovely day! 4. Does Maria study Philosophy? 5. Which pen do you want? Th e blue one or the black one? 6. She has black hair. 7. Look! Its snowing. 8. He lived here until yesterday. 9. I have been here for hours. 10. Ive been here since 9 oclock. 11. Has she ever been abroad? 12. Ive been writing letters all morning. 13. I go to the gym once a week. 14. Mr Smith is a doctor. 15. They are his/hers. 16. You should eat more youre too thin. 17. I dont have to/neednt get up early tomorrow - it s Sunday. 18. I have been able to speak French for 2 years. 19. You neednt/dont need to come tomorrow. 20. Susan cant have taken the book. 21. Were leaving on Saturday evening. 22. If I were you I wouldnt go there. 23. The car (that/which) Tom bought is Italian. 24. Stephen King, whose books are very famous, is very rich. 25. They wanted the student s to buy the books. 26. He is afraid of flying. 27. This picture was painted by Rembrandt. 28. It is thought that Jack is very rich. 29. The boy asked me if/whether I knew the town. 30. Jane told me to relax. 31. He told me not to open the window. 32. Look at the plane taking off. Text 1. that. 2. could. 3. work. 4. made. 5. client. 6. in. 7. as. 8. in. 9. Caravaggio. 10. was cleaned. 11. than. 12. same. 13. number. 14. their. 15. research.

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