Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Action Planning

Short course with participants from Surabaya, Indonesia Saskia Ruijsink, June 2012, IHS

Action Planning: Force-Field Analysis

A tool to identify priority action areas

Force field analysis Objectives


To explain the concept of force-field analysis To demonstrate its use in one case To introduce the exercise

Objectives
After this session you should be able to: Understand the meaning of Force Field Analysis Use it in the context of the case study

Forces
Driving Forces

Objective Constraining Forces

Force field analysis: process


Set objectives
Force field analysis

identify forces

select forces feasible to influence

develop potential actions develop and test strategies develop tasks and timing

brainstorm

Force field analysis Initial analysis


Driving Forces Central Government policy Public worried by health danger (political interest) Motivation of manager Restraining forces Poor infrastructure and facilities Limited funds No community organization No guidelines for water quality Staff are negative

Local taxes Private sector interest

Objective: Improve water quality (pollution values should be at least 2 times lower) of 3 districts by the end of September 2012

Force field analysis: filtering Filter most important key forces What are the strongest forces? What forces can be influenced? Rule of thumb: filter down to seven forces
2 driving forces 5 constraining forces

Force field analysis Initial analysis


Driving Forces Restraining forces Poor infrastructure and facilities Public worried by health danger (political interest) Motivation of manager Limited funds No community organization No guidelines for water quality Staff are negative Objective: Improve water quality (pollution values should be at least 2 times lower) of 3 districts by the end of September 2012

Conclusions and next steps


FFA is a tool to help develop practical and innovative courses of action The next step is to test and prioritize the ideas in order to develop an action plan

Instructions 1
Follow the assignments described in the handbook

For the Force Field Analysis we limit ourselves to Instructions 1 and 2

Instructions 1
List restraining and driving forces Use the forms in your workbook Write your objective and as many restraining forces (anything which is likely to get in the way of achieving the objective) and driving forces (that help achieving it). Give a short description: describe in a few words If you prefer, forces can be grouped, e.g.:
institutions (eg government) skills/ attitudes/ procedures site problems finance

Form for Driving forces


Objective: Driving Force
Short description Influence Time Resources Commitment

Form for Restraining forces


Objective: Restraining Force
Short description Influence Time Resources Commitment

Test against criteria Once you have written the forces, check to see if they are feasible to influence. Write yes or No in the boxes on the right.
Possible to influence? Is it realistic that we can influence this force/ do something to change? Can influence in time? Is it possible to have a significant influence within the time you have set in the objectives. Are resources available to influence? Is it realistic that we can get together the resources which are necessary to influence this force? Is there enough commitment? Do you feel strongly enough about influencing this force? Is it likely that the support of others (politics, population) will back you?

Any ideas you get for action can be noted down separately - dont come out with solutions yet!

Instructions 2
Draw the Forces in the Force Field diagram Filter the Forces and make a new Force Field Diagram with a maximum of 7 Forces Developing potential actions in the next session (brainstorming) starting at 15.30 today

Force field analysis Initial analysis


Driving Forces Force A Restraining forces

Force X Force Y Force Z Force

Force B Force C

Force D Force . Objective; to improve X by Y % over within a period Z years

Force

Force Field Analysis filtering to key forces


Driving Forces Restraining forces

Force Q Force N Force R Force S Force T Force Objective; to improve X by Y % over within a period Z years

Force

Conclusions and next steps


FFA is a tool to help develop practical and innovative courses of action The next step is to make sure your objective is satisfactory and work your way through the instructions in the workbook

References
Improving performance in public organizations A guide for Managers Mayo-Smith, Ian and Ruther, Nancy Publisher: Kumarian Press West Hartford, Connecticut USA Pages: 126 Date: 1986
Comments: A very useful practical guide to the technique of Performance Improvement Programming - developed to help public sector organizations improve performance. Includes exercises can be used individually or in group work.

Guide for managing change for urban managers and trainers UNCHS Publisher: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Nairobi Pages: 149 Date: 1989
Comments: Good source book for introductions/ exercises in problem analysis, organizational change and action planning. Can be used also for stand alone training. Better if used as a base for adaptation. Includes a short form of force field analysis.