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Assignment 1


1 Analysis of heat transfer in a single-phase transformer

The goal of the first assignment is to study the implementation of equivalent circuit method (ECM) and finite element method (FEM) for an electromagnetic device with a simple geometry. A steadystate heat transfer problem is analysed for a single-phase shell-type of transformer with different geometric proportions. This analysis supposes to give answers about What geometric proportions between the electric circuit and magnetic gives the highest transferred power and which the highest efficiency? What is the difference between ECM and FEM estimations and what might be the reasons? How to interpret the results: transferred power, heat power, cooling and temperature rise: are they reasonable?


Getting started
Tools for calculation: FEMM 4.2 for finite element Analysis (FEA) and MATLAB for equivalent circuit analysis (ECA). Create project map, open LUA and M-script, and redefine geometric data for analysis object according to 1.2. Execute files, when is done find a recently created txt file from project map. Load txt-files to MATLAB by using load command. Find out which column belongs to current density and use this value to obtain transferred power (eq. 1.8) and heat power (eq. 1.9). Plot the graphs according to 1.8 and carry on discussion on the main questions by support of the appendix.

Quick progressing guide

Notice that It is assumed that both primary and secondary winding have the same current density. Even though the heat transfer models exclude the heat losses in the end-turns and the axial cooling surfaces (along z-axis), the total heat or power losses need to consider the conductor losses in the end turns. From thermal analysis point of view, by assuming that the axial cooling takes care of axial power losses and does not contribute neither the heating nor the cooling of the laminated part of the transformer, then the thermal situation in laminated part of the transformer remains unchanged. The LUA-script considers 50% slot size by default. You activate script by selecting Open Lua Script and terminate the FE process by pushing Break, if everything goes fine then you can follow the process in lua console that may take up to few minutes.


Analysis object

Five different sizes for EI lamination is given (in table below) where each of them have two different stack height, which are and 2/3 of the width of lamination. The volume of Ltr x Wtr x Hc defines the part of transformer where the power losses are calculated and the lateral surfaces Hc x (2Ltr + 2Wtr) define the (only) cooling area. EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1 Lamination Length type Ltr [mm] EI-84 84 EI-84 84 EI-96 96 EI-96 96 EI-120 120 EI-120 120 EI-150 150 EI-150 150 EI-180 180 EI-180 180 Width Wtr [mm] 70 70 80 80 100 100 125 125 150 150 Stack Height Hc [mm] 35 50 40 65 50 70 65 85 75 100






Program structure

The FE model of transformer and modelling process for heat transfer analysis is written in lua script, which has to be open in Femm 4.2, and the matching EC model is written in m script for Matlab. These scripts have the same structure and structured output. On the basis of the outcome the goal of the further calculation is to find an optimal relation between an electric and a magnetic circuit in the transformer i.e. primary and secondary winding in a laminated core.
Parameterization Length Geometric proportions Magnetic loading Material properties Geometric modelling Derive geometry in respect with parameters Parametric change Sensitivity study Proportion between magnetic and electric circuits

2D Finite Element Method Heat transfer (Mirage)

2D Equivalent circuit method Thermal circuits (Matlab)

Objective Estimate electric loading

Transformer specification

Figure 1.1 Program structure that is implemented in the Matlab script and the LUA script for the heat transfer analysis.

The example of the transformer has dimensions: Ltr=100e-3 x Wtr=80e-3 x h_c=50e-3 as well as the thickness of insulation (bobbin) ins=1e-3 (all geometric dimensions in metres). Note that you are going to select new dimensions that you like from table in section 1.2. The magnetic loading (Bcm=1.4T) is unchanged and assumed to be homogeneous that gives the same loss density in the whole core. The goal of the computation routine is to estimate current loading and the corresponding conductor losses within the thermal limit. The temperature dependence of the conductor resistivity is taken into account.

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1
Initialization Cooling conditions Magnetic: B -> pfe Electric: Jk,0 -> pcu


Find temperature Coil hot-spot max Coil average ave

Obtain new values = 0(1+(ave-0)) pcu=0.5 (Jk+1)2 Kf iter=iter+1

Target |target - max|0.05 iter max_iter

Obtain current density if target - max < - 40 then Jk+1=Jk x 0.5 if target - max > 40 then Jk+1=Jk x 2 else Jk+1=Jk W(target - max)

Result visualization Temperature plot (bmp) Electric loading (txt)

Figure 1.2 Iterative hot-spot computation loop. Flowchart of the iterative current density estimation where the target hot spot temperature of the coil is focused. The hot-spot temperature is obtained from a line that is defined through the cross-section of a winding. The weight factor W is chosen so that the converging process is as well as fast as stabile. This flowchart does not give a solution if the core losses only give the target temperature or more than that

The thermal models: EC model and FE model Are two dimensional (2D), which means that heat transport along z axis and the heat generated in/dissipated from the end turns are neglected Assume the same loss density in the primary and the secondary windings Assume naturally cooled sides h=12 W/Km2 and ambient temperature of 400C


Geometry parameterization

The geometric model for shell type of transformer is formulated so that transformer length and insulation thickness together with proportion factors will define the whole geometry. Additional parameters, such as proportion factors specify the geometric proportions between the different parts of the transformer. Ks (variable) proportion between the slot length and core limb length Kw (=0.5) width proportions between primary and secondary winding The length of the leg in the magnetic core is expressed by using the relative slot length ks and the length needed to form a one electromagnetic pole. For the single-phase transformer either for core and shell types the number of poles is Np=2.

lc =

ltr (1 k s ) Np

( 1.1 )

Similarly the length of the slot or the available area for the windings is formulated according to the length of a single electromagnetic pole and the relative slot length.

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1


ls =

ltr ks Np

( 1.2 )

The width of the slot is given by the total width of the transformer wtr minus the width of the magnetic core yokes. The width of the magnetic back-core (yoke) equals to the length of the magnetic leg-core. The slot width for the shell type of transformer is

ws = wtr lc

( 1.3 )

Figure 1.3 The geometry parameterization of the shell type of transformer. The upper figure shows the magnetic flux flow plane (xy-plane) and the lower figure shows the electric current flow plane (xz-plane).


Size equations

The size of transformer is related to the power capability of the electromagnetic device by the rational limits for the flow densities such as electric current density J, magnetic flux density B and the power loss density p. In an ideal transformer the magnetic coupling between the windings is perfect. There is the same core flux (t) that links each turn of each winding. Apparent power of an ideal lossless transformer is expressed as

1 S = UmIm 2

( 1.4 )

here is assumed sinusoidal variation of voltage and current and instead of rms values the peak values has been used instead. Considering the lossless electromagnetic circuit the voltage of the

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1 electric circuit can be directly linked to the induced back electromotive force (emf) and the magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit.


u (t ) = U m cos( t ) = e(t ) =

d (t ) d (t ) =N dt dt

( 1.5 )

Ideally it is assumed that all the magnetic flux links with the winding and flux can be expressed directly from the voltage that is applied to the winding.

(t ) = m sin ( t ) =

Um sin ( t ) = Bm Am sin ( t ) N

( 1.6 )

The maximum value of magnetic flux m is related to the cross-section area of the pure magnetic conductor Am and the maximum flux density Bm that is defined by the material ability to conduct magnetic flux and the magnetic saturation Bsat . Similar to the magnetic circuit, the flow in the electric circuit is defined by current Im (maximum value) in the single turn which is related to the total Ampere turns NIm i.e. magnetomotive force (mmf), the cross-section area of the pure electric conductor Ae and the maximum current density Jm that is defined by devices ability to conduct heat flow and the thermal limit coil.

i(t ) = I m cos( t + ) =

NI m J A cos( t + ) = m e cos( t + ) N N

( 1.7 )

By substituting the maximum values for voltage and current in the equation of the apparent power (eq. 1.1) the size of the transformer can be expressed through the magnetization frequency, the allowed current and flux density over the geometrically interlinked circuit areas of Ae and Am..

1 1 S = U m I m = Bm J m Ae Am = P 2 2

( 1.8 )

The power of transformer depends on the electric loading Jm, the magnetic loading Bm and the magnetization frequency as well as the geometry such as cross section areas of electric Ae and magnetic circuit Am. By assuming equal magnetomotive forces in the primary and the secondary winding, thus the infinitely permeable core, the active power can be taken equal to the apparent power. The transferred power is less due to power losses. The maximum transferred power is determined by the amount of power loss or heat power that the transformer can handle for given temperature limits. The power losses can be estimated according to the loss origin in different parts of the device. The total heat power is expressed as a sum of losses, which are outcome of power loss density and the geometry of the electric as well as the magnetic circuit.

Ploss = Ae le pe + Am l m pm = Pcu + Pfe

( 1.9 )

The conductor loss for the direct current Pcu is expressed through the power loss density, which depends on resistivity and the current density square J2, and the volume of the conductor Ve.

1 JA l N 2 Pcu = I R = e e = J 2 Ae le = J m Ve A 2 N e N

( 1.10 )

The remagnetization loss in the magnetic conductor for the symmetric sinusoidal excitation can be found from the specific loss data kfe at certain magnetization frequency and magnetic induction over the core volume Vm

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1

6-7 ( 1.11 )

Pfe = k fe (Bm , ) Vm = p feVm

The specific core loss is calculated according to the polynomial curve fitting of the loss characteristics at 50 Hz.
2 p fe = 2.5517 Bm 1.2936 Bm + 0.8143 7700

( 1.12 )

Finally, the efficiency can be found from the input power and the loss power.

P Ploss P

( 1.13 )

Lua-script as well as m-script EMK_task_1.lua and EMK_task_1.m, calculate hot spot temperature of the winding max, average temperature of winding ave, core temperature cc, the specific copper loss pcu, maximum current density Jcm and so on as a function of proportion Ks. Some of the variables are not estimated with the thermal equivalent circuit.
for kh = 1,9,1 do

x [m]

Aw cc iter Jcm pcu max ave [C] [W/m3] [A/m2] [m2] [C] [-] [C]

The result of the computations is written into file tmp_heat_fem.txt and tmp_heat_emc.txt.


EC model

Equivalent circuit model and modelling process is defined in EMK_task_1.m. The thermal conductivity network consists of 11 elements that represent the heat dissipation in the symmetric part of the transformer. The cooling condition through the natural convection is taken into account in the elements 4 and 11. Nodal network represents the temperature over 9 node points. The copper losses are applied into node 2 and 3, the core losses to node 1 and the ambient (reference) temperature is described in nodes 5 and 9.

11 6 8 7 5 6 1 10 12 11 13 14 12 5 1 15 16 2 2 3 3 4 4 7 9 8 10

Figure 1.4 The thermal equivalent circuit of the single-phase shell-type transformer. Thermal elements in the end-turns are excluded in order to make EC model and FE models comparable.

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013

Assignment 1 Code that shows the formulation of thermal equivalent circuit and the elements in the circuit
% thermal equivalent circuit - topology matrix % [element(1) node(n) node(m) thermal conductivity] Tec = [ 1 1 2 0.5*h_c * 0.5*w_s / (0.5*l_c/tc_fe+ins/tc_ins+0.5*l_w1/tc_win); 2 2 3 0.5*h_c * 0.5*w_s / (0.5*l_w1/tc_win+ins/tc_ins+0.5*l_w2/tc_win); 3 3 4 0.5*h_c * 0.5*w_s / (0.5*l_w2/tc_win+ins/tc_ins+0.25*l_c/tc_fe); 4 4 5 0.5*h_c * 0.5*w_s / (0.25*l_c/tc_fe+1/Aconv * w_s / Wtr); 5 1 6 0.5*h_c * 0.5*l_c / ((0.5*w_s+0.25*l_c)/tc_fe); 6 2 7 0.5*h_c * l_w1 / ((0.5*w_s-ins)/tc_win+ins/tc_ins+0.25*l_c/tc_fe); 7 3 8 0.5*h_c * l_w2 / ((0.5*w_s-ins)/tc_win+ins/tc_ins+0.25*l_c/tc_fe); 8 6 7 0.5*h_c * 0.25*l_c / ((0.5*l_c+ins+0.5*l_w1)/tc_fe); 9 7 8 0.5*h_c * 0.25*l_c / ((0.5*l_w1+ins+0.5*l_w2)/tc_fe); 10 8 4 0.5*h_c * 0.5*l_c / ((0.5*w_s+0.5*l_c)/tc_fe); 11 6 9 0.5*h_c * 0.5*Ltr / ((0.25*l_c)/tc_fe+1/Aconv);];


Please pay attention to the definition of cooling surfaces (highlighted part of code) apart to conducting surfaces in the code!


FE model

Finite element model and modelling process is defined in EMK_task_1.lua. The xy-plane cross-section of a shell type of transformer is the base geometry for the heat transfer analysis. Notice that the loop calculations are commented out in the code and the relative slot opening of 50% is selected initially.



Based on the outcome from FE and EC model (that takes at ca 5 minutes) carry out the following tasks and discuss the outcome in relation to the target questions which were stated in the beginning of the assignment. Show Jcm=f(ks) for these different models Calculate a transferred power P=f(ks) for these different models Calculate copper and core losses Ploss=f(ks) Estimate the efficiency of the transformer based on the different models Validate and discuss the modelled results by analysing supplier data of single phase transformer from TRAMO-ETV AB (in appendix)

EIEN20 Design of Electrical Machines, IEA, 2013