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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Describe with sketches and plots the dierence between a conventional airplane and Helicopter. Emphasize on the generation of lift in both cases. (b) Explain with sketches and plots the requirement of tail rotor in a conventional single rotor helicopter. Describe the rotor transmission mechanism. [8+8] 2. (a) Discuss the aerodynamics of an airplane propeller and a ducted fan/rotor used for forward motion of a Hovercraft. (b) Provide the principal details of a Hovercraft in as far as its forward and hovering motion is concerned. [8+8] 3. A helicopter weighs 30,000N and has a single rotor of 16m diameter. Using momentum theory estimate the power required for level ight at a speed of 20m/sec at sea level. Take CD = 0.0065 based on rotor disc area. [16] 4. A rotor in a given ight condition has the following apping motion with respect to the control axis (control plane): ( ) = 60 40 cos 40 sin . (a) Sketch a side view and rear view of the rotor. (b) How much is the TPP inclined in the fore and aft direction? Forward or backward? (c) How much is the TPP inclined laterally? Is the advancing or retreating blade high? (d) What angle does the blade make with the control plane at = 00 , 900 ,1800 , 2700 , (e) At what azimuth angle is the apping angle greatest? (f) What is the apping angle at this point? [16]

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5. A helicopter is operating in level forward ight at 63.6ms1 under the following conditions: shaft power supplied = 488.4kw, w = 2722 Kg, = 1.038 Kg/m3 . The rotor parameters are R = 5.75m. = 0.08, R=212.12ms1 , K = 1.15, Cdo = 0.01. (a) How much power is required to overcome induced losses? (b) How much power is required to overcome prole losses? (c) What is the equivalent at-plate area, f? (d) If the installed power is 596.56kw, estimate the maximum rate of climb possible at this airspeed. [16] 1

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 2

6. Derive the power calculations for plenum chamber and peripheral jet machines. [16] 7. The drag on an airfoil (at low angles of attack) can be estimated by measuring the stream wise velocity in the wake behind the airfoil in a plane normal to the chord. The resulting distribution of velocity can be approximated by the equation: (y ) 1 = 1 2 cos 2y , V W where 2W is the total width of the wake normal to the airfoil chord. Using the momentum deciency approach (application of momentum conservation equation in integral form to a control volume surrounding the airfoil and its wake), nd an expression for the drag coecient Cd in terms of the measured wake width W. [16] 8. (a) Given a helicopter of weight, W = 2,727.3 kg, calculate the power required in hover and up to 10,976.4 m/s axial rate-of-climb. The radius of the main rotor is 6.0 m and the rotor has a gure of merit of 0.75. Assume sea level conditions. (b) Plot your result in the form of power required versus climb velocity. Discuss the factors that will determine the maximum vertical climb rate of a helicopter. [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain blade element theory in case of vertical ight. (b) Dene gure of merit for a helicopter rotor. [8+8]

2. Based on the modied momentum theory, show that the operating thrust coecient CT , to give the lowest power in hover (best power loading) is CT for best PL = 1 2 of 2/3.
Cd0 2/3

## Also, show that this condition corresponds to a gure of merit [16]

3. (a) Illustrate performance curves of a helicopter rotor with the eect of attitude. (b) Explain induced, prole and parasite power in forward ight. [8+8]

4. By means of the blade element theory in forward ight show that by including the eects of reverse ow on the drag, the prole power coecient can be written as C 4 . Neglect the radial component of velocity. Compare CP0 = 8d0 1 + 32 + 3 8 this result to the predicted power obtained without reverse ow. [16] 5. (a) Consider a single rotor, conventional helicopter. Explain the generation of lift. How does the helicopter obtain its forward motion? (b) Write the dierence between compound helicopter and single rotor helicopter. [8+8] 6. (a) For a hovering rotor, momentum theory gives a result for the ideal contraction ratio of the wake. In practice, experimental observations show that the wake contraction is not as much as the ideal value. Why? (b) Show by means of simple momentum theory that a wake contraction that is less than the ideal will result in a higher induced power for the same total thrust. (c) Find an expression for the induced power ratio (actual power relative to ideal at a constant thrust) in terms of a measured wake radial contraction ratio of 0.78. [5+5+6] 7. (a) Explain the principle of the ground cushion vehicle known as hovercraft, make use so detailed sketches to explain its forward motion over water and solid surface. How do you incorporate various controls in it? (b) What are the principle details of an Hovercraft. How does it obtain forward motion? [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 4

8. (a) What types of rotor-airframe interaction problems might be involved in the ight of an autogyro? Consider both winged and wingless autogyros, as well as tip-jet driven rotor machines such as the Rotodyne. (b) Derive a set of governing equations to solve numerically for the locations of the cutting interactions of the tail rotor with the main rotor wake vortices. Explore the pattern of interactions for dierent values of the ratio T R /M R . In each case, examine the eect of changing the direction of rotation of the tail rotor. [16]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 1

8. (a) Describe the basic parts of Hovercraft in dening: i. The vertical lifting action, and ii. Forward motion action. What are the limitations in design and operation of such hovering machines with limited capacity? What are its established uses? (b) Explain the dierent types of hovercrafts with suitable diagrams. [8+8]

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## Code No: 07A82104

R07

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,AUGUST 2011 HELICOPTER ENGINEERING Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What is a rotorcraft what are the dierent types of rotorcrafts? (b) Congure helicopters based up on torque reaction. [8+8]