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Chandra Prakash Mishra, Tata Motors Ltd, Lucknow, India, +91-9793099332
Vinay Kumar Singh, Tata Technologies Ltd, Lucknow, India, +91-8960009100
Abhishek Pyasi, Tata Motors Ltd, Lucknow, India, +91-9473871242
Rajiv Singh, Tata Motors Ltd, Lucknow, India, +91-93898509
Rajit Ram Singh, Vindhya Institute of Technology, Indore, India, +91-9229122133
Kapil Jain, Devi Ahilya University, Indore

The purpose of this study is to present the
effects of several design actions on engine
mounting system for improving the NVH
characteristic of the vehicle, with the aid of CAE
and experimental investigations. Power train
mounting system is one of the most important
vibration isolators in vehicles. In order to
achieve good cabin comfort, the noise and
vibration levels have to be as low as possible.
Engine mount transmits the power train
vibrations to the body, and the chassis
vibrations excited by road to the power train.
The design of engine mounting system is an
essential part in vehicle safety helps in
improving the vehicle noise, vibration and
harshness (NVH) performances. This paper is
based on a Rear wheel driven front engine and
rear engine buses with a six-cylinder engine
placed longitudinally along the vehicle, the
uncertain characteristics of engine mounting
system are studied by interval analysis method.
Considering the design parameters including
locations, orientations and stiffness of the
mounts as interval variables, the lower bounds,
upper bounds of natural frequencies and the
mode kinetic energy distributions of a engine
mounting system are estimated by means of
interval analysis.

Keyword: Dynamic design; engine mounts;
automotive system; structure joints; vibro-acoustic
modelling; optimisation; engine vibration; engine
The vibration characteristic of the vehicle is one of
the most significant factors in ride and comfort.
All piston type engines generate vibrations due to
the firing forces and reciprocating components.
Some of these vibrations are internal to the engine
structures and compensated or balanced by
opposing forces within the engine. The other
vibration cause whole engine rigid body motions
and vibratory forces that act on the engine
mounting system. The engine mounting system
must isolate these vibrations from the vehicle or
machine structure in most cases. Depending on the
engine design the engine vibration will cause
translation or rotation about three orthogonal axes.
The vehicle engine mounting system generally
consists of engine, clutch, transmission
supplementary system & several mount rubbers
connected to the vehicle structure. The engine
mounting systems have been successfully applied
to isolate the driver & passenger from noise,
vibration and harshness (NVH) generated from
power train system. Since the engine is the largest
concentrated mass in the vehicle. The power
system is excited by engine firing force,
rotating/reciprocating unbalances (unbalance forces
increases as the square of rotational speed), road
profile, and dynamic forces/motions transmitted by
accessories and other vehicle components. The
major excitations are an internal oscillating torque
on the crankshaft; internal forces in cylinder
direction and corresponding moments; and
excitations from road and wheels. The crankshaft
oscillating torque will always occur at the firing
frequency, the other direction of engine excitation
will depends on the engine types. Firing forces
acting on the cylinder head are cancelled out by
their reaction forces on the main bearing. The
frequency of the cylinder firing impulses is
determined by the number of cylinders, engine
design and the engine speed. A 4-stroke cycle
engine fires each cylinder once every two engine
evolutions, so an inline six-cylinder engine has
three cylinders firing per engine revolution. So the
engine firing frequency is three times the engine
rotational speed. Thus, for an engine idling at 700
rpm, 10 revolutions per sec. the engine firing
frequency is three times this, 30 firing/sec, causing
a 30Hz vibrational input to the mounting system.
The effectiveness of an engine mounting system in
isolating the vehicle structure from engine vibration
depends on the relationship between the frequency
of the vibration coming from the engine and the
natural frequency of the engine mounting system.

Optimization of Engine mounts is an interesting &
challenging research field among automobile
researchers. In the past lot of experiments and
studies have been carried out to understand the
design of engine mounts and their effects on
vehicle NVH performance. Sachdeva [et.al] studied
effect of engine mounting strategy on vehicle
NVH. In the study couple of design strategies
involving powertrain rigid body mode coupling and
de-coupling are examined. This study compares
three such strategies that are commonly used. All
decoupled modes, coupled bounce pitch modes,
and coupled bounce-roll modes strategies are
compared by looking at the response of a vehicle
model, to wheel and powertrain inputs. In the study
it was concluded that for all three input cases
studied, the best system was one of the coupled-
mode systems. It shows, however, that different
modal coupling/decoupling characteristics will
favor different inputs and system responses. There
is not one magical modal characteristic setup that
will be ideal for all inputs and all responses. The
real case of powertrain mounting design for trucks
Paulo [etc.al] studied mounting design and
manufacturing constraint, the simulation modelling
basis, inputs required to perform the computational
simulation, the experimental work required, also
the method used to determine the centre of gravity
and rotational inertia of the powertrain and a
general mounting tuning strategy. In the study it
was concluded that the computational simulation
procedure used in this work, supported by
experimental powertrain properties determination
and all experimental work associated, is presented
as a reliable tool in a mounting system
development. The powertrain computational
simulation provides the mount stiffness
optimization to meet the basic design requirements
and NVH improvements. A computerized
optimization method of engine mounting system
Liu [etc.al] studied a method for optimization
design of an engine mounting system subjected to
some constraints. The engine center of gravity, the
mount stiffness rates, the mount locations and/or
their orientations with respect to the vehicle can be
chosen as design variables, but some of them are
given in advance or have limitations because of the
packaging constraints on the mount locations, as
well as the individual mount rate ratio limitations
imposed by manufacturability. A computer
program, called DynaMount, has been developed
that identifies the optimum design variables for the
engine mounting system, including decoupling
mode, natural frequency placement, etc. The degree
of decoupling achieved is quantified by kinetic
energy distributions calculated for each of the
modes. Several application examples are presented
to illustrate the validity of this method and the
computer program.

For the simplest analysis of an engine mounting
system the structures that support the engine are
treated as a rigid object with infinite mass and
stiffness. This allows the performance of the engine
isolation system to be estimated with a simple
matrix analysis. At each mounting location
between the powertrain and vehicle support
structure is modelled as a spring/damper with
stiffness and damping properties in three direction
in space. An engine mount must satisfy two
essential but conflicting criteria. First, it should be
stiff and highly damped to control the idle shake
and engine mounting resonance over 5-30 Hz.
Also, it must be able to control, like a shock
absorber, the motion resulting from quasi-static
load conditions such as travel on bumpy roads,
abrupt vehicle acceleration or deceleration, and
braking and cornering. Type are engine Mounting,
1. Rigid (solid mounted) 2. Semi-Rigid 3. Isolation
(soft mounted) Rigid (Solid mounted): Primarily
used for large engines in stationary applications
with a sub base that is placed on a massive
foundation. Mounting allows only minimal motion
for thermal expansion and operating deflections of
the engine block. Alignment to driven devices can
be controlled very precisely. Also possible with
small, structural engines. For rigid mounting to
work effectively the subbase structure must be truly
rigid under common forces to the point of excess.
Isolation pads are used to attach the subbase to
foundation for larger engines. These isolators
effectively stiffen the subbase and damp
vibrations. Block attachments must allow for
expansion and normal deflection under firing
forces. This is why slip joints are used on front of
very large engines. Rigid mounting of small
structural engines is very advanced the adapter
design must be coordinated between product
engineering and OEM structural engineers. Semi-
Rigid: used when only limited isolation of engine is
required or isolator subframe is used. Very
common in industrial equipment with massive
frames and for engines with 12 or more cylinders.
Semi-rigid mounting degree of isolation varies
wide. Often involves major subframes that allow
two levels of isolation. Often the only practical
choice for large engines in mobile equipment.
Mounting provisions and load levels may not lend
themselves to simple isolation mounting.
Considerations of shock loading and frame
deflection may be as important as isolation
performance. May also require isolation of specific
machine components such as cab, control boxes,
etc. Isolation (soft mounted): desirable for mobile
equipment and with smaller, high speed engines.
The engine and direct attached components are
totally isolated and allowed to move in response to
normal engine vibration excitations. Isolation
mounting, this is the most typical mounting for
mobile equipment with engines of 8 cylinders or
less. Isolation mounting creates separate systems
which are isolated from each other. The engine and
directly attached components vibrate as a unit and
all components of this system must be capable of
handling the vibration levels. This can include
exhaust, intake and cooling components.
Components that are separated by the isolators are
not subject to engine excitation frequencies and can
often be less massive and rigid. Any connections
between the two systems must allow for free
motion. Engine Vibration Motions. 1. Yaw 2. Roll
3. Pitch. An isolated engine package is free to
move in three directions and three rotations.

Fig 1.1
A four cylinder engine has significant second order
shaking forces in the vertical direction. This will
cause pure vertical motion of the engine as well as
some pitch rotation depending on CG location.

Fig 1.2
Most engines have significant motion due to firing
torque reaction to engine block at firing frequency.
Engine roll about centre of least inertia close to
crank axis. Estimated as axis through the CG of
major components.

Fig 1.3
Engine isolator location ideal isolator location
would be as close to roll axis as possible for best
roll isolation for given mount stiffness. Actual
location is usually dictated by mounting pad
location and bending moment limitations. Long
cantilevers off mounting pads must be avoided,
causes excess moment loads and poor isolation
the engine is subjected to various vibratory
disturbances some external to it, other internal.
Random shocks from the road, transmitted through
the suspension, shake it; so do periodic shaking
forces from the universal joints in the propeller
shaft. Any rotating unbalances in the engine. The
mounts must isolate all of them; in addition, they
must support the static weight of the engine and
restrain it from fore-and-aft movement during
acceleration and breaking. Design consideration for
engine mounting system 1. Torque Axis 2. Centre
of Percussion 3. Mount configuration 4. Decouple
the Pitch and Bounce Mode 5. Specify the values of
the dynamic rates in compression and share for
each of the mounts. 6. Make the final tuning on the
complete vehicle by variation in the rubber
specification. Torque axis in an engine the axis of
torque application is the crankshaft and its seldom
parallel to a principle axis. The output torque has
periodic oscillations that cause the engine to
oscillate in reaction. We can minimize the
disturbance to the rest of the vehicle by allowing
the engine mass to oscillate about this natural
torque axis. Torque axis of an engine is dependent
on the magnitude of the principal axes of inertia
and on their location relative to the crankshaft. The
torque axis must pass through the centre of gravity
of the engine. Centre of percussion mounting if
the mass is free in space and an oscillating force is
applied to the mass at its centre of gravity, the mass
will translate without rotation in the direction of the
force, but if the force is not applied at the centre of
gravity there will be rotation as well as translation
and there will be a centre of oscillation. This centre
is the centre of percussion for that particular force
location. Thus if a disturbance is applied to the
front engine mount we would like to have the rear
mount mount located at the centre of percussion so
there would be no reaction forces on it. Mount
Configuration arrange the mounts in their planes
so that the elastic centre will fall on the torque axis.
Establish the relation between compressions and
shear rates of the mount. Decouple the Pitch and
Bounce Mode this is achieved by making the
product of front mount vertical rate and the
distance along the elastic axis to the centre of
gravity equal to the similar product for the rear
mount. Dynamic rate of rubber the amplitude and
frequency of a vibrating system is determine by
the mass of system, the stiffness of its elastic
elements, the damping resent and the magnitude
and frequency of the excitation. The purpose of
damping in an isolator is to reduce or dissipate
energy as rapidly as possible. Damping is also
beneficial in reducing vibration amplitudes at
resonance. Resonance occurs when the natural
frequency of the isolator coincides with the
frequency of the source vibration. The ideal isolator
would have as little damping as possible in its
isolation region and as much as possible at the
isolators natural frequency to reduce amplification
at resonance. Damping however can also lead to a
loss of isolation efficiency. As damping is
increased, the curve (Fig 2.1) of transmissibility is
flattened, so that in the region near to resonance,
the curve is reduced, but in the region where
isolation is required, the curve is increased. The
curves show that if there is a significant amount of
damping in an isolator, its natural frequency has to
be reduced to retain the desired degree of isolation
at the frequency ratio of concern. Damping
provides energy dissipation in a vibrating system. It
is essential to control the potential high levels of
transient vibration and shock, particularly if the
system is excited at, or near, to its resonant
frequency. To achieve efficient vibration isolation
it is necessary to use a resilient support with
sufficient elasticity so that the natural frequency fn
of the isolated machine is substantially lower that
the disturbing frequency fe of vibration. The ratio
fe/fn should be greater than 1.4 and ideally greater
than 2 to 3 in order to achieve a significant level of
vibration isolation.

Fig. 1.4 Four Point Mounting
The mounting system effectiveness is commonly
measured as the Transmissibility. The inertia force
developed in a reciprocating engine or unbalanced
forces produced in any other rotating machinery
should be isolated from the foundation/Mounting
so that the adjoining structure is not set into heavy
vibrations. Transmissibility is the amount of engine
vibration force which is transmitted through the
mounting system to the vehicle structure as a
percentage. A transmissibility of 0.4 or less of
engine idle speed is necessary for a good mounting
system. In the region of attention rather than
referring to the transmissibility, we use the
isolation efficiency as a measure reduction of
vibration input usually as a percentage value
occurring for a particular disturbing frequency.
This is defined by Isolation efficiency % isolation =
[1-Tr] x 100. Tr > 1 = Increased Transmitted
vibration TR <1 = Vibration Isolation, TR = 1
No Vibration Isolation
2 2
1 2
1 2
n n

| |
= =
| | | |
( +
| |
\ \

Where, = Damping Factor = C/Cc or Damping /
Critical damping, = Exciting frequency (fx2x),

= System natural frequency, T = Transmission

Fig. 2.1 Transmissibility v/s frequency ration for
different amounts of damping
The engine mounting system effectiveness is
usually measured with the term Vibration
Transmissibility the vibration transmissibility is
the amount of engine vibration which is transmitted
through the mounting system to the vehicle
structure. Vibration transmissibility TR > 1 means
that the engine mounting system is actually
transmitting more vibration into the vehicle
structure than is coming from the engine. This is
possible if the natural frequency of the mounting
system is close to the frequency of the engine
vibration, resulting in the mounting system
operating at or near resonance, resulting in
magnification of the input vibration. If vibration
transmissibility TR<1 indicate that the mounting
system is actually transmitting only a fraction of
the vibration input from the engine, so is isolating
the vehicle from engine vibration. As engine speed
increases, the firing frequency and therefore
vibrational input frequency to the mounting system
also increases. This means that the engine
mounting system has the worst (highest) vibration
transmissibility at lower engine speeds. Since idle
speed is the lowest engine speed commonly used,
its the most critical speed for design of engine
mounting system. A vibration transmissibility of
0.4 or less at engine idle speed is necessary for
good mounting system. In the region of attenuation
rather than referring to the transmissibility, we use
the isolation efficiency as a measure reduction of
vibration input usually as a percentage value
occurring for a particular disturbing frequency.
The basic rule of thumb is that isolation levels will
generally be improved (transmissibility will be
lowered) by increased rigidity and mass in the
supporting structures and by lower stiffness in the
isolators. The mounting system performance
calculations assume that the mounting system is
attached to a rigid base rather than a flexible
vehicle frame. The stiffer the frame, the closer the
mounting system will perform to the theoretical
calculations. After an acceptance design is chosen,
vehicle testing will reveal whether the system will
meet the desired performance in-vehicle when
attached to the vehicle frame and subjected to road
as well as power train vibrational inputs.
Table 1 Variation in Isolation Efficiency for
Different values Damping Factor & Frequency
Factor ()
Frequency Ratio R fe/fn
C/Cc 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
0.05 20 66 80 87 91 93 94 95
0.1 19 64 79 85 89 91 93 94
0.15 17 62 76 83 87 90 91 93
0.2 16 59 74 81 85 87 89 91
0.3 12 52 67 75 80 83 85 87
% Isolation Efficiency

% Isolation V/S Damping Factor
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3
Damping factor


R=1.5 R=2 R=2.5 R=3
R=4 R=4.5 R=5
Graph 1 Variation in Isolation Efficiency for
Different values Damping Factor & Frequency
Graph is showing variation % Isolation for
different values of damping factor (for given
frequency ratios) curves shows that nature of
variation of % Isolation for all values of damping
factor and frequency ratio is same but the point to
be noted here is that when the disturbing frequency
is nearer to the natural frequency the isolation
efficiency is very less. For higher values [fe/fn 2]
the frequency isolation efficiency doesnt vary
much. This study shows that system should be
operated well above the ratio value of 1 to 1.5.
Mounting Reactions & Bending Moment at RFOB

Fig 2.2 Bending Moment Calculation

All engine installations must be designed to limit
the vertical bending moment at rear face of the
block (RFOB) below the value listed on the engine
datasheet. Fig 2.2 & 2.3 illustrates the method for
calculating the bending moment at the rear face of
the block for a typical powertrain with transmission
and rear tail support (R3). The calculation method
can be applied for rear mounts on flywheel housing
or transmission housing or a subframe.

Fig 2.4 Inclination Angle of Front Engine Mounts.

Fig 2.5 Front Engine Mounts.
Distance L4 is the distance to the rear mount
isolator centres from the rear face of block.

Fig 2.6 Rigid body engine model
Engine Mounting Calculations
Dry weight of engine (weight flywheel
and alternator, but less starter and air
compressor) - W
2. Wet weight of engine - W

3. Weight of starter and air compressor - W

4. Total weight of Engine - W

5. CG Dist. From FFOB h

6. CG Dist. Above crank centre line h

7. Dry weight of Transmission - W

8. Wet weight (oil tank capacity) - W

9. Clutch cover assembly weight (cover
bearing + Adaptor ring + Inner plate) - W

10. Weight of dics - W

11. Total weight of Transmission - W

12. Transmission CG (X,Y,Z) h

Fig 2.5 Loading Diagram mounting of Flywheel
X1 = Dist. Between engine front mount to FFOB
X2 = Dist. between FFOB to total weight of engine
(C.G. of Engine)
X3 = Dist. Between engine front mount to total
weight of engine.
X4 = Engine block distance.
X5 = Dist. Between engine front mount to RFOB.
X6 = Dist. Between engine front mount to engine
rear mount.
X7 = Total length of span of drive line.
X8 = Dist. between RFOB to engine rear mount.
X9 = Dist. Between flywheel housing face to total
weight of transmission (CG of Transmission).
R1 = Reaction force of engine Front mount
R2 = Reaction force of engine Rear mount
Calculation of Reaction Forces:
R2 x X5 = Total weight of Engine x X3 + Total
weight of Transmission x X7
Reaction force on each rear mount = R2 / 2
R1 = (Total weight of Engine + Total weight of
Transmission) R2
Reaction force on each front mount = R1/2
Bending Moment at RFOB = R1 x X5 - Total
weight of Engine x (X4 - X2) or Total weight of
Transmission x ( X7-X6+X8) R2 x X8
This bending moment should not exceed
recommended bending moment of Engine at
RFOB. If not than fifth mounting is required or
change position of mounts is required to meet the
recommended bending moment of Engine.
Vibration Isolation Six Cylinder Engine:
calculation of torsional vibration excited by firing
disturbances, exciting frequency by firing
disturbance is given by,
2. .
n i
f Hz
n = Engine idle RPM
i =Number of Cylinder
C=Engine Cycle (4-Stroke or 2-Stroke)
= 2. . , = Engine forced frequency =
Calculation of natural frequency of Front/Rear
k g
= Natural frequency of the front mount
k = Stiffness of the front mount, Kg/mm
g = Acceleration duet to gravity, m/s

m= Reaction force on front mount, Kg
Frequency Ratio =

Transmissibility ( T
) graph for the engine mounts
is obtained by iteration method. Transmissibility is
calculated for different values of frequency ratios.
Frequency ratios are obtained on the basis of test
results and design guide lines.

The conclusion of the present study is as follows.
1) Comparison of different methods to
analyze NVH performance of engine
2) Study of mathematical models of engine
3) Graphical representation of different NVH
parameters like (stiffness, damping,
isolation efficiency & vibrational
4) Exhaustive study of vibrational effects for
engine mounts.

[1] Hamid Mir, Focused 4-Mount Concept
Evaluation, Technical report, NVH Development
and Engineering, DaimlerChrysler Corporation,
[2] Yunhe Yu et al.Automotive Vehicle Engine
Mounting Systems: A Survey, Journal of Dynamic
Systems, Measurement, and Control, June 2001,
Vol., 123, pp.186-194.
[3] Thomas D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle
Dynamics, SAE, 1992

[4] Akinon Matsuda, Yasutaka Hayashi and Junzo
Hasegawa, Vibration Analysis of a Diesel Engine
at Cranking and Idling Modes and Its Mounting
System, SAE Proceedings, 870964, 139-146, 1987

[5] Stuecklschwaiger, W. and Ronacher, A.;
Optimization of Engine Mount Parameters by
Simulation and Statistic Techniques, European
ADAMS Users Conference, 1994.