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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Describe with sketches and plots the dierence between a conventional airplane and Helicopter. Emphasize on the generation of lift in both cases. (b) Explain with sketches and plots the requirement of tail rotor in a conventional single rotor helicopter. Describe the rotor transmission mechanism. [8+8] 2. (a) Discuss the aerodynamics of an airplane propeller and a ducted fan/rotor used for forward motion of a Hovercraft. (b) Provide the principal details of a Hovercraft in as far as its forward and hovering motion is concerned. [8+8] 3. A helicopter weighs 30,000N and has a single rotor of 16m diameter. Using momentum theory estimate the power required for level ight at a speed of 20m/sec at sea level. Take CD = 0.0065 based on rotor disc area.  4. A rotor in a given ight condition has the following apping motion with respect to the control axis (control plane): ( ) = 60 40 cos 40 sin . (a) Sketch a side view and rear view of the rotor. (b) How much is the TPP inclined in the fore and aft direction? Forward or backward? (c) How much is the TPP inclined laterally? Is the advancing or retreating blade high? (d) What angle does the blade make with the control plane at = 00 , 900 ,1800 , 2700 , (e) At what azimuth angle is the apping angle greatest? (f) What is the apping angle at this point? 

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5. A helicopter is operating in level forward ight at 63.6ms1 under the following conditions: shaft power supplied = 488.4kw, w = 2722 Kg, = 1.038 Kg/m3 . The rotor parameters are R = 5.75m. = 0.08, R=212.12ms1 , K = 1.15, Cdo = 0.01. (a) How much power is required to overcome induced losses? (b) How much power is required to overcome prole losses? (c) What is the equivalent at-plate area, f? (d) If the installed power is 596.56kw, estimate the maximum rate of climb possible at this airspeed.  1

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 2

6. Derive the power calculations for plenum chamber and peripheral jet machines.  7. The drag on an airfoil (at low angles of attack) can be estimated by measuring the stream wise velocity in the wake behind the airfoil in a plane normal to the chord. The resulting distribution of velocity can be approximated by the equation: (y ) 1 = 1 2 cos 2y , V W where 2W is the total width of the wake normal to the airfoil chord. Using the momentum deciency approach (application of momentum conservation equation in integral form to a control volume surrounding the airfoil and its wake), nd an expression for the drag coecient Cd in terms of the measured wake width W.  8. (a) Given a helicopter of weight, W = 2,727.3 kg, calculate the power required in hover and up to 10,976.4 m/s axial rate-of-climb. The radius of the main rotor is 6.0 m and the rotor has a gure of merit of 0.75. Assume sea level conditions. (b) Plot your result in the form of power required versus climb velocity. Discuss the factors that will determine the maximum vertical climb rate of a helicopter. [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain blade element theory in case of vertical ight. (b) Dene gure of merit for a helicopter rotor. [8+8]

2. Based on the modied momentum theory, show that the operating thrust coecient CT , to give the lowest power in hover (best power loading) is CT for best PL = 1 2 of 2/3.
Cd0 2/3

## Also, show that this condition corresponds to a gure of merit 

3. (a) Illustrate performance curves of a helicopter rotor with the eect of attitude. (b) Explain induced, prole and parasite power in forward ight. [8+8]

4. By means of the blade element theory in forward ight show that by including the eects of reverse ow on the drag, the prole power coecient can be written as C 4 . Neglect the radial component of velocity. Compare CP0 = 8d0 1 + 32 + 3 8 this result to the predicted power obtained without reverse ow.  5. (a) Consider a single rotor, conventional helicopter. Explain the generation of lift. How does the helicopter obtain its forward motion? (b) Write the dierence between compound helicopter and single rotor helicopter. [8+8] 6. (a) For a hovering rotor, momentum theory gives a result for the ideal contraction ratio of the wake. In practice, experimental observations show that the wake contraction is not as much as the ideal value. Why? (b) Show by means of simple momentum theory that a wake contraction that is less than the ideal will result in a higher induced power for the same total thrust. (c) Find an expression for the induced power ratio (actual power relative to ideal at a constant thrust) in terms of a measured wake radial contraction ratio of 0.78. [5+5+6] 7. (a) Explain the principle of the ground cushion vehicle known as hovercraft, make use so detailed sketches to explain its forward motion over water and solid surface. How do you incorporate various controls in it? (b) What are the principle details of an Hovercraft. How does it obtain forward motion? [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 4

8. (a) What types of rotor-airframe interaction problems might be involved in the ight of an autogyro? Consider both winged and wingless autogyros, as well as tip-jet driven rotor machines such as the Rotodyne. (b) Derive a set of governing equations to solve numerically for the locations of the cutting interactions of the tail rotor with the main rotor wake vortices. Explore the pattern of interactions for dierent values of the ratio T R /M R . In each case, examine the eect of changing the direction of rotation of the tail rotor. 

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. In the design of a swept tip rotor blade, it is desired to introduce only as much sweep angle as necessary to keep the Mach number incident to the leading-edge of the blade equal to a constant, say Mc , over the tip region. Because of unsteady ow eects, critical azimuth angle for the design is taken to be at =1000 nd an expression for the sweep angle as a function of r, the hover tip Mach number MR , the design Mach number Mc and the advance ratio, . If MR = 0.65 and Mc =0.8, plot the sweep angle required as a function of radial blade station for a series of advance ratios.  2. Make use of ideal actuator disc theory to show that in hovering ight the power supplied to the rotor varies as T 3/2 , where T is that thrust developed by it. What is the total power required if we account for other parts of the helicopter?  3. A helicopter weighs 46,000N and has a single rotor of 12.3m diameter. Estimate the power required to y forward at a speed of 16m/sec at sea level. Take CD (based on rotor disc area) as 0.006.  4. For the helicopter gross weight 1,363kg, main rotor radius 4.0m and rotor tip speed 207.3m, power delivered to the rotor 205kW, the tail rotor radius is 0.701m and the tail rotor is located 4.66 m from the main rotor shaft. Calculate the thrust and power required by the tail rotor for hovering conditions at sea level. Assume that the Figure of Merit of the tail rotors is 0.70.  5. The downstream wake from the rotor hub can often aect the unsteady loads on the tail rotor and empennage, to the extent that adverse lateral airframe forces can be produced. Suggest at least two techniques that could be adopted to alleviate this problem.  6. The 1/4-chord line of the horizontal tail of a particular helicopter is located approximately 0.2R below and 1.1R aft of the rotor hub. Using a simple rigid wake analysis to determine the approximate ight conditions (forward speed, climb, and or descent) where the tail would be immersed inside the boundaries of the rotor wake. Choose several representative rotor operating conditions (thrust, disk angle of attack, climb/descent, etc.).  7. Using the rotor performance theory, calculate the power required for ight for an autogyro and compare your results to an equivalent helicopter of the same gross weight. Make any realistic assumptions that you nd necessary, but be sure to justify them. 

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 1

8. (a) Describe the basic parts of Hovercraft in dening: i. The vertical lifting action, and ii. Forward motion action. What are the limitations in design and operation of such hovering machines with limited capacity? What are its established uses? (b) Explain the dierent types of hovercrafts with suitable diagrams. [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What is a rotorcraft what are the dierent types of rotorcrafts? (b) Congure helicopters based up on torque reaction. [8+8]

2. A helicopter weighs 34,000N and has a single rotor of 11.3m diameter. Estimate the power required to y forward at a speed of 16m/sec at sea level. Take CD (based on rotor disc area) as 0.0065.  3. In a hypothetical helicopter rotor design, the use of blade taper has been shown to increase the gure of merit of the main rotor by 1%. Estimate the percentage increase in vertical lifting and payload capability of the helicopter with all other factors being assumed constant.  4. (a) Explain the dierent types of hovercrafts with suitable diagrams. (b) Describe the types of jet machines used in hovercraft, explain briey with diagrams. [8+8] 5. The inow distribution over a rotor operating in hover with no tip losses is assumed to be linear, that is = tip r where tip is the value of the inow at the tip. By considering a momentum balance on successive annuli of the rotor disk, show that  the induced power factor for such a rotor is 4 2/5. 6. Consider the possible types of aerodynamic interactions that might be found on a tilt-rotor when it is operating in hovering ight. You should consider the possibility of both steady and unsteady ow eects. Discuss design options that could used to alleviate any adverse eects.  7. Discuss the factors that limit the low speed ight characteristics of an autogyro. Is there any truth in the claim that the autogyro is essentially a stall-proof aircraft?  8. (a) Find the eective drag coecient, CD , acting on a rotor that is in vertical autorotation at Vc /vh -1.85. Compare your result to the published drag coecients of standard blu-body shapes, e.g. a at plate, and comment. (b) Calculate and plot the values of the slipstream velocities in the fully contacted wake of a hovering rotor at sealevel as a function of disk loading T /A. Assuming a gure of merit of 0.75, compute and plot the power loading versus disk loading. [8+8]

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