Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 429

Tylor, Edward Burnett. Researches into the early history of mankind and the development of civilization. 1870.

1/ Les contenus accessibles sur le site Gallica sont pour la plupart des reproductions numriques d'oeuvres tombes dans le domaine public provenant des collections de la BnF.Leur rutilisation s'inscrit dans le cadre de la loi n78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 : *La rutilisation non commerciale de ces contenus est libre et gratuite dans le respect de la lgislation en vigueur et notamment du maintien de la mention de source. *La rutilisation commerciale de ces contenus est payante et fait l'objet d'une licence. Est entendue par rutilisation commerciale la revente de contenus sous forme de produits labors ou de fourniture de service. Cliquer ici pour accder aux tarifs et la licence

2/ Les contenus de Gallica sont la proprit de la BnF au sens de l'article L.2112-1 du code gnral de la proprit des personnes publiques. 3/ Quelques contenus sont soumis un rgime de rutilisation particulier. Il s'agit : *des reproductions de documents protgs par un droit d'auteur appartenant un tiers. Ces documents ne peuvent tre rutiliss, sauf dans le cadre de la copie prive, sans l'autorisation pralable du titulaire des droits. *des reproductions de documents conservs dans les bibliothques ou autres institutions partenaires. Ceux-ci sont signals par la mention Source gallica.BnF.fr / Bibliothque municipale de ... (ou autre partenaire). L'utilisateur est invit s'informer auprs de ces bibliothques de leurs conditions de rutilisation.

4/ Gallica constitue une base de donnes, dont la BnF est le producteur, protge au sens des articles L341-1 et suivants du code de la proprit intellectuelle. 5/ Les prsentes conditions d'utilisation des contenus de Gallica sont rgies par la loi franaise. En cas de rutilisation prvue dans un autre pays, il appartient chaque utilisateur de vrifier la conformit de son projet avec le droit de ce pays. 6/ L'utilisateur s'engage respecter les prsentes conditions d'utilisation ainsi que la lgislation en vigueur, notamment en matire de proprit intellectuelle. En cas de non respect de ces dispositions, il est notamment passible d'une amende prvue par la loi du 17 juillet 1978. 7/ Pour obtenir un document de Gallica en haute dfinition, contacter reutilisation@bnf.fr.

G 29821
Londres 1870

Tytor~ Sir Edward Burnett Researches into the ~ar~ history of ~~M~~~ and the development of c~c~

applicable Symbole pourtout,ou partie des documentsmicrofilms

Texte dtrior

reliure dfectueuse

NFZ 43-120-11

applicable Symbole pourtout,ou partie m)crofi!ms des documents illisible Ongina! Z43-120-10 MF



Fm~mNCKSECK !it)~BML BBmANC)!. KBtAmB.PBt.'n~MTM <),MEMt.U~,PAM8. ~J, ~i. .S.& ,<i. i ,j



1 Ntt





TYLOR, A):TtM)t<<)'"M)!XK'oA!tBT)t)!tt):XMX6."





t~KtjOit: AS~ MiA~'RY, <VA~ W.. W~t~KiA~. HmtTNM,



M)! 1








'K't'KXTM. <it.\t'TKt!X. ,.Mx gyy

MU)!HHt:MAttKAJ)t,H('t.'ST!'M.S 'HAt'J'KitX). M)STOH)CALTtt.\t~TfuX.S AKU )n"rn.s ttt.\t"f[:[!Xt). KKOUMAPHK'A).))ISTt<mL'TMX ut' MYTtts CI[A["n:ttXUf. <u\'CLUDtXUt{Mt.t)tK.S (~ ansEitVATtON






IXTUODUCTIO~. Ix atuJying the phenomcuaof know!c()ge and art, retigiuu and mythntogy, iaw and cuttom, and thc rcst ni' thc comptox whoitjwhieh wc eatt Civilisation, it if!nut enoughto hve in vmwthc )unrettdvimced rnecs.nntt to knowtheir )nstoryso &r M ttiructfocurdshin'c prMcrvcdit fur us. Th cxpinnation of th statc uf thit)}p:ht whichwu hvo bas oftfn to be nought iu tho condition ofntdeaad eartytrihes; andwithoutn. knowtudgo of t)iixto guide us, wc may miss t))c mcauingcvenof famniar thought!)aud pmetices. To tnkc a tnvifu instance,tho Ktatemeut is truc enough as it stands,thitt tho worn~u of modem Europe tnutiiute <)tcircars to httO~jewc)s in them, but thc rcasonof their doh)~so if:not to fui)y foundin th cireumKtancesamong whit:))wo arc living now. Tho studcnt who takcsa. widervicwthinkf!of tho nn~s axd ))0))ps and feathcrs thmst thmughthe cartilageof tho nosc tho wcightti that pull thc st carsin long Mosesto tho shoulder th ivorystnds Ict in at thc conK'rsof tho Mouth tho wou<.ien ptugt as Mg as tabtc-spoonsput thrnugh iifitsin thc under jip tho teeth of anitnal.tstuck poiut outwardsthrough htes in thc chccks ail famitiar thingii amou;; tho towcr mcos up and dowti in tho wortd. Tho modem ean'ing of tho higher nationsiitandsnot as a productof our owntinics,but ai'i relieof a rudcr mental


one of th many casesin whiehthe rMntt of condition, progrem has been not positive in adding something new, but negativo in taking away something betonging tu an oadier stato of thtngs. It is indeed hardtytoo mue)) to say tbat Civitization, being a processof long and cotnpkx growth,Mn oaty ho thoroughty underiitood whpn studied through its cntire range; that the i.s past coutinuatiyneeded to ~ptain the p~ent, a.td tho whoteto exphuKth part. A feelingof thix may accountht Mmetnpnsuro fur tt)e <.agcreunosity whichis fdt fur descnpttOMof thc lifu aud habits of strnnge and aucieut races, iu Locka Voyais, Cattiu'.s-Korth Amenean ludiau. Prcscott's 'Mextco' aud 'Pcn); cvcH iu thu tncag~ dutai).swhich ant:have quanes sueccmtcd iu reco~-cring of thc tivps of thu Lakedwciicmof SwitMrtaudaud th Rcindccr Tn)~ of Central traucc. For matteM of practical life thcM pcopk may be nothing to us; but in reading of them wo are or cotisciously th unco!)sciou8!y compteting picturo, and t.~cing ont th courseof Hfc,of what bas been sa wetisaid to hc, aftc.-ail, our most:Htorcst:!)j{ ubjectof study, mankmd. th Kariy Histury of Afan is Mt to ho T)(ouf;t',how~vur, an attractive subjeft,aud ~rfat tnttsscs of the mat<-ria)s hecded for working it ont hve h.og bccu t.H-thpomittg, thcy hve M been tunK-dto but little accwut. Thc yet opinion that tho ui!eof fac~i is to i)tu.strate thories, tho confu-siou b<.t)vectt and whieh is History Mythoto~y. oulynuwbciug pnrHydearcd in the statoucuts of ancient up, an uuduGconfiucnco writeM, whose meaus of informationabout times aud remoto from thcmsctvcswere often much nan-owerthanplaces thoso whictt are, ages iater, at our own commsnd,))ave been among th hiudrauce!! to th gtwvthof sound ui this direction. kuowtedgo Thotituo forwritingasyfitctnatic tMatisoon th s))b)cetdocs not iicemyet to bave corne cf'rtain!y uothiug of th kind is attcmptcd in tho present sries of es~ys, whosc contents, Mmewhat mi.scc!)aneous as thcy are, searce!y corne into contact with grt part of th most important probtemsinvoh'cd,such as the relation of tho bodUy charaetursof th various races, th question of tbeir origin and descent,th dcvetopmentof


morals, religion, law, and many others. Th mattOMdis' cu~ed hve bocn choseu, not M much for their absotutoimportance,as becauM,while thcy are among tho easiestand mofttinvitiug parts of tho mtbject, it la possibleso to work thetn as to bring into viewcertain gnent! lincsof afgnmont, whieh apply not only to t))om, but ntso to th mure complox a))t!di<Ecu)t p)t)Uemsinvoh'cd in n comptetet~a.tiM on the History of Civiiixatio)!.Thse lincs of argument, and thcir relationto thdit!t't'cttt cMay.t, maylie brieflystntedattho outsKt. lu tho nMt phc! w!)cn a gnera! !awcan bc inffrred froM a groupof facts,th use of dctaitodhistory is very muchsupc'reded. WIten wcsec (t ma~nct attt'net a pioceuf iroo,having como by exporieneeto th geno'ul )aw that magnet!!attract iron, wodo net tako tho tnjttbte to go into tho historyof tho particutar Htagnct m question. To sornc extent thif)direct to gnral taws tnay bo mado in th study of Civilircferenee zation. Thofour next chitptursuf tttc prsent booktroat oftiie various ~'nysiltt which mau utters hM tbou~ht~ in Gestures, Wonis, Picture! and Writing. Hct-e, though Speech and as they Writin~ must hc invcsti~thd historicaHy, dfpendiHg do in M whichwere grt mcasureon th wordsaud ctmractcM 1 eutTcutlit thc wuridthousandsof years ago,ou tho other!)and th (Jesture.Lang'uage and Picturc-Writing nmy uo mosUy oxplained without th aid of Iti.story, afi direct produetsof thc human mind. lu th fouowing cimpter on Images and Natucs,"ait attcmpt is made to n-fet'tt grmt part ofthc hetieis and practicpii ondcrth ~cnend namcof magie,to ono indud<;d of mind verysimplemental Inw,as rosutting from a condition whichwe of the moro advanced races haro atnMst outgrown, and in doing so hve undcrgonc ouo of t!ie most notable changeswbid) wo can trace as having happencd to mankind. And tastty, a particular habit of miud aceountsfora das!!of Btoricswhieh arc hre grouped togcther as Myths of Observation," as diittingnishedfrom th tatcif which <n!tko up the grt bu)k of tho folk-loreof tho world,and whichlutter are now bcing shownby thc new school of Comparative Mythologistsin Cerntanyand England to have comointo existence atso by virtue of a gnral hw, but a. very differentone. !one. ns



But it Montyin particu!ar parts of Human Culture, where th &ctahavenot, soto opcak,travelledfar from their causM, that this directmethodM practicaUo. Mostof its phenomona have grown into shapc out of such a of events, complication that th laborious piecing togcthcr of their previonshistoryis th only Mibwayof studyiug them. It t!) casy to Mo howfar a theotogian or n iawyor would go wMig who shouMtht-ow asHe, Midattempt to explain, on abstt-act hMtot-y principles, thu existence of th PmtMtant Churc))or tho Code Napolon. A Romant-sque ot-an Earty HngHshcathedra! ii! not to be stud:cd MH thoughail that th architcct had ta do was to take stono and mortarand set up a &r a given pnrpose bui!<)i))g T))o d(.-vc!opnM)H of th architecture ofGr~ce, its passageinto tho architectureuf Rome,tho growttt of Christian ccremony and symbolistn, arc oulypart of tho demcntf!which went to form th state of tbingsit) whichth geniusof tho buitder had to workout the requit-etnents of tho moment. Th )ato Mr. Buck)o did good servicein urging sttuleats to look tho detai):!of historyto tho grt laws uf Hnmatt through Dcwtopment whichlie bchind; but bis to ~w attctn{)t Mphun.bya rash gnacratimtions, thu eoMpk.xphas~ uf Europeatt history, is a wamiug of tho dat.gcr of too an hasty apueat to nMt priucip)cs. t))~A~,howevcr, cartierci\-itixation lies verymuc!iout of tho beatcn track of history, t)~ place of direct recordshas to bo supptied iu grt mesure by indirect evidenec, such a.s Auti. quities, Langage, and Mythotogy.Ttiis makes it geuerully d~cult to get a soundhistoricid basis to work but there on, to bo a happons quantityof tnateriat casityobtamab)e, which beaMon tho devetopmettt of tiomoof th more common and usefu)arts. Thus iu th pighth Mtdninth th tmnchapters, sition from imptements of stoHc to thoso of metat is demonstra.ted to have taken place in alinost every district of tho habitable globe, and a progrs from rudor to more perfect modes of making fire aud food is tracedin many dit. boiting furent countries; whiloin th scventh,cndcnee is coHected on tho unportant proMem ofthe relation which Progressbas borne to Declinein art aud in th iustory ofthe world. knowletige



In th remote times and places where direct historyis at as it is convefautt, tho study of Civilizntion, Cutture-History beeomcsitself uu important aid to uienUycaUediu Gcrmauy, as n meausof rc-cotistructing tho lest recordsof th historian, earlyor barbaroustimes. But its use as coutributingto tho car)yhistoryof mankind dpends mainty on th answeringof whichruns throughul!th presoutessuy:), th Miowing quMttot), and bindit them togethcr as VM'tous casesof a sineleproMem. When fiimitarart!),customs,be)i(;&, or tcgund. are fuund iu Mveratdistant rcgioM)), anwog pwpies not knownto bo of tho tMune stock,howis this situitarity to bu accountedfor Sometimes it maybe ascribedto the like workingof meu'9minds and sometitncfi it is a proof of Uoodre. undcrlike conditions, direct or indirect,bctweeutho races lationshipor of iMtMreouMc, amocgwhotait Mfouud. lu tho one easu it has no Itistoricat valuewhatcver,whilein tho other it bas this vatuo iu a high I'! how to dittinguish degrs,aud ttm cvcr-recurriugprobtem. betweenth two. Anexnmpleo)teachsido may serveto bring the matter iutoa ckarer tight. Thgnralprevaleucu uf a beaef ia the continuauce of tho Murs existence~fter death, does uot provo that ail munkind Itavemheritcdsuch a belief frum a commonsource. It may liave beeu so, but th historicat u~'umcut M uade vatuoloiB by th faet that certain uatural pheuotucnttmay havo sugto thc miudof mun,whilem a certain stage of deveiopgestt*d tucut, thc idea of a future state, and this uot once ouly, but aud at differeuttimes. agaiu aud again iu diSereut regioB:) Thse phenomeuamayprove nothing of t))e kind to us, but that isuot tho question. Tho reasoaingof tho savago is not to bejudgcdby tho rules whieh belong to a higher ducation aud whnt th ethuotogi~trequires iu sucti a case, is uot tu kuowwhat tho &cts provo to his owu mind, but what infereucoth vorydiffereattytraiued uuud of th savagomay draw fromthem. Th botief that mau ttas a soul otpabto of existlag apart fromth bodyit betongsto, and contiuuiugtu !ive,for a time at teast,aftor that body is doad and buried, ts pedeetty iu sucha mind withthc fact that tho shadowy fonns of mcu and



womendo appear to others,when th men and women themselvesarc at a distance,and after they are dead. We caUthse apparitions dreams or phantasme acconling as tho person tu whom they appear is a.sjucpor awake,aud when we I.car of thetr occurrencein ordinary!iR.,set thc.n down as subjective o f IJroeesses th mind. We do not t)unk that tho phantom of th da)-!< Braxitian whu ~ed to ),,u.nt a red Mpinozaw<M pCMon;that thu heudwhich stood hefot-ea iatu di.'itit~UHhed httghsh peer, whcne~r iic w:Meut of heatth. wan a materid object; t).at th iiend~which torment thu Yict:mof detinum tremons,arc what and wlterethey tiecmto himto bc; that any Mal oeeun-ence t o con-csponds thc dreams of th old men who tell us they were Hogged I~t n!ght at school. !t is onty a part of n.ankmd, howcvcr, who thus dMcmn.cct dMa)n8and visions from th objects ~-hosc fon,M they bear. Among the les MYthiK-d races, the sparation of fiu~eetivc and d)jectivo in). which in this, a.s in severnlother prosstMM, matters, makes th most unportant din-er~nce tx-tweenthc c<tt.catcdman and th savage,is mueh less fully can-ic.d out. This i8 indeed tn.e to Mineextent among thc hig).cr nations,(<jrno Cireenlanderor Kanr over mixed up his suhjeetn-itywith tho evidenceof hio senssmto a more hopete~ confu.sion th.n t!,e mod~m spiritualist. As th subjcct i.sonty hrought fonvard hre as an iUus. tratton, it is not )K-cc.~ry to go at Icngth into its dtail A fewpickedcxan.piMwill bring into viewth~ twogrt thc.orie.s ofdrcams and v).siohs, current autung th !owcrraces. One is, that whena man is astcep or ~.ing visions,th ngurcs which to hnn corne from their places aud stand over appear hun th other, that tho sont uf thc drMmN.or Mer a~inst goes out on its travels,and corneshomewith a remcmbmnccof what it has secn. Tho AnstraUans, says Sir Georgo Cy, bclievo that th uightmare M caused by an evi! spirit. To get rid of it they catch a ligllted brand from Ute fire, and with jump up, various muttercd imprcations it in the directionwheM ning they think th spirit is. He simply came for a and having got it, he will go away.' Others tell of th light, dmon Koin,a nature H~, <J<mtn<th;' Loudun, v.).il.p. ~j,. 1841,


whohas th appcarance of a native,and tiko them ie painted a nrc.iitick. He comessometimes with pipe-ctayand ciUTtM whenihcy arc asleepand carriera man oH'as an eagtedoes its nMkcstho dmon prey. Thshout of the vietun'xcompantons let himdrop,or ehu he cctrrieshim uii' to bis fire in th hush' Th unfortunateb):n'ktt'ie.stf'o'y out, but feetxhimseif<dtbut chuked and camwt, At daytight Kuiu disappcaH,aud tho native ftuds birnself brou~ht safety back to his ownHt'eside.' tu being riddeu by a hng or Eveuin Europe,such expresxions by th devii, preMn'c tho rccoiiectiuoof a similar train of thought. lu th evil dcmonawhotrouMopeuplein their siecp, tho Incubiaud Suecubi,thc beliefin this materiat and pertiomi charaeterof thu (i~m-cssceu in dreams eotucs stronglyout, perhaps nowhcrotuor' strikiugty than amoDg tbo natives of the Tonga MM'df~ Whoiioseeth nie lu his sleep,"said "sccth me tntty, for Satan cannot assumeth Mohammed, of my fortn." iiinutitudc as actual that thc Dayab regard drcanM Mr.St. Juhu My.s occurrences. They think that in sleep the Mul sometimesrcmains in th hody, )Utd sometimesIcaves it and travek far and that both when iu and out of th bodyit secs aud away, heaM and talks, and attogcthur bas a prescicucogiven to it, which,whcnthc body is in it!)natural state, it doesnot enjoy. Faintingfits, or a state of coma,are thought to bc caused by th departureor absenceof thc solonMmedistant expdition of its own. When a Europen dreams of lus distant country, has annihilated space,and paid a t!)c Dayaki!think his <iou) visitto Kuropcduring thu night.~ Vcry manytribesbeOying !ievein this way that dreams are incidents which happen to thu spirit in its wandcringsfrom th body,and th tdca h<M cveu cxprcsseditself in a Huperiititioui: objection to waking a. fur fear of disturbing his body whitchiii Mul is out.* ffk'cper, FatiturChadcvoixfound both the thories In question current amongthc Indians of North Anicrica. Adream might cither CotomM \'i)iit tothAuttmUm Lomkn, )S<3, p.6M. )htkhot)', ii.p. UZ. LoMbn, !St6,Y). Mmher, "ron~hhmh.'&.dat., vol. i. p. t89. St. FM<ah) thahf EiMtLoxbn, ]SM, J'eht), <DMtm'), t-o). ii. 3K,t. DM M<!))-h ih'br ewM'ihte Lt-itai~, t80~,



ho a visitfromthc souluf the objectdreamt of, or it might Lo onc of th Muls of thc dreamergoing about th worM, white th othcr-for every man tia!< twostaye~t bc)und with th body. Drcams,thcy think, are ofsuperuaturatorigin,aud it M a religious duty to attend to them, That thewhitemenNhouhi look uponadrentn us a matter of uo eutM~ucncc it)a thmg they cannotuudcr.stattd.' Howlike a drcmnis to the poputarnotionof a Mut, a Bhadc, a spirit, or a ghotit,uc<;duot bc mid. But thero are facts whichMngthe drean)and tho gho.stintu yet clusercouneetiott than fottowx frommcrorescmhtance.Thus th bcliefis fouml attMngthc Finnishracesthat th sptrits of th dcadcanpiague tho living m their slecp,and bring sicknessand harm upon tttcm.' Herodotus retato!that the Nasamoncs practiscdivinaiiutt iu the fo)iowiugma)t)fur :they resort to th tomhs of their anccsturs, aud after offt-ring praycrs,go to s)e<;p hy theu), aud whatct'crdreatn appears to t)K'm tin.'y take for their tmsw~ In tBodern Africa,th Missionary Casalissaysof thc wh')au pursucdin their titeppby thc itnage Basuto, Personti ofa dcceased rctatiou,arc oft~nkttowutu sacrificca victhnon thc tonihof tho defuuct,in order,as thfy stty,to cahu his disquietud< Ch'ariy,t)icu, a manwhothiuks j)e ~M iu aleep th apparitionsof his duad relative:! t fricodsi)a:! a reasou for bclievingthat thcir Kpirit-s outhvc ttieir bodic.s,audthis teason lies iu no far-fctchcdiuductio)), but in what seemsto be thc ptuinovidcucuci' his SHMM.1. havuset th at~ument downa<betonging tu the towcr stageitof mentaldoespeciaUy vetopment, thougft ittducd1 have been titartted by hearingit Mysctfurged in sober narUNit very iar outside tho muge of savagohfu. It M iutcrestiug to rcad how LucrctuM, rcasouiogagainst the buliefiu a future iifc, takc.suuticuof thc argumcutfrotu drcams as tettittg agaiust him,and states, iu oppoationto it, t, U~.deK~veOc.PmMe,' ChMktem, 'H~t. etDe~r. yj. Pm<, ]~<,voL 8. t'. 7S. ttxr dit) Fitmiteht C.Mtt<)), Vo~M~n audH. SehMMr MjtMotio(Tf. ) St.r.t<!t< !M3, MC. t.. Hond. iv.1M. See Meh i.S. <CttM)t!t, 'TitO ])MUt) hMMtM), JMt, p. M!.


th doctrine thut not dreMns ouly, but even ordh'ary appearMKc.') M)d imaginations, arc caused by (i)m-)ike imnges whieh fly off t'~m tho surfaces of real o)dects, aud corne in contact with our tttiuds aud xpnsM,. Tauehhjj'thmc tn~ttcM,tt mo now cpMa, Hov thero MMm-ca)M haogM of thin~ toru trom bn<Uex' oHtmottface Whtch, like Bi)N)! Hithet and thtther Nutter through t))e air ThcM toara m),mnetinir )Mtn wnkmt; houM, A))<! in our dtMtM, when ftentitact we <e<) MM\'dbm ft)M;)pt, aud phtmtom!)of the d<tt(t Wbidt oft htve MMMd M hortur-'itfuck ftom <teep !~t wo thouM judj~epcTctMUco that mnb CMape Fn)m Acheron, thattet Hit 'atid ftving men, Or Mght of tH can after dc~th <ndute. 1 Never, pcrtMpt, has thc train of thought whieh th Epicttrcan poct go in~niousty combats hcctt titM'o ck'ariy drawu out thau in Mntjge WihHh'c's rambttug tatk of hcr dcad bithy, Whites kot vo-y weet it'8 huried my pnir bMrn's deadye but that sigtnfics nacthin~. 1 ha\'u had it ou my }:nea a htttidrpd times, aud a. huudred till that, Muce it was huried tUtd how emdd that be wcK it dcad, yu kcuit's tncrety 1 think

inipos$ibk' It appears then, from thcse consideratiotfs, that when we find dim Motiotts of? fxtnro state current in th rcmotMt rgions of the WM')d, wc tnust uut ttn-uce a~ume that they were all diifnscd front u singte gcugt'aphic:t) ccntn?. Ttic case is onc iu which any une p)uusib!c fxphmatiuu ft'om nnturnl causes it! sufficicnt to bar thc argument from historical connexion. On [.xcnit.;)<! K<-n)m Xamm.' iv. 29.SH: "Konc a,;<;m )<ai! rcs itjci)!)~)!) tH'i, ~M~(tuno~ef <c) ot <~m' n;n<Mf f-iMut~'nt~MM~ Attittet, <<.<<) 'te mf)MM toenttt'MM' !tMtfnn') KfUttt Qm't <[M!Mt Dtn.t: yoHtMtMttM.~M <:itr{Mc jor mn! caJemnohM obvmtMt)tc)) A(<[M vijiihMtihm TcrritiMnttttqM in MmttM, tm Kt'j'c6ptOU! OMttHitnur taira!!)!imn):MnK)M )uc<* <*KttttttM, tjnm tKahoritiee ):m~Mttti< m')X) Mjmn) ne hrt<:tUtimas Acherooto KfMttm' &c!ettmt aut utnhni!! Yi<'t i nter EfageN yotittM, KtYo xtatn Mmrtem KtiqttH t'Mt ~)0!eie nftitt'~i."



th other hMtd,thero is nothingto hiadcr snc))an at~nucnt iu t)m Mtowinpf case, whiehix taken lis ~howiug tho opposito sideofthoprobicm. 'l'hc grt etassof storieskuowua.sBrast Fabtcshavoof lato rMcnmuchiupubticmtiomtio)). Ittotdtimesiheywemtis. tcned tu by higb and low witt)the !<ccu'st pujoymentfur tbuir own sakc. Thcti thpy wo-owrcstcdfront thcn' pru{)crnature intumcaui!of tcnchn)~)it<!e and at ]ast it MKne tuom) iGstions, to lie tho inoHt coutonptuonsthing that couMbe mid uf a sUty, pointjern taie, to cat) it a "eockMtd buil xtn~ Iti our owu day,however,a t~'nf'Kttiott whum thot-ebas tipn)))g up tunung tt new kuowtcdgoof cM timu~aud with it a uew sytnpatLy with oid thoughts and fMc~)ig! not onlynpprceiatoth benst <ab)e.s for thutttsctvcs, but fiudin thcit-diH'tXiitm over tlie worM an xnpurtant nid to cariybistury. TitusDr. Daseuthan pointed uut that popuhr storit'.sfoundht thu west and south of AMea musthave corne fmm the samexout'eG with old myths current iu distant regiout!of Europe.' StiU later, Dr. Bleek has pubiMbed a coilectionof Hottentot FaUe~ winchshowsthat otbor mythie pisodes,toog familiariu i-ctnotccouutrics, hve cstaMitthedthcnMcJVM among theM rude peopte ati household taie! A Dutchntan fbund a Snake.who was lying under a grt a ud conidnut stone, gct away. Hc tiftcttup th stone,and set her free, but whctt he had doncIt )ihcwantedto eat him. Thc Man objeetodto th:!f,and appuatett to th Ham and th Hyena, but bothsitid it was right. Then thcy aokedth Jacka), but hc wouidnot evcn beHcvt:th thing couldhve happcncd,ut)!(; hc ~w it with his t\vo cym. So tho Snakc lay down,and the Mau put th stoue upon herjust to showhowit was. ".Now let herlie there," mid th Jaeka). Thtsis onlyauother vcMion of the story of thc UugratefuJCroeodite, whiet)th sage D&Mn iu th ArabituiNigllts dectioedto tell th king whitt!th cxecutioncrwa.sxtandingrcady to eut 1))$head off. It :? given )'y Mr.Lanc iu his Notes,'au't 1 a)n uot sure that thc f;hnp)6tHottentot version is uot th Heatcrof th two. Aga!n, th D~).t, l'oi.uhr'Me, from t).c 2t)d KoM. cd.,Edinha~h, !M9, 1. M. ''N<!A,'Reyt)Mdth))Fmin8<)ttthAfnm;'I<.)tdM,t6N<,H..]!.]S,!(),



nauteof Reynarttin South AMca," givenby Dr. Bteck to his) Hottentot tatM,is amp)yjustincd by thcir contuiuiugfmnitiar to th mcdiiuvtd Ruynardth Fox. Th bctonpiMg episodus Jackal fihatosdeath and lies in thc road till th iioh-waggon tltrows hint m to mako a kaross emesby, and <))o wnggoucr of his ffkin, but tho cuuningbeast throwsa lot uf fish out intu thc road,a)td tiieu jumps out himxc)f. In auothcr place,th~ Lion io sick, and all th bcMts go to sec hhn but th Jackal. His enemy th Hyena i'utchMlum to givc his adviee,M hc cornesbcforet))c Lion, and mys he has beuntu ask th witch what wasto be donc furhis )-iek unde, and th ronedy ia for tho Lionto pull thc Hyena'8skin off over his cars, and put it on hi)Me!fwhileit is warm. Again, thc trick by whieh Chantnouth by making him ticleer gebi his hcnd out of RcynM'd'!} infiwcrtho fiu'mer,muinds une of the way in whic!),in th Hottentot talc, thc Cockmakpsth Jackal say his proycrs,aud wtmnthc ouhvittcdbenstfolds his hands aud shuti!his eyes, iiic!!ot and makeshis escape. Of coursetitese h~M, though and with very dcver native adapted to native circunMhmces turu)!, may be aUof vcryKceut introduction. Such a story as a nsh.waggon, wou)dbe Naturattyreferred that whichintroduces froniwhomindeed all the Reynartt stories tu thc Dutch hocM, are hkciyto havu corne. One curions passagetends to show that th storiesare taken, not from th aneicnt versions of Reynard, but from mme interpotatcd modero rendering. A proof that Jacob Crimm brings forwardof the independcnt, scdudcd courseof th o)d German Bcast-Saga,is, that it did not take up into itself stories tong eurrent c)scwhetc,which wouldhave fttted admirabty into it,thus, for instance,~Esop's story uf thc Fox whowillnot go into the Lion'sden beeauseho onlysecsthe footstcps goingin, but nonecomingout, Mnowherc io befbundin th medi:cva( Reynn)\i. But wc find in th Hottentot talcs that this very pisode bas found its way in, anil cxacttyiuto itiititting ptaee. Titc Lion,it is mid, was iU,aud they aMwcntto sec hint in his sum-ring. But th Jackal did 'ThT)t))Mt)j andOneKi~ Mt odit.,London, voLi. !<ttM, 1SJ!9, M..S4,m. Jteob Rntdmrt t. 30,ethadi. (Mmo), Fnc)'<Bertin, !S3<, t'~ <!Ctii.



not go,bocauso th tracesof th peoph~ whowentto sechim didnotturnbaek." Ae it happons, wc know from other sourcescnough to exphun th appcamocoin South AMea of storie~froni Repart! and the Arabinn J~fight~ by reftin-ing theot to Nuropean or Moxteminnucu. But nvcn without such knowledgo.tho taies thcmsch'espruvu au historicat connexion, near or rcmote, betweenEurope, Esypt, and South Africa. To try to mako sneh vidence stand abnf is a more iunbttMOs ta-sk. In tt chnpter on tho UMgrapincat Distribution of Myths, 1 hfn'o stories coMcctcdon th AmencanConticomparcdMt-ies <j)' Mt)t with thcir anuloguesc!scwhcre,ctidoavouriog thereby to showan historienl connexionbet~-ecuth of Amcmythotogy rica xnd that of thu rest of tho worh),but withwhat succcM th readermust dcide. lu nnother chaptcr,sone rpmarkaMu whichare foundsprcud over distant tracts of couutry, customs, arc cxtttnincdin nrdcr to a-sccrt'dn,if possible, whothcr any historicnl argument tnay be groundcd upun theut For th cn'oMwhichno doubt a.bou!idIn thc prsent essaya, aud furthe suporficitU of a a word workin;; grt subject, may bo mid in npotogy. In diseu~in~ quMtiMM itt which sometiuie!< thc h.'adiug filets hve nevcr hcfbre beeM even rougMy grouped,it is very dMieutt not onty to KJuct thu wrong evidence,but to repruducf!the right wit!) accumcy, and the way in whiehnowin<brtnntiun co)ne;iin, which quitc afteMthe face of the otd,doesnot tuml to promotc ovcr.eonndcncu in finitrc. sults. Fur instance, after havin~ foitowedothcr obsurvert! in down ai! pcculiar tu thc South Sea Mands,in or ncar Mtting tho Saxioan group, nu ingenioua titttc dri))ing instrument whichwill be hm-caftcrdescribcd,1 found it kc-ptin stock in thc London tout shops mistakusuf this kim) must be frc'tucnt till our knowiedgo of titu lower civijizatiunis nmch utort:thorougUycouectedand sifted. Mure acouraeymight indeed be ubtainedby keepiug tu a very smaU number of subjects,but our accountsof thc culture of tho lower races, being tnostiy haveto bo gune through as a whole,and up to a unctMMed, certain point it is a question whcther tho student of very limitedMd might not )osemore iti tMgcnMs of viewthan ho



Whatover 1)c tho fate of my argu. gained by eoMontratio!). ments, any one who cottccts and groupa a maso of evidence to turn it to account which may !oad to and makes an attcmpt something better, h<M, 1 think, a daim to be exempt from any As tho Knight of mi.siake. nnd omission! very harsh criticism of bit! Taie : says in thc beginning heve, Otxtwut,o hrgf fMMto en) And wayM benth Mn in Myptaujih."

[.Wf fa ~tf! A!~7;M, )8ro. In rcnewinB'mtne xpeett) acknowledgmentn to Ute comtx~tton of tho preMnt work, 1 cnMM't[M). wNt a mode in fthnptoexpref~on of obligation thc UMMof t)'e hto H<intyChristy. For th ten yems during wMch 1 enjoyed ht))MendsMp, ho gave me tho henc6t of hh wHe and nticate knowMge. M<t1 w)HaMo to foUow ett th detttfh of hif! ethnoh~tcal tescerchex. Ho dted in Moy, tXM,while canyittg' on investi~tioM with Prof. EdomMdLnrttt. Th in tho MsifcfotMcaverm of Central !')')U)Co RcUquifcAquitnntcH- nn eMinmte account of thmo cxptorttton' i'' th But his place in principal titerMy work benrlng the nnmo of !tenry Christy. th hhtcty of Ethnotog-ywill be marked by tho mttp)i<icent collection which tf th British Mumnm, ho btqttf'athMl to th Mttun, Md which, bton)! t)nf)er tho but 't'U kept nt hi!) resMence, )')!). Victaria Stfect. Wt-ittmitMMr. Mme of tho Chnsty C"t)ccti<'n,hM ))een devetopMt into OM of th most perfect Ethno!o~ic<dMn.'eN)Min Europe. 1 am indcbted to Dr. W. R. Hoott,Uirecto)-of the Deitf-Md-Dumb Icttituwhich bas enabted me to write <tb(!Ut tion et Exeter, for much o( the tMiibtamce and with mmcthin~ of th eontidenee of an "expert th OMture-T.Mtifunge 1 hve to thank Prof. Pott, of Halle, and Prot. LazaruK,of Berlin, for pemonat Mp in Mverat dMeutt question)). Among bt'ok)!.1 ha''e drawn hu~cfy from the phUetoeica) workt of l'tof. Stctntttat, of Berlin, aud from th iuvattmMe collection of focta bearing ou the hiitory of etvtUMtMttin th 'AUjremeine Cattar-Geschiohto der Mcnehheit.' ttnd AUgemetM Cuttunvi~etumhaft,' of th late Dr. Cestav Klemm, of DnMden.]

THE OESTURE-LANGUAGE. HE powcrwhieh maa po'i'iCMC'! of uttorin~ his thoughtt t.t onc of thc mostesscntia!etemcntsof his civitixation. Whethcr hc can cvcuthiuk at ait withoutMmetneansof ontwar<t expression i.<! n metaphysicatquestion which necd not bo discussed heru. T)tt).s nmch wiUhardty bc (tcnicdby nny ono,thut nmn''i so ihr oxeceding power of uttGfancp, nny thut tho !owpranimats MoM of thc pnucipft)cau)!(.of ttis intnicnsoprc-emipOiMes! Mcncc over thctn. Of th )))CiHM wltichtnftn bas of ttttcring or cxpt'cssing that which).sin hi.s tniu'), speech is by far th most importMt, 00 mueh Ho that whcn we speak of :<~<'i'o~our thou~hts, thc to nfeatt cxp)~)Mtug tt~-tn m wordti. But phmfioi-! uuderstood wheuwe .say ttmt mttn's ])owt'rof uttc't'imee is one of thf crt JtR'erencGi! hct'vceahim amt th tow~rnnituttt.s, wc umst attach to th word utteraucc a settse mcrc fut)y cunfunnahtoto its etymotogy. As Steintha) adnutii, th deaf.and.duntbnuin i.s thc hv!ng rfutationof thu proposition, thut man cauttotthitfk without .speech, un~-M wc atiowth uuder.stood notionuf speech as the uttcnmcc of thought hy artieuhtto munds to La too narrow.' To M~eta thuu~ht iti titcmUytu put it outside us, afi tu ~i'(;<Mit is to squcexcit out, Cros~yHiateriatas thcsc metaphoMarc, th~y arc thc hest terms wc hve <br thut wondurfu! proeessby which a man, by somo ho()i)y action,caa not only make other mots minds K'produef inore or k-ss cxacth' thc workiugsof his own,Lut catt cvcu reccivc back frojn the out'Uch-r <))e St<iat)M). der'Rtutsttt&mcn' Spracho Pnttt'e 'DeMbehct ()N Mu. -titM. <0 K'~ttt,' Jt)M, IS~it, )t.Wt,ttc.).



ward sign nn impression simitar to theirs, as though not lie himselfbut someono otsehad made it. BesHesarticuiate speech,tho principalmeans by whichman can expromwhat is in his mind are th Gesture-Lsnguage, Picture-Writing,and Word-Writing. If we know now,what wo hope tn knowMme day, howLanguogc spnmg up and grew itt tho worM,our knowh;d~eof mm/s earliest conditionand history would stand on a very diffrent basisfrom whatit now docs. But wo know M littk about tho Origin of Language, <n'ofureed cither to avoid that cven th gt'catcfitphitologista the subject attogother, or to tum thetuseivesiuto metapltysicians in order to discuss it. Th<'Ooiture-Languagoand Pieas t))py are in pmoticein howcvt;r,insigniReant ttn'e-Wt'iting, with Speech and Phonetic Writing,have this grt comparison that we can really undcrstand thon ns elaituto considration, thoroughlyas perhaps wo can under~tand anyttting, and by in Romemeasurca studying them we can realizeto ourselvc!) condition of th human tnindwhieh undurlies anythhigwhich bas as yet been traced in evcntho towcstdiatcct of Langnage, if takon as a whote. Tttugh,with thc exception of words as in in whichwecan trace th cnectseither of <Hreet emotion, as in peewit and"cucor of imitativeformation, interjections, koo," wecannotat prsent tell hy what stops man cameto exsec howbe sti!i doescome presshhnsetfby words,weeau at tea-st to expresshimsetf hy signs and picture~,and so get souteidca whiehno loweranimalis of th nature of this grt muvement, knownto have madeor shownth teast sigti uf making. Th idca that tho Gesture-Languago represents a distinct separate stage of hnman uttornnco,through whichman passcdbeforehe came to speak,has no supportfromfacts. But it mayho ptauof sibly maintained, that in early stages of tho devctoptnent. WM language,whileas yet th vocabuiary very rude and scanty, which gcstnro had an importanceas an clementof expression, in conditionsofhigbiy organizcdlangnageit bas lost. Tho Gesture-Languago, or Languagoof Signs, is in great part a Systemof represcntingobjects and ideas by a rude outiine-gcsture,hnitating their most striking fc-aturcs. It is, as bas been weH said by a deaf-and-dumb man, pictnre-


!anguago." Hero at onco its cMentiatdiHercncefrom Rpeech bocomesovident. Why th words ~<Mt!and ~o muan what thoy do isa questionto whichwo cannotas yot give thoshndow of an answcr,and ifwe had been taught to say "stand whero wa now say "go," and "go" whcro wo now say "stand," it wouldbo practically alt tho sntnc to us. No doubt Uterowaiia Mincicntrcason for theso words Kcetvin~tho moanings tht'y nowbear,as indeed theroMttsuMeiontreasolfor cverythin~ butso fur as woare concerned, thero inight tm weti hve been nono,for wo hve quito lost sight of tho connexionbetween the wordand tho idctt. But iu tho gesturo-tangnago tho relationbetweenidea and sign not only alvaysexists, but is xcarcety lostsightof for a moment. When a deaf-and-dumb child hotds histwonrst nngers forkedlike a pair of legs,and makes thcM stand andwalk upon tho tabte, wcwant no tcacMng to show uswhatthis means,nor why it is donc. Thit: detmition of tho ge.sturc-Ianguago is, however,not compjctc. Such o)))cetsa:) arc aetuntlyin thc prcscnceof th speaker,or tnay be tiUppMcd so, are bt-oughtbmjijyinto tho com'urtiatiou by touching,pointing, 01tookittg towardsthetn, either to indieateth ob)cctsthetniidvcsor onc of their chaaac. tcristics. Titus if Mdcaf.and-dnmh tnau touches ius undcriip with bMfurcting~r, th contcxt mn~t Jccide wbt.-therlie meant) to indieateth lip itscif or thu culuur rcd,"unte.ss, ftii is sometimes donc, ho showsbyactuaHy taking ttotd oft))c lip with nngcr and thumb, that it ts th lip itsc'tf,and nut its qua)ity, that he means. Un'tcr th two c)n.s.s(.'s picturesin the air and thingsbrought befurethe mind by actua) pointingeut, the wholoof the sign-tanguago may bo indudcd. It is in Deaf.and-Dumb Institutions that th gcsturetanguagomay bo most convenicnttystudied, nnd what stight pmcticalknowtcdgo1 have of it ha!!bcen got in this way in Gennany and in Engtaud. In thse institutions,howcvcr, there arc grammaticalsigns used in th gesturc.Janguagu whichdo not fairly belong to it. Thse are mostly signs adapted,or invcuted,by tcachcrswho had th use of speech,to experitaps press ideafwhich do not corne within th scope of the very htuitednatura)gramuM)' and dictionaryof the duaf-and-duntb.



Butit ill to be observcdthat though th deaf.and-ttumb )mvo been taught to undorstandthse signa and use them in scbool, thoyignore thom in thcir ordiuaryta!k, aud will have nothing to do with them if they cnn hdp it. By dint of instruction,dcaf-mutescan be taught to communicate their thought. and to learn from books and men in t))c MmoWtty <)<) wc do, though in &more litnited denc:n')y ~rce. Ttu.'y lou')) tu read and write, to spctt out sentences withthc f)ngcr-ntphat)et, and to undcrfitand wor't.ssu spctt Ly uthcr)! and bcsidfsthis, they can bc taught to spcak in articutatulangnagc,thou~h in a huanmand unn)du)ate< and voiee, wheuunother speaks,to futtuw thc UMtionii of his Ups almost as thongit they couldhear tl)u wot\!autt';rcd. It may be renjarkcd hre, unce for atl, that th genemi pubtieoftenconfusestho rcat deat'-and-dumb languagoof signa, h)which objeets amt actionsnro cxprcsscdby patomimic ges. turcs, with tho dt;af-fmd-du)nh fin~'r-atphabct,whieh is a mcrp xubstitutefor atphabuticwriting. It is not cnough to say that tho two titings arc<)istim;t thc'y have nothingwhatcvcr ta do with one anoth<r,an') hve nomore rescmManco than a picture ha:ito (t writtoi descriptionof it. Though of little ocieutinc thc fingct'-a!p)utbct itttft'fiit, iff ff grcutpractica)nsu. It nppeart! to hve becu invontcd in Spain,to whieh country th worid owfs tho first Hystumatic dcaf-and~tumbteachiug, by Juan Pabio Bonct, in who.sc worka one-handcdalphabet is set fort)) or perhaps dincringbut )itt)cfrum tttat uowin use m Ourmany, Pedro de Ponce. Thctwo-hauded or Freoch hy hi.sprcdceMtior, is of ncwerdatc.~ alphabet,gcocrattyuscdin Engtand, Th tnothcr-toogue(so to speak) of thc deaf-a.nd-dumb is the Jauguago of signs. Th videnceof th be.st observcrs tends tu prove that they arc capabteof dcvctopingth gesturelanguagcout of thfir own mindswithout th aid of fipcaking MM). Indec'dthe dcaf-mutesin gnralsurpassth re~t of th worhtin their power of usingaud unde~tandingand for this simple reasou,that though tho gosture-Ianguago M thc RedMetiun du <M &Mar tax)ht(!m LetrM, Oonet, y Attepmt eMeihr i etc. 'Ue~r d ieTnutxtHmmex ad M)uM~]020; ;.['.t2S, S<)m)!d<, Btedett 3M. M[.i&t84S M-. 21~,



commouproperty of t))) maxkind,it ix xctdojn cuttivatctiand to so high a degreo by thosc who have th usa of devotoped as by thosowhocanuot speak, and must thercforc hve iipeech, McouMC to other mfans of communication. Th opinionsof twoor threoprneticnlobscrvcrsnmybc cited to showthat thc is not, !iku thc ~ttgcr-atphabct,m) )u't Jcamt gestuK'-tangttagc in tho <)rst instancefron thc tL'achcr, but an ind(.'pfndcnt proceM onginatixgin thn miu<)of tho dcai'.tnutc,and devetoping itselfas his knowtedgonnd powerof rea~otnxgcxpaud under instruction. SamuctHeinickc,tho fotttKJt.ofdcaf-attd-'tumb teachin~ it) ronarks:" Hu (tho dcaf-tnutc)pn;fur!< Gemmny, keepi))~to his ])ant<jt)ti)nc, which is fitnpinaud short, aud comesto him nueuttyas a mothcr-tonpto. Schnudzsayi:" Not tcsscotnarc many si~nswhieitWfin(k'cd<t')net use in ordiprehensible chiM use. havi;)~ Ko nar)' !ife,Lut which (hc dcaf-NMd-dttttth means of communipatingwith otheri! but hy signs. T)x'se signs consist pnneipaUy in dmwitig in th air thc tihape of tu Lexuggcstcdto the mind, indicating their eltaraetcr, objccts imitatingthe Movemcnt of tho body in au action to bc deits ot'igit),or atty other of its Knhct!,or tttc t~c uf a. ttuttg-, notaUc pecu)iaritic.s. "WitI) regitrd to M~us," sayx Dr. Scott,of Ex(;tct't)tC ('tcaf-and-dumb) chitd will most iikoty haveah't-ady nxcd upon sign!! Ly which it natm' n)ost of th objectsgiven i)i thu abovc k.ssun(pin, kfy, <te.), and which it usesin its intcrcoursowithit.tffieuds. Thse signiihad a)n'ayfi bcttcr he retained (by t))f chitd' fanufy),and if tt word ha;!not receivcdsuch a sign, cndca\'ourto gct thc child to fix upon one. It willdo Uns tnost prn)xtb)y butter than you. ThoAbh~Sicard,ono of the first and must cmincut of thc monwho havodcvotcd thuir lires to tho edocutiottnnd immauixing"of thusont)uctcd crottures, tias nmc'h the fiitme account to give. "It is uot I," he says, "who atn to invent thsesigns. I hve only to sMt furt))tho thcory of theni under th dictation of thuir truo invcutors, those whosc !ang)ta"e consists of thefiesigMs. It is for thu dcaf.and.dumh to mako H)<)!Mnic):c, Stxmmt,' MachttBgca c<<.Hfmf~u)~, U?S,p.SO. T t'e Dcaf Mj M.tmb, j'. 207. Scott, Uomb Lmidot, 1S, )).S<.


thcm, nnd for me to tell how t))cy arc made. Theymust be d)'awnfrom th nature ofthc objccts thc'y Mo to rcpresont. It is onty tho signs ~tvcn by thc mute himsctftu express th actions which ))(' witnessL"and tho objectiiwtnehnrti brought bcfurobon, whic)tcan f'pheo tn-tteu)attihu)K"agc." Speaking of h)'' cf)cbmtc<!<t(.'nf-amt-thn))L pupi), Masfico,he says:. "Thxs, by happy cxchange,a. 1 taught hin) th written s)K"sof ont' ianguf~c, Hassicu taught mu thc nmaic signs of it, )))U.st bo said timt tt is nctth<'r1 uor )ny a'(n)ihift." S<~ t-a)))c ma.stcr(thc Ahh~(iu !'Hpt'c)who arc tho un'cntoMof tho ttcid'-aud-fhttftb hut~ua~ Afx! a-'f a fon-i~ncr is uot fit t'j frcncinn~n Frof')), so l)n.' sppaki))~tnan t~s no Lufdteach !T. thpt))nbstract ttcs-t tu tncddtcw!th thu uivcntionof'<!gt).s,~h'i))~ values. Al) thcsf art' )n"dt;m statoucats; button~ bcforo HabuIaM' tho (tays of JJcaf-amt-Duntt'In.s(itut!t'n.'<, sharp cye hnd notice)) ttuw natm'at and appropriate wo'Hth untaught is ~S to try xigustnadcby hom deaf-mutM. Win')) P:murg<' hv (Uvinatiottfrom '.igns wl)at his fortum' will he in tnarrie<t tifc, Pattia~'ne) thu.s couns~t.shua :" Pourtant, vous fau!t dMMtr un~ mut wurJ '['' nature, nMn ~uc KMgestes vous soyc-nt ttaifuctnent prophcttct)aes, non fainct: fardex, ne afipctM." Korarc wo ohli~cdto dpendupon th observationsof ordiof t)tc wayin which thc ttaryp'akin~ n)e)t &t'our ]<i)ow)(--dgc dcvctopcsitscit'in tt)e tniud of the dc'af-andgcsturc-tan~uagc (((unb. T)tf cdncatcd deaf.mutcscat) tell )ii.'from thcir own how ~;sture-sij~n!i ori~inatc. Thc f'dtawingnccount expcricncc is ~iven by Krusp, n dcaf-tnutc himseff,aad <twc!I-t:now)t of no smatt and autlx'r of' scvcratwurk!: teactu-rof dpaf-tnutc-i, must ttave n ianguagp, abi)ity :"Thm thc d~'af-and-dun))) whhout whk'h no t))nug)tt can Le brought to pa. But hcrc naturf !mu cnrnc'sto his hc)p. What strikc.shim mnst,or a distinctin to hitn bctwuca une thing and wttat. MakM an')thcr,such distinetivc si~ns '~f ubjcet. arc at once signs by which he k))uw.sthse "bjects,and knows thon again thcy becomc tok~-nsof things. And whitst he sitentty labortes thc Mg)). he ]~s fuuxd fur sin~fo objects, that is, whitst ho )flr.19. 'CoMM d'iMtnKtiM 't'un Stntd-mu<t Ru'b, tSOS, pp. T. )ftr. SKittJ,
e S



describosthcir <bnMfor !)im'!c!f in tho air, or imittttef)thotn in thought with hando,fingcri),and gGsturc.t, lie dovetopcsfor hinMeifsuitaUe signsto roprmcnt idcasj which ftprvehim os a means of nxing ideasot' dii&rent kinda in his mind and recalling thon to his motnory. And thus hc makcs himsetfa language, the so-cattettgosture-t&ngnagti (Cc&ei'<i'<tt*~t'ac/te); nnd with thoso fcw scanty and impcrt'fct fii~s, a way for thought is ntrfndy brokcn, nnd with his thonght as it now cultivtes and futins itself further and opens out, tho tang'Mge furthor. 1 1 willnow give xomuaecount(~' <))cparticutar <)ia)cct (so<o which is cum.'nt iu th Hcr)in xpeak) of thc gf.sture-htngun}~, Dcnf-a!)d-Dumb Institution~ 1 madoa list of about .'i()0 signs, tnking thom downfrom tuy teaehur,Carl Witkc, who is himsetf deaf-and-dumb. T))cytatk of 5000 si~ts bcit)~h) connnnnuse thero, but my list couttuns t!t<jmost important. Fir~t,as tn th (iign)! tho t'oUowing, takpn at )'andnm,wit) give t!)ontsc'tvcs, an Mcaof the genernlpnncipte on whichail are formcd. To express thc pronouns I, thou, hc," 1 push my forefor 1 push it towards (mger against the pit of my titoMach the person addrcsscdfor thou point with my thumb over my right shoutderfor hc aud so on. Whcn 1 hold )))y)'i.~ht hand itat with th pahn down,at thc ttivcl of mywai.st, and nust' it towardst))t;h'vct of my shnutdfr, that f.nitiGS "grcat;" but if 1 dcpress it in.stead.it meaus ")itttc." Thc si~) for mau is the motionof taking off thc hat; for tho c)oi!pti hn))dis ):tidupott the breast for child, wonan," the right ctbowis daudk'd upun tho tcft hand. Thc adverb "hither" und thc verb "to come hve th same fdgn,boekottittg with tht' fin~crtowardsoncsctf. To hu!d the tirst two Hugcr. apart, )iku a tcttcr V, and dart Kntx,Ue~erTtmtnttmmK'n,' ck. S<;)t)<:swi~, !SS3, p. 5t. <Whct))er ihe"diakch"<!f thdit&Kut ')eaf-:Mtd-<tuMth ittstituti~M hM Mf tNtttn)) eeh'JmycotMMcmMe ode ;)rqMrti';n tip~from tmother, (n,fori)M<:ut<'e, ofth of tht!;<n'~m); <yst<;m frutn tUM~te te~'hitt!; t<) tlrere b]r Mt, 1<tt)i xay )')tt tt~tditton frum thothcr:! M Mnt~hioMMh ind<:t;n), out in~nncijtto, t)mn);h ttmt t Mdm M thoy 'My, thiu):, te pmcti<xt))y iu')e['<:nJtt, except rc.~td.i gnuMnittita) .os,



thcnnger iipt eut from thc cyes.i.s to "sce." To touch th car and ton~uu with th fore-fin~)', M to "hcfn-" and to "taste." Whatcvcr in tu )'t' p'nntfd out, th forc-nngcr.oo appropriat'ty caifcd "index," h: t') point eut or indicatc. yMftur ttt<ttt<; ipstt rrotmhcfe ad~'stont infante)!npm pocrot ut facit oint Quom tnetMtfent. dijfito <)Ufu pn'Henth Tu fipuak" i.s to tnuvt;thc )ip.sa. in speaking(nU th dcafand-duhibare tau~ht tu spcak ht ni-ticulittewordiiiu the Berlin and tu ntovuthc lip:' thu. whiif pointingwith <stahti!iht)n:nt), th ibi'G-~n~'reut ft'otn t)te ntouth, ).< "t~nR' M' "to )M)]te," ils though une shuutddctincit to "point uut hy Hpuaking." Thc uuttinc of the sitapc uf rouf and waUsduuo in th air withtwo hauds Is hunse wittt a (tat roof tt i!)"roont." To smetias at M(luwt.'f, and thctt with thc twu ItMudfj tnakott JMnxontaldt'ehj before onc, is garden." Tu pull up a pineh of tk'sh front thu baek of onu's haud is i!csh or tucat." Mak'; th stcam cnrting up from It with i))M iuru-fingcr,am.) it hccome'i ruast !)teat." Make a hird's bill with tt\'o Angersin front of unc's lips and <!apwith th arms, and that meaus goosc put thc nrst sign and thse togethcr,and wehve roust goose." How natund att tt~-su unttath-e signs are. 'l'hey wunt no t;htbortcpxpianatiot). To seize tiM most striking outline uf an object, thc principal mwcment of an action, is th whotc secret, and this is what thc rudest savage can do untaught, nny,wttat is more, eau do bettcr and more casiiyttian thc (iducatcd man. Noneuf my tcacht.'rshre whocan speak,"said thu Dircctot'of th Institution, arc vcrystrong in the gcsturctanguagc. It is ditncutt for an cducatcd spcaking man to gct th pruficiencyin it whieh a. dcaf-and-dmnbchild attains to ulmostwlthout an cnbrt. It is tme that 1 cn use it perfcctiy but1 havu becn hure furty ycar-s und I tnuduit my husiness frontthu tinit tu bceonx! tiioruughiy tnasicr of it. To he able to speak iMau impedimpnt, not an assistance,in aa[uiring th gestunj-hutgungc. Th habit o(' thinkiug in won~, amt v. lu: UK'n;ttM<,



transiating thse wordsinto signs,is most difEcuttto shahe off; i but until this is dune,it is hardty possiUoto phco th signs in th logical squencein whieh they an'ange thctnsctves in tho Miudof tho dcaf.mutc." As ncw things eumeunder tho notice of th deaf-imd-dumb, of course new )iign.s itnmediatclycotuu up for t)n-in. 80 tu express "raitway" aud "tocoinutivu,"ttie left htmd mnkcs a. out is iuuchimney,and t)tc ntcain curling aimost horixontaUy tatcd with th right fore.finger. Ttn; tips uf tite fiugcr!} of tho hatf-ctoscdhand comingtowurttsone tiku ray.s of light, is photo~'aph." But thc en.suatobserver,w)to t.hontd tako (to'vueverysigtt t lie saw used in c)as.< to tho hy mast<r.sandpupi)s,M.s ))c)onging naturni ~'sturc-taugnagc, wuuld ot'tt'n get a very wrous id<a,of its ttatm-c. f'cacher.sof th dMtf-aud.dumb havf th'jt)st't it advisaMu fur practica)purpo. uot mcr~tytu nsf th iudcpcudcnt dcvctuptncntof t)x.-htnguagc of signs,but tu add to it auf) patcit it so a.sto tnakcit tuuru'strictiyt;qui\'a)ent to tlK-ir own hpoech and wnting. For this purposcsigns hve to bc introducud,fur tnanywurds ot'whietithe pupil mustty k'arnst))u nwanutgthrough t)n.'iru.suiu wnting, an't is tuught to use th !.ignwh(:rc lie wuuiduse th word. Thu- thu (.-h'nch~d lists, pushed furwardwith t)tu thumbs up, !tK-:m "yct." Tu tln-uw the fing~rsgcntiyop(.-n from thu tumptu mcan.s"wticn." Tu m'jvuthc c)usedhaudswith the thumbs nui,up and duwuupun onc's waistcuat,is tu "bf." Ail thMc ~ig)M tuay, it is truc, bc based upon nataral gcsturfii. Dr. Scott, fur instance,explititis tile sigu "whctt" a.s formud in tfti.s way. But this kind of derivatiou docs not give thutu a chuui to be inch.tdcd iu th pure gcsturc-hmguagc and it rcaUydoM nut sucutas though it wouid makc ntnchdiSfrencctu thc chitdt-cu if tho sigu fur whun wcrcu.wdf(;r y~t," aud su uu. Trio Abbu Siear'tiias left us a votuminousaccountof tho I)u used,w])iehmay xervoas au examptc of the .'i)gti-]an~uagc cunous hybrid sytitcm.'i which gruw up in this way, by t))C grafting ofthe Engtiiih,or Frct)(;h,ur Gtirmaugrammar :uid dictionary ou the gcsturc-ta.nguagc. Sieard was strongly uuof usiug thc uaturat sigus,aud c\u pressed with thc ueeeiMity



his nMMt nrMtraryoncs may havo been based on such but he. do whatevcr wordscan do, had set him!.c!fto make gMturc-x tUtdw)M drivcnto strange abifts. Yet ho either tbereby oft<;n druwHodircctty frutn his deaf-aud-dmnbschutars,or succeeded so we!liu ltttriiiiigtu thiuk iu thcir way,that it is often very hard to say exactty whet'cth mOucueouf Kpokeaof written tho deaf-tnutcborrows th tangua~ cotncs iu. Fur itMitUtee, tu cxprcs notions of of spacc, af:ive do situilar M'ord.s, tiigtM titne; Hud Sieitn),kut'pin~ to thcsc rcal si~us,aud oniy using thcm wtth a dcgreeof anatysiswhich )ms hm'dtybeen attamed to Lut by meattsof wontx,tnakes tho pre.scutt'tisc of his verb by indicitting !)L'rc withthe two handx hctd uut, patm downtho past tcMsc wMd, byt!)(.'tmnd tin~wn back overth'f.houHer, "bchind," thu future by puttittg titc hand out, "fom'ard." But whctt hc takM ou Iti.sconju~tiot to such tcMGSa:) 1 dtouid Jmvccarnc(t/' )niiii tncrcty tmnstating words iuto more or less appropriateM~us. Agai!),)'y th aid of two forc-fiugMrit itooked tugMthcr.toexpress,1 suppose, th notion of dcpcudcueo or ponuectiot),hudisthtguishes Itctwccn ~:ot ami me, and by tmnstutin~ two abstract ~r:unuMtictdtcnns froniwords into signs, lie introducesanother coneeptioHquito fol'eigttto the pure ge-sturc-Ian~ua~c. If somethiu~ tttat bas been Hgned is a substuntivc,he puts the right hand under th left, to show that it is that whichstandsuudcrneath whileif it is an adjectivc, he puts thc right hand on the top, to show that it is th ~uauty which liesupon or is addcd to the substautn'obefow.~ Ttiese partly artificiat systems are probaMy vcry ttscfut ia aud what teaching,but they arc not the rea! gesturc-lau~uagc, i:):)toro, th foreign clementsu taborioustyintroduced scons tu have little poweruf hotding its grouud there, So far as 1 can learn, fc\ or noue of th factitiousgrammatical si~nswillbear to tt~ piay~rouud, evuuth short journcy from tho schootroum where there is nu longer any verb "to be," where th abstract conjuuctionsuK uukuowtt,and whcrc tuero positiot),quality, to dcacribesubstantive and adjectivcatike. action, :nay fiervc At Berlin, M in aU dcaf-aud-dumb institutions, thcro are desSottt~-mMb;' rfnitnietiott HM, des r<ub, 8i~, "[M~rio SiptMtMMf ii.t<. t re:)))y p.1". at~aM in 'tif," "n~ <")tf, ~iM.:difititMthn 60:


TtfK t:f.:<iTM<E-LAX()(.'AGH.

numborsof signs which,thoughmost natund ia their charactcr, would not bo underttoottbeyottdthe limits of ttte cireie in whichthey arc u.'iet). Thseare sign.swhich indicateon ot)jcet by some accidentt pccutiarity,und are rather cpithets than nnmcs. My deaf-aod-dumb teaeher, for instance, was natMed among th chUdreuby the action of citttitig off t!tc left <mn with th edge of th ri~ht hattd the reafon of this .sig!i Wi))!, not that thero was anyttuug peculiarabout lus ftrmf,but that ho camefrom Spandau,and it so itappem'd thut of tl'e o))Q had becu at Spandan,and hnd (M'en chiMt'en there a manwith one nrm; thence this opithet of one-arxMft cameto be npplied to a)J Spandattcrs,nnd to this one in particutah Agait), th Royalrsidenceof Charlottenburg was oamed by takingup onc's left knee and nursiug it, in allusion npparently to th htte kinghaving bcfnfaid up withthu gnnt thcrc'. In like manHcr,th chi)dren prcfcrrctt to indicatc fort'i~n eountriesby Mme charactcristicepitliet, to xpeitin~ uut tht-'ir txune))ou their f!ngcM. Thus Eugland and Eng)ish)nctt wcre th signs Hptiyaltuded to by thc actiouof rowing a boat, w])Ue of choppingoff n head a)fd str<)))g)i))g wcru used to dc'scribe Frauce attd Russia, iu athtsiuu to tbc dcaths of Louis XVI. and th Empcror Pau),cvcnt.s which scpm to liave struck th dcaf-and-dmnb (;hi)dn;n as t)t< mostrctnarkabfe in th history of thc twocountrics. Thc.-ic signs Hroof moeh ]fi~hMintt.'rt.'st, than the gt'Mnmatieat which <an ou)y be kept iu usL', symbots, su to tipcak,by tnaiu foreu, but thusc,tuu, ticvcr punetrate into t!w getto'atbudy of thc Jan~uagc, aud aro )K'tfVt.'u pcnuam.'nt in th phtcc whcrc thcy at'i.w. They die eut ft'Maoue sut uf chUdrottu a))f)ther, andnuwonci! come up iu theit' stcad. Thu gcfituro-htngnagc has no gmtntnar, propcriy so eattctt it knowsno iuHeetions of ay kind, uny mot-othau thu Cinn~e. Tho same sigu stands iur "wa)k," "waikc.st," "watking," "walked," "walker." Adjectives and verb4 are not cafiiiy <Ustii)guit!hett by thc deaf-and-dumb;"hoMe-btack-handsotnc. trot-cautcr," wouid lie t])e rough transtation of tbc signs hy wlucit a deaC-mutewouldstate titat a. b)ack handsomchorffc trots aud cauteK. ludecd, our clabomtc systt-'ms of parts of speech" arc but Htt)e applicablu to t!n; gusturc-iaugun~u,



in anottter ehapto', it jnay though,as will bc nwt'o i'uUyM(i<! to trace in spokcn hmguagett DuaUsm,in porhapshc po!t!)!b[e soMomeasure rcsntuMingt)mt of thc gcstnru'iaugttagc, with its two constituent parts, thc bringing forward objcet.s and MctioM in aetnaltact, and th more suggcsti'mof thon hy imitution. It !tashowcvM' n, syntax,whiehis worthy of parpfutexamination. Th nyntMX of fpcMkin;;matt (tifK't'saccontiug to th w hmguage he may t(.n'u, ''cf~tus niger," Il Mac): horsc," "hominem amo," j'aime t'!)0)nme." But tho dcaf-mutt: stt'ingi)togethcr th si~ns of th varions ideas he wisheo to conncct,in what appcar);to bo the natnnd order iu which they Mtowone another in his min(!,fur it i.s thc mmc antoug thc mutes of diiR'rcnt couutt'Ics, :md M w))o)iy indepcHduntof the syntaxwhich rnuy huppeu to belong to th tauguagt' of their spcakingMcnds. For instituer,their usnat constructionIs not "bjack Jtursp,"hut "horsc htack," not ''hring a htack hat," hut hat black briog Mot 1 am hungry, give me br&ad," but t'ungt'yme brcad give." Tho esseotia! indepundencouf the gcsturG-tnugua~c may indccd bc bMught verye!ear!yinto view,hy notici!)~that ordiuary cducatcd men, when they finit bcgiuto )earu t!t0 laugttageof tii~ns,do Motcome naturaUy tu the us~ufits proper syutax.but, by an'auging their gesturcs in the orticr f thu word.sthey thiuk iu, tnakc sentences whieh are unmcMning or mi.<h'ading to M dcaf-mutc, u:)h'ss ho otn ruvcMc the procc.s.s, by trau'i)atiug thc ~Oitnrm into words,and what sucit a writtcu sentencewou)dmcan. (.hjing CtMtsidfring oucc itttoa dcaf-Mtd-dumb and sctting a boy to writc iiehoot, wm-tifi ))the )jtack board, 1 dt'ow iu thu air tho uuttinu of a tent, and touehcd thu intiur ])art of my uudut'-iip to indipate "rud," and thc boy wnjte accwdin~ty "a rcd tent." Tite tcacttcr ronarkcd that 1 did not xccm to le quito a bcgiun'r in tht! sign-tauguage, or 1 should itavu tnuMJatcdmy Engtish and put thc rttt first. thought<'e<-&(tft)t), Th fuudttmcotatprincijttowhich rc'gutatL's thu ordc'rof the dcaf-tuute't! to bu thut fnunciatud by Sehmtd! h'ig)).Kt.'Mnf! "tltat winchsecnMto him thc nM.stimportant Ito alwnyn )iet)i hefbrcthe refit,and <)tatwhich scutn.sto him superHuous]te



tcavca out. For Instance, to say, 'My f&thcr gave me an npplo,' hc makes tho sign for *app!e,'then that fur 'ffttho' and that for 'I,' without. adding that fur givc.' 1 Th foltowing rcmarks, sent to nie by Dr. Scott,sfcm to agreu with this vniw. Wit)t rcgant to th two sentcnecs you give (I struck Tom with a stick. Tom struck 'no with a stick), thc in scqucncoin thc introductionof thc parti''uhn' parts wou!d, Mma rncasurc,dpend on th part that most attention was wishedto lie dmwn towards. If a tncrc tel)i))~of thc factwas rct~ured,tny opiniunis that it wonidlie arrangcd so, '1-Tomand t!<epassive fonn in a shniiar tnanncr,with struck-a-stick,' the change of Tom first. But th~'susentences arc not gencratty snid by th Jc'af-and-duntbwithout their havin~ heen intcrc-stcd in thc fact, and thcn, in cotningto tcll hf thcm,they tirst givc that part they arn mostanxiouf! to impress upon titcit' hcarer. T))usif a boy had xtruckanothcrboy, and tho injured party eamu to tell u.s if hc was dcsironsto impress us with th idea that :t particularboy did it, hc woutd point to thc boy iist. But if he w:Manxious to draw attentiun to his own hc sufturing,rathcr than to the persont'y whom it was causcd, wouidpoint to Jntnsfifan't mahc thc sign of striking, and then point to thc boy or if lie waswishhdta draw attention to th causeof his suncring,))emight ftignth ~triking first,and ttten tell aftcrwardsby whomit wasdonc." )r. Scott is, M fur as I know, th on)y per.sonwho ha.s attonptcd to lay downa set of distinct ruics for thc svntaxof th t{csture-!a))guage.~ Thc subject cutncs bcforc the attrithe objcct beforuthc action." A third coustruction is hutc, cumtnut),though nut ncccsiiary, thc modiHL'r after th nmdin<ti." Th fn'fitcot)!itructioti, by w)nchthu horse J!!put bcfnro th biack,"cnabtesthc dcaf-mutcto makc I)is syntax suppty, tu somc cxtent, thc distinction betwccn adjective and sub* stantivc, which t)is imitativc signs do not tlieinselvc,4 express. Ti)ti other two aro well cxcn<p)ined by a ronark of the Abb Sicard'a. "A pupi!, to 'whom 1 one day put this question 'Whu mado God!' and who rcptied, 'God mado nothing,' kft mo in no doubt as to this kind of inversion,usua! to tho Dtahm) Mum)! 274. ~tt, 'Th Dum)),' )). M.



whcn1 went on to Mk him, Who made tho deaf-and-dumb, shocr and ho answered,'Tho hoemade the tihoemaker. Su when Laura Bri'fgman, whowas blind a.swe)IM deaf-anddumb,had k'Mmtto communicateidcas by ttpcttingwordson tter finger.~xhe woutd say "Shut dour," "Give book;" tM dottbt beeauM shuhad iL'arnttheso s(;ntcuce.s wtwtc; but wh(:u she !)mdc xeutcnee.fm' hcMcif,s!)e woutd go back to the )):tttn'!i) dcaf-ittKt-dun))! syntox, and )ipo)i out. "Linx-a brmd givc," to ask for bt'cad to be ~vcu tK'r, mut"watcr drink lAura,"to expressthat sho wautedto driuk watcr.~ It is to bc ohservcd tttat therc i.s ono importantpart of con!itruct!ou whichDr.8cutt*st'otcs do not tuuch,tt<[m<y, thc ro. Jativepo-sitiou uf th<'actnr aud tho action,t~e nominativecase aud thc vcrb. Dr.Schmatzattctnpts to lay downa partial ruio fur this. If thc dcat'-tnutccotmccbith sipi fur an actMn wititt!)at fura pcnion, tu tiaythttt th persondid this or thut, ho p)ac(M, a.! a geocratruJe, th sign of thf action beforethat f the peMon. For exampk', to say. 1 ktnttcd,' hc movc!) his])aud.s a;!iu knitting,and thcu pointsw!th )ns forc-Hnger to his bretmt. Thufi, too, Hemicku rcmarksthat to My, Tite ou cat'pcrttcrstntck tnc ou thL'nr)n," Jtewouldstrike hirnsett' thc arm, and t)t0t makc t)'u sigu uf plauing~us if tu say, 1 was struck ou thf anu, tl'e phunn~-maudid it." But though thse constructions are, no doubt, hght cnougit as they stam), thc rn)<;uf p)'M<'dcnec accordin~tu importanceoften reverses thctn. !f the dcaf-muto WMhcd tu throwt))c onphasis not upon thu knitting,but upn hitu-icit~ ho woutdprobablypoiut tu himself first. Krnsti givesttn! constructionof ''Th fifnpNifi!UH tho watcr" fikeourown, "<ihip sait water," aud of 1 inu~t~o tobt;d,"a.s"lbcdgo. A !oukof in<p)iry couvert)! au assertioniuto a question, aud butwecn"Tiie inastcr is fuUy serve-!to tnake thc (tirH'ruuec eotxc," and "fs th inaiiter cotnc?" Tho iutoTogaticopronoun. "w)fo!" "what!" are uiade by tooking or pointing S<M), Th~rie,' i).MYiii. 'Atcomt oftanmtM~mu LcMjun, S().AnmitMl)!4S,p. iMt.()M< p.M7, JM~tOtiwr ui~her." fiiM &h)Mh, ~.t,M. M.. Hemieke, p.M. KMM,:7.



abnut in <minquiring manner in fact, by a tnnnucr of unsuc~ ccssfut attftnpts tu My, hp," that." Thc deaf-and-thxxb chiM'.s way of askiug, "Whn ))a'<bc'att'))you!" wouh) tw, Youbeaten whu \f it ? Though it is possihk tu rendcr a grt )nassuf simple statctacnts or <)m;stions, ahuost gesturo for word,thc conct't'tism of thoug))t witichbtons" to thu dcafmutc whnscn)it)dhas oot bct'n nutch dcvc)opp(t hy thc nf,cof writtcu iHttj~uagc, ont! even to thc cducatcJ onu whcHhe if com. thinking and uttfnng Lis thou~hts in hMnative signt), monlyrcuuit'cs inorc comptcxphrases to t'c t'u-cafit. A question so coinmou tuoungst ux us, Whatif! th tnatter with you wouMbc put, You crying yon hccn boaton and M <~u.Thc deaf-and-dumt)chijd ()ucsnot usk, Wfttttdid you tm\'c fot' ditnn:ryest<:rdn.y but DM you tinvusoup! did yuu ha\'c porndjj;c and so fortit. A L'onjnuctiv'j suntencoho exbo punished })t'csses Ly au tdtcrtuttivc or cotttnMt 1 fihuuid if 1 wcM Ia!!yand naushty," would Le put, 1 taxy,naughty, ou !htzy. uaughty, 1 punishcd, yc.s Obligation may hc ~xprcssed in n sinntar way 1 Must tovc and honour my t<'nc))('r," may be put, tcachcr, 1 bat, deccivu,scold, no '1 As Stcittthal says in his admimbiccfKHty, love,honour,ycs it is onty ttio curtainty whicttspeech give.sto n Man's mind iu holding fhst Idcasin a)t thcir rciations,whici)brings him to thc shortcr couno of cxp~ssiti);ouly th positive sidc of thc idea, tmd droppingth nugativc.' What is cxpn's.scdby th gcnitivc case,or a correspouding prposition,may havu Mdistinct sign of holdingin thu gcsturufanguagf. Thu t)tt'<;ti signs to express tttp g:u'dcnf)''skuifc," ntight bc the knifc, thu garden,aud t))c actionof graspiugth knift. pressing it tu his brcast, putting it iuto his pockut,or somuthingof tho kind. But tin! tufrc putting togcther of th and thc po.sscssed possessor may answerthc purposf, as i.swutt shown by the way in which a dMtf-and-dutnb ntan dsigntes his wife's daughter's husband and cbitdn'n in n)oking his wi)t by sign. Tiiu fotlowingaccount is taken from thc Justice uf thf Peacc,' Octobot-1,18u4: Joini Ucatc, "f Yate)cy, ycoman, deuf, dumb, aud unabie etc. ~teiuthid, KuM, f. SC, 'i<r. <hrT. p.M3.

T)fH nESTU)tK-t,AKt!UAt!E.


to read or writf, dicd toavinga willwhich ho had oxocutedby putting his mark to it. Probat*'of this will was refuscd by Sir J. P. Witdo,Judgo of thc Court of Probato,on th ground that therc was no suMcicntuvidcncoof the tostator'x nndcrstanding and asscnting to its provisions. At a luter date. Ur. Spinks rcnewcdthe motion npon. the f"))uwing joint nti. davit of th widuwaud thc attosting wittK'si~s:"T)t(i signti ioformcdu'!that tho wii)was the instrument hywhich d(.-ccascd which wasto daat with ins propertyupon hi))dcath, and that his wifowasto havoatt tus pmpcrtynfter hif <)uathin case tho wn'vivudhitn, wt'n' in substance,so ftn' us wo arc n))k'to de. scribe t)m muncin writinK, as fuitows,vii!.:Ti)o said John Gcac nrst pointe)) to tho saidwiti itself; thcn he pointct! tu and theu ho laid th ftutt: of his head upou th pidni of himsotf, his right haud with his cyos ctoiicd,andthen towercd)tis right hand towardf! the ground,th patm of th sanMhand being upwants. Thse tattur sigt).swct'ctho usuid sigtts by which )x' or thf dccfa.suof sontu ot)G refurrodto his ownd<;att) c).so. Hf then touchedhis trouscr!) poekct (which was thc nsuat si~u by which ho rfffn'fd to his Moncy),thon ))< tookcd aJt round and sitnuttaneouxly raisedhis anns with a swecping motion a!) tu at) round (\)uch wcroth usmd signs by which hf reft.'n'L'd his property or tdt thi))};). He then pointcd to tn.swifc, and touchcd thc )'i))~-fi))gf!' nftcrwaK).s of Iti.s)ctt hand, aod thc)) p)aced )ns right hand across his Juft arm at thc cthuw,which tattor signs were th usuat signsby winch hc rct'urn'dto his wife. Thc signf)by which th <iaidtestator informcdus that hifi propertywas tu go to hiawifo's daughtcr, In casu ttis wif'' :Hc nr.strcfcrredto his wero. as foUows died in his Hfctimc, property as bcfore, ))p then touehod hirnscif,und pointcd t" and crosscdhis nrn) as bcfurt' th ring-finger"f his tcft han<), (whichtndicatcdhis wifc) hothen taid th sidc of his hcad on thu patm of his right hand (with his c'ycs ctoscd),,winchindicated his wifu's dcath hc thcn agaiu, aftur pointing to his wifc'N daughter,who was prsent whcn thc said will was cxecutcd, pointed to the ring-nngcr of his jcft hand, aud then as before. ptacedhis right handacrosshis ieft urm nt thc e~MW to hi.< He then put hi'!forefingcr munth,aud hnmcdtatelytouched



his breast,and movedhixarms in Mtc)) a manneras to indicato a child, which wo-o his usua) signs for indieatinjf))is wifc's his arm, daughtcr. Hc atways indicatcd a fumatuby crosiiing aud u matu po~ou by cros-sin~ his wrist. Tho sign.sby which tho said tc.stator informudus that tns property wns to gf to Wittiam Wi~g (his wifu's daughtuf's husbitnd), iu case fus wlfu'x(taughtcr di';d in tus Ji~tiutt', W('t'o.M futtuw.-t;Uc)'ep<;atcttthf .i~os indicat'na; his pr~pcrty and his wiiu't) daughtct',thfn hud thc .si')'' of his )t''ad ou thc pahu of hi'! wit.hIlil! his cy~'seto.scd,aud low(~I'l'd his luuul tuwfU'lI:l hnmlwith clscd,lIIul towt'tt't)tu!)))andtuwfmt.-t ri~ht right haud l'Yl'S tho ~roundas hft'urt' (which mcant h<'r d<'at)<)hc thun ngain )vpf'atfd t!tCsi~ns mdieating his witf's dau~tdcr,and eros.wd his icft anu at thu wristwith his ri~))t haud, whichXK'ant)K'r tu hushand, thc said Wit)i:ua Wi~. Hf aku cutnntmtiKttt.'d ua by si~ns, ttiat thu s)ud Wi)tia)n Wig};fMideditt I~oudon. T)tu said WiHi:un Wi~~ is in thc cmp!oyut'at)(t sttpo'intcnds thc good.s dcparttm'ut ut' thf Not-th-Wcstcrn HaihvayCotnpany at C'amdcnTuwn. Thu si~n.s by witieitl)te said tcstatur in. <bnMC<) us that his propf.'rty wns tu ~) to th<*<')<i)<h'ctt nf his wH'c'it daughtc-rnnd son-in-iaw,io case thL'ybot)t dicd in bis titctimc,WfM us t'uttows,oatticty:He t'epcatcdth Ki~ns aud their deat!) indicatittgthc said WitiiKHt Wi~ and hi<wif'u, bcforehim, and thcn ptaeL'dLis rigttt haud opun a short distance h'om thc p'uund, aud nu.'icdit hy dcgrcc.s, and as if by whiettwct'utds usu:dsign.stbr pointin}; <mtt)teir ehitdren, iitcps, and then swcpt )ns )mndruttnd with n swccpi))~ motion,wbich indicatedtbnt thcy werc tdl to bo brought in. Thu Ntid tMtntor atwnys took gruat notice of tbc sai't chitdtfn,and was very fondufthem. After tho tostator had in manner a<omsaid to us what hc iutcndcd to do t'y his said will,the )Mid exprcitscd R. T. Dnnnin~,).'y meaus of tho b(.'for<mcnti')n''d si~ns, and by othur tuotionsand si~ns hy w)dc)twe wc)t!aceustumcdto eonvurscw!t)t hi)n, infurmfd th said testator wttat wcre thc cotitcntsand t.-Hect of thc said wi)i." Sir J. P. Witdcgrantt-'dthe motion. Tht!dcaf-mutecommonty exprcssetpa.stnnd future time in a concrte ibnn, or by implication. Tu say 1 hve ben H), ha tnayconveytho idca of hif! buing ill by lookingas though



he wcrc Ko,pressing in his ehecks with thumb nod (it)get'to givehintsetfa htntcm.jawcd )ook, pHttinghis handto his hcad, etc.,and hc mayshowthat Ibis cvent was a day behind," a weekbchiud,"that is tu say ycsterdayor a week agu,and su hc may say thnt he it g"it)g h"nto a wwk <u)'ward."That he wou)dof ))inso]i' maku thc ttbstmct past or future, us tho Abb~Sieard)msit, hythrowiogth(.'handbaek or forward, wit))out xpecifying any partieuttd'period, 1 am not proparod to my. Th dif!ieulty)ttyLe avoidfd by Kignixg myhl'uthcr sick done for mybruthfr hiMt'pon sick,"ni)to itnpty that th siekncss M a thing (inishfd aud donc with. Of thc <x. pressionof face nud sciure may oft<;ntctt what i< mcant. with whichthu jii~n fur et)ti))g(Uonft'i.'i madc Thu p.fprf.sjMt will tc)t whcttior t))c fpcak<'rbas had hi.t dinncr or is going toit. Whonanythiogptuatautr painfn)i.smcntioncd by signs, t'cmt'n)thc tookwittcommonty convcyth distinctionhct\vt'Mt btaxccof what is past,and anticipationof what is to comc. m wc bave,au idca uf Thoughthc dcaf-aud-dmubbas, ))U)e)t th conuuxiun of cau).eand cHeet,ht' ftM.s not, 1 think, any 'ticausatiun from mre scqucuccur rcctmeansofdMtingui.sbing simuttanfity, cxccpt a waycf showiugby t)is manner tttat two whiebcan bfu'diybc duscribcdin cvcnt'! betongto oue Mnotho', be )ias woKts, thongttif ho secs furthcr exptanation necosmry, nodinicuttyin giving it. Tims hc woutdcxprcaitho .'itat~tncnt that a man died of drinking,by saying that Le "dicd, dr:tnk, drank,dmnk." If thf inquiryWfrcnmdc, dicd,did hu bo coutdput th causation bcyond doubt by answf'ring. ycs, bc If be wishcd tu s;tytbat ttx' drank,and drank-,aud drank wouid b(. t))cnrder of hi.ssigtM hnd poisoncdhimsctf, gKntcncr "gtrdfnor dcafi,tuedicitiebad dmnk." To nmkc i.s too nbstract au !dcafor the dcaf-mutc to showthat thc tai)or )nakcs tho cout, or that thu earpcutcr makcstho tabio,hc wotddrt'prc~nt t))etaitor sewingtttc Cf:tt, audtbf earpcutt't'sawing and ptaniug t)(o tabic. Sucii a pro))"t c'oncixto pMitionas" Rain makcsthu tandfruitftd wouid his way of tbinkiug; "min faU.ptants grow,"wutddbe !ns pictoria)expression.' Sttittth), '~r..)crT.p. M3.



1 A" an examptc of tho structure of th gcstnre.Ianguago, give thu words ronghty correspondingto th xignsby whioh tho Lord's Prayuris acted cvcry tnorning at tho UtinburghInstitution. Thcy wero earcfnity writtcn down fur mo hy Un' and 1 ma()cnotes of tho signs by whichtho varions Directe)', i<)ca'' wo'o cxprfsxed in this xchoo). Fathcr h t-prcsentett in thc prayer as man"td," t)ff)t)! "tinary mattcrs hc ix gcnemny"thc tnan whoshavc.s]fh))sc)f;" "namu" i. ns I havo M<:nit etscwtn'rc,t'tuchi))~ t)h' fureht.'ndaud hnitittin~ ttt<! on the nngct's,as to say, t))M action of speUiu~ f!))('))ing onois known by." To "))a))o\v" is to "spc:ti< good uf" ("good" hcitt~cxprcssudLy <ho thuntb, w)ntu )Md i.sMpt't.scnt(;d hy tic.siu the t))o !itt)c nugct', twosigns uf which the nx'iUtin); contrast of t))c tarder attd mot'c puwerfut thtnnb with th<' smaUcrand te.ssImportant litttc tinter). Kins<tom is shown wiH," by ptacing tho bfmd on t))<) by the sign fur crown stomneh, in acconianec with t!it' natnmt and wide-sprfad tbeory that dL'.sir'' and passion aru tocat~t thorf, to which ht'to))~ as to hve no stomac)tto it." thoory suehcxprMsious Donc is worked,"s!)ownLy hamt. as worki))~. Titophrasf oncarthas it i.sin hcavcu was,I tjctieve,put hysigniifor on earth and in )n'a\'un,"att(t thon lIyputtiog out th twoforcandshni)aritya))the nngur.s sidu byside, thc si~n tm' xatm.'nM.s wortd over,sothat the who)cwontdstand (.'urth un, hcavcnin, just t))c xatnc." Trcspas.s if, doin~l)ad to fur~ivo iti to rub out, as fronta datt-' tmnptatimi is ptuckittgone hy thc coat, as to !cad him siity into nusctnef. Tho atternativc of one "but"is mado with thu t\vu fon'-nngcrt:,not~atoMgsidc Sicant'sKij~n anothcr as in )iko,"but oppo-sfdpoint to jMtint, for "against." "Dutivt'r" is to "pluck out." "glory" is "gtittcritfg," "iut'<'ver"i.s ~Mtt'n bymaking th iorc-tittguf'.s hctd horixontahyturn round and round ono anothcr. Th order of t)h' si~ns is much as foUows :" Father our, hcavcn inname t))yhatttjwudkin~dom thy cotnewiit thy doncearth on, heuvcn in, as. Brcad give us daitytrespasscs our furgive us, them trcspass against. us, forgivc.ns. 'i\'tnptation Icad not-but en) ddivfr fromkingdotn powergtory thine for cvL'r."



When 1 writo down descriptionsin words of tho doaf-anddumb signa,they soemba)daud weak,but it mnst bo remetnof them. To bered tbat 1 eau only writo downtho nketotons KGG tbem is somctbingvcry dinercnt,for thse dry bones havo to bo covnredwith Hcsit. Not tho face onty, but th wholo to th sign. Nor are the Mber, bo<)y joins in givingexpression in t'cstnnufd touksand gestures to whichwe arc nccu.sto<ned our daity )i<b ~tnicicntforthis. Ho whota)ks to the dcnf-andntust thrmvoff tho rigid covering ftmnb in thcir own innguagc, that t))o Engtishman wearaover his facelike a tragic mask, whilolove and hte,joy und that never changesits expression sorrow,conMout fromttchindit. Retigious serviceis perfonnedin signs in many deaf-anddumb schoot~. In th Berlin Institution,th simpleLuthomn a prayer,tho gospel forth day,and a sermon,isacted Hcrvice, every Sundaymorning iti th gesturc-hngungofor th chUdren inhabitants of tho city, in th schooland tho dcaf-and-dumb and it is a vcry remarkabie sight. No one could see th parable of tho man who left th ninetyand nine slicep in tho and went after that whiehwastost, or of tho woman wUderness, who lost the onc pice of sih'er,perfonned in expressivepantomime by a mastcr in the art, without acknowtcdgingthat for telling a simplestory and making simplecommenton it, spoken tnnguagestands far bchind acting. Th spoken narrative must !osethe ouddenanxiety of th shepherd when lie bis hurried pcnning countifbis flockand nndsa sheep wanting, up th rest, his nmnittg up hiH and down dale, and spying his tace tightingup when hc catches backwardsand <bnvar()s, his carrying it borne sight of tbo missingshecp in th distatiee, in bis arms, hugging it as he goes. We hcar thse stories rend as though thsy were iists of gnrationsof antediltivian calh)to mind th pantomime patriarctts. Tho dcaf-and-dumb action, action,action ofDemosthenci!.

TUE H KSTURE-LAKOUAtiN(coNTtxcHO). TiERE is another dopartmentof tho gcsture-Ianguagowhich hMreachedncar)yas high a devc]optnent as that in use among tho deaf-mutcs. Meu whodo net knowone another'n language ara to cach othcr as thougitthey were dumb. Thus Sophoctos uses <tyAoxr<7o~, "tonguek'ss," for "barbanan," as eontrasted with Greok and tho Russians,to this day, caU their neighbonmthe Gct'maM,"Njcmci!ttiat Is, speccMeM,~emoM tncaning dumb. Wheu tnoi who ara thus dumb to one anotlier liave to communicatowithout an intorprete)-,tbey adoptait ovor tho wortd the vcry samo method ot' communication by signs,which is the uaturat !ang~~ago of tho denfmutes. AtexaBder vonHumbotdtbas loft on record,in tho following pasi.age,his expriencesof the gcsturc-tan~uag amottg tho Indians of thc Urinoeo, in districts whero it often happons that Nuau,isolatcdtrihui)opcaktanguagcs of which even their nearcst neig)tbout's eau hantiy utidcrstand a word:" Aftcr said thc good moukof Uruana, you wilt you lenvo my mifMion,' travel tike mutes.' Thiii prdiction was almost accomptished and, not to tuscall the advantagothat is to bo had from intercoursecven with the most brutaiized Indians, wo have sometimesprcfcrredtho languagoof signs. As soon as t!M native soesthat you do nut caroto ouptoy au iutcrprctcr, as sooa as you ask him direct questions,pointing th o)~ect out to him, ho cornes ont of his habitut apathy, attd displays a rare inteltigeneein makiug himsolfundcrstood. Ho varies tus signs, lus words stowty, and rcpeats thom without bcing pronouuces a.fked. His ((motu'-jM'opt'c ficemi! fiattcred by thc coMcqucnce



you accord to him by letting him instruct you. This facility of in thoindemaking himsetfundorstoodis ahovoan remarka.Mo pondcnt Indian, and in tho Christian missions1 shouMrecommonf! th trave)ior to addrcss himsetf in preierenco to those or who go of tho natives who have been but lately )f<!tMK<, back from time to time to th forest to cn)oy thoir ancient 1 Hborty. It is woUknownthat the Indians of North Ameriea,whoso notnndettabits and immensevariuty of languagesmust continuwhoso ally make it needfutfor thctn to eonmunicatowith tribe!) Jangua~othcy cannot spcnk, earry thc gosturc-tanguagoto a and tho samosigns serve as mehigh degreo of perfuctiot), dium of eonversufrom Hudson'ti Bay to the Gu)f of Mexico. Suverat writers mako mention of this In(fian pantomime," and it hns been cnrefully described in th acconnt of Major Lon~'xexpdition,and Morercceutty hy Captain Burton.' Th latter travetter considcrs it to bc a mixtureof naturat and convontionaL signs,but so far as 1 can judge fromth ono hundred and fifty or so which ho descrihes,nnd thoso 1 nnd mentioned not beticvc that thcrc iit a reattyarbitrary sign etsewhere,1 <)o of whichthc among thom. TJ~'roare onty abont haif-n-dozcn meaning is not at once evidunt,and cven thosc appear on closo inspectionto be natumt signs,pcrhaps a httic abbroviatcd or convontionatizod. 1 am sure that a tikitted dcaf-and-dumb talker woutd understand an Indian intcrprettir,and bo himsetf undcrstood at first sight, with scarectyany dimcu)ty. Tho Indian pantomime and th gesturc-tanguagcof tho deaf-nnddumbaro but dincrcnt diatcetsof tito Muno ianguageof nature. Burton snys that an interprter whoknowsaU tho sigttsis prcfen'ed hy tho whites even to a goud speaker. A story is toMcftt tnan, who.heing sent an:ong the Cheyennesto fn)n!i<y himsetf for interpreting, rcturned in a week and proved his il.p. 27f!. ttumM.tt ]Sti.cte.vol. V.'yw P')rb, M)<) fhn).hn.), )). Lon~ M-mn.Fhiht<)e)t'hia, Mt'tnJMOC! Ex)*-)). Roejiy Stejjhen Major otthHaintt,' H.K thrtof),Tho LonJot), t8N!, i. p.3M,etc. C:<t. City 1823, ''f" t'tMtCricMr von rriH:MMitHitian Wie't-KoMwied, \))~);" p. ]M,etc. Seembo der dor vol. ! il. 389. /I-IUIII\IIII, dal'Amriquo duNord;'Porig, p. 'S'Un:1I 1840.3, derK. derK. A JS~-3, M.derWMsem: nmchmmn, B crUn, 1M9, 5!),p.tH.. 'pt)n:n p.0< <)<S;.r., Att. m),iii. p.SSS. 18M) Non); rAtnMque etc. <)t)(AU..



did,however,was to go through th comptence all that ~~G uauatpantomimewith a mnning aceompanimcntof grunt~ In thoIndian pantomimo,actions and objectsare expressed very much as a deaf-mutcwould show thom. Tho action of beckoningtowards oncsetf n'prcficnt!'to corne darting tho twonrst nngc'rs from the eyes is lo")!pc;" describing in th Il air th fbrmoftho pipe and t)n' curling smoke isto "smokc;" thrusting th hand under th ctothing of th left breast iiito hMe,put away,keep scct'et." Knon~h to eat is ohownby an imitationof cating, and tho forotingersnnd thumb forming a C, with th points townrdf)thc body, are rained npward as furafithc neck fcar," hy putting the handa to th lower and showing howth heart Huttcrs and Momsto ri8c to ribB, th thmat hook,"by hoMingthu palms together beforo tho face,opettingand reading,quito in dcaf-and-dmnbfashion,and as th Mostcmsoften do whi!e they are rcciting praycrs and chaptersof th Koran. .Oneof ouraccount!!sayx that "nro" ia represented by th Inditmby Mowingit and wanning his hands at it th othcr that flnmcsarc ituitatedwiththe nngcrs. T))olatter Hignwasin use at Berlin, but 1 noticcd that th ehitdrfn in another school did not undcrstaud it till t)K'sij~nof btowin~was addcd. Tho Indian and th d'af-mute indicate raiu by th saine sign, briugingth tips of th fingerf! of th partty-ctosedhand downand th Indian makcs ward,lik<:rain fa)ting frotnthe ctoud)), tho sMnesign do duty for "ycar," counting yearfihy annual raitM. Thc Indian indicatfs"iitone," if light, by picking it up, if heovy,by dt-oppingit. Thc duaf-mutc taps his tccth with his nngcr-nnii tu show tb'tt it i.s soniettting hard, and then makesth gusture of ftingingit. T!n!Indian sign for mounting a horso is to tnakc tt pair of legs of the two first fingers of th right hand, aud to straddie thum acroiis th left forennger; a sinniar sign amoug t)io deaf-aud-dumb means to "ride." Among thc IndiaM thc ftignfor "brother" or "fiistcr" M, accordingto Burton, to put tho two first finger-tips(that M,1 th ibre-nngcrsof both handH) into thu mouth, to show suppose, that both fed fromth aarnebreast; th deaf mute makes th



tncrosign of tikcncssor cquaHtysuiBce, holding out th fore. nngersof buth handsefcso tngethcr,a sign winch,accontittgto James,atsodocs dutyto indicatc"hnsband" or "companion." Thissignofthctwofurc-nnp'r.s is understoo(tevcrywhcre,and mmc very curious instance!) of it!!usu in rcmotc parts of thc wortd,are given by Mnrsh*in illustration of t'tueticn's"But 'tis tut one, 'tis Kolikuas my fin~ffsis to my finira." It betuonks. of th Ctstereum too, to the Kign-ianguagc )m)~s, Anintah) are representM! iu tho Indian pantomime very much m thc deaf-ond-dumb wcutd rcprescnt them, by signs charMtcniiing their pectiliar cnn!,horus, etc., and their movements. Thuatho sign for stag amo)));the dcaf-and~lumb, namely, tbo thumbs to t~th tG)))p)<"i, n)n) t)M~t)gcrxwidetyspreadout, isalmostid'inticatwith thM Indiang(;sturc. Fur thu dog,howevcr, thc ndians hve it rcmarkabtosign, which consistsiu traiiingth two <irstfingcrsof tho rigttt hand,as if they wero poim dragged a)ong t)te grouud. Bet'orcthc Indians had honcs, th dogs werc traincd to drag t)tc Mge-potc!!on t))e march!u this way,aud in Catlin'stitne the wurkwa!(in several tribMdividedbetweenth dogsand th horses but it appears that in tribes where the trniling iMnowdonc hy hoMcsonly, th Mgn for "dog" derived from tho otd custom is stUI keptup. itsetfin Uneof th Indian signs Menriousas havingreHcctcd thetipukeniangungeof th eouutry. "Wutcr" :s rcprescnted up waterwith th handaud drinkhy au imitationof fieooping iug out uf it, and river" hy nmking this sign,and then waving t)i(i ptUutsof the hands ontward, to dcuoto nn cxt<;udcd surface. It is videntthat thetirst part of thu sign is transtated in the wc-stcrnAmcricanismwhicit spcaks of a river as a. as thc Big dnnk," and of th Mississippi, p)' excellence, Drink. It need hardiy hc snid thut spoken )angnageis full as whcn une is said to wink ufHuchtranstationsfrom gesturcs, which showsus th act of at anothcr's faults, an expression meaning to pretend not to winkingaeceptedas <tgestnre.sign, ontho 'LMtMtT;f! Knj!~h taueu~ Loudm), tMS, p. 486. Manth, ofAmenaMtMKe,' 2u<[ J. K. thrtktt, t'ictiotary ~aton,tMf, t. < <dH., Dnnk."



see. But th AmeneaBism is interestmg as being caught so near its source. 1 noted downa few signs from Burton as not se!f.evidont, but it willbo Menthat they arc all to bu explained, They arc, "ycs," wave th handa stmightforwardfrom tho face; "no," wavctho ]uu<d fromright to left as if motioningaway. ThMc with tho gnrt practi of mankind,to ))od Kigno correspond for "yes," and shako tho heali for "no." Tho idea convoycd tieous to correspond with thc dcaf-and-dumb Ly noddi))~ sign for "truth," made by moviugtho fingo' stnughtforwarttfrom tho !ips,apparfttt)ywith tho sensof "titraightfbrwardf<peaking," whileUto finger is movedto ono side to express "iip," av "Mdeways spcakmg." Thu understatidingof nodding and (M signs of a.s.sentand dniai appeara to shaking thu tK-ad bctong to uneducated dfaf-and-dumbchiidron, and even to thosewhoare onty onedegrec ))igher t)mu idiots. In a very femarkaUedissertationon th art of thrusting knuwtcdgeinto th minds of such chitdrcn, Schma]:! aMumcs that they can thse ttign.s.' It is tme they may aiways makeand undorstMid hve leurnttiton from the peoplewhotake caroof them. Tins expianatiouis, howevcr, somewhatcompiicatedby th Indiau signs for "tntth" and ")ie," given by Burton, who says that tho ibt't.nnger extcndedfrom the mouth tnean" to "tett truth," "one wortt;" but two fingers tncan to "teU lies," "double tongue." So tu inove twu iingeMbefbre thu left breast means, "1 don't know,"that Is to say, "I hve two hearts." I found that deaf-and-dmnb chiidrcn understood this Indian sign for Ue quiteas weUas thcir own. "Good," wave th hand f~)a tho mouth, extending th t)nunb fron i)te index, and closiugtho other threo nngcrs. Thiffis like knisingth hand as a calutation,or what chitdrcn call "blowtnga kiss," and it ix dearty a natuml it is as tho deaf-and-dumb rccognixed by ianguage. Dr. James gives thc Indiansign as waving th hand with tho back upward,in a horizontaleurve outwtntts, tho wett-knowngesture of bcnediction. At Berlin,a gesturo tiko that of patting a child on the head, accompanicd, as of course ait thse signs arc, with Mmah, pp. 267-27!S) W~gw~J, p. 9t.

[ c

i r



an appronng Mnt!e, is in use. Posxibtytbo ideasof etroking or patting may lio at tho bottom of ail thcse signsof approving Mdbte.tsittg. "T))ink," pass theforc-nngcr sharptyacrosstho breast from of course that a thought pasacs right to Icft, meaning through one's heart. cross th fore.nngers of hothhands Trado,exchangc,swop," bct'om the breMt. This sign is also used,Captain Burtonsays, or indeed any white men,who aro gcto donote American)), nemlly catted by thc Indians west of th RockyMountains, fromtheir tmding propeniHtics.As given by Burton, ahwop," tho sigu is hardly intcl!igib)o. But Dr. James dcscnbcsthe gesturoof which this is a sort of abndgument,whtchconsiBts in holdingup the twofore-nngcn!, and passingthem by ench other traMvcmetyin front of tho breast so that theychange places,and notiting couldbe ctcarerthan this. Th sign in tho Berlingesture-tanguttge for "day"is made out tho pahns of tho hands. I supposed it to be by opomng an arbitrary and meauingless sign, till I foundtho Indian sign for this moming to consist in tho same gesture. It refers, perhap!!to awaMag from s!ecp, or ta tho openiug out of tho day. As a means of communication, there is no doubt that th Indian pantumimeis not mcrdy capaUc of cxpreMinga few impieand ordinary notions,but that, to th uncutturedsavage, with tu!!fewand nuttcrial ideas, it is a very fair snbstitutefor )iifi Manty vocabu)ary. Stansbury mentions a discoursedeHvcrcdin this way itt his prsence,whichlastedfor somo hours in continuous narrtiuu. T!tC ouly spcimenof a oce)tpi(!<t connectedstory 1 havo met with iit a huniers simplehistory of' his days sport, as Captitin Burton thinki)that an ImHan tvouidrcndcrit in signs. Th story to hoto)dis as follows Early this moming,1mounted my honc, rode offat a gallup, traverse'!a kanyon or ravine,then overa mountainto a plain wher8 there was no water,sightcd bison,Mowed them, killed threo of them, skinnedthem, packed th fleshupon my pony, remounted, and returned home." Th arrangement of tho si~ns describcd is as Mows:this momingearly

mounted my horsegattopcda kauyonerosseda tnountaina plaindrinkBoisightodbisonkiDedthrce skinncdpaekcd ficshntountcdhithcr." Thero is pcrhaps nothingwhich would striko a deaf-and-dumbman ait pecuI)Miu the squenceof thse sign< but it wouldbc dsirable for a real discourse,detivered by an ndian in signs,to bo taken down, expeciallyif its eouteuts wero of a more corn' plex nature. Ainong th Cistereianmoukxthere exists, or cxisted,a gestuM-tauguage. As a part of their dismat system of morti<ying th dceds of tho body,they itdd speech, oxcopt in religiouR fxerciscs,to bf timfuL But fur certain purposesretating tu th vile nMtenat tife that they could not quito shako o~ commuutcation among tho bretureHwas uccessary,su the diBeu)tywas met by tho use of pantomimic signs. Two of their written lists or dictionnries are pnnted in thc coUccted dition of Leihnitz'M works,' one in Latiu, the other in Low Ocnnan they are not idcntica),but appear to be mostly or a!togetherderived froma list drawn up by authority. A grcat part of th Cisterciangesture-signs arc either just whnt the deaf-aud-dutnhwouid makc, or are so naturat that they would at once understandthem. Titus,to make a roof with thefingers is "housc;" to griud the 6sts together M "corn to "sing" is indieatcd by buating time to "hathe"Il it)to imitate ~tMhiNg th breast with th liollowof th haud; "candtc," or "fire," is shown by holding up the foro-Sngcr and btowiug it out like a candte; a "goat" is indicatedby th HngeMhanging iront th chiu like a board; "satt," by taking an imagiaary pinctt aud sprinkting it; "butter," by th action ofsprf.'ading it in th pa!m of thc hand. Th dcaf and-dumb sign used at Berlin and other places to indicate time bydrawing t)te tip of tho forc-fingcrup th am), is in thc CistercitUtlist "a ycar;" it i.-iSieard's sigtifur "long," and th idea it conveysi.s ptaiuly t))at of "atength"tra)Mfcrrcd fromspace to time. Tu "go is to tuake th two first nngers walk hanging in tho air (Hungestu se dahl und rorest se, betekcnd Ca/te~), whilethc universal sign of th two foretd. Datons Leibtttt, Ot;<M Omu*, GeneM, IM8, rt.t~rt il.p.207, etc.



stands for tikc (Ho)stu se even thosamcn, dat betenMgers )(QUt ~t'A'e).Th tiignfur ber isto put the haud beforotho fK';o and Uow iuto it, as if Uowing off thu froth (Thutttudo hand vor dcmaMehtuhodat du darin pustcst, dat bcdUdti~<< J~t't!'). Wipit)gyour nMuth with th who)':hnnd upwfn-dt! (mu omnibus digitifttci'ge bucoun sursum),mcansa countryclown (rustieus). Tu put th forc-fh~~t'apunst th ctuscd lips i!t"8Uence," htttthcfiugerput in thcMMtth!))OUMft"chi)d." Thcxeare twovcry t<aturataud Ji'stiMt xigns but tbcn tho Sngorto th tips for silence" tn:ty serve ajiio quitc fitly tu shtw that s childso rfpn'sentcd is au '</tt)t~, that is, that it cannotspenk. Th confusionof th signs of"c)ti)t)hood''and"siiencc"oncc )cd to a curions mixunderstiUtding.Th infaut Horus, god of tho da.wn, w<Mappropnatcty rcprcscutcd by ttje Kgyptiansas a child w!th Lis Sugcrs to hitftips,and ))Mnmnc as wnttcn iu thc hiorogtyphici! (Fi~. 1) may be rcad Htu'-(p).chrot, "Horu!i-(th<i)-son. Tho Croeks mistooktho mcaning of thc gestm-c, Md (ns it SCGMM) this uamc into HarpoGra?c)!!i))~ cmtes,adoptcd him as thu god ut'si)cnM. To conchtdo,th Cisterciun lixts eM)tait) a numberof signa whichat first sight seem conventt'na), but yet &meanixgmay )x!discerned in most or nll of thcn). Thuo,it scems<oo)ish to tnake two fiogeMat th right sidc 0)' une's nose stand for on th left (fMc.thcy "friftn!but.w)K'uwo sec that p):tc<id <!t(md for euemy," it becomis ck-ttr that it is thc opposition ofright aud left that is meatit. Su th littto fiogct-tu thc tip of the nosc nK'ans foot, whieh sconixgfypoor sign is ex. p)ained by th forc'-Hngt'rbcitig put thfr(! fur "WMomau." T))cfuetof sucfta coutrast as \visc aud foutMh bfing tnintcLe. twccn the furu-tinger :u)dth little fingcr,con'ecponds wit))thc use of th thmnb nn<tlittlu thigf'r t'ur"goud" and"bad"by th dmtf-and-dutxb, and uiak~sit likely that buth pairs of signs H)aybo ~aturaJjand indupundeutof otc a~uthur. Titc sig)t of 1CoptM = mgnntM, Mt~tt An.); tititM. ttti)=titii,titKin, U)d tM. E:.inRMettt 8. Hi~ ot <t)) vol. ii. p. 148. Wilkinton, (.'w~re Sht~'0, K.o't.t, Popular &<MMt efthAndettt r). )i.p.182. t~tJtiM!) j tonJen, 18C4,



grasping tho noso with tho crooked fore-finger for "wine," suggestathat tho thought ofa a jolly red noso was prsent cven in so uniikoiy a place. Th sign for thodevi)," gripping one's chin with aU flvo fingpt! showstho enemy ficizinga victim. In a media'val picturo, an angct may be sccn taking a tnan by thc chin wittt ono hand, nnd pointing np to hcavenwith thc other. Thus, in a Hindoo ta)c, Otd Aj~)in person comes to claim ttis owu. In titnc thcu, when 1 had grown grcy with yeaM,Oid Age took mu by thc chin, and in his love to me said ? 1 kindty, My xon,what docfitthon yet in thc iMHiio Thet'cis yet anuther dcvdopment of the gesture-Ianguagoto be noticed,tho stage purformanMH of th proftjtisiomimimics of OrcMcnud Rome, th Pantomimej~(t)' &cce<:ttce. To judge anecdotes, the old Humes had bt'ought by two wuM-knowu thoir art to grt perfection. Macrobiussays it was a weUknown iaet thut Cicero used to try with Rosciusth actor whichof them could expressa sentiment in tho groater variety of ways, th plityer by mimicry or th omtor by speech, and that thcsu experiments gave Roscius such confidencein his art, that hc wrotu a book comparing omtory with acting.' Lucian tells tt story of a certain barburiau prince of Pontus, who was t(t Noro's court, and saw a. pantomime perform so wcU,that, thcush hu coutd not understand tttc songs which th ptayer was accumpanyingwith bifi gesturcs, ]tCcoutd followthe perfonnanccfroo) th actiug alunc. Wtie))Nero after. wartisasked th pt-ince to choosc what h(! wouid hve for a prsent, he bcggedt') have th ptaycr givcn to him, Mtying tttat it was dimeult to get interpreteni to communicatowith sotne of th tribus in bis neighbourhondwho Mpukc diffcreut but tifat thix ntan woujd auswor thc purpose perhm~))!)gex, fectty." It would seem from thcsc stories that thu ancicnt pantomimes g<ncra)tyused gestures so natura) tbat thcir mcauing was sctf-evidcnt, but a rcmark of St. Augustiuu't! intimtes that signa und~stood only hy regular ptaygocrs wcro also used. desSenMMttYtt Btmttt'(tnuM. 'HitittchtMMmmtMs hy Dr.H. BrMtthtMtt)y ii. CN. 1843, Mp!:i){, p. MMM)). &tMn<. M), ii.c.x. Lucian. DeSaitttiem-, 04.



For a)! thoso thmgs which are vatid among mon, bccausoit are human intitipkases thcm to ngrcc tt)at they shaU hc M), tutions. Hf) if tho signs which mimes makc in thcir performances)iad thfir meaning front Maton',a<t<) not from thc agrecmont<mdordiaaoeoof me)), tho crier iu otd titnes wonM not httYc~ivctt ont to thf (-'tu'tha~iniiu). at thc ptfty wtmt thf acturmeant to exprs' tt ttung stiti rcmcfaberedby many otd n)cu hy wi)"m wc uxc tu henr it naid which i.s rcadity to ))u ))u)iovu(), wf'!))~ thnt <vftt now, tf any ono wl<ois not tenrncd in soch ibtficx gocs into tho t)K':ttrc, unte!!S somoonc eiso totfs hitn whnt t))(i sigus tucat), hc otn nmkc Mothing' of then). Ait nion,i))dc<<t, ftcsirf')tcurtain iikunMS iu sign-making, that thu sigttsstmutd be as liku )Mtnay ))oto t))~t whieh M iti~uincd but f'ceing thnt t))it));:< may bc like one another in. such si~ns aro not constant among mcu, un!ess m<mywayft, by conmoncomcnt. 1 ffom other Knuwingwhat wc do uf inimic performaneeit wo can, 1 think, only utK!erst:)n<) sourcM, by th!))that Matund and abridged gestures wcre very connnoniyconvuntmmdixMd to savc timo aud troubk', and uot that arhitrary signs were uscd; and suett abridgmunts, like thc simplified sign for tradin~ or swopping among thc Jndinnx,as weUas th wholo cttMsof cpithct.s and athtsions whtch wontd gt'ow up among mimicsad()rc.ssingthcir n'gnhn' set of p)ayp)Cf)!, wuu)d not be intdjigibie to <t stittngpr. ChristiatM,of course, did not frquentsuch performancesm St. Augustitm'itirnc, Lut tuoked upou them as uttcrty atmminabluand dovitish nor can we accusethon of want of charity fur this, whcnwe eonsider tho ctassof scnestttat were conunotdychosen forrepreseotation. Thcrcseetn tu hve 'fx't'ttwrittun tifitsof si~nsuscd to ~ca)~~ frotn,wificitarc now )ost.' Tho mimie, it sh~tM be cbscrt'cd, had not thf santc diHic)))tics to puntf))') with as an Indian intcrprctur. n tho nrst ptaec, thc stories reprc.scntcdwcre of th godi) gencndiytnytho!ogica),very usuaUy tove.pa.'Bages aud heroMi, with whtch th whoie audiencewaxperfecttyfamiliar aud, morcovcr, appropriatc wotds wcre commoniy sung Doet. Chr. U.M. A)ts. htErKh andUruLer, art. f<mt<m)imi<d)0 at]M)', KtMt derAftea."



white tho mimic uctfd, 00that ho cou)d apply ail his skitt to giving artistic illustrationsof th tale as it wcnt un. Th pantomimic pcrfonnaucc8 of Southcni Europe may Le tnkcn as rcprcxcntin~in some degre'eth ancient art, but it M likely that thc mimicryin tho modem hatiet and th Eastern pantomunic ptaya Mis much bclow tho classical standard of excellence. 1 havo now noticed what 1 venture to can th principal ditdcct!!of tho gcitturc-ianguagc. It is fit, lrowever,that, gesture-signs imving been spoken of tM forming a complete and iudopendcnt langttagc by thcmsftves, sutnethin~ should be Mtidof thch' use as an accompanimcttt to spoken tanguage. Wo iu Eng)and makc cumpamth'Gty iitt)e use of thse signs, but they hve bcenand nre in uoeiu atl quartemof th worM as higtdy important aidsto convcrmtiot). ThtM,Captain Cook saysof tho Tahitiaus,aftpr tncntioningtheir habit of counting upou thoir fingers,that in othcr instances,weobscn'ed titat, when tt)oywero conversingwit!t cach other, tt)cyjoined ftigns to their wonis,whichwere so expressivethnt a stranger might easity npprehcnd their nteaning; and Chartcvoix(tcscribes, in almost the same wor<)s, th expressivepantomime with whiehan ludian orator accotnpanic<) his diMoursc.' Gesticulation goes nlong with speech, to exptain and emphaMze it, among aU tnaukind. Savage and hatf-civitized race)-accompany their ta)k with expressivepantonnme mueh more than nations of higher culture. Th continua) gesticulation of Hindous,Amh.< Oreeks,as coutrastedwith the more northern natiuM!! of Kurup: strikes every travcUer who sees thon and th co!)oquiaipantotnitueof Naples is th subject of a spcial treati-sc.' But we cannet-Jay down a rujo thnt as civitization advaneei!, and say, for gesticulation dccrua.ses instance, that a MouthernFrcnehman, becau~e his tatk M iitustrated with gestures, us a book with pictures, is teiM civilizedthau a Gemmnor an Engtishman. We EngMsh are perhap:;poorcr in th gexture-Ianguagc thun Finit inthwtiMwot-th')) il.p.228. C'i):, Vuyttso, Vuyai;<M Lutdott, ma, vol. vol. i. f. <t3. Charlevoix, iii.p.Mt. HM,vol. Wittemim, '&*?)' lottdon,


any other people in tho wortd. Wo uso a form of wordstu dnotewhat a gesture or a tonowoutd express. Perhaps it is becausowo rend and write M mueh, and have c&mo to thiuk and ta)k a.<weshouldwrite, and so let <a)ithosoaidsto speech whichcannotbc carricd into th writteu ianguage. T)tcfowgesture-xigna whieharc in commonUMamong onr~e!ves are by no meaus ullworthyof cxamitmtion but wo bave livetlfor so many centuries in a highty artincmtstatuof society, that somo of thcm ct~nuotLe interpreted with any certainty, aud th most that wecan do Mto make a good guem at their originalmcaning. Some, it is truc, (inchas bcetmningor motioning away with th hand, diaking th fist, etc., carry thcir with them and others:nay he ptauitibty cxp))U)atif'n explained a with uiied analogoussigna by comparison by speaking mon iu ottjcr parts of tho wortd,and by the deaf-and-dumb. Thux, oue')!nngcr)! is nut vet'y intcHigibtctt:) tho signof Il snapping we generalty KMit; but whottwe notice thnt th same sign sontc tinyobject <u\'ay made tjuite gentty, as if r<'))ing between th nugcr and thumb, or th Ngn uf nipping it awaywith th are usua! aud wefI-undcMtoo<) thumb-ttai! aud <bro-fiHger, dcaf-aud-dumb go~turus,dcnotinganything tiny, insignmcant, it seons as thoughwu had exaggeratedattd concoutcmptibtc, ventiM)a)ized a porfectty natura) actiou )!0as to lose ni~)tt uf its originalmeauing. Titero i:!a cm'ioustMcntiun of this j;c'!ituro by Strabo. At Anc!nafc,he writes,Aristobulussays ttK'rc is a monumentto Sardauapatu! and a stoncstatuf of him tHif tetters : snappinghis (ingpf! aud thi.sittscriptiuuin AMxyrian tho tion or AnacyndamjfM, buiit ht otjc day Sardauapaitus, Auchialcand Tarsm Eut, drittk, ptay the rcst is not worth </<a< 1 Siiaking hands is not a. customwhich bctongs natura!)yto trace its introductioniuto nll tnankind,aud wc may somctimc's conntric!! whcre it was !je(f)re unknuwn. Tho Hjiaas, fbr inor snifHngat ono shmce, wtto used to sahtte hy HmeHing another, have tearut to shako hands from th missionarips.~ x)v. Stm~/ e, f. Jtor.TJtM. 2))<) ts). la)).)M), t)). WiHitHtM, 'Fiji MdthePiJ)tMt< ]SOC, p. tM.



Tho Wa-nika, near Mombax, gmap bando; but they use th Modem varioty of tho gesture,whiohM to press tho thumbs )nn!this makes it all but certain against onennothcr as wc)I,* that th practicoMone ofth maoy eneetsof Mosteminfluena in East AMca. It is cotnmonty titcnght ihat the Rcd Indians ndoptcd th cu'!tom of ffhakinghands fromthu white mcn~ This may bo of tt'uu; but therc tH rciMontu suppu~ that tho oxpt'os.sMn allianceor fricndsuiphy ctaxph)}; handswasaircady fainiliartu thon, Kotha.t they wouh) readity adnpt it as a.formof Katutation, if they had not used it so befurfth arrivt of th Euronoticcd in tho peaus. Morothan a ccutury ng", Cimriuvuix cfaHianeu bytho figure lottiaupicture-writingtho expression uf two motthotdingeach otherby ouu hand, whitc cach gmsped a eatutuet iu the other iiand.' Iti une of thc Itidiau pictures git'on hy SchooJcntft,close aScctiott is rcprcsentcd by two bodiesuuitcd by a sin~tu ann (sec Fig. C) and ir. a pictorial mcssngo fient from au Indian tribu to tho Prsident of tho Uuited States, an ca~)c,which repi'Ments chiff, iH h<)!(!iu~ out a Itatxttu the Prsident,whoatso hotdsout a hand.* Tito last of tuuse pictureclsigas may be perhapsascribed to Eurobut hantly th (irst two. pcan iu<h)G))c<}, Wc coulclxcareutyHnda botter illustration of th mcaning of thc gesturo ofjoining hands than m its use as a xigu of tho of a Mostcmwedmarriage contract. Ono of thc crmonies aud th bride'fi proxy nittitig ding consixtsin the bridegroom upon th ground, face to face,with one kuee on thu grouud, aud grasping cnch other's right )umd!i, rai.singthe thumbs aud pressing them agahist caeh other,"or in t)to ahnutit Idontieal ccronony in the Pacifie htands,in wllichth bride and bridegroom arc plucedon a largew!)ite ctoth,sprcaJ ou ttio pavemeut of a utam< and jciu handi)." This as ovidcntly mean~ Kn);)f, 'TnTch, etc.,in )&i.tAMa;' LuNthn, ]SOO, p. ]3S. U.K.SehH))emft, ttbtoriot) aud )!tatht)M) iMhnutttion thHbtoty, rondin); Tritjm of t)m F.R. t'Mtinfefj.hM, et< <fthtmiim !M!,etc.,~ft iit.1; KtS, 24t. DuhoM, < tf t h M! tbm City i~iftUt,' p.]<j. Dm &-hou)mtft, ~rt iiLp.203. < vol. v. 410. OmrkMh, p. i. [<p. Mcttookmft, t)!trt <m,418. K.W.ttmc, 'Mo-km m ), i . Hxyptitmo Londot), ]8M, )<.St9. Jh;)-. W.Ejjit, t -u). ii. B6!). 'Mytititiim HcMKitM;' ]SM, lo~N,



that th man and wifo are joined togather,as t!io correspondin the aneient Mexicannnd tho modemHindoo ing corcmony wedding,in whichthe ctothes of th parties aro ticd together in a knot. Atnongour own Aryan race,th taking I)andswas in man'iagoin thc Vc'tic periud.' Th idea a usuat ccromony which shaking hands was originatty intendcd to convey, was clearlythat uf fiutteningtogeth'ir in peaceand friendship aud the samo thought appears in tho probab)ootymotogyof joece, p(M,Sanskrit to bind, nnd itt ~ayt<efrom /~<t~e. or emuching is xo naturat an expressionef fea)'or Cowering inabilityto resist, that it bekngs to tho brutes as wcH a!)to !)mu. Among ooMph'es this naturut siga of submission is usfd in tho tnodificdformaof bowing and kncctingi gonm'a!)y but tho tmatogousgcsturcs found in diHbrenteountnes not only K'veus th intonnediatostages betwcenan actuat prostration amt a fitight bow, but also a set of gesturcs and ccru. monieswhicharc merely suggestive of a prostration which is not aotuaDyperformet). TtM extromoact of lying with th in China, Siam, etc., but face in thc dust is not only UHUaI even in Siberia tho pcasant grovcis on thc ground and kisscs the dust beforea n)nn of rank. Tho Arab only suggests such a humiliationhy bending his hand tu tiie ground and then putting it to bis !ips aud forubead,a gcsturo a)mostidcntic:d with that of th ancient Mexican,whotoucbfd th ground with his right hand und put it to his mouth.~ Captai); Cuok describestho way of doing rcvcrcnccto chicfs in th Tonga Is!ands,whichwas in this wisx':Witcn a subject appruachedtu do homngo, thc chief itad to hu!d np hisfoot behind,as a boi'tio docs, and titO subject touched the sotowith his fingors, thu.s placing himseif,as it were, undcr tho soie of his lord's fuot. in this Evcryonc tieemedto hve tbo rigbt of doiug t'evercnee way whcnhe picased and chiefs got M tired of holding up at thuir fcet to bc touched,that they wuutdtnnkc their tiiicapo of tho tho verysight of a loyal ubjoct.~ Othfr devt.'iopments idea aro found in th objection ma'tc to a Putynesmncincf hm, JSS!)-63, ;artii.p.MO. 'OntjinMltKto.Ettrop&'mm;' Ad.Pictet, S9. A. v.HtttttboMt, YuN df!) t'arh,tStO, p. CuntUMt~ a Caolc, rol. i . 409. 409. muira i!ud 2ud 207, 2GT, d.j tondM, evl.London, I78S, 1T85, d. i. py. pp. Cw):, TMnt Vo}ng, ve;~s~,



going down into th ship' cabine and to images of Buddha. bcingkept thero* in Siatn, namc!y,that they wero inxutted by th sailors walking over thcir hoads,and in tho custom, alRo among th Tongans, of sitting down when a chief passed. Thancieut Egyptian may be M'enin th sculpturesabbreviating th gesture of touching th gronnd by mereiy putting one hand down to his knee in bowingbeforea superior. A stight inclinationof the ho<!y ixdicatM subnti.'ision or rcverence,aud hecome'iat last a ttK'ro net of po)itcn(.s. not invotving any senM of infcriority at nH. This is brought about by thnt commonhabit of eivitixcd mat), of p~-tt-ndingto a humititv that he doci)not feel, whicb tcads tho Chincscto aUude to hirnselfh) conversation as th b!ockhead or th thief," and makes ou)' own high o<Hcial pemouageswrite thcmsetves, Sir, yom tnost obcdicnt humbluscryant, to personswhom thcy rcatty constdcrthfir infcriors. With regard to th position of thc hands in prayer, thero seems to have beeu a confusionof gustures distinct in their origin. With hands he!d out as if to touch or embracca protector,to reoivea gift, to wardoffa, Mow, tu present a t)etp)es.s suppliant,unrcsisting or cvctt otR-ringhis wristsfor th cord,* th worshipper has mcaus of uxpressiuu whieh,whon meaning becomes stit iu ccremony,ho ofteu mimpptiM. It is uot unnatura) t!)at mcrcy or protectiou should he looked upon a:)a and that the rustie gift, Phidylc sboutd )io)dont iter ~upino hands tu ask that her vines sboutdMo< feci th pestilent southwest wiud but th*! conveutioualizing process is carried mueh furtherwhen ttic hands ctasped or with th Hnger-tipsset together can bc used to ask for a beucnt w!uchthcy cannot cven catchho!dofwheti it cotnc! It M casy cnough to give a plausible roasonfor th<jcustom of taking off th bat a'! an expressionof rvrenceor poUtc. ness,by refun-ingit to times when armour was generattyworn. To tako off th hchnct would bc equivalentto disarming,and Thin! vol. Cook, i. p. 26:. Voyttge, SirJ. Ma~Tinj;, '8i<un Loadom, w).t. p. ]M. 1667, tb. p.~09 Cook, 'We~wd, 'On~n of Lmj!))!Londox, tSM,p. t<6. QAum, D.M. Ocf-ch. f. ~00. MeiMn, 'At)f[. der lteligionen rcLii.p. 280. H<m<Ytr, 1SM-7,



wouldindicate,in th most practical manner,either submiRsion or peace. Tite practice of laying aside mm!!on entering a house appcars iu a quotation from tho 'Boke of CurtayM,' whiehfhows that in th )nidd!oges visitoMwci'c cxpcctedto teavothcir weapouswith th porter at thc outcr gte, and whon they came to th hatt doorto take offhoodsand gicves. tVtMn thon conte thohalldor te, Do ofthy x bo." hode, thygtovea 1 That womenare not requircdto uneovertheir heada in church or on a visit, if) quito consifitentwith such an origin of tho custom,as their head-drosMwere not armour and th samo consistency may ba ohsarvedin tho practice of ladies keeping th gloveon in chaking hauds, white men veryconnnouty removeit. Whcn a knight's glove was a steel gauntlet, suc!)a distinctionwouldbe reasonableenough. This may indeedbe fancifu). Th prncticeof women haviag th head covered in church betongs to th earlicst period of Christianity,and tho reasonsfor adopting it were clearlyMieciiiud. And th usage of men prayiug withtho head uncovered, may havo been an intentionatroversalof th praetico of covering th head in onering sacrinccamong tho Romans, and by thc Jews in their prayeri!thon and now. It does not seem to have bccn universal, and is e\'eu nownot (bHowedin thc Copticand Abyssinianchurches,in which th Semitic custotn of uncoveringnot th head but the fect is still kept up. This iatter ecronony is of high antiquity, and may be plnusiblyexptainedas Itaving beot done at nrst merely<br ceaniincss, as it is now among th Mosk'nM in tticir baths and houses, as wetias in their musqus, that thc ground amynot bo dente'). Tho-c aro, moreuver, a nomberf)fpmctice.tRxtMd in diSereat parts of tho wortd,whieh throw doubt on thse off-hand expianations of thc custom!!of uncoveringtho hend and ibet, nnd would atmostleadus to inctudc both, as particulur cases of a gcncral elass of revcrentiat uncovcringsof th body. San! strips off his dothcs to prophcsy,nnd lies downso ail that day etDcm~uo Wright, Hixtety MmuitM,' etc. London, 1M2, p.. 141. p 141.

M ()


and night.' TertuHian i~Make against th practico of pmy. ing with clonka)aid aside, as th heathen do.~ T))ereWMa weU-known customm Tahiti, of uneovering thc bodydown to th watft in honour of godxor chieffi,and even in the neighbourhoodof a temple, and ou th sacred ground set apart for royatty, with which nmy be ctasse't a very odd ceremony, whichwas perfonncdb<-fut'e Captfuu Couk on !u!!first visit to the idftnd~ y Tbo rugutationsconeerningthc ~w or turban in tho Ton~ Islands aro very curious, from their partial rescmbtMico to European usagM. Th turban, Mnnucr Mys, may only be wotTtby ivarriortigoing to battit. or at fiham Oghts, or at night-timo by chicfs am) nobles, or by tho common people whcn at work in th fieH.'i or iti canos. Kni) other occnsions,to weara head-dresswouidbo disrespcctfu), for although no chief shoutdbo prsent, Mmegod might bo at hand unuceti. If a man weruto wcar a turban cxpt oti thse occasion)!, tho first pcrson of tiupfrior rank who tnot him woutdknock !mn down, and pM'haps cvcu an cquat might do it. Even when tho turban is altowfdto bo won),it must ho taken off when a xuperiorapproaches,uniess in aetuai battio, but a mah who i8 uot much higher in rnuk \vi)tsay, Tocgoho bw," that is, Kcep on your turbnM.~ of the ordcal hy poisonin MadaDuring th admini.stt-atiun gascar, Kttis says that no onc i.s allowed to sit ou his long robe, nor to wcar thc dot)) mund thc waiiit,and femalesmust kecp their tihoutdcMuncoverod.~A rctnarkaMefitatcmentM mado by fbn Batuta, in lais account of bis joumcy into th Soudan, in tho iburtecnth century. Ho tnentionsas an evil thing which he has obscrvedin the eonduetof th bfacks,t)tat womenmay only corne unctothcd intu th prsence of the Suttan of Melli, and even the Suttan's own daughtersmust con. form to th custom. He notices also, that they throw dust t Stun. xix. 2<. )tii. 'fe,t.,DeOmttoM, Finit ILpp.:2!,!S3. Ettit, Coo);, Yoy. H., vol. il.pp.tn, Myn. &s.,vol. M2-3. 3, i. p. }M. Mtu'JM<')-, "Tons<t hboda;' t'ot. !h)v. W.EUb, Hbt .f MndeptK~; ToL i. p.<M. Land~, 1838,



and asheaon th!)' headf) M a sign of revoroaca,'which makes it appear that tho strippingwas atffoa morenet of humiliation. With regant to th practicoof uncovcnng tho feet, wllen we nnd tho Damaras, in South AMca, taking off thcir sandab, before entering a otrangcr's houxe,~tho idea of connecting th practtce with th ancient Egyptian cuiitotn, or of ascribing it to Mos!en) influence,nt oncosuggcsts itself,but tho taking oft'tho sandals as a sign of respect seems to have prevailed in Pcru. No comnK'nIndian,it is said, dared go shod a!ong tho Strect of th Sun, nor mightany ono, howevergroat a lord ho ofthe Hunwith shocs on, and even might be, enter tho house*) th Inca himifelfwentbarcfoot intoth Templeof the Sun.' $ In this group of reverentiatuncoveringii, th idea that the subject pre.tents himMtf nftked,defencetcss,poor, and miserabte befm'obis !ort),seemsto he dmmatiea))yexpresiicd,and this viewiii bomoout by th praetieo of stripping,or uncoverwh(!ru thcro cau ing tho haud and ffet, a.s a xignof mourning,~ hardty bo anythiug but dc.-ititutiuttandrniseryto ho cxprcsscd. Th towest elass of f!a)ut<ttions, which mcrciy aim at giving picasant bodity scusations,mcrgc into tbe civilities which we see cxc)un)gedantong ti'c )uwM' animats. Such arc patting, fttroking, kissing, pressing noscx, btowing, sniniug, and so fort)). Tbo oftcn descnbcdsignof pkasuru or greuting of thc ItxtMns of North Atncnca, by rubbing each othcr's arma, breasts, and stonaciis, and thfir own,5is simitar to tbo Centrul African cu.stom,of two mot ciMping caeh otttcr'aarms with bot)) hauds, and rubbmg t)(on up and down," and that of strokiug ono's uwn facewith anotlier's hand or foot, iu Polynesia and the pattingsan() slappings of th Fucgians bclong Ibn)htMt!t, in JoMtm) <" Mrie,fo). i. f. S2!. Wttit!tntrm). AshtifjM,' toAnthfop~ogy, H.Tr.<!<). J. F.0))))M!md ).y jarti.,Lumton, 1803, p. 3tt. C.J.Atxte~M), &xt <:<).; 'LKbX~ttii.'ctt., ]!(!, ti.2:i!. tond.))), of o( t)) 2tt~ PnMcatt, UMMty <)M'ftH'tl't.-nt, Md. Landot), M~, vol.j. 7S. !'7, M). < MiMh xxiv. ii. S. Jtet-. i. 8. EtettM 17. JterM). J. !Mwt9,'(MNftft) t)hM'tnHMn!t ofthf~t-nst f). ~mdM), S"d ett. .tnrtt)r<M,' 164i, [). 49!. vol. i ii. t.).vi. ChttrtevMX, t..!U !M,etc. o tturton, te),ii.p. 09. 'LfAeResMMofC);NtmtAM<a:' Londet, 1S60, m'iniVoy., vd.i. p.U9. Cuok,

')2 -)


to the sainectas". Darwindcscrihcstho way in which noses are prcssed in New Xcatand, with dtails whieh hve cMa.ped !f!!s aecurate observpM.' It is cnrioustbat Linuieusfound th salutation hy touching xoscsin the LaphmdAlps. People d!d not kiss, but put uoses tngt'thcr." Th Andatnau Istanders sahtte by blowing into anothpr'shand witha cooing murmur.* Chartcvoixspea~s of fm Indian tribo on th Gu!f of Mexico, who Mewinto onc anothpr'scars and Du Citaillu dMeribes himsc!f M having bcen Ltownupou in AfnM. 5 Sir S. Baker deMt'ibcs thc expressionof thanks among the Kytch of th Whitc Ni)c,LyImtdingthcir hencfactor'shaud and prctcnding to spit upon it." Natund c-xprcssions of joy, such as c!appin{; hands iu Africa,~ and jumpin;! op and do\vtiin Ticnn de! Fuc~ are mada to do duty as signsof fricndshipor grccting. There aroa numbor of wett-knowugestureswhich are hard to expluin. Such are various signs of hatred and contempt, such as toUittg out the tondue, whieh is a univM'MtNgn, though it is not dcar why it sitonidhe M, hiting tho thumb, makittg'th sign of thc stork'sMUbf'hindnuothe!))bnck (c~oaud tho si~n known as "takiog a sight," which MMm/f<c<~), wasas commonat th time of Rahetaiit as it is now. In modem Indin, as in ancient Rome, only a part of th signs wc finddcscrihcdarc suchas can bc Retdown nt onceto their propcr origin." Onc of th conunon gcstnre!!in Indin, especialty,bas pui!x)edmany Europcan!). Tins is thu way of beckoningwith th hand to ca)i a perron, which looks as winch wc use for though it wcrotho reverseof th movemcnt th purpose. 1 ha.veItc~rd,on native authority,that tho ftppa* rent dinercncocoasists in H)Gpaim being outward.s insteadof Jounud of Bm., Dan'-in, .123.f!M W.Y. nfmth;. LcnJoo, tSti", SOS, vd. i. p.77. i. ]'oMt, KM-i-Spr. in 'Tour LaftM') LM)<)')n, i. p.3)C. Linno.'u!, ]8U,vo). 'And~man Motmt, hhtxkfti'London, t803, pp.S79-M. vol. U i. Omrkvcii:, p.If). D)) Ct)<t!)h), AM<t I~ndot), ~30. 'R~mtom! 1801, pp.3M, vol. i. p.72. thiter, 'AtbtrtNyan~ London, 1SOO, 'Centm) t u), i i. ])urt< AMn,' p.09. U.S.Exptorioj; vol. WttkM, t. p.127. Exp.Lcodon, !S<B, P)it). xi.M3. Xo'x-tb, (MeMa) 491. Uh!t)-pp.87,i"), 2M, 293, 461, <7S.



inwards,but a remark madoabout the natives of tho south of India by Mr. Hoberts, who seems to have becn an extremoly good observer, Huggestsanother explacation: ''Tho way iu which the pcople beckou for a perron,I.s to lift up th right haud to its cxtrcmo height, and thcu bring it down with a .fuddunswcHp to tho grouud. It is cvidcntthat to make a sort of abbrcviationof this nMVcment, as hy doing it from t)m wristor ctbowiustcad of trot))thc shoutdur, wouldbo a naturat sign, aud yet wouid bc tiabtu to bo takcu fur our ge.sturc of that fiomethingof this kind motioniugaway. It is po:i.siblc ha-sled to tho fuliewin~dcfieriptiott of the way of bcckotting ht New Zcahmd:"lu signaLs fur ttto.sc.-iotnc way off to eomo ncar th arni is wavcd in aa exacttyopposite direction to that fur sitMiitU' purpu~s, und thu tttttives adopted by KngUtihtUL'ti in giving silent a.ssctttto <u)ything, ctovatuthc .head and chin in ptace of uedding aeqHicsccn Tht! latter sign uf aexeeuMus naturat as our own. as conhttsting with <tuicsccncu th sidewayiiniovoncnt of negatiou. Ou the eontrary, the Turk throwt his ticad back witha ctuek to exprs)! uo, but can express ycs hy :t. movctueutlike our shaking the hcad.~ Thu Siamosepricst'sgcsturus in giving evideticc, raisiug his hat or fitn to (-xprfssyus, and towcring it to express ~o/ are signa whoiiG nicaning M obvious. Ofiiigns usedto avert thc evil cye, sontcare connectedwith and ottiersarc of uucertain meanth ancieut counter-charms, 1:1 old Greokand ing, snobM th very commouone repreK-nted Roman amutets, tho hand dused all but the fure-nngcr and little finger, which arc huld ont straight. WItcn King Feruscd to appcar in public,hc tnigitt bu sccu dinand I. of NapLM to put bis )mndfrotu timo tu time iuto ))Mpocket. Thosc wlio uuderstoodhis ways kncwthat ho was duuching his fist with tht! thumb struck out between tho first and second nngcrs,to avertth e&'ct of a gtauceof th evil cyo that somoone in thc street might iiavocast ou ititn. Oriental tUMt'p. 3ati. A.8. ThomMn, ThStory ufNew ZcUMd v.).i. 209. &e LottJNt, I8B9, ii. [.. 3tt. Kn't\'oy. Cook, Il., Yo). <Low vol. i . 3i'.<. iuJ~rn). tnd.Ar~Ut)., vt.i. p. !)M. DiNtitUi, p.



is Enough bas now beeu said to showthat gcsturo-ianguagc a natural modeof expressioncommonto mankind in gonera). this M truc in a dnrent senso to that in whiehwe Morcovcr, say that spokcn tanguagc is commonto mankind, iricltiding under th wont tanguagctnany hundrcdsof mutuaUyunintel!igibtelongues,fur th gesture-tanguagcis csscntiaityono nnd the samc in uU times und ait mutttne. It is truc that tho signs uscd in diffrent places, nnd by different persons, are th s:tme Lut it must bc rGlucmhcred only partittDy that tho samoidea may bo expressed in signs in vcry many ways,and that it is not necessarythat ait shouldchooseth same. How th choice of gesture-signs is inHuencedby ducation and habit of life is well shown by a story told somewhoreof a boy, himsctfdcaf-tind-dumb, who pai't u.visit to a. Deaf-and-Dumb A~ytum. When lie was gonc, the inmntcs exprcssed to tho toastertheir disgust at his ways. He taiked an ugty language, whcnhe wanted to showthat somcthingwas black, thcy mid he pointedto his dirty nait.s. Th best evidence of the unity of th ia gGsturo-la.ng~.tage the caseand ccrtainty with whichany savage from any country can understandand be undcrstoodin a dcaf-and-dumb school. A nativeof Hawaii is tahen to an Amcrican Institution, and bcginsat once to tatk in signs with th chiidren,und to tell about his voyageand th countryhc came from. A Chiuesc, who had fa)ten into a statc of from long want of mc!anc))u)y socicty, is ~uite revived by bciag taken to tho same piace, wheroho eau tulk in ~csturusto his hcart's content. A deaf. and-dumblad namcd Collinsis taken to sec some Laplanders, who wcrc carricd about to bo exhibited, and writes thus to his feUow-pupits ubout thc Lapland wc:nan:"Mr. Joseph Humphreystold me to spcak to hcr by signs,and shc under. stood me. Witen Cuuninghamwaswith me, a.skingLapland woman,and she frownedat him and me. Sho did not know we were dcaf-and~tumb,but afterwards shc kuow that wc wercdcat'-aud-dutnb, Utcnshc spoke to us about reindeersand elks andsmUcdat us much."t Tho study of thc gesturc-tanguaguis not only usefui as ~f. Ofton, t!i. "t')MCMmtt,'t).



giving us some Insight into the workingsof the human mind. We can only judge what other mcn's minds arc !iko by obnerving thcir outwnrd manifestations, and fimitarity in th most direct and simple kind of utterancois good videnceof simi!fn'ity in th mental proceisei!which it eommunicatesto th out(;r worid. Ax, then, tho gestm'e-iangnago appears not to be sppcinca!)y aHected hy diScrenccsin th race or climato of thoso whou.scit, the sitapo of thcir skults and tho colour of their skius, its cviJcncc, so far as it goes, bears against the supposition that iipecincditterences aro traccabtc among tho varionsracesof man, at least in the more elementaryprocesses of tho mind.

GESTUME-LANGUAGE AXDWORD-LANGUAGE. WE know very little about th originof language, but tho subject ttas so grt a charm fur tho human mind that thc want of videncehax not prcvcntcdthc growth of theory ttfter theory and ait sorts of men, with all sorts of qualifications, have solvcdth probleili,cach in his own ~shion. Wc may fof Dante's rcad, instance, trcatise on t)*evu]gtu-tongue, aud woudcr,not that, as hc lived in mcdia;vat timcs, his argument is but a nn:dia:va!argutnent, but that in th Pamdiso,' suemingly on th strcngth of some <p;te futi)cpieceof vidence,ho should have nmdeAdam euuneiate a notionwhich even in this nineteentli century bas hardiy got fairlyItotd of th poputar that mind, namely, therc M no primitive!auguagoof man to be found existingon cafth. La ch'iotMU-M futttta pentft lingua Inntuit chofd)'ovrm JeoonttmmMb fo!~ ta geate di Nctabrotto attenta. CM MiUo affetto nmii'MiodMbUc Pertopiacctc unttm cho rinnov(')t)t, fodutabtte. Septendoeteto. tiem~m n atunda i i oh'nom Opera favdia Ma o ttatara co~, co))), )Meh Pot faroa vol tic<!oudo cho Y'abMta. Priadt' io ecendessi aJP iB{ettm)<) ombMcia N.o' nppellava ia temUoommo Beno Ondo vicalatttMacho mifascia EUsichiam poi e duconYiene: Ch61' m)o do'mottali 6eomo fronda lu mmo, choeenva,edattra vicae."

ANDWOND-L~NGP~GE. 57 OESTUBE-LANGUAUE In Mr. Fottoek'atraMtation : out Th whioh tpoke, wasq~Mwont tMtrMse, Moreunto thowork tmpoMtUe Tho raceofNimrod hadtheirlabour twmed i tnteUeot Fof no pMductton ofth Whioh i<! rcncwed of oaaJtM, at ptoumta foraye. was dnmMo th~ky, Following It b a natural i )'pef)k thingthtt manahould n atMu h ves Butwhethor thtaorthatway, Toyour <M tt p!e<MC!) dfction, you. tin)1desoendett onthoinfernal rond, thoHiffhmt Oood, Upon eatth,ELwmctUed From Bo~vs thatme whom thoenjoyment eaneanda l1li mwaso)Mt WIUI moot And Wall WM oaUecl c<(Ued EL!ltA!r ELI atter For mortat are)i)to MMtgcs a teat. andotheacorne." (tbou~h, wMch Upon goet, Since Dantes time, how many men of genius have set the whotc powerof their minds against thc probtem,nnd to how little purposc. Steinthal')! masterly summary of thcse spcculntions in his Origin of Latiguage' is quitc mctanchotyreading. It rnay indeed be bt'ougtttibrwant as videnceto prove soniething that matteMfar tnorc tu us than thc eariy hiiitoty of tanguagu,that it is ff as little use to be a good feasoMer whcn thcM are no facts to t'casoHupou, tMit is to t)oa good uo bricks to buildwith. brickiaycr wheutherc <u'(! At thu root of th problem of thc origm of lacguagolies thu question, whycertain words were origitiatly used to represent certain ideas, or mental condttioufj,nr whatever we may call thcm. Th wurd may hve t)ccu used fur tho idea becauseit had an evideut Ntae~ tu be uscd rather thuu another won), of ideas, which wo canuot No\v or bccam<cnotne aiMOciatiou trace, may hve !ed to its choice. Titat thc slectionuf wot\t'i to express idea~ wasover purety arUtrary, that is tu say, such that it would have been consistcut with its priueiptoto exchaugc any two words as wc tuay oxchaugeatgcbraicsymbols, or to shako up a number of words !u a bag and ro-~tnitnbute them at randotnamong th ideas they represeuted, is a supposition opposed to such knowtedgou.sweI)aveof the formation of iauguage. And not in language ouly, but in tho study of the whole raugu of art and belief amoug mankind, the prin-



ciple iti eontinualtycoming more aud H)oroclcarly into vicw, tbat man bas not only a definite reason,but an very commonly assignabtoone, for evcrythingthnt he docsand bcticvcs. In thL' ot))ydcpartments of tauguage of whusc origin we hve any ctcar notion,as for instance in th c)assof pure imi. tath'o wordsm)chn<"cf~-~ "e!< a)n! t!)c Hku,th con. neetion ~twccn word auJ idea M uut outy rcal but fvidcnt. It Mtruc that dttKjrcntinutativu words may bc used fur the sanic tiound,us fur instance thu ~'f~'of a ctock is caUed also but both tLexcwu~s havo nu vident resempick in Gurmntty; btaneeto the unwntpaUcsound that (t ctoekreally makcs. So th Tahitian word for thc crowing of cockx,oM, might bo broug!tt ovo-as Il rival tu cuck.a.dootUc.dw TheK M, a dass ofwont))of uudetermioedcxtcnt, which scem Morcuver, to havo ijccu cititer chosen in tome Bteasurcwith a VMw to thc fitnessof their souud to rcprMeut their seusc, or actually )tMdit)<Kt a reHcctMu of sound iuto ticnse. Sotue such proby ce)!<! oeemsto have made the distinction betweento c<'(tA, to to cnntcA,aud to owtticA, and to ha.vcdiHereuced C!'MO/<, to to ~op, to ~op tmdto ~(tM)p, out of a commonroot. Some uf thesu woKts niust bc lookcd fur m dictionarius of "pro. but they arc uone the )css EngHahfor that. In vineiaHsmH," pure interjections, iiuchas /(/ <t/t/ t))e conncction bctwecn t)w actual pruttuneiatiou and tho idca which i:) to bo convoycd is pcrccptibtocnough, though it il harttty tuorc possible to dnu it than it is to co))V<jy iu writingtheir iuuutuumMo modulationsof soundand fieuse. But if thct-ewas a living connectionbetweenword and idea outside th mugeof thcso classesof words,it seems dcad now. We tnight just as weti use inhabitable" In the Frcnch sens as iu that of modem EngHsh. In <ttct Shakspearo and other writeKdo so,as where Norfblksays in Richardth Second,' Even tothefroamridt~utthAtpft, Ortmy other ground [nhxbitabte." It makes uo practicfdditterence to th worid at large, that um-word tu "rise" be)M)ga to th ffatuuroot as CM Gft-~an -(H), to faU,Freuch ('i-MO', to ict fuit,whicheverof the two




to MetcA, meanings may hve come first, nor that black,H<t))C, to M<tc~, Anglo-Saxon Mc,blac=black, &Mc=:pate, Mecc/t, white, corne M nearty togethcr iu sound. It bas been p!aumHy conjecturcd that thc revct~at of th meaning of to "riso" may bave liappened through a prpositionboingprefixedto change th sensp, and dropping off again, teaving tho word with its attered meaning,' w)utti if &~c~ is related tu Oer. burnt to a tnan M~-en, to bun), and has thc sunscof cimrred, has that of fthining,"a cummon urigitt may coa)," and Mf<Kc possiMy be furthconing for both sets amung th family of words,which inctudcs Mtf, /o, ~of,Sau/ayw, ~Atym, of t))Mkind bave skt'it M?~, and so forth. But cxplaj)atio))s no bcaring on thc practical use of such words by mankindat targc, w))o take w!)at is givcu them aud ask no questioni!. Indeed, huwcvcr jnuch such a notiuu may vcx tho fioulsof thcre is a grt deal to bo said fur th viewthat etymotogi~tii, inuchof th accuracyof our modcru languages is duc to their itaving so far "lost conseiousne.s.'iof th derivation of their words,which thus bccomc like countcrs or atgebraicoymbob, good tu represent just what they arc set down ta mean. Aris a vcry intcresting and instructive study,but when chtcotogy it cnes to exact argument, it may be that tho distinetncss of our apprhensionof what a word means, is not aiways incrctMcd by a misty recollectionhoveringabout it in our miuds, that it or its liunilyonce meant somethingckc. For such purposes,what i.s rcquired is not so nmehit knowtedgeof etynMwords togy,as accurato dctinition,und t!)o practice of c))ecking to deNote. and actions they aro Uftt'd by rca)izh)gthe <hit)g.< It is as bcaring on thc 'juc.stionof th relation botweenidea and word that thc study of tbe gesture-ianguageis of particutar interest. We have in it a mcthod of human utteranco indcpcnd<;ntof speech, and carried un through a difforent mdium, iu which, as bas beeu said, tho conncctionhotween idea and sign bas banUy over been broken, or even tost sigttt of fura tuomcnt. Thu gesture-tanguagtiis in fact a system of derDcut.-ichtn Jttc~b HMdtidtte IS-tS, St)rmht: Leit)!f!j{, p. OM. Kn)t))n, s. t-v. etc. 'D<!Mt<)M!t thJ. nudW.(Mm)n, Wiirterbuth,' Mact, Ma<v)t, MM, t.v. MMm Me!, Wiirtttb.,



utterance to wh!ch th descriptionof th prima'val )<tt)gtmgo in tho Chineffomyth may bo apptied Suy-jm Srst gavo namosto plants and animais,and titeso names weroM expresof thing it was knownwhat it was. 1 sive,that by th MHno To spcak tirst of th comparittouof gcMturc-sigufi with words,it tms bueu utr~dy ubsurvcdthat thu ~eiiturc'tMguago UM!) two ditfu~nt p)'occMO! It byings ohjccts aud actions bodily iuto tifu euuvcrsatiou, by pointmg to them ur bokmg at them, aud it also su~ciits by imitation of actions, or by pictures in th air," and thcse twu proct:!MCs tnay bo used ficparutely or combiucd. This (!ivi)-imt tnuy be ctumsyand in somu casesinuccumtc,but it is the bMt 1 Iiavo xuccccdcd in making. 1 will now examitMmoru cto.sftyth nrut division,in winch tho mind. objectsaro bronghtdircctty b~t'ore When Mr. Lemud GuUivervisited tho schoolof languuge~ in Lagado, hu was )nado acquaintud with a tichumefur improvin~lauguag': by abutishing& words what~evcr. Words )<t;ing onty names fur things, peuple werc to can'y thc thiugs ttn'tnfiotvc.t about, iniiteadof wastin~ their brc'ath in ttdkmg about thon. Thc tearn<;daduptud th schcnte, aud sages might bc seen in tho strect."bunding ut)dcr th<ir hcttvy saeks of materiais for convcr.satiou, or unpaeking their loads for a. talk. This wasfouud somewhattruubiu.sontc. But fur sjtort a man may carry hnp~tncntfi iu his pocketii, conYCDiatious, and under his Mrn's, enough to tiupptyitim and in his house, he MUinot bu at a los.x Thurcfuruti)u room whcrutho company mect who practise this art, is full of a)l thing~, readyat hand, ru~uisitc tu furniiih nmttur fur this kind uf artineial converiie." Thu tmvctiurrecordsthat this phui did nutcutncIntogenemt use, owing to thu ignorant oppositionof th wuntcuaud th common puopie, who thrcatem'd to raisu a. rcbcition if they wurenot attowedto spcak with their tongm;ti after thc mauncr of tttcir forufathcrii. But t)n!i syston of taikiug by ubjuctsis iu sober faroest au iniportant part of the gcsture-Ianguagp, aud in its cariy devutopmcxtatuoug thc dc'af-and-dumb, pcrhaps thu most important. Is thurc theu auythiug in ifpokcu 'DerOnpBe des iii.f. 3N. HQpttt, M)f,'tf. Pam,]Kt!,vol.



tanguagothat eau h<*comparcdwith tho gestures by whiet) th tbis processis performed QuintiHanincidentanyanKwera question. "As for the hands indecd, without which action woutdbo maimedand feehte, one can hardty say how many tho whotestock movement.s they hve,when thcy attnostfuHow of words for thc other nMnbc'rs])f)p t)tc speaker, but tuey, Do </<f~ w 1 may atmost say, thcmsetvcsspcak." OM/ pO)'))<tH~ ~<CMM(!~)'~t)~, /{/'< ~'0 ~y<Meof H<h'<)'~ KM(! j;M'o)'o)t)'s sothat in Mgrt a divcrsityof tongucsamon~ this scomsto methe commonMit~ago all peoplesan<)uationH of a)t mankind "" Manus vei'o, sine quibus trunca cssct actio ne dehitM,Yix dici potpst, quot motus habcant, quum ptL'noipsam verborum copinm pcrsequautur; nam ciftem; partco loquentomadjuvant, ha-, pt'opc est ut dieam, ipsfu)oc ~o'sottM(ht; y<'M )?t <~mo?t.'<<t!K~M ~c<s quuntur. o;e!K ? 1 ut in tanta per &t'o)'MMt ~!<e~o!KM)mn<m oMt'M<'M< omncsgentes nattones<[ue tingua' diversitatc hic mihi omnium setino Ytdcatn)' 1 hominum commuuis Where a tnan standa ia to him th ct'ntro of thc universp, and horefc-rs th positiouof iiny o)~GCt to hixtsetf,as beforeor bchind him, abovoor bfjow inn), and so on 01'ho makeshis fore-nngcr issue,as it wcrc,as n mdiu!!from this itnaginary centre,and, pointingin any direction into space,says titat t))e thing hc poiutsout is //'ff. Ne dcnnc'sthc positionof nu "bas it is doncin AuaiyticatGcomctry, usingeititci' JMt somewhat a radius vcctor,to whichth dcnton.strativc pronoun)nay part)y be coinpared,or refcn'ing it to tin'cc axes, as, in front or h< Mnd,to th right or !c)'t,aboveor bctow. His butly,jtuwuvcr, not bcinga. point,but a structureof considcrabte sixo,))oottcn confuseshis tertns, as w)(cuhe uses /M for some xput only near him, iustead of making it cornetowards compamtivc!y startcd. Ht: can ia tho same imaginaryeentrc whcneu~/<e<'e and tho positionof his thought shift his eentrc of co-ordinatM !tu.t. )i)txi.3,S5, fahrt tm(~ <'<f Mo';) Mtund Umt., Qohtt., ~. Lather ixteh ~rettomen undlantet '<h!) dertmch.sta)) n drioneM dtbei hemcrkt MEtH'tM, wm dn fichtithitch Mj;e~ <')ef tttrkund t!""'Mro 'ttthM, ~m. taxi;, wer M hure), donisttttst.t<;)!<; einfiner'h)x*i der<).)muf wm-h dam katet,)'<) < teise'"('jnMUtt.D.W.,"d<:r").


axes, and imagininghimsetf in th p!acoof another person,or cven of an inanimato object, cnn descrihcthe positionof him8c!f or anything dso with respect to them. Movementand direction corne beforohis mind at a reat or imaginarygoing from one place to another, and such movementgives him th idea of time which tho deaf-and-dunibman expressesby tlrawing a line with his fingpr ntong his ann from onc point to another, nnd th speaker hy a simitaradaptationof prpositions or ndverbsof place. r do not wish to venture ho!owtho surfaceof this difficult subject, for an ctahorate examinationof whieh I woutdespeciatty refer to th researchesof ProfessorPott, of Hatte.' But it may bo worth whiie to cai) attention to an apparent resemof our Aryan tanblance of two divisions of th root-wordf) of gesturo-)!!gt)s.ProfesserMax guages to tho twogrent c~sMB MUMer divitlesth Sanskrit root'fbrmsinto two classes,th ~M(?tc~'M! rootf),suchas to <f/<i'e,to e~OtJ, and M forth and th <?eM!OM~'a~'t'c c!assof iudependentradicnls,not roots, a smaU prcdicative in the usuat sensof thc word,but simplypointing, simply expressive of existence under certain moro or lsadonnitc, )ocalor tempond prescriptions. If we take fremamong th examples given,Aei'e,</')f,</'s, </~, ~/(M<, /<c,as types,wo have a division of tho dments of th Sanskrit tanguage to which n divisionof the signs of tho deaf-muteintop)'e(i'<('a<<w woutd ut icast roughtycorrespond. Many and f?<'moK~'ft<'M centuries ago th Indian gramntariansmade dcsperate eHorts onc to bring pronouns and vcrhs, as thc Ciennans say, undor from <, to stretch, hat." They d~uceti th dmonstrative<<t nnd th relative yctfron ya~, to worsinp. Unity is picasant to mankind, who are ofteu ready to sacrificethings of moreconsquence than etymotogy fur it. But perhaps, aftor al), tho worid may not hve been eonstructedfor th purpose of providing for tho human mind just what it is pleused toask for. Of course, any full cotnpari'ion of speech and th gesturelanguage woutd have to go into th hard problemof thc relation of propositionsto adverbs and pronounson th onohand, new Lemso andDetmeH, Pott,'Etymoto! F"M<h'mEm,' iM9,etc., i. vo). MaHtr, Lettun-3n) <:d.LotMton, t8<!2,27S.



and to verb-rootson tho other. As to this mattar, 1 can only into th palm My that thc deaf-mutoputs his right fore-finger of his icft hand to Mty in," takM it out again to say ont," puts bis right handabove or betow his left to say "above" or "betow," etc.~signa which are merely imitative and suggestive. But the gestures witk which he showsthat anything is "above me," "bchind me," and m on, arc of a more direct charactcr,and arc rathcr demoustrativcthau predicative. Tho ctass of imitative and suggestivesigna in tho gesturein someraeasurewith thc Chinesewords langungecorresponds which aro ncither verbs, substantives,adjcctives, nor adverba, but anfwer tho purposc of a!t of them, as, for inxtanco,ta, meaning grcat, greatness,to tnako groat, to ho grt, greatty 1 or they may be compare't with what Sanskrit roots wouldhe if they were nsed as they stand in tho dictionaries, without any innections. In the gcsturo-tanguagethcre sectnfino distinction hutwecnth ndjcctivc,th adver))which bfhngit to it, tho substantive, nnd the vct-b. To say, for iustau, "T))o childfirst cats an imaginary pcar is grecn,"tt<edcnf-and-dumb peur, and thon usingth Laek of th nat left hand a.sa ground, hc makcs the ftttgcrsof the right handgrow ttp on th edge of it like h)adcs of gmss. We might translate thcso signs aK "pcar-gmss;" but they hve quitc as good a right to hc ciaiisedas verhs,for they are signs of cating in a pccuiiar wny, and growing. It if not riecessary to hve rccoursoto Asiatic ianguagcsfor analugiesof this kind with the gesturc-tangna~c. Th nuhstantive-adjcctivciit common enough in Engtish, and inducd in most other taugungcs. In such conpoutids as f/'s~)!(~i')'OM-<t)?if, Ao)-<e, /f~e<f(.'M, wu hve tho suh. ~Mf))i-<)<7/, stantive put to express a quality whichdistinguisho)it. Onr own ianguage,w!ueh itas gono xo &r towards assimiJating itself to th Chincschy dropping infiection and makingsyntax do its work, bas dcvclopcd to a grt cxtcnt a concretism which is like that of th Chincse, who tnakcs one word do duty for stick and to hut with a stick," or of th deafmuto, whoscsign for "butter" or thc net of "buttcring" is Chin. ExtUit-hc), Omtum. Yien~, JS~,p. tM.



tho Mme, th imitation of cpreading with !)is finger ou tho pabn of bis hand. To ~~?- brcad, to c!~ a man, to ot~ machincry, to pfpjMt-a dixh, aud Rcoroiof Ruchexpressions, invutve action and instrument in une word, and that word a substantive treatcd as t)tc mot or crudc form of a vcrb. Snch expressions arc concrctisms,picture.words, gesturo.wonh),nft muett as thc dcaf-nnd-d'mt)) tnan's oac sigu for "Lutter "and buttchng." To fippamtcthcto wonts, and to my that there is one hf~o', a noun, and another &K~e)', a vfrb, may he con. ventent for thc dictionary but to prtend that thero is a ren[ distinction betwcct)tho worda iRa ntern tjratnmntictdjuggtf, like saying that the noun MfOtbas a nominativecase ~Mx.aud an objective casowhichis n!so ~t)t, and ntuch of thc rcst of tho curions fiyfstonof putting nowwino into otd bottics, and stretching the organism of a Hvutangua~ upon a dead frame. work,whieh is commontytau~ht as English Grammar. Th reffrcnco of sttbstantivc. to a vo-h-rootin th Arvan is thoroughty in harmony witt) the languagcs and e).s<whcre tipint of tho gcsture-)an!g' Thu< thc horsc is th ~djf/?tfr stone is what ~Hf~, is ~M~' wator is that whieh ~M~'Jit, <(M!)~~t thc tnouseis tho ~<'f< an ge !s what ~OM oMi th tfar Mwhat MX~-M ~o tho serpent is the <c<y<;)';and M on tbat is to say, th etymoingiMof thse wortts)ead us baek to the actions of nci~hin~. standing, wavin~, steatin~, etc. Now, th'! d''af.an<dumb Krose tctts us that t'vcn to thc mute who bas no means of communicationbut signs, "th bird is what nie: tho fish what swims,th plant what sprouts out of thc part!). It may bo said that action, and form resutting from action, fortn the stapk- of that part of th gesture-Ianguagcwhich occnpiusit.se)fwith su~Mting to tho mind that whieh it (tocs not bring bodily before it. But thcro is so much of though simihu-ity prinpip~ in tho formation of gcsturc.signs and words,thcro is no gnerai correspoadcnee in th particu)ar idea ehosen to Mme an object in the two by kinds of utteranec. In thc second p)aco, with regard to t))C syntax of th gesture-Ianguage, it is hardty possiUe to cotnparo it with Kn<N), p. M.



thnt of inHoetcdtangttagcs sxch a.f Latitt, which enn a!ter tho formof wo)'().s to expt'fs.tthcir relation to onc anothet'. Wit)t Chinusctmd sontGothcr tao~ua~s of Eastcrn Asm,and w~th un(t whercFrne)), hve E))g)ish etc., thrown o)finaction, they it nmy be t-oughtycompat-cd, though att tliGso )at)gnngesuse !tt)c!Mtg)")m)naiie)d p:u'tic)pswhieh hve not))it)}{ cwrcitpondtu ttt'tn in tho iu~ K''st."t'('-):u)gu:~c.Now, it )8 t-cumrkaUu to w)iat an t'xtcttt (.'hinose and Kxgtish agrco in doing just whnt t))c ~.stm'c-inn~agc docx not. Botit put th attribute befoif th suttiect, pe m, "whito hot'M' <t/tut~ ~<, "huty hoth put tho action hcfuro tho ohject, ~~o ~t tK, 1 tnan ftnke thcp," <- ~0~ <;(, "heavcu <)fstroy.stne." Th frcqnettt practico of th gc.sturc-jangungcin puttin~ the modt<!er at'tcr titc niodiflodis opposed Loth to (.'hitu-su aud En~iish coniitntftiutt, Mt thcse c'xa)np)csshow nnd eveu w]n.'re th auta~)t)is)n if! not ?) ahsolute, and thc deaf.nmte says in signs tfoyhat! th)-e\ a.s wf)t as t):d) thn'w boy," ttierti is stit) a)t important diH'~t-cttcc. It scons." says Stcinthat, that the ~peL-ch of thc C))inc.st' )tns<L't)s toward ttx- conctu.-iion, and t)K' (.'ndprotnincntiy furward. lu thc dc.scribfdpo.titiou ht-h)~, of th tht'(;c rctatiuus of spccch thc mon' hnpot'tant mctnht't' )ita)td)f ):tst. A more a)jsoh)tc c'j))tr:tdit'tiun of the tcadin~ hve bc'enfonaupriheiptoof tho ~.stun-syntax cou!d )):u-<)h' )ated in w';t'ds. Thc th~'M-y that thc gcsturp-)nn~ua~c was tho ori~ina) tanKua~oof tnan, aud t))at spc~'eh catm' afto-wards, ))!Mhccn att'cady mcutioucd. Wo havu no i'onndati')t)to huild such a tttcoryupnn, but thcro ar<' evera! questions bt-anng upOM thf matter which arc wc'U worth uxatnuu))~. Bcfbro doing m, howevcr,it wi)t Le wc)[ to iook :t little more ctu.sfiy into the chum uf thL-~-sttu'f.iao~tta~c to Lu considercd as a mcnns of utterauce indcpfndcHtof Kpcccb. In th fit-st piacc, an absotute sparation Lotwcen.tho two ihin~ !s not to bo fouud within ttte range of our exprience. Though tho deaf-mutc may not speak hi)nsc)f,yct th most of what ho know~ he only knows Ly me:.tt.<! of fipcech,<or he !!t<!mt)Md, 'ChanMten.tikdcrtmMt.teicUHMtmTnxtute.'iSptMcht~MM;' BtrUn, ]S<!0,~ ]H, <tc.



teams from tho postures of his parents and companionswhat they tcantt throagh words. \Vo speak conventionaUy of the ~nedueatud deaf-and-dumb,but evcry dcaf.and-dumbchi)d is o()ncatcd)noro or tt's.s by tivin~ funon~ tho"t' who Kppak.and t)ti.t cducation begin.s !'< thf erad)< And un thc other hnnd, no child attahm to sjx'cch iodcpundt.'utty of tin' t;cstm'G.)nnit iKin gt-pnt mmsuro by nK'axsof snch gcstu~s ns Hungc,fmand so furtt),thut tansua~c is fifiittau~ht. poiuting,noddi))jf, In otd <hne. w)n.'uth montt capacity ot' the dcaf-and-dumb was !itt!e known,it wns thought by the Cirecksthut they wero of instruction, incnpaUeof edue:ttiott,sincc hearing, thc ftenso wn!i wnntin~ tu <))cm. Quito ccttsi.stcntwith thii! notion is thc eonfntiionwhictt runs throu~h tangun~ bctwccn tucutat <tndc\-(.-)) stupidity, and d~tness, du!nh)K'.s~ MmduGs.s.t~'o'. ~itmcans "dcaf," nud ako "stupid;" ahoUow nnt is a </</Means dum)),dcaf, stupid. "Speceit')~, ~t' j\"M; M~oi; Icss" (<i)~0!N, t'~Mt) hcing n natut-at term for a t'hitd, in a simi)ar ~ay "dumb" (~m.<)<'<) ticcomM in o)d Gcnnan a ('onimonwurdfor youn~, Riddy,thoushttcM.ti)[ nt )ast "dnmh and wisu" cotucto mf'an uoth!)){! morf!than ''tatti.andRt'own men," as w)n' iu thc tournament )nany a shoek is heard of wiso and of dumb, aud t)tc ht~'aking of th tances fonnds np towardfthc sky,
' \'on Irit~lt 1111(~ \,0111"0,1,,11

~tm~; 771tn1lIi,rtc Innncifen atlx, f-fa, der D& der ~<r)t fchcfto und von brechcu hoche Mrte der mMeften du: mm gciu

Evcn Kant i.tt bc tound committin~hhnsetf to th opinion, M amaxin~,one wouht think. to anyhody who hns evcr bcen insidoa dL'at'-and-dumb Institution, that a hnrn mute eau ncvcr attain t" ]not\' than xomcthin~nuatugou.sto t\'a.son (cincm (ter Analogon Vt')'nu!<<'t).~ Thc vidence <'f t~n.-ho-s(.f <)Kdcaf-and-dituthgoes to provo,that h) thcir untau~it xtatc, or at tcast wittt onty suc)) man t~'actti)~ a-i thcy ~t i'm t))t-sigus nf thcir rc'Jativcs and fm-nd. thcir thou~ht is vcry ]itnitcd, but sti)) it is human thought, whilo w)tcn t!)py ha\'c bcen rcguhn'iyiustrnctcd and Xi~l.KM, 37. K!m<, 'Afthm~tacie;' Kirn! Uf'f, 4n. ~hm~. 4'




tan~ht to readand write,their minds may be devetopodt)p to ahonttho avcragocuttivation of thoso who!Mvo had th power of spepeh from chihUtood. Eveu iu a low fitatc of ducation, tho denf-mutoscem.sto coxcuivegcubra) idca-t, for whcu ho invcnt-f a M~nfur anythiog, ho apptic!)it to <dtothcr things of th xamc ctass, and ho <'ana)soionn abfitmet!dftts iu a certain way,or nt least ha knowitthat thc're iq a quntity in whieh Kuuw nud )))i)kHg)'<'< aud ho etU)go on addin~ other whito such as tho moonaud whitcwa.sh, tu hi.'iti.st. Ho can thi)))p!, fornt a pr"p'Mitia)t,for ho eau tnake us under-stand,nnd wo eau mak< hi)a uudurstand, thnt thi.t tnan is o)d, that man i. you))~ ~or ')o'')f))nxcon incapaHaof ren.souing ht somelike a sy))(~ism, t'vcn wjtfu !)c bas no tnuaus of comnm. t))in}{ nieatiouhut thu K't"<tanKungp, aud ccrtainlyas Mon as ho hns teamt tu n'nd that AHmen arc n)urta),John is a mau t))eroforfJo)m is Mwta)," ))n witt show t'y 't.'ry mcans of illustrationin hi. puWL-r, that )K'fnHyeomptt'hcud!! th argu. tncnt. Thcrois detai~'d o'idchpc 00 recon) as tu thc ietatf'of mind who have had nu cducation but what of t))o deaf-and-dun))) wit)t tnere tiving among spcakittKpcop)). Tkus Mas. comp.s Sicard's cetebrutud pupi), ga\'u au accotmtf mcu, th AL)x< what ht' cuutdrc)tn.')ahcr of his untaught statL'. He toved t)is futhct'and tnutht-'r tnuch,and ntade hunsctf ttmtL'r.stood bytitem in ifigns. TiK-ruWL'rosix dcaf-and-dumbchijdrca in the fa)ni)y,tin'ce huy-!aud tht'cc ~ir)s. 1 staycd," hc said, "ut tny hono till I was thirtf<u yc'a)' and nine )nont!fso)d, and )f<'<'cr J);td <ttfyin.stnx.'tiutt 1 had d:t)'k)K'.s.< iur thc iottcM (j'avais tt~a!')n'<s pour les t(;ttn/.<). 1 cxjn'c.'Ncd my idua. Ly )nant):dfis'). "r ~'stut'f. Thf !-i~ns which 1 uscd then, to and my Lr"t)n.'rsand sisturs, pxpt'e.'i-t tnyidcas tu my yL'tati\'<s wc-rc \'cry dincrent t'rotnthojiuof thu fducat'tt dMaf-and-dundj. ncvt.'rundcr.stoodus whf.'xwo uxprcs'd ou)' id'a.s Stmo~t-'M io then) Ly si~ns, hut tho nui~hboursundurstoodu.'i." Ht' noticed oxen, hoHes, vcgutaU~, huuses, aud su forth, aud rotat'mbct'edthem ~'hca ho had soen them. Hc wantcd to jcant io K'adnnd write, ntid to go ta ffchootwith tho other wentto< to t t)io Loys and gh')s, Lut was uot attuwcd tu so hc went

')E8TCM-t.()UACE AXO wnnn.l.AKGUAOH.

"choc!and MM by fti~ to Le taught to rend and write,but tho nMsterrcfused harsh!y,and turnett him out of the M-hooL His <ath<rmadc him kncci at pruycrswith tho others,and he imitatcd the joioing of tbcir hands nm) the movcmcnt of thcir but tips, thought (a.tother d~af-and.dumb cbitdrfnhve donc), tbat thpy wuroworshipping<hosky. 1 knewtho mun~-nt," ho Mid, b(.'foro hin) taught ma my iostructiuM, ;ny fin~-t-ii thcm. 1 did uot kuowthc figures 1 couutedon my 6ngor< and wheut))o uun)b(.'r wni!ovet'tcn, 1 mndc notchesht a pice of wowL" Whcn ho w!).asked what he UM-d to thiuk people wcredcing w)n')tt)ny htokcdnt otio anothor nodtnoYcd thur Ups, he n'pticd t)tat he tituught. thcy werc cxprcssingideits, and in nttswcrto th it)<tt)in- why ]tGthought M, ho Mi<) ))o t'omembered nbout hhn to hififnthcr,undtheu pcoplespcahu){{ his fMthcr throntcncdto havu ))ini punMhf.'d.' Krusa tt'fi)!a very coriou.sfitory of aM untaugjtt ff'af.nnd. dumb boy. Hu was fuund by th about potico wnndM-ing Prague, in 18().'i. Hc coutdnot nmke Itunsctfunderstood, and thcy couM6t)dout hothittgabout hitn,so they Mtft him to the dcat'.and-dumb Institution, whprf hc was taught. Whcn he had befh snQicicntty cdueatcd to L'nitbtu him to ~ivoaceurato atMH-cm to (tnef!tionf! put to hua, he g!n'oan nccuttttt of what he rpmfmbt.red of hi.s )it'c prcvioustytu his cumin~tu thu ht. xtitution. His fathcr, ht: said, ])ad a mi)),:t)tdof this mit),th~fnntittu-uof the housc, and the e<.u;ttt-y ruxiK)it, ho pn-e n prepiitodcscuptin!). Hc gave a circunMtantia) accottutof Lis Ufc ho\yhis mot)n.-r aud sistor ttn-d,his t'athcr man-icd thcr~ agait), j)i. .step-mothft' it)-treate<! hin),and ho mn away. He did not know his own nnmc,nor what thc mi)!was eatkd, but bc k)MW it lay away from Prague towat~sth mornit)~. Un th inquiry bcing madf, boys xtatcmcnt wa..eottfit-mK). Thc found his poticc home, ga\'c ))im his name, and seeuredhis in))critauce for him.~ Eveu Laura Bridgniat),w))owas bfiud (Mwc))as dcaf-attd. dumb,cxprctsed her fuelingsby th fiign.s wo aU use, thougb shc had neversccn thcm made,and cou!dnot tell that the by. standurs eouidobsen-othem, Shu wou!d stamp with dctight, vd.ii.t..C92, <Knu< St. Now),T))(oHc,' et. 1.



and tihuddcrat thc idca of a. cutdbatt). When astonished, she wuuld prutrudc hur )ips, and hctd up hcr handx with HHgtiM widosprcad uut.and shc tni~))tLe t;t;)t"biting ber lipswith nn npwardcontractionuf thu fat'iatntusetfswhcnrugnishty ti.s. at th accuuut uf sumutttdicruus hushap, preciscty Ufi tGui))jj; tivoty po-suu.satUMtgus wuu)d<)')." Wintu fipcaking uf a s)iL' wuutd puiut tu ttto .spotwhcrc )<(! )tnd bcen Itting put'sou, whcu~hulast cuttYft'.scd wittt him,and whurcsht!stiH heHcvcd hitnto bc.' Thougt), howcvcr, the deaf-a))d-<.ttnnb pmve clearty to us that a tnat) may ttavc human thought without bch)~ ab!e tu spea! thcy Ly ttu tneans provuthat hu eau think without any mcansof physieal exprc.'isiun. Thcir evidfuee tends the uthcr ou this way. Wc may read with pfofit an cloquent pa-ssago as, trauswndentat aMit is, it is .subjcet hy a Gcnnau prufuNior, put iu t!ueh elear terms, that we tuay ahttust thiuk wo uud(.'rstaudit. Hurchtlies thu nucessity of utteranee, th reprsentation uf thought. Thought Mnot evcu prsent to tho thinkcr, tilt hu has sut it forth out of himsctt'. Man, us an individuaJeudowedwith seuse aud with tnind,first attains to thought, and at th .santtime to thc cotuprehcnsion uf hunsc!~iu tietting forth out of lum'icifthu cotitcnt.s of Lis tnind,and in thix tu:) freo production, he comes to th knowledgeof himscif, his nrfittu hirnself in uttcnng himself. thinking I.' He comc!) Thisview is not cuntradicted, but to somcextfnt supportcd, hy what wo know uf tho earik'st Jawnings of thought among th dcaf-aud-dumb. But wc must take tttc word utteranco in its larger scnsc to indudo uot speech alonc,as Hcyse sccms to do, but a)t ways by which tnan can express his thought& JftOt is e.sscntiatty, w]tatthc drivationof hift namo among our Aryan race itnports,not thspeaker," but hc who thinkf), ho who~)te<M. Th dcaf-aud'dumb Krusc'sopiniott as to tho devetopmcot of thought amottg his ownctaiM, by and togcther with gestureHotMLt of htm tM'ttttMU), in ~oithmttiNa LMw,Ontho Voex) (.'uutH)! IM]. U. Wtuhinxtott, Hc~o, 'Sy<teKn)<.TSt'm<hwisem<)mft!' J~rtit),MM, p-M!



bas beeu aiready <[uotcd howthe quaUticswhichmakc xigns, a distinctionto him betwceu onc titin~ and anuther, become, when tic imitatct objeets Mut actions in tho air with hand~, and gc.stm-c.s, stntahjc Kign. whic!) scn-c bita as a iittgoM, meansof fixing idcM in !u.< mind, and n-ca))in~ thcm to his memor~ ttud tttnt thus he tnakcs hittt.sdi'si~tx, which,ijeaoty und impet-fcct ns thcy may bc, yct scryc tu opcu tt way i'utthought, nnd thse thoughts and signt dcvctopc thcmsetvc!. furthet-and fnrttter. Vct-y sinuttu- M Prot'essor SteinthaFs opinion,whici),to sonc extent, agres with th theory of tho Manifestation of thc H~oadoptcd by Heysc, but gives a targer dfinitionto uttemncc." Man, <jvcuwh(;u !)c has no perof can manifcstto bitus~-if sound, ception yct thmugh any other sentiethat whieh is cuntaincd itt I)is scnsiUc eertainty,canset forth un objcct out of ))i)nsc)<~ nnd wpat'atc himsc)~])i.sE~, as Momethin~ permanent and univN-su),frutn that whici)is jj~t ut uncc compre. tntnsitoryand partipuh), <<n ii' ]tc <)<jM hend this universat something in thc form of thc Ego." Thu Mme writer, ttfter ns-set-tiug that mind <t!xtxpeech an: dcve. topedtogether that the mind doc!!not origina))yMA'<! spcec)), but that it < Kpeceh that !angttag(; shapcs itsett' in mind,or mindshapes its~-tfin ianguugc,goc.sun tu quati~' thc.fca.s~rtionf!. "Wc rccoguixc titc power of iangua~c not su tnnchin thc sonnd,as in the inmn-d procMs. Cut it is as ccrtaiuthat tins gum furwardin thc dcaf-mutc,a.s it is that hc it a itmnan hcing,ncsh of hutnan nmh, and spirit of intinitc spirit. But it goes fut-waixt in hita iu a f!on)cw)tat dincrent fonn," cte.~ Whcthcr the human miud is capable of cxcrci~ingut tdt aoy of its peeu!uu'!y human fuuctions without any mcans cf utter. ancc, or not, we )!]t:))t ait adtnit tijat it con]d hve gonc but very little way, couid oniy just hve passcd thc lino winch ()tvidG!< bca.stfrom man. AU expet-ienco conmtr!!to ptwc, that tho Mcuta) pownrs and th stock of idcas of tho-Mhuman w!mhve but itnppr~t nn.-ans uf uttcmncu, tn'M ))fit)g!) itnp(;)~ fect and scanty in proportion to titosu tucatM. Thc manuerin whichwc can see such pcrsons aceompanying thcir ti)ought with titu utt(.-n<nco which is most cunvenicnt to them, show .<t<;i)tt)M), f<t.r. d<;rT., pp.!)f~,


71 m'.

to how gn~at !t degrco thought is tatking to oneself." Th dcaf-and-dumb gcsticutate ait thcy think. Laura BridgmaH's ibt-tctt~Mof thu nttgeMwot'kfd,makiug the initit movemGutfi ))ot unty during hcr wakiog thuught, but c\'cu )ingGr.aIp)mb(it, iu hcr drctnns. thc exclusivetuu'tiutn Spoken hut~ua~ though by uu mc:t)t.s thu bcst. In ttethuit is unduubtudty ufthought aud cx))t'M.siun, uf this, it i.t onty )'y meitnsof tt substttutu i'jr it, namety, lu givh' nioruthau n. Vft'y writh)~,that wusucec~'d Mtpt'nhftic tu t))c tttiti.t.s of tho (teaf-ood-dunib nud thcy )uwdeve!uptMCHt ut'cour.scconncct thc idea dh'ccttywith thc wnttuu woni, not <M wude, t!ic writitt~with thc sound,aud thcn t)Msoundwith tt)o idcn. Whcn thuy ttuuk iu writing,us they ofteu du, thc hungc tu thcir idcas, niust of the writtcn words which cun'c.spond rise up heturu t!)Ctuin t)tc nnnd't fyL' Tho Gennans,whu aM Ktrong advocutes of th syston of teaching-thc dt'af-tuid. dumb tu articuhttc, bcticvett)at th powcrof connccting tdua.s of th organs of speech, with actual or hnaginary movements f Htenta!powo',whieh 1 am howgives an cnontMUsiucrefMC cver indined to thiuk Ma good deal cxaggeratcd. Heinicke gives a desctiption of thc resuib of his tcachiug his pupits tu articuhttc, th<ir dcti~ht ut beiug abtc to cutntnunicatothcir idea.s iu this ttuw way, aud tho iuureasMd inteitigenetiw!tich appearcd in thc expressionof thuir t'itCM.As soon,hu says, M tho born-mutc is suMciuuttytau~ht to enablu Inm tu ht~reasc his stock uf idea.shy the power of Utuuiug thctn, !tu aud w!MH this tiappeus, it begins tu ttdk aloud m his fitcup, shows thitt the power of thinhing in wordiihas takenroot.' Hoinickcwus,howcver,au cnthusiaiitfor hM system of tcachiug, and iti practico it is 1 beHevcgeuemltyibund that artiand writton languago eutatiou docs not disptaeogesture-sign!) Miia mdium of thought; and certaiuty, ttic deaf-Md-dumb who eau speak,vcry much prter thc sigu tanguago for pracof th deaf-and-dumb tieal useamung thcmsetves. Infitruetorx iu Eughmd and America soem to hve geuGra.Hy decided,that with ordinary pupitii, articulation is not worth tho timo and trouUo it cMts,and thcy use it but little. Of cou~c,no eue tMui<')M, f. ~if,etc.



doubts that it is desirabtc thnt thc chiidreu should he taught to speak, and to rend from th !ip;t,especiauy when th d<;afuess Mnot tota! but thc questionix, wh<;thpr it Mworth whiio to dovotca large proportionof thc fc'wyears' instructionw))ieh is givcn to th poorer pupits, tu this objcct. Jt is asscrtcd in Gennany, thut a wnut of thu naturnl usuof thc lung~prouMt<;s thc tcndcncytu eonsumption, w!)ichi.svery eomtnon:unong tho and that tuachhtg tht;ut to articutato tends to dcaf-and.dun)b, counteract this. Ttti.s sounds proLabtc cuougit, thuu~It 1 do not Hud,eveu in Schmaiz,auy sufHcicntvidence to prove it, but nt any rat~, thftf is no doubt that the dcaf-aud-dunib tihouid hc cncouragL'd tu use thuir lun~ in shouting nt thcir p!ay, as they tutturaHydo. It is quitc dcar that th ioss of th powcrs of heM'iugand speech Ma toss to tliu nuud which no subsUtuteeau fu!ty rcptacc. Uhitdrcnwho i):iveIcarnt to spcak and aftcrwa~). bu''omc deaf, io.sn the powcr of thiuking i~~ itnvard ianguagc, nud become tu aU iutents ami puqMscs t))0 samc a.s thosc w)n) could never itcar ut ait, uuic.ssgrt pains arc tak~'u tu kc~'p upaHdincrc'ttscthcir kuowicdgt'byothcr encans. "Audthux uvcu thu.<u wiiobueomc itard of i)c:u'i))g at tm a~e whot thcy y eau ah'cadyspcak a iittic, by littk aud little iosca)) that thcy hve icarut. Titcir voiccslo.<eait chc-crfuiupss aud (.-uphony, a wurd uut of thc tuumory, am) with it thc evcry day wipc.-i idca of whichit wa.s thc !-i~u. Spokeu wordsappcar tu bc, in thc minds of thc dcaf-nuttcs who hve becu artifu.'iaiiytaugitt to spcak, mcrciy combiucd movempatsof the thruat aud oti~'r vucal orgau.s, aud thc initit tnovemcutmade by thon iu calting words to miud Ims bccn comparcdto a tickting in tho throat. Pcopio wauting a sense oftcn imagine to tt~rnscivesa resemUanco ijctwecnit and onc of tho Mnaei! wi)ic!tthey posscM. Tim old sayiugof thc biind man, that ho thought searletwas like thu sonuttof a tminpet, is somewhat like a rcmark made by Kruse, titat titougii he M "stock-deat," !)e i)as a bodi)y fec!i))g of tnu'iic, nnd diSercut instruments hve din'ercnt cicet.s upou hin). Musical touca Mem to his pcrccptMn to have umch anatogy with coburs. Munak, n).S,3~.

OitTURK-LANHUAG AXt)WUt<!)-LAXtit:AOK. 73 Th wund of th trmxpet i.s yeHowto h)M,that of thc drmn rud whUctt)e muxieot' th orgau i<)grcen,at)d of thc btt.ssviol h!uc, aud so un. Muchctxxpansoxxarc, inducd,Motcoh)i))L'd tu thusc w))ost! KM))~c.s arc it)eut))p)otc.Lun~uagsijowx t'!ua))ythat tncn in gf'm'nd )i:n'ua nH'"t)~ i'~ting of tiuchnn<tuf tho ditt'cn-utsc-ttscs. Kxprcxiu~i(;.s amoug thc intprc'ssions Hucha.s"schrcieHd )-oth,<ud thf use ui'"]oud,).s np.'<ioM ;u'u Mtpm'fichd ut' a)M. pticd to coiuuMaud pattcru.s, vxfunpk's tcgies whic))hve thcu' rootsvct'ydecp in thc hunumtumd. It is a very nctabie iatt bcaj'iug upun thu proM~mof thu thut eYcuhoni-tnutc' who never Iteard <(. Ori~u of Lttnguitgc, wordspoken,do of their owtiaccordand withuut )(nyteaching ttMtkc VM:at soxnd.stowe ut' )<s.s artienhitc, to wifichthcy attach a defimtc )ucMttt))g, and w)m'h,when oucc txadc, thcy t;o ou itt th saineunvarying Mnsc. Though thcse UtiingaftcrK'm'd.'i sounds are oi'tcHcopaUc of bfittg writtc)! doH'H tnoro ur k's.s with our ordmaryalphabets, t))(.'iruHcct011thosc accumt(.4y who rnuke thetu c:U),of cout-sc, )i:n'u nothiu~ tu du with thu fienscof he:ti'it)~,Lut mttiitconsMtnty ht partieuhu-ways of hrcathing, combined with pm'ticuhu' position.sui' thc vocal urgMM. tt (!c;tf-!t)tttc, who.se !nh)d w<t.s Tcu-scho', deve)op<;d by cdncation tu a remat'ktddudugrcc,bas l'ccoi'dt.-d that, in his uucdu* catcd statf, he had a)t'(;ady discovur~ttthc .souud< whichwero hk'txk'd with hi)j ~nsittiott~ (innig-vct~ehmulxcn mit ittwarfjfy UtcitK-r Entpfiudungiiweisc).Se, u.sit e))i)d,)m had a~xod (t tUtd spcial Sound tu pesons hc loved, hi.s piu-ents,bl'otItCM and thiug!!fur which hc httd M')sign (as sisteri!,to nMhxid.~ water) and catl(;d auy perfou )to wishcd with une unattcrcd voice.' Hcioickc gi\'c.s soun; rcmarkabh!evidcuco,whieh we ttuty,1 thittk, tako as givuu itt cntirc guod faith, ihough ti~ rcscn'atimi shouid bc ntaJL-,that through hi.s xtrong par. ut' cducating tho dcaf-and. tiality fur articulation ax tt UK'ans (!umb, he nmy Jtavogiven a dcHnitt-nessto th~c muuds itt writing thc'm dowu w)uc))ttK-ydid nut ruatty pussuM. Tite foliowing arc somc of )ns renMrks:"AH mubjs diseovf.'r words &)r thonsctvcs for dittcrent t!uug!i. Among ovur fifty p.Str. SH'int)t!t),8p)'.derT.,



whom1 havo partty instmct~d or been acquttintcdwit)),tt~cro WM not ooe whohad not uttcred at !enst a icw Kpokcu names, wttich hc !)addi.scovprpdhin)sctf,aud!iomcwcr(jvery<Icar andwcttdofiued. lhadmtdcrnn'instnK'tionaborndcafmutc, ninctcL'uycars otd, who had prn\iuus)y inveutcd mnny writcabk wonLsfor things,fi0)n<thrw, fuur, and six ny)taMf.'< tun~ Fur hMttmw,hu t'aUcd to t.)t "~MtMm,"tu driuk schipp," (t chitd tutt(.'n," tt dog Lcyc-r,")noncy pattcu." w!)uwa.sn grocm',and hha hc cttik'd H had a ncii;)tb')tu' wtth hMHtmw for mou<iy, no dt)ubt,cunucctL'd MMW, pittt for buyin~ aud st'))iugi.sindicated Ly thc dcaf axd dumb by thc actiouof cutmtin!;out coui]. Thc groccr's son hc ctdk'd eumbinatiou pattuttcu." For thc t\o ~rst hy a Kimpt'* nnmcmLs,hc had wont.s1, K't schuppatter." lu hi)) tm~MKf, "rf~u" tneant "I wiH not;" aud whcu they tu forceh!mtu do atiythiug, ttc wuutd cry"naHct ricckc wautL'd which ho usud was "!iuscl)befa,"in ticttito. Au cxc)a)))ati<))) of Gudt'urbid.' thu iicuso Someofthcsc sonnd! a!) ")nutu)n"nud "xchipp," fur cating and drinking, and pcrhnps b~yer,"ibr thu dog, are mcru of thc ntovoncutsof thc tnouth, w)ne)tthc dcafvocatizations ttnd-dumbttmkuittimitatmgtitu actions ofeaLting.dnnking, it is a comand burking, in thuir g'stuK'-tanguug< Bt.'iiiJcs, to spcak and mun thing for cven thc untaught d<af-and-<tmnh undt;r.stand a fcwwor~ts of thc iangu:tgtispoken by their us~ t-iate. Though thcy c:nmot h'tu' th~tn, thcy uuitutc thc mutions of thc iips and tccth of thuscwho speak, and thus inakc a toteraUcinutation of words eontaining iubial and dental tett<jn,though the guttumis,bcmg madf ~uite out of sigttt, can onty bc impartctt to them hy prupcr teaehing, and then onty with dinieutty and unpcrfcctty. It is scurectynccessaryto say arc taug))t to spcak in artieuhttc t!)atwhenth dcaf-and-dumb tU)dsysicmati~ing ianguagc,th!s Mdonc )npro)yby <)fjvctopit)g of thu thc tip-nnitatiottwhichis natura) tu tin'U). As iniftanccs hve of tcarniug wunts hy sight withpowerwhich d<*af-tnut< out any rcgular tcaching,may bc givcn the cases mentioned by Schmali!of chiidrcn bom stonc-dcaf, who Icamt in this 'tMMie):e,i).M?,<!k.


J 7J

way tu 8ay "papa,)mn)nua,muhmc" (cousin), "poppc" (doU), bittu (picase).' A)t tiio sound:)in thcso wot-ds arc fuc!)ttff deaf pcrsuttstnay imitate by si~ht. Au extraordinarystf'ry cf this kiod is tuM by Rschwegc, w))owasa scicutitic travettcr ut' itigb standing,aud upou whon tin- t-c'spoMsibitity tu)-thu truth uf th'3 UMt'mtivc xn~t.rL'.st. Thu 'iccnois !aidtu a ptanc in thc iatr-riorof Btttxii,wtfCt'e hc n.itcd o))a j(j)n'))ey, at)d ]tis accountis at i'oUuWti :" 1 was occupied t))tit'c.stufU)(;dayin~uaU-hu)tting,a))di)tMaki))~phi)osou)ta dcaf-and-dumbidiot negro boy nbout phicat obsct'vatiutM thh'tcen yuat-sotd, wit!t watc-)on t))c Lmin,amt upon whoni nuthi))~ jnado any ijttprt.'ssiuu of a cock, cxcept thc cmwi))~ whosc vuic~' hf cu)t)di)nitat<'tu thc )i)c. Jufttas peupletcach tho dcat'-imd-duntb to speak, su this hcast-UMn, by ot'set'ving and Imitating thu tnovcmuutft of thc ))t;ckaxd tun~nuof tho iti <i);)t.< iMu-nttu ct-ow, cuck, !):!<) and t]f)ii s~toed thc u)))y )tChad hcyottd tttu iiati.st'actiuu of ))i.sttatnt'atwaut-<. pk'a-surt! He lay nMstpart of thc day stark naked un thu ground,aud cruwt.'d a.sIf ior a waguragamst thc cuck. of -ords Retuming to th !i.<it givt.t by Hcinickp,it due.stMt scum t'asyta set dowu any uf t))f)u as Jip-imitatiou)!, uutG&t it bu "hcschbcfa" "(!utt bf\a)tru!" in which buta tnay bu an ituitattun uf bewahrc. Wc hin-c,tho), )uft ~vund articufatc sonndx,.sachas "pattcn," tftutiey,"tuttco," ehitd,(.'te.,which Kt-ontu ha\'L'b(.'cuu.st.'das t-oat won)s,but of whichit scetus to say why titu dumb iad s~!cctu(( it))pussit))(; thftn tu bctu-t)x.ntC!U)h)j!piw)ttehhug)tYutht.')u. Thc voea! Munds u.<cd by Launt BndgmMU ttM ut' gt'et httcrest ft-umt)<c fact that, heh~ btittd as wcUas dcaf-and. dutub, fhe cuu)dnot u\'ctt havoituitated wont)) by sceing titcni tnado. Y<t sbc wou)d uttcr sounds, as "A~t.~A" tur wundt-r,aud a ijortot' eituekiingm- gnmtiug us au exprGiSMn uf xatMiactio)).Whcu shc dit) not iiku to be touchfd, sbu wutttd8av, Hct- tuacho-tu~-dtu rcstt'aot itci-frum tnaking htarticutatc sounds,but shu ffit a ~Mat d~itu tu tnakc t])CH) aad wuutdsonethnes shut heMctfup and "indutgc ))cHctfiu tt sut-ibituf sun)td.s." But thMvocaltacujty uf ]teNwa.s chiefty Kchm~h, !!)<J M. =K~hw~ 'J!HUi:t;KH Hruh~:c):, i. )..C9. ISSU, (MM



cxcrcitiedin givingwhat may bc cattcd natnu-suuodit to perxons whom she kuew, and whieh she wouM tnake when thu po-sonsto whomshe had givcu thetn ctune ncar hcr, or wheu sho wautcd to dud t)tou, <u-cycu wh~.ns!n: wits Unnkinguf t)~tn. 8))(;)md )tu)d<' tMnttmy (M Hftyor sixty ot' thcse numcfouuds,sotncof which)iin'cbt.-cn wt-itt(;n duwn,a.s /M),/w,~, ~'F. ~t. manyuf them wercnut c:q!aHu ut' bcmg written down evet)nppMxiu)atdy. Even if Lanra'svucalsoundx M'c not ctaxstxtas rcat wut-ds, a distinction bctwcenthu articutate ituuudsused th deafby and.dutnb fur child, WMtur, and cating, drinking, etc.,aud thu wordsof ordinarylanguage,could Motcasitybu mude,wticthcr thu dcnf-mutcsin\-ct)t<:d ttnjsc swnds ur iuntatcd thcm from t)M !i)M of other; To ~< upon th broadcstgruund,the tucre faet that teacho-itcan takc chitdrcu who have uo tncanit of uttering thpir thought.sbut the scsture-Ianguagc,and teaclt t)tom to at-tieutatcwo)-d.s, to n'co~tuzc thon hy sight witen uttM-cdby others,to Writethon), nud tu uudm-titand them as fur their own gt..stnr<;s, M)uiva)p))ts .s sufHcientto bridge over th guU'whieh Ik'x bctwecntbc ~-sturc-hm~nage nud, at least, ibrm uf word-tangmtge. Thse two kinds of i-udimcMtary uttemu<:et~ c.~bk uf M))g tmns!atcd with mure or tess uxactnfM ioto nnu M~tht-r; aud it scctus tuorc Hkdy thau not that thwc tuay Le a sHuiku-itybetweeu th prnces!) by which the humau mind tirst uttfrcd itself iu tipecch, and that by whichthe samcmindsti)l uttcrs itselfiu gesturcs. To turn to anothcr subject. Wu have no videnceof man ever havinglivedin societywithoutth use of spokentanguagu but there arc Mme myths of sueh races,aud, iiiorcover, tatc. ntcnt!)hve beeu made by modem writeMof Nninenceas to an mtcnnediato statc betwccu gesturc-Iattguagc aud wurdwhtctt dcscn-u MU'efuI tauguagc, cxamiuatiot. lu Etbtopia, acroMthe d~-scrt,Mtysth geop-aphur Pom. dumb people,aud such as use gesturps pouiMMda, thurc dwcH instcad of iauguage othcrs, wi~se tongues gn'e no souud, i who haveno tonguoi(tnuti populi,et quibus otheM, pro eloquio nutus est atii iiihcsonolingtttc alii sine lingtns,etc.).' Ptiny 'M<.h,iii.9.

(iRSTrBK-MS'tMOH AXt) WOt<n..A!fQFA<tt:.

7? i

givesmuch tho mmc aceount. Romeof thse Ethiopian tribcs nro said to havono noscs,Komc no upper tips, some no tongucs. Sone havo fur thfh' )angnage not))tand gcsturcs (quibufidarn pro Hennonenutus motusquf jnonbrornm est).' To go thoroughty intu ttto discussionof thcso xtoricswoutd of th whutusuhjcct of thu k'gcuJs of t'equh'cnn i)t\'c'sti};at!ou monstfouf trihcs; but an otf-itand rationatizing pxptanation hcrp. Thu frquent usn uf tho gcsturc-tanmay Le KufHeicnt with stn)nHC''s guaguby fiavngftnbc.s in intt'rcout'so may com. binu witb tbc vo'y mtnntou opinionof unedueutet)tnen tbat the <a!k of furcig))Ct's is not ruai speech nt a)), but n kind of inatticutate chit'pin~,b!n')<i))g, <!)from gt'untixg. Mot'covct-, uf!)))gt)te woi'ds "spcpehk.'i.s," "tonguctL'ss,"wit)) th Kenso of "forei~ncr," "barbanau," aud ta)ki)i{; of tnbcs who havo no tonguo (o !<~o, as on' MutoHwonh) xay), to th pointhtauk statement thnt thcM aro racesof mcn without Rpeech and without tongm's, is a tmnHitiuu([uitc in th spirit of mythoiogy. In modcrntunes we hcar little of dmnb races,nt least from authors wort))yof crdit but wc und a tnunhurof aceount.of peop)c occupyingas It wcM a hatf-way house between th mythM dumb nations and om'seh'M,and having a. speech so impet-fcctthat cven if ttdking of or()inarymattcrs they tmvc to ckc it "ut hy gcsturc.s. To bcgin in the last ccutury,Lo)'d Monboddo say.sthat a certain Dr. Pctpr Urecnhitt tohthim that tbore wa.sa nation cast of Capu Pahna'! in Aft-ica, who ctd(t not undcMtandoue another in tht.'dar!<, an't had to supplyth wants of thcir tanguage by gMture.s. Had Lord Monboddo bcen thc' onty ur t))Cprincipal authorityfor sturifs of this ctass, we might ha\'e h'i't his half-tatiguagcdn~cn to kccp eompanv with his l)uman apes and tailt'd mun in th relions of mythotogy but in this mattcr it wiUhc sccn that, ri~ttt or wi'ong, hc Mit) vo'y goodcompany. Describing thc Puris attd Coroados of Brazi), Spix and Martius, having remarkpd that dinc'rent tri))es converse in Dit),~i.M. onJPn)~'x! oftansu~ Sm) !t\t Mon)<~ 'Uniitt) m),i. p. 2Si. JHitbNtsh, ~71.



aigus,and cxptaiucd tho diiHcutty thcy fouod in makiug .them understand hy xi~nsthc objecta or nkus furwhich they wantcd tho nntivo tMUMcs, go uu to my huw huperft'ct and dcvuid of inflexion or con.structioH t)n'.<L' )angnngcs tnf. Migos with haud or month, thcy say, nn- rptjuirdt') tnako them i))td)i* ~iUo. To Ray, 1 wii)~0 mt'; thu wocd,"t)t< ndittu u!.c.stho wottb "wood-gn,"nnd pomts his mouth ]ik" )t Knoutia thc dircetton ho muatts.' Mmbune Pfui<!u)', tuo, vixttcdthu Puris, and sny.s thnt for "tf)-d:ty,""to-mnn'nw." nnd "y<sh'r()ay," they htt\H on)y th'' wor't <)ay tho rust they express ))y M)~.<. Fot' "to.day" ttK-ysay "dny," !tud touch themitelvcM on t)x' !)pa<),or point strai~htupwant; fur "to-morrow" they wny n)~ "d!<y,"pohnh~ t'unvnrdwitjt tho tinter; nnd fur "yo.stcrduy, t~in "day," p~intin~ht-hindtht'm.~ Mr. ~tcrpp)-, thu !ow cundition "f wme of thc (h'.scrihi))j~ Vcddith trihus of C~-ytou, )itt(tHd that nut only is thoir dintt.'ct tu tt ShtghidL'sc', hnt thttt cvcu thetr commu. inc()mpr<')te)t.sit))u nication.sw!t)i onc atmthcr atf nutdc hy K)Kn'<, grimaces, aud )itt)c or n') )\)nhlau'c to distinct ~utturat iioum).whichhouor sy.stt'tnatixctt )!U)K'M' ])r. Minisa)),pMd:in!;ufttM')!U~)tt~-cfTa.stnania,au(t t]Krapid nu'iatiou of its dwtcets. s:)y.s T))t.'hahit. of gesticutation, imd t))c use .)f w~us tu t'k'' ont th'' nMUiingof tnonnsytiabic t'xpres.ston' a))d tn j~ivoforet. prfci.siun. and cfmractct' tu vocntsounds,cxt'rtcd a fttKhcrmudityit)~ cU'uet, prodneing, a. it did, cnrc-h's.sm-s. and h'xity uf articuhttiu)),aud in thc app)ipation andprotutnciationuf wutt)t< Tu defucts iu oi't)iu(.'pv th aborigmcs addcd .'ittort.cunungs in syutux, for thuv oh.''rvcdnu m.'tttcd'k-r "r annn~nx.'xt. "f word'i iu tho cuu. struction nt' th~-ir ~'ntcnc~, but cunvcypd in tt supploncntanf:tshi<'n hy tum-,tnanm-'r,nud g~tur~- thusc tnudificatio))H f nK'auing,whiehwuc-xpress hy tn~od,tcn.se,numht.'r,ut~ 1 We tiud a sin)i)ar n'nuu-k)nadf uhuut tribu uf .~urth Atncrica)) ItKtians,Ly t.(ptiUttUurt<~n."Tho-if natives \vh< 'KMte in):nnHM)):' f!ix audMartins, i. p.?)M, Munich, 1S33, etc.,v.,). t-tc. M)t!'Mtht-, 'EitM)''Mm'nM)t-tt)m<n<)t-:rd< VimMN, t!!Su, )).](~. MrJ.EtMCMon :!) Tetment, 'C'ytut),' t.). Lmutot), to).ti.p. 441. JStH, <MM)i<U), 'Ml'ni !Ut~ <.f r< S.<t ~tuMMUt, Kny. ]Sr,i~yu).iii. il. p~rt



liko thc AMpuhos, posscst !t very scaoty vocabutary, pro. nouncedin a quast-u))h)te)ti~tb)f with way,can hartUyconvomo one fttMthcr h) t)x' <).'u'k to htttkc a .ftmtt~cr uttdemtand them thcy mustfdway!< rc'pnh'tu tht.'catnp-fircfur 'pow.wow.' Mr. Schoolcrnft,whosc opinion on th matter wouid hve ))<?<*)) k))uwof t)K* ))))<) i))'ie)'tM) it iu thc ti.st v))h)tt)L']t', fjtXNti'))), of i)t()')h'ic.s tu ho nnswcrc't hv htttifm i~Gut. etc. Askio~ for ittt'ut'tnutioa ahout t))c tan~un~f of any triLt', hu puts th~ No. 34.'i, hgcsticutatiuuPMeutinit<j ent'ry ont xnnn' in<juiry. ,) ofiti) tncaxit)~ Tho nrmy of ('vi~'occ in favouruf th existt'ncc of tt'ihps whofc t'mgungc i. incompictowithout thu h';)p "f gestutt'pvcu fur thi)!gs of ordinary impurt, it \'M'y rcmnrkahtp. fiigtto, Ti.e nmttL')is itupm-hmt, forif it )nay he takpu cthno)o~ica))y, as provodt)t:tt t))t'rc!tMrMd)ypfup)<; whusutattgun~e<)oc!t not suSicetn xpeak of thu puttnnon life withsnt)jcetf of c\'cry-<ttty out the nid of f{''stu~, the fact wi)t cit)u.'r ftunish ahont t))t.' ttrongcst case nf df~'nemttou konwn in thu hi.story of thc humnn race', or fupph' a tctfit)~ nt'ttmcnt in favour nf thc titat thc gc.sttu'c-hm~tmgc thL'ory )spartoft))f ori~inatuttemneo of maokind whieh spcpch hn.stn'u'o or !('Sfii'utty fiupcrseded a)))ons't)it)<rcntt)'ih<"<. h~M-Pt-o-,thecudoto' Uhfu)-t[)))!)<t.'h', i.sin ovcryca.su)norL' or h's'!deffetiv' 8pix and Marthtfimakc no c)aitnto havitt~ ma.sterudt)x' Pnri attd Cm-uadu titogua~c". Tho C'ot-oad" wurd.sft)t- tu-tnon'ow nnd thu day aftcr tovix./c'<'~<)~'< and /<)'<<'<-i'<!(' inukt;it )t)t)ikf)y mon'ow," v <hatt)K'irnci~hbours thc Put'is, whoart-'so nuitriyou the fiamp tc\'d ofeivitMation,havuno such wordx. Mr. Mcrccr .sccmsto have adnptcd thc cottuno~vi(.'wof (rL'igno't: ahout th \~cdda))s, but it has )tappf'n''d <)('< n.-tin tnany ott~r accottotsof stn'nge tritics, t)mt ct'MurMpquiuntauhas sttown them <" havo been wrotigty accuscd. ~f~ B:d)fy, who has had ~ond of stmtyh)~ thf)n, contradict.s thfir supposo) oppoi'tmutif'.s dcftck'ncyin tangua~ with thc n'mnrk, t nevcr knew one of t!t0t)t nt ti iof-sfur word'i MtfHck'nOy httutiigibtc tu convoyhis meauing,nut to his fc-itows mdy,but to tho Sin. whu nre nU, n)ore or tes! ne. ghateseof t!)u ))cighbour)too(), ofth< Burte)), City &ti)it.<!). ~))~)cmft, ~tt i. )..M<.


OtiSTUitH.MXOUAH)-: AXR WH))0-t,AXGCAf)t:.

<)uaiutcdwithtttc Veddati patoiti. Dr. Mittigan M,1 beHevc, our bcst aMthontyas tu thc TiMmaxiansand their tanguagc, but hfi p~hahty had to trust itt thi.s mattcr to native h.tbnnation, whieh i.s fitr from hcing ahvayo safc.~ Lastly, Captain Hurtun oo)ypaid a (tyin~visit tu th Wcstt'rn tndian.t, attd his iotcrprotcri!couht hardty ))av<j givt-nltitn spioutiiic mib)'matton on such a ftubjcct. Tho poiut in <tm.'stion i.'tune w)uch !t i. not easy to brhtg to a pcrt't'cUydistinct issue, M'~in;! thnt a!! pcoph', savane and civiiixct),do use si~ns mwoor tMs. As ha-s ))ecn renmt'ked ah-cady.txnnysava'~ tt-iLM accotnpanythcit' ta)k wit)) gesturcs to a ~roat t'xtcntj aud it) conversationwith ~Jt'f'i~tcr! gcstures and w'.rds oro usuai)y mix~dto exptCM what is to hf said. It is cxt~tnciy )ik<)ythat MadameFfui~'r's .s!n'a~(;.s suffL'rcdthe pcHaltyof beiugSt't dowu as wautiug iu Inogut~e, fur no worse iaott t))!U) n p~mLinatiou ofword~ antl signs in ordcr to u.sin~ nmko what tht'y meant as clenras possibtuto ticr cutnprchcn. Mon. But th existence of a iangua~e incontptcte, even ibr ordiuary purpows,withuut th aid of ~'sturc-si~ns, couitt ody hc provcd hy t)te videncent'an t'ducatfd mat)so fanutiar with the iat~uagt.'in .jm'stiut),as tu Lu abtc tu say from ab.soiutc not onty what it can, but what it cannot do, persoMa) know)edi{c au ntnount ot'ac<[uaiutanct' to which1 thiok none of t))Gwriters wontd )ay chmn. In th c: oi' tanguag~s spokou hy 'p)ot<*d thc Puri.sand thc TasoumianK, th difHcu)t\vury !ow racc.'i. Hke of dccidittg .snc)ta point must bo Yt/ryn'~at. T))c stt'onKMt filet L~'ariogup"t) t))c tnattpt- of whidt 1 am nwaru, is that savagc trihes witose nmut.'miwontsdu n<;tgo Lcyond somc low numbcr, as ft\'r-or to), are wc)) kouwn to bc able to rcokon much iartho' ti t)K'ir ~n~<rsaud tocs, hL'rudistinetty usi))" whfrp wurd-)at)guag<j faits. gestm'o.taoguag~ Thct-oi.sa point uf iiunicpractiod importanceinvuh'cd in thp J. ]M)ey, i)) Tr.Hth.S. LottjuM, JSM, ji.3~'). Thc tu tt-tMt)Mj; )mtir< iufontMtiou Mto en'mmittied t~ection structure, m~' )! Mea intht)i)Mty,M tactwith hiinYMti~ting thofan~getofrudf cun!.tautty of gottingmt'stfmth-e tribctt, front Kmtitewithout !ttx-Momt tockcd to t'nmouM il. Thux tM Dr.MiOi~n'x th voca))Mht),C!t)<re.'HioM ~M~tttoM, tmoMa~tfMM, M'tM'tor "h))!i)<tnd" tubi"Mht-r,"M!ctMKa)]ytot))ean "yoNrhtMtnntt," "))<y orMmethi)~ of thckin.). fitther,"



or words are, so to speak, most question, whethor gp.sture!) natnra!. If signs fot'man eafticrmcans for tho rccoption aud of idcas than words,then idiots onght to learn to cxprc.s.'iion un'fcrstand ant) use gestures tnororcfutitythan speech. 1 hava onty beunabtt.'tu get a distinct answcrto thc question,whc'thcr thcy do so or nut, from oou contputcntjndgf in mtcha mattcr, Dr. Scott,of Hxctt'r,whos.sxrcsm''t))!)tst'mi.idiotic f.'hiidt'cr), to whomthero is no hopoof tcMtnn~ tnot' than thc morest rn'iimonttof spucch,arc yet capaMfof roccivinga cottsidct'abtu amonnt of knowtedgoby mcatHof si~LS,axd of exprt-ssitig themsch'Mhy thcm. It is wcti known that a certain ctass of chUdreuare dumb from d(;nci(;ncy of mtuHcct,rather than fromwant of thc xcnscof hcarit)~, and it is to thse that th observation appfit.s.' Thc idcaof solvingtho prob)emof th origin of tanguagG Ly aetuat experinieut,must havu vcry ofton buct) startud. Thcro aro scverat stonos of such an (jxpt'imcnthaving beon tried. Ono is Hcrodotus'swett-known tato of Pxanunttichus,King of Egypt,whohad t!tc two ehitdrHn !)roughtup by a sik'nt keepor, attdsuckledby goats. Tho first Word t))ey satd, M'o. tneaning brcad in tho Phrygian !augnagc,of course pruved that the were the otdest raceof mankind. It is a. vcry trite Phrygian)! remark that thcre i.snothing absohttctyinercdtbtein thc stor)', and that M', M, is a good imitative word for bteating,as in BA~do~ct, )it;K(io~at, ??0:, WM~o' etc. But th very name of Psammitichu~, who has scr~pdas a. Jny-ngurcfor so many tales to be drapcd upon, is fatat to any ctain) to tho bistoncat the sprmgs of thc Nito crcdibilityof such a story. He fiound)! with a eordtitousandsof futhoms long, aud nnds no bottom ho thc prdictionof oneoracle hy pouring a lihation acconipiishes out of a brazcn hpiun-'t, and of another, conceming cocks,by Icading an army of Canans, with crcstcd Itetmcts, against TonettthHs, kiug of Hgypt,and he ngurc!)in the Greck version of thc story of CindfruUa's slipper. Auother accountii) Klated in the !!&! of James IV. of Seottand. TticKing a)so caused tuk ano dumb votnan,and pat hcr in Inc])kcith,and gave hir tuo baimm with hir, and gart furnisch hir ht all uecessares See W.B.Scott, 'Bem~tt Ox.E.htittbf) M~. ofIdiote;' LondM, M,IW.



thhgis pertoaning to thair nourischment,desinng hei:by to knaw quhat languagesthcy had when thcy cam to tho tnge of they fpak guid Hebrew, but 1 perfyte speach. Some mye!< knawnot by authoris rchcarse,"etc.' Another story is told of th groat Mogui,Akbar Khan. !t M montionedby PurehtM, only twenty years a<terAkbar')!death. and totd in detail t'y :" Indeed it may bc said the Jcsuit Father Catrou,ns foUow!! was Akbar's ruling passion,and his that dsire of knowtedgo curiosityinduccd him to try a very stntngo experiment. Ho wishcdto ascertainwhat JanguagochUdrenwould speak without tea<hing,as hc had heard that Hebrew was tho natural ofthosowhohad LecK taught no other. To settle tho )augt)ago question,l'e had twetvo cilildren at tho broast shut up iu a castto six teagttesfrom Agra, and broughtup by twelve dumb nurses. A porter, who was dumb also,wus put in charge and forbidden on pain of dcath to open thc casttodoor. When tho chUdrenwcrotwdve years old [there if a decided feeling for duodcimalin t))<'story], ho had them hrought hcibro him, aud collectedin his palace men skilledin ai) languages. A Jew whowasat Agra was to judgo whctherthochitdren spoke Hebrev. Thcro wa.sno difucutty in findiugArabs and Cha)deans in tho capital. On the othcr hand th Indian phitosophers asserted that tho chi!dren wouldspeak th Hanscrit the ptace of ~atinamong [<.<Sanskrit] languagc, whichtakc:! is tcamt in thctn,and is only in use among t))e and order to undurstand tho ancient Indian books of Philosophy and Theotogy. Witen howevet'th chitdrcn appeared beforo th Kmperor,every one was astonishedto find that they ditl not spcak any tangnago at aIL They had leamt from their nurses to do without any, and thcy merely expressed their th purpose of words. thoughti)by gestures whioh an.swered Theywere so savago and KO shy that it wa.sa work of soine troubloto tamu them aud tu loosentheir tongucs,which thoy = had scareelyusod during their intancy." Homd. il. <.2. LittdMy of ribMtt!c, 'CrNtit-fm of &-oth))d,' ro).). p. 249. Por otherEttKpMtt meDeMn)! 'Tmttt desUme~e~' vol,il.p. y; h's'-tMb, on Rmar,C)mpt<n) L~nate,'p.]3. HM vo). t-.(MS6) ni-t. Ptttehm, PiigtUM. LondM, 1C2S-C, p.:t0. Cittron,



Thoro may possiHy be a foundation of fact for this atory, which Sts very wcit with what h known of Akbat's unocruand hit grcedincssfor ~now)o(~g<i. Moreovc)' pulouscharacter, it tells in its favour,that had a story-tcUerinvente<t it, ho would hardty !'avo brought it to what must havo sccmedto hnn such a lameand impotent conclusion, as that thchiidrou at aih spoke no language (!f~. J<. duM~) Path, inHtK~y, t r<tS, tepMt t'Empire p.!a, etc. AMnfiha))!~ Mttttem t9i Momehitm,' p.

CHAPTER V. AXDWOKO-WRtTING. riCTUBE-WMT!XG TffEart of rccording events,and sendingmessage! hy means of pieturcs rcprcscntingthc things or actions in question, is cancdPietnrc-Writing. Thc deaf-and-dumb man's remark,that the gcsturc.)angnago jindsits counterpart in an observationof is a picturc-tanguage, Withcitn von Hmnbotdt'H, that In faet, gesturp, dmtitutt' of Mund,is a .spoek'sof writing." Therc M indccd tt very close rctation bctwecutttcse twoways of cxpressing nod communicatin~tttougttt. Custurccan set furth thuug)tt with far grcatcr but it is infunur to it spt'cdnod ftdtx'ssthan pipturu-writin~, in havin~tu ptaccthu (Hn'crL'nt ~k'tncnt.s of a sentence in sncin .sin~)cfitc, M)tu spenk; w)nk' by a picturc <))e ces.<:ion, whoiuof an f\'fnt may )~' SL'tin vi''wat onf ~tancu, and tttat pcrntanfntty,so as to scn'c as a messageto n.distant ptace or tt record ta a future thnc. Mut thc imitation of \'isi)))o quaHtic. as n meansof cxprc~iu~ idcas,in connnou to bot)) mothods, and bottt bcto)~ te sinniar conditions of thc hutnan mind. Hoth are fonnd in vcry distant countrics nnd timcs, and spring' up naturatty undcr favourabtccircumstauees,providcdthat a hi~hcr meansofsupptyingth sa)nowant)!I)as not the ptaecwhicttthcy ean onty iiU vcrypartiany ah'cadyoceupicd and rudfty. Thc're hcing so grcat a tikencss hctwccn th conditions whichcause tho use of thu gesture-hMguageand of pieturcwriting,it is not snrprisingto find th natives of North America af! grt proHeienti! in thc one as in th other. Theu' pictures,as drawn and intcrprt.'tcdhy Schootcraft nnd othcr



writers,pvo the bcst informutiunthat is to be had of tho lower of th ah.' devetopuMut Fig.SisanIndinu record on a Daxpd pinc-tree(toMazo tttrccistowoutid (&~MM') its sido (' with an axe, Hoas tomarkitwttita. conspicuous whito patch). Onthcright arc two canos (2 and 4-), with tt cutfish (1) in ono or them, aM a muuious animal, kuowttas th cuppcr-tailcdbctu-(:}),in thc other, On th left aruft bcat' and six catnsh and thu sens ofthc picturo is simply ttmt two lumtcr.s,whosottMnc.s, or rather totems t'r were C'opper-taiiedBeiU- aud Catnsh," went c)at)-naMes, out on a hunting expdition in their canocs, and took a bcar and six catfisli.

Fi)!. 3. Fi~. 3 isa,picturo on th tacc of <trock on the shore of Lake an expdition aeruss th Iake, w!dchwas Superior,and reeut-ds Icd by Myccngun, or Wou,"tt ccicbmtcd IntUan chie~ Tho canos with th upriglit strokcs iu them t-cprcscntth force of th party in n)on nud boats,aud Wolf's chiof aity, KiNhkomunasee, that is, Ktngnshcr,"goes in th first canoe. Tho arch with thrcc circles helowit showsthat thcro wcro tiu'cc tnxuSthuok-M[t, M<; f't i. ittttrptetatiutu, t' 2to 7,audtheir


suns under heaven, that is, that the voyagetook tht'ee days. Thc tortoiseseema to indicatothcir getting tu land, white thc of th chief hhnM)fon Iiorfiuback ropt'cscntation showsthat tho werc introexpeditiontook p!ace siucc the thuc whcn hoMos ducedinto Canada. Th Indian gravc.post! Fig. 4, tell their story iu th samc chitdtike manner. Upon ouo is a tortoise, th dead Wttn'ior's totem,and a figurebcsido it rcprcsenting a hcadIpss mnn, whichshowsho isdead. BelowuMhis tlree marks ofhonour. On t!tc othor post thcrc is no )tcparnte sign for deati), but th chid's totem, a crnne, is rcvcrNed. Six marks ofhMiour arc awanicd to )um on th right, nnd thrce on the ictt. ihe latter represent thrre important gcnorat trcaties of peaccwhichhe had attcndod thc formerwouldsecm tostand for six war-partics or battles. Tho pipe and hatchet arc of influencein peace and war. symbo)s Thc grent deiect of tins kind of recordis that it eau only bc uuderfitood within a very iinuted circlo. It does not tell tho storyat length, as is done in expJaicing it ht words but it merelysuggestssome event, ofwhich it onlygives such dtails as are required to euable a practiscd obsun'erto coustructa completepicturo. It may bc compared in this respect to tho fomM of expressionwhieh arc currcnt in a!t societies cUiptical whoscattention is givcn xpeciattyto some uarrowsuhject of intcrcst,and wliere, as all )neM'x minds hve th samo fmmeworkset up in them, it Mnot ilecessaryto go into au etaborate of th wholestato of things but oneor twodfaits description are cnoughto enable th hearer to understandth wholc.Such expressionsas "ncw white at 48," "best setected at 9X," though perfcctty Uttdemtoodix the CMnm<.wiat cu-cfM witere thcy arc cun'ent, are a.s uninteUigib)eto auy onc whoM not



familiarwith the courseof events in thosocircles,as an Indian recordof a war-partywouldbe to un ordinaryLondouer. Though,howover, familiarity with th picture-writingof th jndians, at we)Ias with their habits and pcculianties, might enaUe tho titudenttu tnnkca prutty goodguess at tho mcaning of such documentsas tho above, which are meant to bo underfitoodby strangcrs, there is another ciasi! of picturewritisigs,used prineipattyby th magiciansor medicine-men, whichcannot bu eventhus interproted. 'l'ho songs and charma uscd nmongth Indiaus of North Americaarc repeated or sung by memory, but, as an assistance to th singer, pietures are paintcd upon sticks,or piccMof bireh-bark or othcr material, which serve to suggcst to th tnind th successiveverse! Some of thse documents, with tho songsto which they refer, are given in Sehooto'aft,and one or two cxatnpies wiit show howthey arc uscd, aud mako it vident that they surHeieutty can only conveytheir fui) mcaniug to those who know by heurt alrcadyth compositions they refer to. Theyare mre Samsott's with riddies, on!y to be guessed by thoso whohve ptoughcd ` ht:! hoifor. Thus, a. drawittg of a man with two marks on his breast and four on his legs (Fig. 5) if!to rcmind th singer that at this place comesth verse : foUowh'g Two n)mtyoufaat, day:! myMend, Foutdeyx must}'ou aitttiU.
Fie. C.

Pis.e. the lover Fig. G is th recordof a tove.song(l) i-eprcsents in (2) hc is singiug,and beating a magiedrum in (3) hc sur-



rounds Mmselfwith a secret todgo,denoting th eScctsof his necronMncy in (4) ho aud his tuistrossarc shownjoined by a singleano, to mdtcateth union of thcir anectioM in (5) shc is nhownon au istand in ((i) shc i.s a.stcep,and his voicc is shown,whituhis mngicnlpuwers aro rcucuiag hcr h~ai't, and th heurt itself is showniu (7). To cach of theso figures a versoof tho songcon'esponds. 1.It latnypfdntfnjf thatmeJtM mea god. IIear thcsounds of <ny of myeonc !th myvo!ce. voice, :i.1cover )nfittitt; down myeett byher. 4.CM make ofme. heMn~t, tftCtttMe 1heM aU~he says she ona dhtKmt herswim C.Wen) make over. Haud,1could 0.ThoMgh abewetefaroit, evenonthoctherhentttphere. 7.1 heatt. tpeat to your

i. He.?. Fig. 7 is a wfu'-song. Thc warrior is shownin (!) he i.s drawnwith wmgs,to showthat hc is active and swift of foot. lu (2) hc staids undcr th )uurnu)gstar in (3) hc is standing under the centre of hcavcn, with his wur-club nud mttie; iu (~) thc M~)M of carnage are nving round thc sky in (5) he lies (itaiuun thc field of b:ttttc and in (G)ho appcarsas a spirit in thc sky. Thc wordsnre thcse : ). 1wMt to hveth<! bM. My ofthetiwiftest . E\-ety et yoa thhaKofth day1 shsmyEOB6dayI<x)k U.1Uttow awy mybody. 4. Tho MrdB takea fUgMtheair. 6. Full amI tobennmbet'ed wMt thesittiu. htppy < Th fpinbonhigh tc[)eat myname.



Cntlin tells how th chiefof th Kickapoos,a man of grcat tho ShawnceJ*ruphet,"having, abiiity, geaeraUyknowHa.<! as was said, tearnt th doctrines of Christianity from missionary,taught thcm to Lis tribe, pretcuding to hve received a snpernatural mission. He eompo.~cd a prayer, which ho wt-otcduwu on a nat stick, in charactem somewhatreiietnbiing Chincsc lettcrs." WItcn Catlin visited the tnbc, every umn, woniau, and child used to repcat this prayer n)oming and cvcmog,p!acing the fore-fingerunder t)m (irst chafacter, rcpeating a. sentence or two, and so going on to th next, till th prayer, which took some teu minutes to repeat, waa finished.' 1 do not knowwhether any of the!!G curieuxprayerxticksarc now io Luseeu, but thcy werc prohaMy madoon th samo pritieipleas the sugg<sttvepicturcs uscd for th native Indiac songs. Picturc-writing is found among fiavagcraces in a!) quartcr!) of tho globe,nnd, so &t' as wc eau judge, its pt'incipicM tho samo cvcrywhcre. Tho picturcs on the Lapfandmagiedrums, of winchwe liave intcrprctations, serve muehthe samu purpose as th Amcncan writing. Savago paintingti,or scratchings, or whether wo find carving.sou rocks, hve t). famity tikones.'), theni in North or South AtucricK, in Siberin orAustralia. TtM interprtation of roek-pictures,whieh tnostty consist of few rigurcs;itfin gnrt a hopelesstask, unless a key is to )'e had. Many are, no doubt, met'c pictoriat uttcranees, drawiugs of animnb! and things without any historicat scnso; somc are namcs,as th totems can'd hy those who tiprangupon th dangercut! Qunrn' Dupnix icaping-rockat th Rud Pipc.stonp noticed in Mt'xieo a fieutptur'd eagte, apparentty un the ~e M~ how Loundary of Qnauhnahunc, thc pltec <!<'(' caHcdCuernavaca, and th tact suggests that rock-sculptures may often be, like this, symboticbutndary-marks. But (hcro !.s seldom a kcy to he had to the reading of rock-scutpturM, which th natives gcnu'idiysuy werc donc t'ytiie peoplelong 'Korth u. p.?. Cattin, 7thc<).Londot), 1! vo). A))MnMn!ndiMU! ~t. ii.p. UO. 0. C~ttin, Mexico;' L<))~Ki))S'!ben)Uj;h, etc.,\'uf.h'.p:ttt 'A))ti<tMitiM<{ Lombtt,lMO, uu.3J,and Yo). Mx)J.



ago. 1 have seen them in Mexicoon dins whero ono eau hardly imagine how th savage scutptomcan hve elimbed. W)ten Humbotdt askedthe Indians of th Oronokowhoit wns thatscutptured th figuresof animaisnndsymboiicsigas high with up on tho face of th cragsaiong the river,thcy answored a smile, as rctating a fact of which oniy a stfanger, a white bo ignorant,"that at thotime of tho <ea< nxm,coutd possibly tMt~~w their <athpNwt'tit up tu that hfi~ht in their canoc's. As th gcsturc-kn~uagc !s xubstantiaOy th same among ravagetn))c!tait over the world,and also among duidrenwho of tiavagesare nut on]y cattuot speak, so thf picturc-wnting!) similarto onc auothcr, but are like what dtUdrcn make uncouutnes. Likc th universaltanguago taught cvcu in ctvitiiiutt ofgcstures, th art of picture-writingtends to provothat th mindof the uucutturcd man wurks iu mudt th Mmoway at att times and everywheru. A!)au oxamptcof thc way!n whtdt it i:) possible for an observer whobas ncvcr roalMcdthis fact to be lad astray by such a gnrt reiicmUttncc, th ceiebrated Livredes Sauvages may be adduccd. T))i.<) book of picturci!had beun lying fur many years in a Paris tibrary, beforo th Abb Domeucch unearthed it and as a native Amcrican documentof published it in facsimUe, high ethnologica!value. It contuinsa nu)nhcrof rude drawinga donein black lcadand red chatk,in grt part enormousiy indecent,though perhaps not se muchwith tho grossnessof tho savageas of th European Uackguard. Manyof th drawings rcpresettt Scripture scnes, und ccrcmouies of th Roman CathoHcchurch, o!ten accompauicdby explanatory German words in th cursive hand, oneor two of which,as the name Maria written doso to a rude figure of the Virgin Mary, th Abb succeedcditi reading,tliough most of them werc a dccpmystery to him. 'l'itreare an evidentAdam and Evo in th gardcn, with "betruger" (dccciver)writtcu againstthcm; Adam and Eve sent out of ParadiiK;, with th description (hanished) a pricstoH'enngmass; figureswith th "gebant" wdl-knownrings of bread in their hands, explained as fassdag (iast-day),and so on. Thcrc is no videnceof any con. tMtboMt M).) vol. ii.p.?! )!o))p)m.),



ncxionwith Americain the whotc matter,exceptthat the docu. ment is saidto hvecorneintothc hands of a collector, in comand that the editorsays it is pany with an Inx~uoisdictionary, whtten on Canadianpapcr, but lie givesno reasonfor thinking su. Su &r lis ono eau judge fmm the puMixhed copy,it may hve tjecn donc by a Ocrtnanboyin bisowncountry. Onc of th drawin~ showsa inMtwithwitattteentsinnitreon his itead, speakin~to three nguKsstandingrcvcrentlybeforehim. This pemocagui.s Mitit)cd "g]'o.Mhud(great-hat),a commonterni amoug th Gcnnan Jcws, who spc~k of their rsbbix, in aH rvrence,as tho "grt hat-s." Th Abb Domenechhad xpentmanyyearsin America,and with Indian pictures. More. was, no doubt, wet) ac<)uaiMtcd whichstruck him as existing botween over, thc resoinMance the pictures lie had ))';ettused to see amongtho Indians,and those iu th Bookof thu SavagMi," i.s quite a rea! oue. A grcat part of thc pictures,if pttiutcd un birch-barkor deerskins, mi~ht pn&sas Indinnwork. Thc mistakc lie made was that hi.'igcttcm)izati!t wastocNarrow, and that hc foundedhM argument on a tikonesswincttwasonly causedhy the simitanty of the eartydevelopment of the humanmind. withwhich th Mnp-makingis a branchof pict<n'e-writing and hc i:!oftenmore skilfulin it than savage is quite famifiar, the gcncnttity of civi!ii!c<! tnen. lu Tahiti, fur instance, the natives were abte to make maps fur t)to guidancoof fbroign visitors.* MapsmadewithraiscdtinMarc mentioned as in use in Pcrti beforethe Conquest,~ and there is no doubtabout tho skill of the North An)fricanludiansa))dEsouimaux in the art, as may hc sccn bya numbcrofpa.s.sage.s in Sehooletftft and e)sc' wberc.' Ti)e otdest map known to ho in existence is th map of tho /Ethiopi:mgotd-mines, datingfron thc time of Sethos 1., thc father of RatucscsII./ longenough beforethc time of the Gtmtit)' Cuhttr'UesehHttc der MeMehMt;' KtctNtt), 'AMscmcitte Leip~, iv.]..390. 184~2,vol. Rirero mtdt. T'thmU, 'A.~it~MMex Permum" YMttM, ISSt, p. m. vol. i . FtOteott, 'Poru;' )'. UN. i. <8!. thnuon, !!<:h'x<)<'mft, SS3 )ttiii. pli. 'Journat tort n'- S~t. a:<), M), il. [. Ki', 9$t'. C.H., Amdow, JS20, p.3M. Kk-toM, ht vu), xxxiv. Mrtb, 'A''chttu)o);h,' ~3S&




bronzetablet of Aristagoraii, on wiaeh wa!)inscribed <hccircuit of the wholeeartt),aud all tbf sen nud a)t rivera Th highest devctopmcntof tho nrt of ptcturc-wnting is to ho found atnong the ancicnt Xtcxican.s.Thcir productions of this kind are far bcttcr known than thoseof the Red IndiaM, and arc indced much more artistic, as well as heing more systcmatic and popiom Some of the most charactcristic becu drawu nud described by Atexaudcr von spcimensIia.V(i Humbotdt, and Lord Kingsborough'sgrcat work contninsa of then), whieh hu pub)t!ihediu (acsinnk in support hugo maNi of his views upon thttt phitosoptier'sstone uf (ithuotogists, the Lost Tribesof IsmeL Th lllk of the Mexicanpaintings arc m<repictures,tHrccty reprc.seutingnograttous, wars, sacrifices,deities, arts, tributes, and sueh mattfr.s,in u waynot diifcriog iu priuciptu from that of thu towcstsavages. But ht tho Lixtuncalrecordsand ca)euarf accutnpattifdby a tt'galar notatiou of ycars, daM,tlie eVfut.'f and somctimc.s of divisionsof ycaM, which cutitt~M them to ho considered tMreguMy duted history. Th art of datiug eventit wusiudced not unknownto tho Northeru Indians. A resident among th Kristinaux (gunerattycaHed fur shortuess. Crees), who knowthcm bcforc thcywere in their prcscHt hatt~eiviiized statc, says that titcy had names fur thc moonswhich makc up thc year, catliug them "whu'twmd moon," "moon whcu tho fowtsgn to tlie sout!t,""moon whcu the teavesfall offfromth trce! und .so on. WhH) a hunter left a record of bis chaso picturcd on a picce uf Mrch.bark,fur th informationof otheri) witu might pass that wny,hu wuuM draw il picturu which .<)(owed tho Muneof th<;mont!),and make besidoit a drawing of the shapc cf ttie niaonat the timc, so aceuratcty,that au Indian couldtfMwithin twctvuor twcMty-fbur hours, the month aud th day of the month,wheu thc recordwas set up.~ It is even rutated of t)tc Indians of Virginia,thut thcy recordcdtimo by ccrtaht hierogtyphicwhec)ij, whieh they called or record of thc gads." TitesH SagkokokQmaeosoug))," wheels had sixty spokes, cach for a ycar, as if to mark tlie ofdmaryge of man, und they werc painted on sktns kcpt by 1 !!<tw]. 2 thr~uff, I. v.< t. 37J.



thc principal pricsts in the tctnptcs. TheymarkedoncMh a hiemgtyphicSguro,tohowth memorabje xpokcor divMio)t of tho yuar. John Ledcrer saw ono in &viUago ca)!ed t'vent!) Ponntacotnck,on which tho year of the nrst arriva) of tho Europeanswasmarked by a swanspoutingfiroaud smokofrom its mot!). Th whitc phunagcof tho bird aud its living on the water indicatcdthc whitcfacesof th Europeansand thcir coning)'y sea,whitc th tireand smokeconting from its mouth )ncant thcir fireitnus.' Thus the aueicnt Mcxicans(us weUus th civitixcdnations f Centrt Amcrica,who used a tiimihu' syston) can on)y';)ai)nto )mvcdated tht'ir records more gcue. and systctnaticaHy than th rndc'rXorth Amerieantrihc' ya))y 'J'))eusu!))wayof rccordingseriesof years among tlie Mexi. in tho use of four pans bas becn often describpd. It eon.si.sts Af. -M/ ff~ cx~<)). acat!, tccpitt), cnJJi, fiymboh)tocht)), each symbolhfing numbcredby dots frotn 1 to 13, ~e, /<OM<< Rteh ycar of a cycte of 32 hM nMkingthu!)32 distinct fiign.-i. thus a distinct nutnbered symbot bc')ongingto it atone, th numbcring of course not going bcyond m. Titusu)m!t)bc)'c<) arc, howcvr, not arrangcd in th<h' roasonabicordcr, ftytnboiti but the signscttangcat tho samotimo as th numbers, titt at! tiio J2 combinntionsarc cxhaustcd,tho orttur bcing 1 rubbit, 2 canu, 3 knifc,4 honso,.')rabhit, (!cane, and M on. 1 haY(.' th singuhtr coiucidc'ncu uf a Muxican pointcd out ct.sL'whcr pack uf ptaying-cards, cyetcwith an urdinaryt'rcnphor Kngti.stt on t))is ptan, as fur instance ace of heart~ which, arra))ge<! 2 of spadc.s, 3 uf diamundt-.of etubs, of hcarts again, and so an exact counterpart of an Aztec cycleof 32 ycars. on, furnf.s Tttt! accountof days was kc'pt by seriM combincdin a shnilar uuntherti.~ way,but in <!iH<'rc)tt Th extraorditMt'y anaiogybctwccn the Mcxiean system of in cyetc.s, and that stUtin use ovo' a gfuat part rcckoningyear;! of Asia,fornM thc titrongc.st point of Hutnboldt's argument for of thc Muxicanswith Eastem Asia, and tho rethc connexion SirW.Mbot,"Dm DitMoverie!! ofJott) 'Jeamaf 'ta SftTMH,' M! p. de! Merer Lot)')o)), VuM M7S, f. <- :hm)NMt, CordiMnM r~rk,Mt0p).xiii. ISOt, p.239. *)')'io! 'M<'x)M!m<JtheM<![ioM;'LoN<Ion,


PtCTfM-WMTtXf) AND WO!tt)-WM'rt:M.

markabto character of tho coineidencoia greatty cnforced by thc fact, that this complexarrattgomt'nt answerituo uscfnt purpose whatever,inasmuch as mre counting by numbers, or by signs nnmbered m regulnr succession,would have been a far bettor arrangement. It tnay perhaps have becn introduced for Mmeastro!ogicat purpoxe. Tho historicat picture-writingsof tho lfo.,CicanF3 socmfor thc most part very baro and du)! to us, who knowaud earosu littlo about their history. They consist uf records of wars, famineit, and so fort)),namesof petiiousand ptaces ntigrations,Mtprifice.s, being indicatedby symboticpictures attachcd tu thcm, as King Itzcontl,or "knifu-Mtaku,"bya ferpent with fttone ktuvcx on its Imck; Tiiompaneo, or "th place of a sku))," now Zumpango,by a pMtun'of a skutt skcwcredon a tmr betweentwo upright posta,as enunucs' skulls used to bc fict up; Chaputtcpec, or gras.shopppr hiH,"by a hm and a grasubopper,am) so on, or by more property phouctic c)taractcrx, such as will be presently dcscribcd. Thu positions of footprints, arrows,etc., scn'o as gnid~'x to the directionuf tuarchcs((n<!attacks, in very much the (ianM wayas )nay be se~nin CaUin'sdrawing of the or Four Bears." Th mystical pictured robeof Ma-to-tott-pa, piuntiugs witich retato to ruiigiou and astrology arc sctdom capable of any indcpfndcnt intcrprctatio)), fur tho samo rcasoMwhieh tuakeit impossibleto retd the pictured recordsof aud ehnntMusot further north, namely,that they do not ftongs tell their storiM in full, but only reeatt thon to thc mindsof thoso who arc ah'cadyacquainted with t!)em. Thc pamtiugs wtlich represent the mctbodicattyarmnged tifc of tho Aztecs fron chitdhoodto oltl age, hve more human interest about tbcm t)mnall the t-c.'itput together. In judging tho Mexican picturc-writingsas a tDeansof record, it shouM be borne in mind thnt though wc can undcrstand thcm to a considrable extent, we should hve made vpiy littlo progrcss iti decipttering t)ton, were it nut that thero arc a numbcr of interprtations made in writing from th cxplanations givcti by Indians, so that the traditionsof the art hveneverbeen whoUylost. Somo few of the Moxicanpictures nowin existence may pcrhaps be original doemuent~madobefore th arrivai of th Spaniards,



and great part of those drawn since arc ccrtainty copied,whoiy or in part, frontsuch originalpicturcs. It is to M. Aubin, of Paris, a most xealousstudent of Mexican auti(luities, tliat woowoour first clear itnow!edgo ofa phc. nomenon of groat scientMeinterest in tho history of writing. Thia if: a we!MoHned System of phonetic charactem, which Clavigeroand Humbotdt do not seem to hve bcen awaro of, as it does not appear in thcir dcscriptioosof the Mt' HumMdt indeed speaks of vestigesof phonetichierogtyphics atnong tho Aztecs, but tho cxampk!)he gives arc only namcsin whioh meaning, rather than tnero sound, is rcprcscntcd, )u<in the piotures of a face and water for Axayacat),or Water-Face," tivedots and a fiowerfur Macuitxociiit), or I''ivc-F)owers."So Clavigcrogivos in his Hstthe name of King Itzcoat), or "KnifeSnake," as repreMnted hy a pictuni of a nake with stono knives upon its bue):, a more genuine drawing of which is given hfro (Fi~. 8), from th Le TcUterCodex. This )!)mre picturo.writing, but th way in which th mme . .m Mng'stmnMiswritten tHthc Fig. S. Fig.9. Vergam Codex,as showniu Mg.9, is sottiethmgvery dneront. Here tue nmt syllable,<<?, is indecd ruprGscntedby a weapon at'mcd with blades of obsidian, <~(~<) but tho rest of thc word,cof< though it means snakc, is written, not by a picture of a suake, but Ly an earthcn nud uhove it the sigu of wfttcr,<t(M). Hre we pot, co(Mt!<~), havo rcat phonetic writing,fur the ttamcis Motto bo read, accordingtu tiensc, knifc-kettte-water,"but onlyaccordiugto tbc sound uf tito Aztec wordif,Itx-co-at). Agtun, ia Mg. 10, in th namo of Tcocattittan, which means "t))e place of the god's Itouse,"titc dif. feront syllables (wit)t tttu exception of the <<, which M outy put in fur euphouy) arc wnttcti Ly ((<)lips, (c) a path (with footjnarki!on it), () a house, (d) teeth. What this comMna.tiou Pif!.10.
Oavixem, 'Stona Antica de) M~tM;' C~M!), li'M-l, vol. ii. pp. M], e~ 946, etc. UutttMdt, Yu~fd<!tCM'd.,pt. Xtii.



of picturcs mcans is on)y exphincd by knowing tha.t tlps, path, house,tecth, are catted in Aztcc ~K(<),o(<~),c~(<t), and thuscom'' tu tstandforthe wordTe-o.eat-(tt)-t!an. ~a'M(~)'), Thc <)eviccM p(.'rft'et!yf:uai)iar tu us m whut is caUcda Prior Burtou'.soamc M scutptut'udin St. "rcbus," af!w))ct'o Stn'iour's C))urchas N eask with a thisttc ou it, bun'-tuu." of this kind in chiMft-n'sbouks kc<:p Indccd, thc pUNdes a!ivc to our own day t))ngn'at tmnsiiiun stagu from picture-writing to w'jrd-writing, th(; hi~hcst intctk'ctuatt-~m-t of ouc periuttin our histMycomingJowu, as M oftcu happons,to be tho chitd's ptay ofalatcrthm. M. Aubinumy )x' cutisidcrcda:!thu di.seovcrer of thu.sephonctic M~nsiu t)tc Mcxieattpicturea,or at toast hc t!)t)te 6r!it who bas workedt)[fm out 8y.-itcntatica))y and pub)is))cdn ti.st of thc-m.' But thc ancicnt writtcn intcrpretatiunshavu t)pcn thcir existence. stfmdm~ fur centuries to jfn-ovc Thns,in t))c Mendia Codex,t)m name of a ptacc pieturcd as itt Fi};. 11 by a nstnng.net aud teeth, i.s intt;t-prt:t'd Mttt)ttt)nn, <h:)t is Xct-Piacc." utcansa net, nud so f)u-the name N~w,M</i7/) 11. "t"tthutct.'th,~K(~'),aroused, fit;). 11j(, uotpict.'riaUyttut phoncticaHy.for~ax.ptaeu. Othcr mum cnuiptieat~t nanK-),sm-h a.s Acuhna, Quauhpaetc..arc writtuu in liku tnaxncr iu phutK-tic ttunya)), sytnbok in tho stunf (Jocumpnt.~ = T)K'rciii no sunicient t'c:Munto tnake us duuht that thii! pu)-e)y phom;ti<; wnting was of nativu Mexicitn origin,and aftcr tho SpMuish Cun(tU~tthoy tumcd it tu account in <tnewnnd cm'iuusway. Th Spnui~h missionanas, w])eu embarrtMsed by the ditiicuttyof gettin~ thc cunvcrts tu Mmonbe)t))cir A\'c Marias an(! FntetiMstKr.seeing t)mt tho wordswere of course !nct-cttuoscnse to thctn, wcre hutpeJ ont Ly tttu ndians!themsehv)),wlio suhstitutcd Aztcc wontsas ncat-in soundas t))i"ht in 'Bet-M AuLtn, (Menthe <it vo):iii.-v. tirascnr, Am<riKt!))e,' 'HM<tM K~t. Civ..)u et<k MexhtM t'Am6riqae C.t)~ei I'.m, vo). i. Au ]M7-9, ettempt t~pmve tt.cMmte.tmaf tt~renmr)yt).pmac)nne mMethin): <d)<ha)x-tM<!isns (Jtev., '-o). iv.p. 2M-7Bmst-M, p.tjtYiii.) much deMer n~uirt!) evittettee. M). Kingiborous)), mvot. ).,and vi. Ext;).



ho to tho Latui, and wroto down tt'c pietured equivatcntsfor thse words, which enaUcd them to remember tho M~uircd furniuia!<.Torquonada an'! I~s Casaf hve reeonM two instanccs uf this devico,t))at ~~ )w~' was written by tt Hag whitc the sign ut'wato', (~)t<)and pricMyptiiu' (M<'c/t~<), mttdca.cmnpouud word (), comUncd wiUtthat uf nioc,Me(</), which wou)d mean "watcr-atoc," hut in sound mado f<!i<e~, a very to)crah)e ubstitute fur Ampa.' But M. Aubin has of a Patcrnostcrof this kind in found t)ic bc-gumiog actuftHy tho metropotitan iibmry of Mexico (Fig. 12), made with a f)ag, ~<ut(<),a titotie, <c(~),u prickly pear, ~~e/t(<),and again a stone, <e(~), and which would t'cad Pa-te noch-tc, or pcrhapii '0'n. P~tcttnoch-tett.~ After the conquest,wheu the Spaniardswere hard at work introducing thcir ownrctigionand civitixationamong the conquerfd Mcxicans, t)iey found it convcnicnt to a))owtho old picturc-writittg still tu Le nsed, e'ven in legit) documents. It difMppGM~in titue, of course,beiug supcfscdcdin the longl'uu by the a)phttbct but it is to this transition-periodt!Mtwo stitt preowc tnany, pcrhajM tn'Mt,of the picture-docuuK'uts servod. Copies of o)d histuriMt paitttings wurc madoand conand th use of retinucd to dates after the an'ivat of Cortc.s, i)ta mixtureof piciurcsandSpani.sh cor't.swnttcn in or or Aztec words iu ordinnry writiu~, rctatiu~ to tawsuits,the iuhcntancc of prnperty,genmdogics, ~tc.,wcrc in constant use for manyycnr.sInter, and spcial oScoriiwcro appointcdundcr go\'<nnn<ut tu interprotsuc!' docutnents. To this transitionperiod, the writing whcnec the natue of Tcocattittau(Fig.10) is takcn, clearly hctongs,as nprears ))y thc drawing of thu housc with its arched door. A gcueatogtcat taMe of ~-Tmtivc. family in th Christy Musum is as good a rccofd. ~~hj& t~K~pftransition as could well Le cited. Th nant&sin it are~written, but are acdr&wn n in a style that is companied by maie and)Mnatc hcaMs certainty Aztcc. Thc nh~ei! ~~nAety~'tcU tho story of the vo). i. t).f:)i. Bm-neur, Bev.MM<) iii. A.,'rot. 'A~in, iii.p.MS. p.MS. 11 tt


changethat was goingou in tho country. Onobranch of the famity,amongwhomare tu bo n'ad tho namesof CUahnecatt, or "Snakc-Woman," or "Star-Ncckiacc,"and CuhunciJtnMtt, ends in a iadywiththf Spanish namoof Justa whitc another and Xiuhwithsuchnmnexas Tiapatxitotxin branch, bcginning cozcatzin,nnishcs withJnana and lier ehiidrpt)Andi'cs Mt)d Francisco. Thc must thoroughlynative thin~ in th whotc is a figurereferriu;;ta an ancestorof Justa' and connectcdwith to show howtho Jine i.'fto bc his namc by a Jineof footpi-ilits iu true Axteofashion. Tho nK"ro itself i.s a hcad followed, drawn in native Ktytc, with thc eyc in full front, though the &cois in profile, in muehtlie samo M'ay as nu E~yptian woujd have drawn it, and it is set in a houso as a symbol of diguity, havingwritten overagainstit the high titkof Ompamozcattiif 1 may trust the itnpcrfcctdictionary which, totzaquattzineo, of Motina,and my ownwcak knowledgeof Aztec,tncatM Hii) our twicu skiffuigauler." excottency Tho importanceof thi:! Mcxican phonetic systcm in the History of tho Art uf Writing may he pur)mpstnado ctoarcr of thu Aztec picturc.swith thG E~yptian by a compari.sun hieroglyphic!). of figures of obEgyptian hicrogiyphic inscriptionsc')n.<i.st jects, animateand inanimato,mun nnd auimals,and parts of and an innnoMcnuntburof thon, p!anti;,th hcavfniybudie.'i, diffrentweajMns, touis,and articlesof th most mificcHaneous charactcr. Thse npn'L's are an'anged in upright euimnnsor but thcy horizontal band:), and arc to be read in Mtecus.'jion, are not aU intcndcdto act npott tho mind in the sant way. When an ordinaryinscriptionis takcn to piccc. it is found that iho n~ure.s it iatt into twu ~rcatdasses. Part;of compusin!; thcm aro io ho readand nndcrstoodas picturcs, tt drawingof a horsefor horse,"a branch for wood,"etc.,upon thc same principleas in anysavage picture-writing.Thcother part of thc figures are phouctic. TtnMtho figureof a utrap,the nameof whichi:)Mt-o, becomes a phonctic sign to writothe soundNt-a with. (Thc standf! fur somo vowc),winchis rcprcscnted by CM in the Copticformof the word,mo~M.)Again, thero aro many characteniwllichChampollionhcld to Le pure conso-




nants,p, )', nnd so forth. They arc certainlyso in tho speMing of Ptolemy and Ocopatra, Tiherius nnd Hadrian, and such natncs, and evcn iu writing pure Egyptianwordsat a futt-'ign )nuc))cartier date, whcro thcy comout th c'ndsof won)", as whcre the mouth, fo or t'u, ends tho word <;r (under,with), bcing there nothing Lut the tcttcr < Modcnt Egyptotogist.'), howcver,hold ChnmpotJiouto hve gone too far in redueing phonotic citamctcrs to nipro tettcrs fur instance,Mr. Birch readHas ~< aud ~)!(th ~-andjo-ftoundswhich ChampoUion set down as mcro )cttcM and in his atphsttct. For practical purposc!)!u intcrprcting Egyptian ioscriptiom,tho di)!fur vowcisare very tmzy tinction i.s of very littlo consc~ueucc, things iu tho ancicot K~yptiau,as in its suceessortho Coptic, and it may lie nUowaUuto gu on writing Egyptian words whosovowets are indefinitc, as ttmugh they had nonoat aH. But the sytiabic tttcory (it is nut a ncw view, for Dr. Young wftit away from it) i)fof grt tnhc!d it bcfot'oChampoUio)) tere.stiti th history of writing,as givittg the whotocourseof dcvetopmout,t'y whicit a pictun. of a Mouth for iastanec, mcaut fir-st simpty mouth, tht.'n the namo of mouth w, and tastty dropped its vowe)and hccame thc letter T. Of thse thrue steps, t)tc M~xicatM madc t))efirsttwo. In Egyptian hiL'mgiyphic.s, figurcs are not atwaysset spL-cia! apart fur ph'mctie use. At k'ast,n nuuthcrof sigus aro uscd somctimes a!! luttera, and sometunc.sas pictures, in whic): !attcr case they <u'euften markcd with a. stroke. Thus th mot)), with a, struko to it, i.-iusuaHy (t)t'juglt not ahvays) pietunu),ns it wc-rc', one mouth," whitc without th strokcit My or w, aud su on. Thc wordsof a sentencearc gcncndty writtcu Ly :t comLinatio)iof titcsc two tnL'thod.s, that is, by speiting the word first, and th(;n adding a picturo sigu to romoveail doullt a.s tu its mcauing. Titus tbc Jftters rcad as in an inscription,futiowcdhy a drawingof a worm,mean ~'<t<t "worru" (Coptic,/e~~), and ttt(! letters M', foUowed by t!)o picture uf a.star hanging from hcavcn,mcan darkncss (Copwrittcn in ancienthiero* tic, ~'Av). Thore mny even Le wordfi followed gtyphtcswhich arc still ative in English. Thus /<<<M, 1W wood, WW is by two fiigus,une of whieh is the detcnninativofor





<b))owp<! ~<Mty and hy tho drawing of brick, is a sundrieti brick, CoptieM~ M< whichsccrnsto hve pa~ed into tho Amble ~&,or with thc artictt',ff~o~,thcncc into Spanish thrnugh ttiG Moors,as fMf, in w))ichform, and M <~<'f, it i'! of~nto-ic!). f'urrctttamong (ho Et)g))."h-sp(.'n)<itt~ pop)))atio)i Th H~yptiimsttou"t Mon to hnv' t'ntit'otyj{"t rid of their dctcnniuutive picturcs even in the tatcst tbrm of th~ir native writing, tho dcnwtic chnmcter. How it Muno to pns-sthttt, of phoitotic~riting. tht.'yWM'c havingcotne Mcarty to thc UM Jftter than othcr nations in throwlng off th crutchcs of picNo doubt th poverty of their ture-signs,i!!a cunous(}UMtiot). whieh expressed.somany things Ly sitniiarcombiuatanguago, and the indenttitcttc.ss of thc'it'vowc). hnd tions of consonants, to dowith itjust as wo sec that povertyof ian~ua~e,and th conscqucHt neeessityof makingsimitarwottts do duty for many dtficrentidcas, has Icd the OtinMc to use in their wriMugdewhich wcro terminattve signs, t)tc so-ca))cd keys or rndica).s, crigi))a)Iypichu'cs, though now hardty rccogniNd)k as such. Notliing prove!!th.tt the Hgyptiau dptcrnunativc signs were net mcrc usGk'is hutdjcr,howclla.s th fact that if thcrc had iu modcn) ht-cn ncnc, ihc dccipitfriugof the ))n-)'og!yphics eottldhat-dfyhin-t' ~hu a iit<p)x'y'nd thc Jh-st tiincf! stage, th readittgof tho kio~s' natncs. Wc thus sec that the attcipht Eg\'ptinns and the Aztecs made iu mueh thc sunu way the grcat step from picturcwriting t" wo)'d-writh)g.To )fave uscd thc picturt.' of an objcct to rc'prescut the Kuanduf thu rout or erudc-funu of to its namc, ai the Mexicansdid in drawing a hand, Mta(<), represcut,not a hand. Lut the suundm(t; and tofth, ~(<(/), to rcpt'cscnt, not tccth, but thc fiound/~<M, thuttgh thcy do not seem to hve appiifd it tu anything but tt)e writing of properttamesaud furcignwurds,is sufHcicutto showthat they had startcd on tlie roadwhichk'd tho Egyptiaus to a syfttentof and to sotac cxtcttt of <dphahcticwriting. There is syttaMc, cvc!)videncethat the Maya nation of Yucatan, tho mins of whosetemples and palacesarc se well kuownfromtho traveh) and Stcphcn! not only itad a Systemof phonetic of Cathcnvood wntiug, but uscd it for writing ordinary words and sentences.



A Spanish MS., 'Reh~'ion do tas Casas de Yucatan,' bear. i))g th dato of J5H1, and thc name of Diego de Landa, Bistlopof Mcrida,bas been pubtished by th AbM Brasseur,' and contains not onty &set of chronotogica)signs rcsembting tho figues of thc Central Atnericau ficutpturcs and thu Drcsdcu Codex, but a Hst of ovcr thirty characters, somo tM~'x, <mdR oonKyHabic, atphabetic,as , <,w, M; s<j)))u i'?t A'(t<<, "I will not," written with thcm. Th tettcc, MMt geuuiucnessuf this mfurntatim),and its b(;:tnngou thc iutcrpfutationof th inscriptionsuu thu ntonutucut' are mattcMfor future investigittion. Yut tuiothcr pcopip, th Chim-sc, madu th advanco from picturcs tu phottutic writing', and it w:t.sporhaps bccaust; of t)tc pccuiiarcharact'r uf thuir spukcu hmguagethat they did it iu so diHcrunta way. Thc whutc hi~toryof thcir nrt of writiog still iit.< upct) tu us. Thuy hc-gauhy dra.wu)gthc ptamcst outlinciiof sut),nMon,tortoisc, f~)),boy,hatchct, trce, dog, aud so forth, tUtdthus ~nmin~ ejuu'actcrswhich are stitt cxtatit,M)dare knowntMthc ~((-<fx, or aucientpieturcs. Such picturcs,thuugh ."o)nuc)t tdtcrcd that, werti not thch' busafcto say thcy aneientform.s stitt tu be sccn, it wuutd !)ard)y had everbefu pictures at ait, arc still used to sotnc cxtent in (.'hittesewritin~,as m thu chamctc'rs fur man,sun, )noou,trce, combiued pictoriat sigus,as watcr aud eyo etc. Ttfercarc aLso character:j. But fur tearfi,"aud othcr kinds of purely symtxftie arc doub!c,conthc grt tnass of charitctcrs nt prsent in usM sistittguf two signs, one fur sutmd, t)tc othcr for fiuuse. Thpy arc caUctt/<t;</'))y, that is, "picture. and sounds." In ono of thc two signsthc transit ion from thc picturo uf th objcct to the suundof it.s natnu haa takcn ptaee in the other it bas Hkc that of but it is stitt a piton. and its uso (s'Hncthing Mot, the dctcrnnuativcin thc E~yptian hicrogh'pbics)ix to dnu wlfichof t))(!tnuanings hetougiug to th(; spukettword is tu bc a so a picture ofa takeu. Timsa ship is caHed itt (Jhinese(;/<CK', nud deDiego deLMjN,' 'Hehtbn dM Uho!de YuMhM 6t< RM'b timseur, MN4. Lmuton, Kit, J. M. SiuieM,' ~rt i. Maato, 8<nt.tuM CKHety, 'tcttM NmMticuM Chin. Mnmm., f. 3, ttc. p. 29. n<UM)cr,




means bip stands far th suund c/'oi' But th word c/<Mo sovcral othcr things and to showwhich is intcndcd in any particular iastanco. a detcrminativc si~n or kcy is attachcd to It. Thu.s thf s)tip joinut witit thc sign of wa<<-)' stands for <(0!(', "ripptc," with that of speech fur c/w, "lu~uadty," wit!t that of fit't. fur c/<t' f)ic){<;riu~ uf f)mnc andsu on for waggon-po!c," t)u()' and scvcridutt~'r thh)~.s,which hve littte in cemmon but tho n:uuu of <.7<u" If wc a~reed that tm 0, shou)dbo detomunative signs pictures of a knitc, a tt'L'c, of thinga whieh hve to do with cuttiog, wittt ptants, and with numbcrs, wc tni~ht ttiakoa drawixgof a pcar to do dttty, with tho assistanceof one of thse dcterminativusi~n.s, fur ~)'f,jw', yctu'. In a !anguagc~o poverty-strickcuas the Chinese,whieh on)y allows it.sfif 80 s)ua)ta stock of words,and thercforc bas to make t)ic same sound stand for so !nauy dtHcrent Ideas,th use of such a systcm m'edsuo cxptanation. Looking uowat thc history of purelyatphabetieal writing,it has becn shownthnt titerc is on" atphabot,that of the E{!yptian of whictt (aud of cuursc of its hterogtyphics,tho d<vc)op)f)GUt derived forms) is e)car)yto bu traccd from th stage of pure picturM to that uf pure Ictt~'M. Sunmft;wof ttn-sc iat(;rc!iting charactersarc cvcu nuwin usf. ThfC"ptic On'i.stian. still keep whtcb is a direct up in their churchcs thcir saercd ):uignagL', descendantof th awicnt K~yptiau; audttieU'Jptictdphabut, in which it is wnttca and printcd, wasfornMdin carly Christiau timcs by adding to t!)c GrM'k atphKbctcertain new characters to express artiothttions not propf)-)ybdonging to thc Greuk. nt teast four suL-ni Among thse additionattett~-M, ctuartyto be taken from thc old ttieroglyphies, probabtyfrom thcir hieratic or cursivofunn, nnd tttus to prserve an unhrokcn tradition at once from the period of picture-writingto that of the alphabet, and from timosearlier than tho huitding of tho pyramidsup to the prsent day. But as to the ultimate origin of most of th alphabets which are or hve becn in use in th worIJ,wc hve no suchsatisiactory intonnation a.s this. Thus, though th grt fauuly uf alphabets to which tho Roman tetters belong with the Greek, tho Gothic, the Northeru Runes, etc., tnay be eaiii)y traced



bac): into connection with the Phnician and Old Hcbrow characteM,it is very diHcrcnt question to tell how thcse ancient Semitic tett<rs came to bf madc. Th theory maintained by Coscniu.t, that thc Phnicinnand Otd Hebrew letters are rude picturcs ut' Ait'ph thc Ox, Ucttttho Ucuse, Gimeithe CtHne], f;tc., )nny, f think, bc shown to ho unsafc. Somc of Lu )'L':d, tho resfmhkutstnay pos.sib)y though tttt'y are nMstty \'(;ryfitightand indcfinitu and while (at'tcr spttin~ ftsidcwords of vcry doubtt'tdor ftUtcit'uI L'tym'~y, as Zayiu, Koph, Hc) there appcor tu )je s<~mc (,'tuvcM icttfr.'iwhidi <u'cmore or tess likethe tncaoings of thcir uamc.s,pure chance may be shown tu produconcarly us muuy coiucidencesas thi)!. At least, if wetum th tist up.sidedowu,und put Tau against tho Ictter Ateph,and su un, it scumsto me that there will be found MM.ething like cight rcscniHattcescf about the same strength, or weaknesii. Agaiu, the theory that thc namcs of the luttera date from the ttme whcu thcsc )ctter!)wcre Urst fonued, and thtt!!record thu Vft'y proness of their formatiu)),is u vcry bold une, considenog that wo J(Huwby <xp<ricncchow slight the bondii)which may attac!t th nant to thc )etter. Two atpha~ iront that which is abo betif, which arc aetufdty dL'.set't)d~'d reprcsentcd by thc Phniciau nud Hcbrcw, hve taken to tttcmsetvcs ttuwsc-tsof names hetongingto tho langttagcsthcy wcre uscd to writc, simpty choosing fur each Ictter a, word which bt'gan w!t![ it. Thc Htt)ue.s ot' our Angto-SaxonRunes aru Fcoh (catt)f, f<;c), t' (urus, wild ox), Thorn (thorn),Hagi ()):u)),Nead (nced).and so on, for F, , Th, H, N, etc., thia Engti~h!)!<t corrospondingiu grt tneasurcwith tho.sebetonging to th Scandinavianand Germau formsof the Runic <dphaof Dobro, bet. Aga!)),in thc t'td SIavouic tttphahet,th tiame~t (taud), Liodc (pcop)c),SIovo (word), arc giveu (goot!), Xt.'mtja to D,Z, L, 8. If it bu granted that thcre if!an tuuount of resemUaueo betweeuthc kttci' and thcu- uames in thc o!d Semitic alpimbet!i,which M\vauting in tjicsu tatur unes, it does uut follow from thcucc thut thc shapc of thu Hebrewtetters was taken from.thcir munes. LL'ttcrs tnay bc namo! ia t~'o wsys,acro. t!~ ri~ht stieaHy,by uamcs (.-ho~u Luuuusethey bcgiti ~Yit~~



letters, or descriptivcly,as whcn wospeak of certain chamcters as pothooks and hangcrs. A combiuationof tho two mettwtx, out of the words bcginniugwith the proper !ottcr by choo&ing such as had atso somo suitabitityto describeits shapc,woutd produeo much sueh a resuit M wo sec in thc names of th Hobrew i()tter.<, serve a direct objcet in and wouJdtMorcovcr bclping chitdreu to )carn thetn. It is easy to choose sueh nMucs in EugUsti, {MArch or Arrowhcad fur A, Bow or Butterfly for B, Curve or Crcsccnt for C aud we )uay even pick out of th Hcbrcwlexicou other names whiehfit ahoutas wellas thu prcscut out. Whatever may be thc reat origiu, sytiabic or other, of the Semitic chamcters, the argument so conftdcuttyput forth in tho H<brewgrininnar.s is t)ot utrongeuough for thc weight !tdd upon it, seein~thitt thc' coincidciisou which it rc.st.tmay be <'xptaiucdus b(.'ingnut prinuny ttnd 'sscutiu), but secondary aud supwficiaL Thu hst of uamt-'suf lutters, Alc'ph, Bcth, Guuct, and the rest, is cet'tnintya very attc-iottand intcresting record but its \'ah)u may lie not in its taking us baekto the pictorialorigin of thc Hebrewtettcr- butin it.spreserving for us among thu Semitic race the uu'Iicst kuowt:versionof thc AWM au Archer." Mr.SaumctSharpu liasmadcnn attcuipt tu dcrivcthe Hobrew lettcMfront Egyptinu hk'M~)yp)).(tn<) in his )i.stthcrc arc ecrtu tlie Coptic )iUpp)u. taiuty two luttcrs, buth a)so-bL'tonging ment, uamc!y,/aud s/(, whichrun through the whoto seriesof utdaud hew Hubruw (ht Yau hicratie, Pttnicia)), Incrogtyphic, aud Shin), iu vcry simiiar funus,a point whichdc.scrvcs carcful ittvusitigiitiuu.' \Vith respect tu ttiMuspceutatious,however,it UMybc su~gested that, thuug)) it i.s iikt;)yeuough that th JcwHur Dt'juuiciausmny ha\'u gut thu art uf wriUn~fromthc E~yptiaus,whu.scpo~essiott uf it is pt'ovud to gu baek to so fu))o\v frota such a supearly a period,it doux Mottx'ecssarity position that th charactcrsof ttK'ir atphabet shoutd bc traceabio, hitter for lutter, to Egyptiau origiua).s. Thc possibilityof ono peopk getting the art uf writing frutn anotiter, without Sfj~t','i!Tpti!tM !titro)i)yp)tif;' Lom)'))), IStit, p. U.




taking tho charactcrsthey used for particutar tetters, is lot a matterof theory,but of fact. Twu Systemsof letters, or rathor of ctmntctcmrcprcspntmg xyUaMes, havo becn inventetl in modem times, by men who had got the idca of represcnting sound by writtcn charactcrs, from seeing thc bocks of civilizedmen, and applied it in thcn' own way to their own lnnguages. Somu fortyycars ago a hfdfbrccd Cherokee Indian, Bamcd Scquoyait(othct-wise Ccot~c Gucs.s), invented an ingcniouft system of writiog h)!! tan~uago in RyUabicsigti' which wore and catnc into commonuse. lu adoptedby thc hu.s.siunark's, thc iaUe givcnby Sehootcruft thero at-u ei~hty-Rycsuch sign: iti grcat part copicd ur modifk'd froni tttose Sequoynh had kamt front pnut but the IcttL'iD is to bc read (t the tcttcr aud so ou thruu~h H, T, i, A, aud a M,~tt tho figuro4, uumbcri)iot'e.* 1 Tttc syDabicKystcmiuventcd by a Wcst Afriean uegro, MomuruDoaluBukere,waM fuund in usu in t)i(i Vei cuuntry, aboutnftccu ycars smcp. When Europcans inqtnrct) into its origin,Doa[umid t)tat th invention was revcak'd to him !n a drcamby a tatt vcncntbtcwhitc man in long coat,who said huwasSt-ntby ot!n-twhite mt-nt<) bring him a book,aud who taught him soux;dtaractcrs to write wuntswith. Doalunwuke, but nevcr tcarnt witat the book was about. So he caticd ))is fricuds togfttter, and one of thcm aftcrward.sitad anothcr drcan),iu which a white man nppcarcd to him, and tolcl ))im that thc book had conM from God. It appcars that Doatu, whcn lie was a boy, ))a<( and t-caUyscen n. w))itc nn.sstonary, had ]camt ve~s frumthc Hn~tishBib)u fnjnt tthn, su that it is pretty ctear that thu sight of a. printed book g:t\'c him thc originat idt'awhich)tc workcd out into his vorymptete aud origina!phonctiuxystotn. It is uvidcnt iron Fig. 13 that sonio lie aduptcd wcrc takcn, of coursewittiout part of tho cttamctc'r.s trom thu )ctter!!hc had s<en m any rcfurencctu ttteir .sound, priut.. His systemuumbcM162 chamctcM, rcprp~nting mostty vn). i. p. j~. M<no)cntf<, ~rt i). SM. thxthn, 'Hmtxtmr oft)m\'ci LMOcu. Lnn.tnn, KwXc, etc..t. L ]!), Il.iM), M. \it~)), 'Wei'.MK Ahint;' U'n'tnn, 1S5C, p.




xyttaUcs, as , &<!),(??', ~t'n,y&K; but oometimeslonger <t'o. Thoughit is ahnostentirety articulations, as ae~ <fC(!<y(, and purely phon<;tic, it is intcrcstin~to observet)tatit inetudes thrcogcnuinc pietnr'sign. oo ~,"m')upy;h)t."gun," and cAt,"watcr," this )Mt sigu (reprsenter hy buU<ts,) bcin~ idcntieutwith t))utwhichstandsfurwater in th E~yptitUthicrogtyphs.

B~,LKi~"H_ ~y~~ ~& /?o 13. l-'i)!.


of thc art fuct!} that the transmission Jt appears i'rotnt)n;.sc a dctaitedtranstnission of writiu~ does not nfccsatri)yinvoIvG ut' th piu-ticuhu'signs in use, nnd the dinicuttyin tracing th mny result frumthcir having m'igin of' th S~niiticcharttct<rs in t)te samowayas th beea fornMd,in i~rcatpart or whoHy, mn)Afri<;au AuK-'ricmi .sy))nba''ia.If t))i!ibu thf case,thero is tui end uf aHtmpc ufti'aci)~ tttcmany furttter. In cuudusion, it muy lie obscrvedthat t))f ~t of picturewhcnword-writing wnth)~ stjouJwmdk's away in aUcuuntric.s is introdnccd yct t)K-rc!t)\ Mfcwi.u)utt'd fonnsin which it huids its u\vn, in spit(; uf writing and printing,at t)us very nnd t )t day. Thc su-ca))edHuman numcra)snrf still in u.sc, as nny sign ))j arc a.s ptain and indispntaUcpicturn-writing on an Indian scroUof hireh-bark. Why V X Mcan Hve and teu is net su ctcur,but thcrc i.ssomcvidencein faveur of th view that it mayhve con)uby cuuntingnni;frs or strukes up to ninc, and thcn makin~ a fitrokcwith another acruss to Massitju tutts us tha.t, tnark it, somcwhatas th deaf-and-dumb in Ilis uutaugbt xtate, his nn~r)! tau~ht hitn to count up to ton, and thpu hc madc a mark. Luskiei, thc Moravian tnisiiiunary,tiays of thc h'oquoix, "T)icy eount up to tcu, and maku a cru~s; tit~'ntcu again, and s" on, tin thcy ttavc nnishcd thcn tht;y takc ihu tcn.s togcthM',aiid ntakc witit thcm ttundrL'ds,thuusands.and hundreds of thousands. A 't'.t~tM!<M~~ Jtt tttmsdMtitn MJer B:ttby, 17i<i'. 39. '<!<b. Ltskie),

)'t(.TU!tE-WNT!XG AXD WO)tn-WR)TtXO.


more modem observer says of th distant tribc of th Crcckx, t)t:tt thcy reckonby tens, and that. in rueording on gmve-posts th ycars of a~' of the dceeased,thc scatps hc Las taken, or th war-pnrti'si)ohns k-d,thcy makc perpcndicniar strukes for units, and a crossfur tcn.~ Thc Chincse chat'actft' for ten is nnd in an o)d Chincsp necountof t))c tife of un upri~itt pr<Ms; u very tur~ turt hcavy muChrist,it is said that tht'y U)adc tht.'chn)'.n'tertcn," w)u<hhe can'ifd, citineof w'jM), ]'csen)b)i))~ and <o which hc was nai)ed.~ Thc Kgyptmns,in t))cir hicro. and ~[yphicehamctcr,counted ))yupri~Itt strokt;s up tu ))iMC, thcu made tt specittlsigu fur ten, in this aspect resemMin~ tho modcntCrcck Indians und tht~factt!mt tho Chmeseonly ou with an X four,and count) )) ))) in strukcs.and thon with varionsuthcr symbofsti)i thcy cunto to + or ten, dues nut intorfercwiththe fact, that in three ot- four Systems of numration,so far as we knowindupendent of one another, in It'dy, Chitia,attd North America,ntorcor !c.ssof th earlier numeraLs are indicatedLycountcdstrokM,and ten by a crossed xtrokt. Such an origiu for thc Roman X is quitc consistent witha hatf X or V. ~ein~us~dfor nve, to save making a nnm. ber ofstrokcswhichwoutdbc dinicntt to coont at a glaneu." IlowcYcrthisnMybu.tiK'picturialori~iuoi't ]j jj) isbfyonddunbt. Aud in technicatwritin~,sueh tcrms as T-s()uarc ctock 4 min. and und g-)took,aud phrases suchas 0 hct'oro at tfh.35u). surviveto showthat cven ht thc midst !) rise.s of th highest Enropcan eiviuiKttion, th tipirit of thc eurliest and rudc.stformot'writingi.snut yct quito cxtinet. 3. Hchcokmft. p.~i. p. 273. ii. ).. t~i. t6St,vu), D~n,'ThcChiMM;' Lumbn, (theojx.'t) *itht)M)tt)t ef Y,Mttinj:ftnute figt'n; hand, origiu AdMt.fHc <-)K! th ) with thc Mu) stKtchM) tinscni to~ther, tittcedmx ))j )j)t, Mftdo out, am) hM M'tnrrf) tooth<;ns. It )m. ):npntfMUntM by(jrMcfcnt), upright fin~n', MtM) on<teNt< i< but wmt) ptamiU",



JMACES ANDNAMES. TnE tritc comparisonof savagcs to "grown-np chi)dren,"is iu thc main a sound onc, tho<tgh not to bc can'icd out too strictty. In thc uncivihxL'd Amcrieanor Potynesinn,th fitrcngthofbody and force of chnract(;r of a growu man arc comhined with a tncntat dcvdupmcut in many respects not beyond that of a young child of n civitixcdrace. It luts bceu atrcatty noticed !)ow naturaiiy chiidrcu c:ui apprcciate and underi<ta:td such direct expressionsof thought as t!te gosturc-Ianguageand pic. the use of doits or images as an turc-wntmg. In !ikc maNner, assistanceto thc operationsof thc mind, is famitiarto ait chil. dren, thougit amottg thoiic who grow up under the iunucnccx and forgotteu of civiiiiied society, it is mostiy Hupc'rsedctt in ufter )ifc. Fcw cducated Europpans uver thuroughiyreaHxc the fact, thnt thcy hve once passedthrough a conditionof mind from whieh races at a lowcr statc of civilization never fully cmcrgo but t!us is c<rtahdythe case, and the Eut'opcanchild the kcy to Mveratof thc ntcntal ptaying with its doU,furniiihf!; phenomcnawhich distinguis))the more highiy cuttivatcd raccti of manttind frutn thosc lowc'rin thc scate. Whcn a eliild ptuyswith a do)t or ptaything, the toy is com. monlytnado to rcpresent in t)tGchnd'Ktnind tiomuimaginary ol~ectwhich is more or less tiku it. Wuodcn sotdicrs,fur instance, or the Lcustsin a Noah'M ark, Itave a real rcsemMancc whiohuny une wou)d rccognixcat once to seMicrs aud heasts, and at) that tht-' chiltl Itas to do is <o suppose them Mgger, and alive, and to cunsidcrthcm as watking uf ttttitnsctvcs whcn they arc pttshcd a!wnt. But au intaginative child will bc content with tuuch !u.s!i n'a) res~'tnbtancc thau this. It wiUbring



in a !arger subjective otoment,and make a dog do duty for n, or a soldier for a shepherd,till at lnsstthe objective rcItorM, scm)')aneealtnost diwppean!,and a Lit of H'ood mny bc dragged about,rcprcsenting a xhip on thf sea. or Mcoach ou the rond. H<'roth likeness of th Lit of woodto a ship or a coach is vcrys)ight itf'ff'cd bot it is a thi))~,0))') fan bc moved bout nud placed in n. nuitaUc position in an npp)'"priat<! t))tH)ncr, with rcsp'ct to otlier ohjccts. Utdiko as the toy may Le to a pn)'what it rcprcseut.s in thu chitd's mind, it fitiit answo'a to the child in en&btingit to and is an vident nssisttmco po:)c, arrange and deveop its ideas, by working th objects and actions and storics it i.s acquaintcd'with,into a sries ofdra. matie picturcs. Of ])ow mue)) usa the matenat object is in sctting tlie mind to work,may be suettby taking it away and tcavingthe ctutd to play wittt nothingto play with. At an early ge, chitdrcn learn more froni play t))an from teachiHg; and tlie use oftoys ia verygrt in dcvc!opingtheir minds hy giving thc'tnthe means of,as it were, taking a scene or an event to pices, and putting its partj)togc'ther in new eombiuations,a process whie)t immotSt'tyincreascs the definitcncss of th chitdren' idcasand their power of anatysis. It in th-veiopiog tho sub. inbecausc thc ursoof toy. is principaOy jective sido of thu mind, that tho ctaboratengnres and modois of winch tbc toy-shops i)a\'c bccn full of )atc ycars are of so littte use. They are careMjy workodout into tbo nicest details; but they arc modci)!or pietures, nut piaythings, and chiidrcn, wbo know quite w<;)iw))at it is they want, tire of titem in a fcw hours, untt;.<!S, indecd,thuy can bn'ak titon up and tnaku roa) toys of thu bits. W)iata chiid wants is not one picturo,but th means of makinga tttnusand. Objc'ctivcknow. ledge,such ai!is to he gained from the ciabomtuJoII's houscs and grocer's shops, with their appurtcnances,tnay be got in plenty eiscwheroby tttcro observation but toys,to be uf vahto in eariy ducation, shouid be sepamtc,so as to aHowof their and not too cerbcingan'anged in any variety of combination, vileand dctaiied copies of objects, so that they may not bo mre picturcs, but symbols,which a child can make to stand fur )nanyobject': with titc nid of it.!i imaginatioa.



In later ycarx, and among bighty eclueated people,tho mental processwhich goes on in tt chitd ptaying with woodensoldioM and it')MUs, though it ncvcr disnppcars, must bo cought for in tho midst ot' a tuure comptcx pbeoumcna. Pcrhaps nothing in after tit'u <nnrcctos'ty rcsftnbtt"! the eH(;ctof a doU of talc upon upon it chitd, t))au tho cfH'ctof thc !)h)stt'<ttiun.s n gt'own-upt'citdcr. Hure the objcctivf rMftnbtancc is very iudftioito two artists wou)dnMko pictures of tho same ficenc that wut'evcry uotiku ono <n)othe), tiju vct'y pcrMns nnd pjaces depicted are imngmary, and yet what renlity and dcfinitenMi! if!gh'cn to thc secue by a good pif-turc. But ia thif! case th<* direct action of au image on tho nnnd eontplieatcs itsdf wit)) ttto dccpGst proMums of paintiog and sculpture. Th contparison of the wurking))ut' tho tnind of the uneiviti:!t'd ma)), and of the civilixedcltilcl,is tnuch )css difHcutt. Mr. Backhousconc day nuticcd in Vau Diemcn'8 Land a native wonatt an'auging )ic\'fral atones that were flat, ova), and about two inches wide, and marked iu variom directions withbtack and red tincs. Thse ho learncd rcpruscutcd abocat frieuds, and oue lar~'r thau thc rcst iitood for a fat native woman on Flind~s Istaud, kuown by the name uf Mother Bro\vn.' Simitar practiccs ar<;&und anM))~fia' higher tftcc.f thau the m-&tcd Tasmtunans. Atnou~ Mme North Anicrican tribes, a tnothcr wlio Itas tost a child keeps its memoryever presetit te) hcr by ~))ing its cradlo with b)ack feathe~ and quiUs,and can'ying itahout with ht-rfor a ycar ornMre. When she stops anywheru, shp set: up tho pradtc and ttdks to it as sho goes nbout hcr work, just as shc woutd havf donc if the dcad baby had bcfu still atiw within it.' Hure wc hve no image; but in Africa wc (ind a rude dull, rcprcscnting tho ehi)d,kept as n tm;n)ori:t!. It is well known that over a great twin chiipart cf Africa tho practice pruvaits, t!utt whenHVGr dren are born, une or both of them are immediatdy killed. Among tlie Wanyamwcxi,onc of tlie two i~ ahvayskilled and, strango to say, "tItcunivcKat custom amongst thse tri bes.is NinTitth'e of<tVi'ittothAastntthtt BjdiJMUM, (MotumLoxJon, !843, p.1~4. yn). &tUu. ii. ]3X.


) 1

fortha mother to wrap a gourd or ca!abashin sk!ns,to plaa it to !i)eepwith, nnd feed it [ikc, tbo survivor. Bnstiansaw Indian womcnix Pcru, whohad)o.st an infant, can'ying about on their backsa woodcndo)ttu r~-prcsent it.~ Among the Bc. it is a customfor mnn'icd womento can'y a. doit wit)) chuanas, themtin thcy hve )t chiid, whcntho do)t ii) discardcd. Therc isonc of thcse d")).tin the London Jttissiunfu'y Musum, contiifting sunpty of u long ctdahas)),like n hotttc, wound round with stringsof !)['nds. Thc Basutowomtinuse ctay doif.tin thc samoway,givin~ thou thu ttatoc!) of tutchtrydcitics,and trcatof Eastern St. ing thou tts chi)<h't:n."Atuong thc O.styaks a stiU nxMfhtstructive cn.se, in which wo beria,there M(<jun'I xcethe transition frum t))GiMa~cot'the dcad mantu ti)Caetuat idul. When a man di<s,thfy set up a rude woodeu imngu of hououMpaid to it, and him,whichrc'ecivc'i(jrterin~ and ]f:).s thowidowcnthraccsand can's.sc.s it. As a gc'no'at rn)f, titeso imagesaro buricd at th< end of thrcc ycar.sor su, but MtNG. timeitthc ima~e of ashauum' is set up pcrtuancoth', and rcmainsas a saint t'urcYL'r.' Thc prineipat uso f itnagcs to racesin the !uwcr stages of is that to tvhiehtheir nameof thovisible,"tMMof, eivitizatiou ido),bas corneto be in grt mcasurorc.strictfdin modem tangua~. Tho idot answcrs to th savage in one province of thought th samo purpo~c that its attaque the doUdocs to the chitd. It ('nab)cs )nn)to give a dcfinitc existence and a to th va~K' i'tcas offtigher beings,which bis mind pcrsunaHty can bardty gmsp wititoutKomo matoriat aid. How thse ideas cameintu t!ie tninds of c\'en the towMtsava~cf!, nccd not bc discusscd ncro it is surHcicnttu knowthut, sufar ax we havo accuratf infonnation, they MCtn to bc pr~'scutcvcrywiicrc in at Ipasta rudimcntaryststc. 'Ccntmt v!. ii.p. 23. Y<). ii. p.3M. BurtoN, AMm,' U. )hstM)), 2S1. Cmaib, r. <A<i4aMaa h NNNtit'e MfN'K')' or KM'fMtK'-xMtt. M< tMttte M frotn Mtrapted StMMt o Jtad'thMt tenn which b OM of thc ~MtntUM, Mcetic, ? t<i<s of MMny B)nt<thM!n itt Northent t'MM tXtttM'.diK~ ixtotho gmveftiftg Aah,imyins fetMhofthU.<tyntM) M'tTuMptf!!). KM tndh'h)! wotdtip We)wr, f!):itmn,' p.CO. 'Jtokeumdia v..). EntMM), Hrde:'fierUn, tS~-tS, ii.j,.C77. su tu).<iii. H! X"r<),' p.



It doefi not appear that Motsaccompany religiousidcasdown to tho towest ievetsof th hnmati race,but rather that they helongto a pcriodof transition and growth. Atk'astthis scptns tht' on)y n'asonnbto cxptanation of tho fact, that in Atncrica,fur instance, amon~ t)x' )owcst races. t))e Fnpgians and thf Indinns "f thf southt.'ni forcsts, wc huar !itt)u or nothingofid"k. A))M)t!{thp!!o-<'a))MtR<<).fn<)ian'<ofthf Nurt)),wc sotxctimcs(it)<)ido)s worshipppttand sacrificedto, and P<'mt)n; whotc apparatun but not tdwnys,w)ti)cht Mexico uf idols, tonpk's, pricsts, and sacrificesis found iu a. most that ccmptcxaud etaborate form. It docs not secrn, tndMed, thu growtttof thc U)ic of itnages may )K' taken a.s any direct <nea!!U)'(i of t))ogrowth of' n'Ii~iuus idca.s,which is cotnpticated witha midiitudn uf othcr thin~j). Image-worshipdepcudijiu coosido'aUo inea'iurcou thu reprcficntatio)) of idcat beings. lu M far as this ymbutical'k'mont M couccrncd,!t Memsthat when mau has got sutnc way iu (k'vetoping thc religious e)em<;ht in bhn, iic bcgins to cateb at the dc~iccof scttinga as thu sy)nbut and rcprcst'ntativoof th puppL'tor a sto)t<? notionsofa highet'bcio~which are noattt~ in his mind. Hc Mesin it, as a chUd ducs in a doU,a tnatc'rial form winchhis can ctoth<; with aU th attributcs of a bcin~ which imaginatMn he bas nc\'er suen, but 'jf wtto.tu cxi.st'nccand nature hejudgcs by what hc supposesto bc it.sworks. H' can tod~e it in the ptace of Itonour, cuver it up in t)n: tnust pr<'ciou'< gannents, would be ncccptabtoto propitiatu it wittt oH'fnu}p'such <M jnmscH Thf Christian misMonary JK-athen to g'~cs iunong thL* teachth doctrin's of a hi~bur rcti~on, nnd to substituto for tho crudc superstition of th< savage a b~lic-fin a God so itu' titat no dfinition of the Deity beyondtnnnan cotnprcbcn."ion, to man bt'yond va~uu prdications,as of infinit is pos.sib)c duratiun, knowtcd~c,and ~uodnesi!. It is not purhaps power, tu be wondcrcdat, thut the nnssionaryshould see uotiting in but hideous foUyand wickedncss, and shonM look idot-worship upon an idol as a speciat invention of th dcvi!. He is a vicw by th fact that by thc strengthfncd,morcovcr,iu suc]* ofa certain !awof thc I)umanmind (of whicit more opuration will tjc sud prcscnth'), UtL-ido),which onco scr\'ed a definitc



aud important pnrposoin thoducationof thohuman mec,bas corne to bo confunttdct)with th i()ea of which it wa.s t)M and bas thu.f beeumctho parent of th grossest symbo), superstition and (t<)').sit))t. But t)tostttdcutwbooccupieshhnocti'in tritcing thc carly t.t:)~s of bmuan civilisation,can Me in th rn'tc ima~ of thu .sava~-an important aid to f~rty religious whuu it ut'tt.-n i8 ttf) ttcvftopment, happonsthat th tnissionary uuabteto apprcciatct);e u. and vatueofan ido),at tho growanp manMtu rcafixethc use of a dutt tu a chi!d. )tun b<;in~ t)to highc.sttiviug crature that can bo Moi a,nd iniitated, it is natura) that idut-jshuutd mostty bo imitation);, tnoru or If.s}) rude, of th hutnan turm. To showthat thc aud tuore powurhdthtm tnan, bcih~ thcy n'pr~<))t ar' gruatci' and sonn-times, tht'y arc ot't'n hu~ in .sixu, hy a vcry natund aod pMM uf anus a)id )cg!tshowthat cxpediott, tifvcratttead.s tnoru WMdum, thuy haYLstrcugtt), aud Bwifmcs.than mat). Th suu aud moon,wh!ch,itt t))ophy-sica! of th savage, sy.stL'm aro oftcn hc)d tu bu iiv'))~ craturesuf titunstrou)! powcr,arf r~prffifutMd by hua~s. Thu iuwcr aniutat.s,tuo, are ofhin raiscd tu th honour oi' ))ur.~ttatiu~ snpernatura) powcrs,n u.s,whcu wcconsido'that t)te practicf whichnccd oot Murprisc at .sog)\'at a dfpth betow savane(tm'xnut tift thu )owcrauuuati! hitn a.sth~'ch'itiifcdtnau do<s. but ttHuw.s thum thu posscsjiou audattcr hi.sf'ashiua, whitcwcpurhapsen' oi'iatt~ua~c, ot'tiuuts, in tth- upjtu.itt' dircctiu)),by strotchiu~thu ~rcat ~ap which St'parnt(.sthu fuwe.stmau fruui t)i' hi~h'it uuima), ioto au us anunats ha\'e sumo powers itnpas.sahtu ~u)t'. MuruoVfr, which tnan u)))ypo.'MMSM in a )c.s.s dugr~ or uot at att, ttteMu to a ~ity by p~'r.suttating him under powurstuay bf MttrihutL'd thu iurMsuf thc :u)i)na).'i whichpusiics~ thot), or by givingto aM thu.<th fect of a. hna~cuf huumutbrmpart~ ut'sm:hnuituaLs; ntag,thc hcad of a Hou,or thu win~sof a bird, may St'n'c to th<;swiftm'M or f~rocity of a god, or to showthat hc cxprciM eau Hyinto th upperrugiousuf th air, or, like th goat's fect ut' Fa)), thuy )uay bc xiero indicationsuf his charactcrand functious. It is ))ot ncccssary ttiat ttte figureof a dcity fthouHItavcth charactcristic.s of thc mce'whoworiihip UUtttUUt of anothcr it th ttgure



mec may secm nttcr for tho purpoM. Mr. CatHu,for instance, hronghtoverwith.))itna tent fron tho Ct'owJndians,whichhe deseribesas haviHgth (h'eat or Oood Spirit paintud on ono mdoof it.and th Bad Spirit on thc othcr. His drawin~,unfurtuuatfty,only show;)c)ear)y onu Hgure, in thc.)mn)istakab)u uniform of a whitu M)Mierwith n tmiskut in tho onc ha.mt and a pipe iu th th<;)' andthis may very iikt!)yt'c th figm'f of tho Good Spirit, for ttte pipe i.sn kuown symbo)ut' pcace~ But th whitMn):u) Ktand.s aisu to the s!tvap:epainter ibr the portrait of th Evit Demoo, t'pfeintty in At'rica,whorowoi!nd t))Cnativesof Moxntnbiqucdrawing their dcvit in thc Hkencss whUuRomer, spuaMng of tho pt'upfe of tho of a white tnat),~ Cuinea coast,xays that thcy s:)y th<j devit i.swhite, and paint him wit!t their whitcst cotours. Thc pietur<s of him arc Icut on hire fora weekor M by the oM wotnau whutnakcs thcm, to his pmptf whom tho devit visits at night. Whcn hc );Gps image, ho is M tcrrined tttat he never cotnp.sLack.~ This necd not, howcvcr,)'c iutendcd hy any tneans as impersonatiou an insuit to thc white tnan. As Captain Bnrton says uf his Africanname ofJt/ft:!<~y<f 3/<'~, th wiekedwhite man," it wontdhve Lectt but a sorry comptinicnt to hve catted him a gcodwhttc tnau. Mwh of thc rcvcfencf of ttte iiavagcis bon and thc white eoionistbas sctdum rather of fc'ar than(~f )u\'L', &i)ed to make out that tittc to t)tc refpeet of th savane, which lie!)m th powcr, not uuaceotnpu.tuudby th will, to hurt hhn. Tito rudcnc.s and shapficssues.sof sono of thc htucks and as idois among many tribM, and thosc not titoncs whieh ticrvo to Le ntways thc iowest, is often surjM'isittg. TtK're spt.'nM of an most)y,though nut ahvays,a titnit tu t))u shapc'te&snpss idotwi)ic)iis to represeut t!ic Inunan t'onn this is thc same which a child wouht uncon.sciou.tyappiy, nan)L')y, that Its rd.i. p. j.t. Ctttit), of ?JoMnfy the\VurM Yo). i. Sir Xafnttn'e [ouM't LoM<tn, U.StxtHoM, tS47, 7B. n)t.v. p. 7~8. SecLivin~ttone, PotehM, Mimottary Tftfeb,etc.,in ReNt)) Mareo in rittkertot), vu), vii. ftbo l'oto. p. 109. AHm;Lontbn, tSS!p.MB. See <L.F.Mmcr, Kmht-. fM derKMte 1709, Umoea')) j Cojxinhaf~n, Lcit':ti& p.43. See ToL i i. 603. Wfdtt, p.


~) 1].

icngth, brcadth, and thickne.sstnuift hear a proportion not too far dia'eront front tho proportMns of the humau b<xty. A woodenbrick or a c'jtton-rt'c),set up or )ying down,will serve wu))euough fora chitd tu rcprc.scnt:t man or womanstanding or tyiug, Lut itcuhu or a. batt wou)d not tmswcr tho purpososo a nd if fur u tua)), c'ioMhat-dtybu supposedeven by \Vf)t, put t)h- imtt~itxttiox af it c))i)d,to t'fpr~cnt nmt'c than positionnnd movonott, ur rchttivt-' sixc whcn cnmparcd wit~~Inrgpr or smidk-r ubj-'cts. Mue)) thc samo tfiit is appHcd by (hc )Ut. ch'i)!i!cd))):u)in <tpnrticutar ctit.s.s of myths or )egcad! which coun;to ))<. tnadoon this wi~o. Wo a)) hve tnoruor tMsof tho of .scuin~ powc'r fut-tnsof tuoi und aumudsiu in:u)imatc objects, whiehsumctitncsJxn'u iu tact a con.sid'mbt.jHkt'ncs.s ofouttine to whnt tht'y .sug~st, )~tt which, in sutne instattOM, ttavo to the thmgs intu which faney seareutyany uthor ~'s~tnhiHnec shapesthon, than !t ronghsimitarity m thu proportionsoftheir tonner<nntshortcr dianu'tcri). Atythswhich hve tjwn appHfd to such fancicd resoubhmccs,or ha\ gn~wn out of thcm, np hc co)h'ct(;dfroni a)! th(.' mny wor)d. and from races parts of scah:of(;n)tnrc. high and )owin <))G Atnong th Riccaras, thcro w:t. once a yont)};Indian who wasin hn-cwith )t girl, hut hcr parunt~rcfn~'<tthcir ccusenttu thc marria~ su thc youth wcnt out h)tothc pmh-k-, lamcntin~ his fate, <Ut<.) tlie girl wandur(.'dout tu t)K'ijame p)acL', aud the ftuthfu) du~ futtowuditis mastcr. Thcrc thcy wand~-r~d wilh uothiog tr) )i\-cun tmt t)n' ~Hd grapcx,aud at tast ttiey wo-c turm-dinto stouc,first thcir fc't, and t)tcn ~radunDy thJ upper part "f thcir hodics,ti)l at tast )tut)tingwa.sleft uochaugcd but a htmch ofgrupo.'i. w)nc)tthc ~irt huht.s in hcr )mudtu this day. And aH thi.s story fta.sgr<jwnont of t!m iancicd iikpnc's-! of thn'f stomM to two hmnau tigurcs and a dog. Tttercare many and tho Riccaras vencrate th(.so (t~n'M, gmpcs growing ))Gnr, luaving little offo-in~ for titon whea ttn.-ypass hy.' Su thc SMtccaIndiaus a~nu that the roundcd Itcad-hko pubbieson th shorcuf Lake Canandaigua arc the petrified skullsof thc dcvonrcdtrihe di~gorged by the grt snake m its dcath-agony.~ Lcwb M() C)M):e, Edition DtibdttphM, 1SU, p. 107. Sttfoukt-tft, tNttiii.t'-323. ) 2

!K! fi


Thm-cwasa MaoriWMn-ior mmed Hnu,axd )ti.swii'uWairaka d<sertcdhi)n. 8o))<'tuih)W('d))t'r,K<K<mcHct'tvet'tot)tc "<'xt,am)a(Jasthecfnnctotjnc',wh<rfh<jh.<;kt'<t()utsiyty <jtnt)t(.'cun)t.-t'ufhi:it.'yL'tu.sc(;it')K-<uu)ddi.~t)\TT)K'r.jtu Ln'at)K.-dh:trdw)tcuh<'n'ac)K'dt))<'p)!)ccwh('MW:umkawas Mttif)~M')th)t<-)-jNm))))!)'. Hffi:tidtoh(.'t'W:tin(}M.Ia)tt t))i)-<ty,<<t<'it))ws<m'wat<-)Stu-~utxpaudwt'tkf.'tt'towt) tt)t))(iSfawit)t<teata))a.shiuMtchh!)hd. H<tnad' hc't-gom) Utttit th<;wa\'u.s tt(.)\(.'d over itcr shuuhtcrs,when Itc ]-cpK)tpd tt chfn-m,whM))co))\-crt~Ut<'t-itttat')ckth!tt!.tiU LcarshMDituu'. T)K'n))(!Wt:ntjuyfn)ty(t)this\V!n' Hothu fi~nn-ut'ti~ w~(.-])m~ Xiohutm'ncdinto a njck, nug!~ bc m'en u)t Mouat Sipylus.~ T)tc croups uf upri~ht stoncs, )<(;tup))y<)Mi))ha))itant.sinAfn<ft!UtdIn()ia,iu'<'n<)\ia))t.-i, )n<:t),f!w)<sM)td)tUt-ds(.-hi)))~dint().stun(-;t)t('a\t')tumot' )))onoHt)M:ttKantuk at-cpctriM Lattati~tM;tht'stottc.ciMh-s ott Hn~i.sh downs ha\-c suggc.stt.-u utho- fa'tcii'n[ Icgcnd.s,as whcrc ior instanf-c th~. story t)tt.sshapcd its~jf, porhaps ht Ptu-ttaatiuK's.thatsuchann~wasapartyof~hI.swhowf.'n' a. turt)cdmtu.tum;ft)rda)K-i))~caru)s<maSunday.~ Thct-cisa tradition, )in)))a))tystif)cu)-)'mtt in rafc'stnn-.ut'aeitybctwcc'n Fctnt od Hc)<rt), M'h<t-.t.' itthMttitant.-i wr' tnrttf<) into stonc f'a-t))(-irwickcd))u.<.s. S<~t~)t,))K'tnn'(-)h't-,visitt t)n'spot w)tCTL-t)Krt;utai)t.-it.ft)j(.p(.tmk-di<)))at)it:mts.,t'th'WK'kcd <'ity!stii)tu])L.w(.-)<,a))d,j~t!).sinth<AMt-)-ipa)ttah',h.found tttL-i))h-)nts a nuntbrtut' htunycun<TL-ti~u.'<, )yius sMttt~rcd "nthc'uund.' ThL'i))ta!i"a<iunw)ji(.-hc"uidwurku)tt)K-hu ruduo)jj(.-ct.c<)u)d "atura))ydMu\'(-r in htum-.statues thc rGsuttot' .snch atmtt.sfunnatiu)). Statut;scutptm-udLY a hiHh('t-I~ntnau)~-<'atTiahu!Ut:K'.),M-ct)tt-dt.) thcrudoIndiaus putt-ittcdn)(.n/ amt t)K' chmi.sy .stum'))n.st.s on Asiatic st~-ppusiu'c, tu t)tt; t-udt-Turanians who wto-sttipthcm, as it -.v(..n-f<)s.-iiHx<.dd"iti~ K.p~-i:d)yt)i<.Jt;wi.sh atx) Mosk.m W.H.Bt~cr, Un )ftmri Tnu. Eth. l'hr 1'A.tf.t-, ]~n<bn, !<!],)..<9. ~t'!m.tt<i:m,i.2!. Stet''ur))t)i.La'U< R~c)) ofScuthn')H(titt)'ttr)!h. &r))' Yot. i. ]!)]. ]H)0, Ka<rh~, rnmmm) 'J~yut) tti!.tur;Lon<hn, )!i.t' p. dl. Cim.teLton, Tnn-ebi (tr.m.)d.).y S.M. AJMkhtun), Hakh)yt !SU<, p. 3r.'<. L-thuN, ru), i . D~n~tive S' Hthmb.;y




icunocbt.stie mihd thixks ancit.-iitstatues )n<))tmnsfurmodby fUchnutnMnt ut-jud~n'ut, an') JK-t-f we hin'c tho ftoxrec uf tho At-Mbinn Nigttt.s'ta)uof the ihfkM city, fuund witit its inhnhi. tants turm'd tu tif<-)i)<(.' (;<jtttttcrf<;its in .stunu.' Thu myt)). of f'x~tpriutsstiuxp-'d ioto thf rock hy-godsor nK'nmv nut t)tu )<tst Mtn'ns o)' thi.s ciass, not on)y taighty t't'Mnt)tc j'owo- f)t' i)))n~in:)ti'))) t' s<-<' iu t-~)))it-f<) footpt-int!! )acrc round or tons cin-iti(. bot fd.sohota thc uoanimity with whic)) H~yptiiU)-Grct..ks, Mm)tt)):mK, Htjddhi.st.t. (;hristmus, imd Mostcnt.'i)t!)V(; Hdoptt.'t)t)n.in as rdics, <-ncht'rom their "n point "<'vit-w. '1')~'typicn) case is t)~' sact'(.'d fuotprintof Ccytun,which is a cavity in th'' ruck,) ft;ft )ut)~hy 2. i'cut K-t()' at the top of A();ttft'sPc;tt<,tnadc i)ttf<sottK'thit~ M); a hu~u tbotst~p hy )n'rt:u- (tivisioosfur thc tu~. BmhnnuM, and Musk'tus.sti)[ c);n))) t))c tnuuutam to du rcHud'H)ist.-<, t'ut'<ncftu it Lut tu thc Brahunuiit i-it))f f'jotstcp af Siva, to ttx- Bnddhi.stuf thu ~-0:0 f'uundcrf hi.s rutigM;),Cautatu:t im-ttu tho Muston it i< th'' spot whcrt' A')amstood Huddhit, whcn )h- was dt-ivcnft'um Ptun')i.(.' w)u)c th (inostics ))a\'e hctd it tu ht; th fuutprint uf Icu, iu.d Utri.stians haYc bt.'eu dividud hutwL't.-ti t)tu conitictitt~(.-);mn. < St. 'i'houMs und th Huouch (;f Ciutdncc.~t~-n of Kt)fiupi)(.=' Thu foltus-cMof thse dit!'erc~tfait)~ h~vc fouod ))u)yfootpt-intshi tnany countt-k'~uf t)K-UJd Worid. !)t)d thc (.'Jn'istMxsJj:n't' can'iett tho idf:( thtu vin'iuusp!H-s of ur"p' wh~-c snints hve Jcft titeir touttnurk.s wjntc,c\-cnht Atnurica,St. TItunms t~ft Ins f'jut.<tcps un t)n: shun-sof Hahin,as a re~u'd of hiti myt))ic jum'))(;y." l''or:t)t wukhttw.thu wt~tu tnassoftho Utd Wui-td fuotprinttnyths way hn,(.' )md but n siti~iu on~it), amt httvc tntveftcd fruta une pef'p!(.tu an<~t()er.Titc stury is (uund, tuo, in thu P:n:iti(;I.shun).s, tu)-in Samoa tw'; hoUowptaces,ncar six feet iu rock, arf shownas t)<ufuutprints uf Tiitii, wtK'rchc t' ~ttjud\).'tt i!u pttshcd thu hc-aveu.up frum thu c:n-th.' But )~tK, -Ti~nsut.) Mt) iii.t.. Ul. M.A.W~kor,MtwbMi.t,' U)K!Xij;ht.< t-u). f."mtm), 4S.. v Js~t,[<. "TcnnMtt, '('cykn;' vu), ii. ).. 1!): A'ttttntN-, \y. of Hn;Ktt~m, RT)fyx.~tt, t!i'i],eh- vo). i. p. 03.
.~ut)K.y, Hin)-y af ttnm) L..n.)un, 1 S~S, \). i. i~up. ).. xjf. KM-.C. TunK-r, XiMctM Yon- m Myn~m L-mdutt, IMt, ti. 2M.



there are reasou.sw))i(.-h u)ay rnukeus hesitatu to cousider th grt Polyncsian mythu[o{ry as iudependentof Axiatic influeuce. ht North Ann-rica,nt th odge cf tho Qrcat Pipestone Quarry, w!)CM tt)t) f!roa< Spirit stoodwin-nthe b)oo() of th bnHatox hc was dt'vourix~ ran (towa upou t))f stoxt' tut't umn'd it red, thett; his fuutstcpsMh'to bL'.se~ntk'<-p)y tntu-kt.'diu thc ruck, in t)K'form of the traek of n gt-cat hird while Mcxicau cyc.s euuMttisetTnin the soiMnx-kat Danepantiu thc mark uf hand un't fuotleft t'y the tui~htyQuctxak-oat)~ Thcrc are tht-N-kindsuf pritit.shi the ruck which may hve SGn'cda.s :(funodationfur suclt tak'.sas thc.sc. n manyparts of the wor)d thcrc aru f'Msii fuutprints of Hrd.s and bants, tnanyof huge siiic. Thu Korth Atucrican lodtaus tdso,whose attention i.i spcciattyativu tu thu fuutprint.s of )t)cn :mdanimai, vcry uftcu curvu thum on mcks,-.jun.'titnc.s wit)t filtres uf thf animais tu whiMitthey h(.')o))~.Th~sc f'uutprint.sur(; .snntuthnussu xaturaUydonc as to bc tnisttd~-uror rud Mtc-s.Titc roekufwhk'h Andcrssonhcard iuSouti) At'rK-a,"inwhichtht! tmeks of aMthu dKt'ft-eut ~unuid!!hutigmouti to thc euuutry arc distinctty Yisihtt. is prubabty sm.-ha .scujptttrcd rock. ThirJ)y,t)tt;rt-art;suH))nK-reshap<)t.s.s hutL-sas thosetu~hich 'nust ur ull of the U!d Wurid myttt.s~(..)u tu hc attacttcd. New the diHieultyiu wurki)~ out tlie prubtctn of tbc origiu of thesu myths is t)))M, that if tbc prints arc reat fussi) onh.s, <jr S'Md seujpturc.s, storics of th buin~ t))ut tnadc thcni tnigttt Ht'ow up it)d(-pcndcnt)y auywh'-rc- but um; ean hardty <aney '"<)' in tnany diH'wttt ptaccs cutnit~ scparittcty upon thu notion of ))t(;n-hnH.nvs, ')uaint six t<-(..t )u))~, bcit~ tnuustrou.s un)~ t)iu uutiuu .<f tnon.struu.s foutprints, fuatjn-ihts bt.'in~ f~nnd et.-icwhcru wt:~ idr'tdy cun-cut. At th<; fout of tho to .su)))c pa~ arc rcfM-L'ttCNi pa.s.<a~s rciatit)~ tu t)~ s)))'j';ct~ v~j.ii. G.t)in, )..]! n. J. MQihr. A)ncri);:u.i.h(: rn\!)!jti""t'n I!:hk, ){iX~, p. ~.S,tec272. C.J. Att.kr~.t., L-ttit. X~h.i, etc., )..!i:!7. ~.mt \-i-.it K.t' Lu. ~&),v.,). !.yd), ii. ), 9~. c.t~Ut.~ S.it)., \H. )fMt. <.f U.M 3S. IHi..h..r);h, tS<S, p. ~hMicmft. part)ii.)..r4. -Ce.ttnd ;.<(on, i. ),.2S8.S.~ierM.) Afrm.' ,.). A uct. M.n.cf M. U~-k, uf .S.,)it).~h.. <(. \M.to! t~ t.. ~M. R~ti..sut., Il.M. s~. H")-u.< )j<M):



[t bas just becn renturketltl'at there Ma certain procs uf the buman mind through which,atnong men at a towlev!of ducation, the use of images teads to gross superstitionand deiusion. No une will dcny t))at thcrc i.san vident connexion between an object, aud an image t' picturc of it; but we civilizedtnen kuowwell that this cum~xionis only xtt~'ec/tM, that is, in th mind of the observer,whik' t))CMMno o<{/ec<(w t-onuuxion bt.'twfcn thon). By au ohjcctivo conxfxiuu,1 meau th buek':t in th wcU .sucha eunuexiuu as thctf;M bct\VGon aud the hand thut drawoit up,when tho houd stops, tho bueket stops too or between a man and his shadow,when the man moves,the shadowmovestoo or betwcetian etectro* t)<;ar it,wheti th curront passos tnagnctand tho h-un <i[iugs through thu coil, a change takcs pta in the conditionof tho irun ntings. Thcsc are, of course, crudo exampics; but if more ttiecty is necessary,it might bo said that the connexion is in somc degreo what a mathcmatician expresses in saying that is a function of a:,~'hen, if x changes, changes too. Th connexion between a man and his portrait is not objective,forwhat is doncto th man liasno effectupontho portrait, and t'<ceW)'s(<. To an educatcd Europeau nowadaysthis suunds like a mere so scif-cvidL'nt tliat it is not necessaryto tnidtea formai tt'UMtn, statcmont of it but it may neverthek'ss be shuwnthat this and ix ouo of th cases in which th accnmutated expcrienco the tong courseof ducationof the civitizedraces,)tavobrought thon not oniy tu reversotbo opinion of th savage,but com. monly to think that their own views tu-e th ouly ones that couldnaturtdiy ariso iu thc minduf auy rationuthuman being. H'ith tho Jifeand waysof It nceds nu very )M)~facttuaiutance thought of thc savage,tu provothat tttcre is tu be foundaUuver thc wor)d,especiauyamong races at a lowmental lev!,a view as to this inatter which is very dinerent fromthat wbic))a more advanecdducationliai. impreiised upott us. Man,in a lowstage uf culture, veryconnnoniybenevcst))at betwecntho objectand the image of it there is a rca) connexion,whichduesnot arise trotna ntere subjccttvcprocessin th mind of thc observer,and to that it is accordingtypossibletu eomntunicatean impressiuti



thc originat titrongh t!)c ccpy. We may Mtowthis crroncous bciicf np into pcriodsof high civitixation, it.straces beconung faintoras cducation advanccs, and not only ixthi.sconfusionof of th snbjpcth'e nnd o))jcctivcrctationconnectfd wit!) many dchtsionsof i()o)Mt)'y; hnt pvcnso scemingtyobscurea snbjcct,as in K''cattnHtsurcintoc'k'ntMngicnod sh~cry inity Le )n'ou~))t at it nse\-o)\'c() fromthis proccs-t ofthc mind. dnytigttt,bytookiug It is t-u)ittL'd LyMt cady observerof thc nativesof Austratm, that in oncof their itnitath'c donepsthoy tondeust'of it gras! aud the ceremonywas hctd tu give thctn figure of a kangaruo, inthc bus)).' In Xnrth Amct'ica, powcroyci'tlie t'ea)kaugaroos whcti an Atgonquin\Yi:!ard WM))<;s tu kiU a pu-ti';ula)animt, he makes n gt'asf! or cioth imascof it, aud hangs it up m hix wigwatn. TiMnhe rcjK'atsticvo'ititinK'sthc incantation,"Sec how1 xhoot,"and tcts Hyan amjw ttt thc ima~. If hc dnvcs it in, it i.sa bc kith'd tK-xt sign that the animahYt)t day. Agai)). white an an-ow touc)tcd by th ma~if-atmcdawin.and afterwards Hred iuto thc track of a anima), is hcnuvcdto ant-st his course,or otho-wi.sca~-ct hin), tiit thc ))untcr ean corne np, a simitarvirtue is bdipvpdto bc excrtL-d. if but thc figure of thc anima) songht bu <)rawn on woodor bark, aud aftcr\~art)s submittcd to t)m influences of thc magie mudieincand incantation. In thcir picturc-writings,a mat) or bcast is shown to be undcr tnagic iufhtcnceby dmwiu~a )ino fron) theMouthhfthchcnrt.Minthu IL anufxcd<)~ut'c,which t'L'prfictit.sa wo)ft<n(h-rtttcdmnnot'thoma. and mn'fsputjdstu thu iucau. ~icinn, ) tittiuttsun~hythcmcdicinc-ma)), "Rnn, wutf.y'iurbody's minc. 2 WntingittthuhMtoL'ntut-y, Charte. ")'X)-eut)H'Ks,t)mtthumtnutsuhd p, tg,l l suh)cuthct- tribcs makc Jittfe marmouzctsor puppct.sto rcprcMtttthofe wiiusuHve.s thcy wi~i tu shortcn,ami piereuthse inNgcs to thc ))ea)-t." '~<.wS)ut)t CoUiM, tu),i. p.SUt'. W.()M;' London, I79S, i . ~hMkntft, tmrt ).p. !)?!3~t)-M2, ;artii. ]~ t-d. r i. OmrkYM!, .s~ \tt. 'Amthn)~b);ic,' <-o). iii.p.:!H.



We nnd thus amon~ t)n.'Jndians ot' North Amcriea uneof thc commonc'it art~ of magie pmctisudirl Kuropc itt ancient !Utdn)edi!fV<utin)'s. 'J'hfart"t')))akinganinM~andme)ting it away,dryin~it up, shootin~ut it, stickin~ pinsor thorns into it, that so)n<; hk'' injnt'ymnybt'fa!) thc per.'ion it i.sto reprcs<nt,istouwe)tknownton<'L'd<)('taik'ddt.'scriptionhprt'and it is stiUtn bc H'mxl'xi.stin~ ht vanou)!parts ut' the wortd. Thusthc Puruviau surecret-.s Hn;.im)still to htakc rag dutjt nn<! stickcactus.titurns into t))<n), nnd to ))idct))')n m secret itotes ht house~, or iu thc wou!of bcd.s to cripple or cushiuns, thcrMhy peuple,or turn them sick or mnd.~ h) Burucut)to iamitiar ot' )nakin~ Mwax iigure ci' ttxi KuMpcan practiccstill cxist.s, w))fML' cnpmytu be Lcwitchcd, hodyis tu wnstf awayns t)K' uf ~):u'g''ry Jor')atu''s mdtcd," as in Un;!<t"ry huagcif!g)'Mdu:d[y waxfn imageuf Henry Vi. Thf utd Ruman tnw punisticdby thc cxtrenK' thc .staying of a)t absftttpprsnuby UK'ans of }x:)i:dty it waxfigure. Thf Hindouarts are t)ms du.<cri)x'd bythc A))b<! Dnhoi."Thcykucad ctn'th taken front thc sixty-four most undcauptnccs. with t)air.ctipping.s uf )tah'.bit~of tMthcr,etc., and with this thcy makc Htttt' H~u't's, un thc bt~nstsuf which thcy writethc nameof thc t'n'~ny uvcr thf.sc thcy prunounce wunts an') ntantnuns,and con.wcratf thon by sitcrtnefs. um~ica) Nu sauneris this dunf',th:m tttc ~ift/<((, u)' phnicts.scixe thu hatcd pc'r.<on, and innict un him a thunsandiHs. Thcy KumMtitnMpiercut)tcsefiguresright tbruughwithau awt, or crippte t))emin dincrc'nt ways,with th intentionnt'kitting or cnppnn~ in Mditythc (!bj';ctuf th'ir vot~'am-c."A~ain, the Karens of Burmahmodotan imageof a pcrsonfrum t))c carth uf ttis stick it uvt'rwiti)cottunspcds,intcndin~thcrfby fuotpnnts.and to strikc the person n'pt'fsentfd K'tth ()ttfnb))G.< Hw wc hve the makin~ of the ngurueotubincd \th thu ancicnt knuwn!M ttt'; "carth-eutting" (t'rdsc)initt), practiccin UL'nnany cutting uut t)t< f'at'th or turf whcr< the man who i.s tu bc Jm~t!ntttm, 'Ucnt.*c)ie ~)ytho)"xic,' <itt"~t),!)r't ~tit., XSt, mj, etc. vu!.iii. )!nt).t, ~SM, 't'o)mhrAt)ti.)nitx'.< n.jh't'<A'n<<; Lt!f)"tt, ;)'), etc. KiKm M't ~t.J..ht), vot. ii.p.2Uu. TM)!u.)i, ;).]St. 'MM<MMm,ttr.)Mr<'t)pk<'te riadc;'I''trb,!MS,tu),ii.)).<). Mmothun Mi~M in MM. MMut), 'Ch-Hitin~ Met) )/w)M), )M~p. H). See J~nt. As. ~f. tit..n~tt, i l. :m. )art ISMS, p.



dcstroyed bas titood,und hanging it in the chimney,that he may p~rishas his {uotprintdrics and shrivck.' h) t))Mc ca.sMtlie objcct iu view is to hurt th(.' ut'igina) thc throug!) te makuan imagu, intime,but it is a)su po.s.sib)e tmnsi'Hrto it tho (;it npirit ut' th ditieaso which ]m)futtacked the persoa it ix to rcpr~nt, nud then s~ndit uut Mku a. scttpeh)tu the wi)Jen)<?.ss. .t~Mtt into puppeti!in T))pyconjuMt)evi).<! WestAfrica;" m Mhuntft'' doetur tUHkM an itn~e uf c)ay, si'nd);)tis paticot'.s dis~MStiutu it, and thfu takes it away to tho woodi) und buries it whik thc TuMguz curtMhiH log or his hcart by wcanng a cat-vedmudd of the part ~'ceted nbtMt )tim.* Th trantifcr uf tiff; ut-t:te (pm)iticsuf u iinng b~-ingto an ")i!~t; tnay bt- mwtc by ~ivhtgit n na)nL-, or by th perfonnaucc uf n c~mouy uver it. Tbus, ut the festivalof the Durga.P< thc ofUciatittgBmtxnan touctics tho M)d c))eekf!, cycs, bt-paxt, twht.-ad of cach of thc ima~Gf! that hnvc been preparcd, and say:<, Lct tlie Huut of Durga long eontinuein happinciisiu this imngf." Ti)! )ife i.stfntM;;iv<;ttto Un-m,thcy UMynot bc worshippc<).' But thc HK-rc !naku)gof thc image of & living creattu-eMvcry comntoHty sufticientto set up at once its conncxMuwith iifc, among t-acf:! who ))ftvc nut thoroughtypasiicd out of thc stoto <tt'uund to whidt thcw pmetie~ betong. Looking nt t)K-tnattct- f)-oma very diHerent~int of vicw, aud yt-t with the samf fw)h)g of a ueccssnry connexion bctwcc-n )ii'cand th image of the )iving crature,thc JJusteni hotdsthat hu who makes un iuutge iu this wor!dwill hve it set heforehitn ou thc dny ofjudgotcnt, and willbe caUedupott to give it iife, but h(.will fait tu finish tho work ))o !)as thus teft haif donc, and wiUbc sent to iu helt. expiatc hisoH'eneu With such inustrations tu show how widely sprcftd and dc(.p!yruuted is the bctiff t)mt titc-reis u rcai connexion hctwuf.'u a being aud its image, wucan sec ttowahnost iucvttaUu U)-i)nm, t).M.,[.. 'CcMtMhc WMtt): \t:U)cr:ttmb< MmbuM. ~)iu,~p.!U2, ]~. iK't't-. Kth. HutcMnMK, & Lmth)t), ]S~ p.99<. !io"-rhs, 'Siam;'Londen, ]??, vol. t3);. NaYMttetn, 'TheMttMiMtsontiicAtmur;' LomtM), ]M],p.3SL CoktiM, 'T))eMyth(.h){)-ft)t<.MMn! L.nJM., 1S32,p.S3.



it i.s,that the mau nt a iowstage of ducationshoutdcorne to cunfuundthc imagowiththat which it waornadc to t'eprestcnt. Th strong cra\h)g of thc hmnau tniud fura matcriat support bas produccd idolsaud fetishcs over to the rchgiou.s sentiment, most parts ofthe wurtd.and at most pcriudsht its histury aud )')W \\)n)e tho more intctti~ott,cvcu :unung )Utmy tt'tbcs, ha\'c wuru unTt;.symboLs t))nt th ixutgc.s nftcn scen dGnr)y ctiou};)) th vut~u' havu cmmnotdybcHevedthat ))ei))};s, <jfsnperhtmMn thc tdoist)n;ti).sf!cs )tad)iff fUtft supcrnatttr:tipowo'i. AliMiunin t))M vio\m of more aud :u-icshavo rmu<n'kcd thi):dirt'eruMCf )< intelligent inumbcr. ofth~ s:nnn tn~' and it is emphatithat th images tn)d ctdtytrue of <tJargcpart of Chfi.stcndo))), ficrvcmorcty as it hetp moretn.stt'uet<d, pieturcs,whieh,tu t)t<! tu roidisu rctigiousidcMaud to su~st dcvotiunat thougttt)!, aru toukcdupon by th ttnfducatudtUtdsupeMtitu.'uscrowd,as cnduwcdnut ontywith a sort oftife,but wHhmiracutuu!! ))<;h)~ iutim.'nccs. caseslu which the connexion tx'twec~ 'Du*Ii)K' hetwwu t)<c uhjuet un<t iij~u'uis supposcdtu bu rud. and thusc in wtttfh it dirHcuIttu draw. Thus i.skuuwnto bc imagitiary, is ofteu YL'ry idolsund Htres of 'iaint.'i arc beateu aud abusedfur not granting th prayen of th(.'irworshi~pcm,which may hc a nturo but tbou two rivt tttcit originais, tjxprcssiuuof spite tuw:u'd.< gods tnay hc kuuckcd togetho- whcu thfir orncles disagrce, aud hcrc it that t)[c oue w)tichbreaksHt-sttnay )x.'di.se~t'ded, tnatft'itd cotmexiunmust certainly h).'supp~cd to t'xist. To t)tf mustdiMieutt thc symbuticsacrifiesof tnodt;ts classhH!un~ of mcu and at)itna!.s itt Itaty aud Orcc'cc,oud th ccu!)ou)icat ut' Ha.stcnt Asia. Thc Chincscpcrtbrui tttc ntf p~pL'r-utcrit~s uf hurningtnuncyandciuthc. fur tho ust;of thH dcad; but thc )-f<d thi))~ arc' toovaiuahiuto bc wasted by a titrifty pcopif, s.; papcr ti~ur~ du duty fur tht.'tn. Thus th~y sut hut-tnug tu gut :t favuumhtu wixd, Lut thcy aru junk~ adrift as sacriticM t)n! ttcatcst ihnstrutnjnof thts kiud uu)ypapct'om;)). Pcrhap.s 'jf ofH.'riugs, unduf t))G stateof mind iu winchthu t)t)'ft'cr makes foundin Hue nnd Uahc't'~stot'y of the Tibetau them, M tu b<i fatnas,whosent horsc!! Hyingfrotn th mountain-top ht gidu "f wittd, for th r~ttufuf worn-out pi)g)'iuis wt)o could get no

nU<')-:SAXUKAMKS. n)rt))o)'onthei)'way. ')'h<hor.<t'.swcn.'t'itsofpap<')',witha/1 hoMcptintcd ou cad!, saddt'd. bt'idtcd,and gi'itopi))~at tut) spft'd.* in HiU~ittK!nx) t'ut'tiih'.rittctt) {rv )< a }))0t-<(;()i)<s'winch, ''ivi)i);<-dt'u')ntt'i<<at any t'att'.atiastcomf.sfait'iy ont into pure symbutism. ThL'id'tt))tttthut'un)in~ofthcf'tmwandntg bodyshoutdact upon th'' bodyof <)' ori~ina),pt'rhaps hfUtUy cornesintothutuindof any ont;w))oas.<istsat.s)K'haperf"naanc' Uutiti.'<)iot('asyt')dt'tt')'nn)n't)owfat'thisi.st!tfca!'f with t)tu X~'w~cataudurs,wttosc )nin<)sare fnt) of <onfn''i~m t'ftwet'n ohjt'ct an(t i))).)~as w~ tuays't.' ))yth(.'it'witc))cmf<, axd who aft. itu)') strou~ vicws abuut t)t<irt/fti~ics, )md ffn)ci')))s)y)'ev(L'))~M!Utinsu)tt')t)t(;n). (.hK'v't'ycut'iou.spntctK'L' ))a.scutnc ont uf thoir tt-aittut' t))ou~)itaboutthis juatt~r. T)n'y wc~ very i'uud of wc:u-ht~rou))d tht.'tr necks Httk' Mdfuus si(.)~ tigurcsot gTCL'n jade, with thfi)' hcads very nntt'tt nu (JMC whicttaf cidifd~'A-<, and tu'c oft<')ito 1)0 f-ccn iti tnu.semns. it M'etns t)mt thcy ar' tner<)yinta~'s of Tiki, the gnd cf )i)tG)y thc<)(.'ttd.T))''yarecann'dasnK'n)M'i!)).s<)f()<adfm.'nds,Mt(! are tiotnctitm'.s takt'n ott'and w~'pta<n[sno~ uvur Ly a ci)'c)(! of but M/t cmnmutdybc)u))~.<. uut to thc u~thory of a tfativc.s; siu~c individua),but of a successionuf dt.'cca.Sfd pcrsunswho ))avcwumiti)tt)tcirti)n('st)t))atitt'antt<jtbnco))si(tct(;dtts Ncw havit)g in it huich of th(.' naturu of a pot-trait Motuc askcd Zcataudurs,Jto~'t'v'r. wh') wo'n )atc')y in Londot),WM'c w))ytffwc~<\u.))a))y,ifnotatM'ay'<.)ta\'L'butt)n'c<fingcr!ion thfirhaxds.ttttdthpyrc'ptu'ttthatit'aninia~cismadcofa tnan,and any om;shoutd instdt it. ttr'' ati't'ontwonidhve to t)c rL'veoged, a)t<) to avoidsu'')ta contitt~cnfyt))e ~7' wcrc tnadu Mtt)ton)y t)n'M'iingers,.so that, not b(;in~ anyonc's imugc,nu onc wasbound to notice \vhat ))!tpp(;m.'d to thcm. In tnpdiciuc,tin' notion of thc )'ea)connexionhftwcc!)o~cct and image bas toanitcstcd itsctf wid<;)y in hoth ancient and modfnt titncs. Piiny .spc'aksof the folly of the magiciansitt the Nttanam' (<:rat'<!y):!), u.sin~ conpntxion) for tove-potions, ')tt)t;!tm)U:t)<;t,'V(.)-.dattsh'Rn-t.n-i<ct<i'n<,)M",v~.ii. )).]?. in r. '). M. !(< !U< Hi:).)..nn); p. Kx~ j rhi~tet~nK, ri., ]SM, oi XcN Y. At:mtmt Zc~hmd Lututoo, ]S!)S, p. )tt.

)M.U)HS AXt)X.Ut~.


of a bceausu it shrinks in dryin{; into th ubapf of the chtWft d~ad kito (and sn, of course, ho)ds the patient tast); but it or docs not strike him that thc virtnus of t)x' Hthospct'mum wcre uo doubt deduccd iujust ''st~tx'sfL'J i)) t't))'it)!~caicuh). <t.<i th~st' thc .s.u)t<* way.' l!t mure tn"d''rn tht)' suctt n<;tiuns it.s t))o i)t< thc "h) tfx'')ic;t) t)f<o't' ktMM'tt w<;n'c)f)!<ot'ttt<'<) "Doctrinu ut' MiK~'tu''cs,"wtnctt supp<~d ttmt p)ant.s and mincrat;! in'ticutc'dtjy t)tei)'cxto'uui chtu'aftfr.sthc ()it.cascsfur whicttnature h:K[intcudcd th~'tn a.s r'tm.'dies. T)ms thf Hutu ))uj.;uudur thu ptn'asia or cyf-ttri~fit was,aud i. suppost.'tt oycs,un t)i'' .ttrcn~th uf a Uaek pupit-tikf spot in its corotia, thc yfUow turtm'ric w<t-< t)t<'ns)'t K~d fur jauudiet', and ttn' htoud-stum-is probabty us~d tu t)ti!<day for stup])in~ )))omL~ witic))iK By virtm.'ofa shuitat' associatinn"f iduas, t)n; ~n.o-'n~, ."ti)I)argc)yuscd m China, was tttsu cm]))"y<'d by tlie Indinns of Xorth Auterie~, !H)din buth countt'it'.sits \irtLH.iwct'cdcduct'd fruu) thc .)):)p<' of tho r')<jt,whieh !s su))puscd tu re. se-mbtcthf inunan budy. Its Inxjuuis nattU!, ~Mt(~e/'tH:, mcttus "a chi)d," whituiu Chioa it is c<t)]ed ~</<-< that is tu of mau. say, )'us(.')uUancc Sucit cases as tht'.su briu~ ck'ariy into vicM'tJfu ht'tict' in a and its t'Mdand toatonat c'fnm'xio)) existin~ bctwcu))ah <d)j(*ct hua~t'. By virtm: oftfn'ir t'csumt'tancc,thf twu af.' as.suciatt-d t)m.s )jruu.i{htintu cutttK'xiuttin thu in thou~ht, axd ht.-it)j; tu Lu bcti~Vfd ti'at tin'y arc' aLs'tin <-untn;xio)j tniud, it cuhiL'.s it)t))t' uut.sidc' wortd. X"w t)i<ja.-sociation ufan uitjfct with its dirH.'rL'nt natnu is tnadc in a vc-ry way,but it neVL'rthck' produccs a xt-m.suf vct'ysitnHar)\'sntt. Kxcfpt innnitativc wonts, t)m ubJMCth'c rcsctnbhtuct'tjctwcun tttiti~ aud wurd, if it 'o' is nut di~Dnidu now. A wurJ canu~t be cotnparcd Mi.stcd. tu au hnag'- or a pietnt'L', which, as t'Vt'rybudyc:m .sec.is tikc' M'hatit .st:f)td.s fu)'; but it i.fcttuu~h that idca and ~'urdco)))<: tugf.'ttx'r by habit in thc )nind,tu )nak' )nt;n tttiok that tbcn' is tionn'rt.'atbundafcottac.'ctuttbetH'ccttth thitf~.MtidtfiCttatitf which bctun~.s tu it in th<'if)nut)K'r-t"n~'tc. rrut'cs.so)' J~Marus, xxvii. Din., 'l'h)n)t!nM)u,!m;' Londun, )S<3, t).4! 3! 74. KtrM, vo). Yi. 24. Fnraxitniht'caw, Mo th 'Penttjf art. C)t.ir)cT"ix, Ct(;);):M)ia,' "Atn')n Mttn~n~om" <)M!H)dmke).

i~i (le


in ))))( Lifo of thf Sout," tdtffa good story of a Oermau who went to tho Paris Kxhibtttot),axd fcnMrkcdto his companiot) what an cxtraorttittary pcoptu<))nFfon'h wero, "For hread, they N)y f~c ;~f'if/" "Yt'.< xaid thc othcr, "a))d we sny "<'<~<7M6~' y~t <')'f<< "To Le surf," r'ptk'd <hu <irst, /'?t"t< t !Ut() thc idca. in muet) thu As, th')),]n<'nconfusf thu won) thc hna~c with that w]tic)) it rppn'Muncwnyns tifcy conftt.su nf j))':)fticps itnd h(;)i';f;t xents,ittof )'j))'i)t}{.s crotcumif)~ up !t M't like <h"sorc)ath)}{ tu itnn~'s. Thns it is thooght nanK's,um<')< c<!cct on thnt thf utto'ancc ofa word tc't)mit~s"tf lats n <ti)'cct tttMobjoctwttich that w"rd )'tan<)s fur. A tn:m tnay bo cot'sc') WL'H n.sthruu~))tus intasf. '))' b<'w!tL'))t!t) ttn'ungh itis )m)nf,Ms ttn<)pn~nouuca Yun )nay hty ILs)n'x-k-fr')'k n thf <)'x't'-siH, cn'n' it the nau)' of tht-'tmuty"~ hu.c n spitu i~unst, und thcn when you t'cnt <)):tt L)uw Hs .stnuck, yuur fncmy will f~') nvery wf)! ns if hc' werc insidc it in th'' ftL'sh.~T)ms,tuo, whenthc wns phtekfd tu hc wont <M Mot of tho <h'ad-)K'ttt<' Mchann it M'asuccussaryt') say for whnt ng:timt ittt'rntittcnt fcvut'.<, sut) it \a.s pu))ud up, ptn'post',au') f"r wh"u), an') t))' \vho.sc nnd other nx~ica) )))ant.src'tuirfd M!.su a ))H'ntio)t t)f t)n' pittient~ oaun' tu taaku thctn wt'k/' How t)tc hn)))t;i.sh<-tt) tu ho part of thc vcry Lcing of the matt whubc-ar). it, sa ttmt t'y it l,is pcrsouaHty may bc ean'ifd away, and, s" to spt-ak,~rat'tedci.scwtterc, nppfars ht t)u' way in w)tichtho fiorcercr ust-s it a.sM. tucaosuf puttiog' the Hfcuf his victimiuto th i)na~H upun whicttitLpractisc.s. Titus Kin~ inhit: pa'tnunniu~y,' J<nne.s, Kay:! that thodt;it teaphuti))iow to makc picturcsof wax ur c')ay,that ))y roa-stin~ therco~the that thcy bL'arthc natm'of nuty bc continoa))y mdtcd po'.son.t or (tried away t'y cuntinua) sickuc.-itt. A )tK'dia.a) sermon f!pca!<s ofbaptixiog a "wax" to bt~itch with; and tu thf dcvcuth cctttury,CtirtaiuJt-ws,it was bfttKvmt, ntadc a waxcn itnage of BishopEbcrhard,set about with tapers, bribcda c)c)'k Lfumm.s M'en <)<;r v..). ii. la 7! ~'ete )!cr)m, O ie H mtt~ttft dest'eMM un.) Kuhtt, deftjiittertmnk;) tiertin, )SM, p.22< 67. St. Wuttke, XMti. H).]<), NiM., xai.16,24 <B)nn<),vo).iii.p.f. O.



to baptise it, and set firc to it on that fsahhath, the w])n.h huago at the tite bunting tway middle, bishop feU~ricvou~yoick and dicd.' Asimilar train ofthonght sttowait.so(f:utho bctie~that th ntterancoof tho namo uf deity gives to mau a meanff of direct communicationwith th tx.-in~ wt)o nwns it, nr t.venpfaees in his )mndstho supo'natund poweruf that tu be usfd nt b~.in~, his wit). Tho MostunM itcht that th "~at namc" of fimt (MotA))a)),which }.a mcrocpithet), is knowtto)Jy to prup))~ and aposttes.who, by pt-uuuuuci)~ it, oan tttmsport thonMtvus from placeto place nt will,can )<int)te living, raMethe dcad = aod do M)yothcr ntiracic.s Thc conepalmotit of the nameof the tutetary dt-ityof Rome, for divu~in~ which VaternMSonunMis Kiddto hve paid thp of is a case in point. Asto th rcasonof its penalty dcath, bc-in" kept a ficcrct,Ptiny Haysthat V<n-in)i Ffaccns <(uutM autho)~ whom hc thit))<stmstworthy,to thc c-f~ct that wh~n th Ru. mans tai<)stc~; to a town,tho first step was f.jr thu tn pripstf< snmmontho god under whosuguardianship tlie placewas, nm) to oacr him the same or a ~n'atcr place or worshipamong tl)c Romans. Thix practicc, Pliny adds. still rontmuiiin thepontincat discipline,and it i:!ecrtaiuiyfur this reason ti)at it bas been kept secret undcr thc protectionof what gud Rump itscif bas beM), lest its etionies shoutduse a )iku prucecdm'~ as umn liuts himsefi' intu cotntnutficfttion .Moreover, with su they know him throu~h his spirit.<throug]) their Matncs, Mame. In Borno,they will change titu nanni of a xicktychitd tu deccive tho cvi) spirit.s that havf bpcn it.~ In t~-tnctfti))~ South AnMrica, atnong t)n..AbiponMaud Lun~nM, w))c-n a man ) tiii <tied, fan)i)yand nuishbonrs wouidcitante t)K-howunanK's~ tu cheat Death whMiho shoutd cne to look fur thon. As cxamptesof bettcfs conucctfdwith purson:d nantM amung)no~' etvinzcj races, tnay ht.' mcntioncd tho eustum it) Tonquiu (.f giving youug chUdrcn horrid hanM.sto fri~ttcn the damons J).M.,p. ]047. OM.m, M~). i. p.3.!t. K. vol. xxnii. Plin., 4. Dut.,Q.K.MMro).. iii.9. S< ~t., art."&,mNM." U~)e, <St.John,~meo,'vol. i. ti.lUi. 'ThcA'.itMnm,' DobrithotTer, )!.Tr. J~don,)M2, vo). M. 2r3. SoMhet ofBf!M!) Histaty vo). iii. ?1. Lottdon, tst9,



fromthcm,1nnd tho Jcwish superstition that tt mati's deatiny tuayT)c chattgcdby chaogittj;Lis namc.~ lt is pcrhapsM tht's~<trcn)c instancesofthe ):d)it)guH't't'utn iuthnacywittt whictt n:H)t''and t't~'ct hve growntugcther!n t))c savait.' tuind, tu cit'' thu practicc uf <.xch:u~ing names, whid) wast'uundin the W'<t htdk-sat the tum-ut' Cukttnbus;' tux)iu the South Scas by (.'ftpttunC<jut<, whoWtt.s cafled Ot'cc, while hw Motd Orup w~'nt by tlie ttatnu of (.ouke-L'~ Mut C'!)(hva)!a'Lt' (.'oktfn'.saccunnt uf in.sncw uatuc, i.sadmirable etidfuefo)' what thc)~ is m it natucm ttn' uund of the savag~. "Thu th'stTitnu 1 wa.snnMugthe ~(~(ic~, 1 ttad this Compliment from o)K'uf t)t(.-irnfd ~(t7<fh;, \v)<iuh hu did, by ~n'i)~ me his own ~aniu, ('('fyf<'<'<t'f. Ho ))a<) LuL'n a nutabtc tu assunn;to Wan-ior;und he tu)<t )fH',tttat now 1 hada Hij.;)tt a[[ thu Acts ut' Vtduurtm had pcrtot'tncd, nud dmt ttcw my~'tt' my Nautf wonid cchu fn'm Hm tu Hitt uv~r att the ~'o'e J\'((~'<~<.< Witfn L'utdt-n w~'nt back iutu th' .samu part t(;uor tw~-h't.' ycars tatc-r.he i'uutxtt))at he wasstUi knuwnLy thf muuuht;had thu.s rccL-m-d, and t)mt thu u)J (--hid' had takcn a)H)t)t(;t' a sti)) widt;r ~rctctt, thc powt')'uf assuciatiutt{{rasps Ttdm<~ rtot tjtdy th spukcn wurd. but its writtcn re'pn.scntativc. It hit)!bt'fn scot how the Hindou .'iuK~r'rswnjtuUtL-oamc of thcir \'n;tim ~nthe ~t\-tMt u!'thu imi)~' UMu~ tu pf)'s'))mte hun. A (.'hitK'SL' if tu' ha.snut not thc dru!j'hc t't.'quirfs ior p])yt.ician. Itis patic-ut,will writ'- t)t'- prt'.scriptiunu a piucLuf papct', and )~t thc fiicktnan ~wat!w its a.<))(;s, ur an iufu.siuu ot' tt~' writin~,iu watc')' Thi.s pmcti''c i.s nu dou);t vo-y ~ht, am) frutu th(.'titttu whm tht' picturo-ck'mcut iu tnaye\'cn d<<CL'ud ChitK'.sc writin~,n< idmo.stcttaccd, was stitt ek'arty d)!!ti)tthf ];ati'.nt woutd atiL-ast haYc-th sati.'ifacguis])a)dc,.sot)tat ittt'in).<;rt<. f"t.x. p.794. RMmn), 'TMt~nin.
Hi.i)MM;n):er, )Mrt i. )'. j s!

Lo~dut), 'I)M 'L<ttemfChttn))tM'(tt~!Myt:), )St7, p. 2:7. RccMwt. j .'i! AntiMm;' K<itt<;nhtu, t'J. )!. t'irft\'uy. <Ct)o):, H., to).il.p. :M).CM.) Y..ta~ L'~ndun, Smt tdit.,]~r, '").i. p.]':?. Sce Dutu'.nt i. d'frvino,\y. de)'ttm)a)< !S9 v<.). ),. (Aa~ndia). (thFh'eIndiM KotiMM of CM)<Mh;' <Ue,'Hiftt. London, t~, ~tt i. '< t'. vt.). il. Dirn".



tion of oating a picture, not a mcra written word. Whether the Mos!ptni) got th idca from them or not, I do not know, but among them a verse of the Koran wasbedoff into water and dnutk, or even water froma cup in whicb it is eugraved, i~ ail cMcaciottH reme()y.' Itt're th connexionbetween the nnk'ud. Tho arbitrary two f'nds <jfthc chain i'! \'f'n' )'c)t)otu t)n.'.suuudof th word, whichrchitraete~, which t-cpt-t;st;nt prsents th idea, hve tu (tu duty fur thc i(tea itsetf. Tho cx:U))p)oi.s )t Ktrikin~une, aud will serve tu tueMuro the strength of the tendotcy of the uneducatcdmind to give an outward materialrenlity to its ownmwarttprouesses. which ThM confusionui' objectif withsubjectivecouucxinn, sbowsitself m unifunn in principte, though so variousiu dctai)s, donc with view of in tbc practiccs upcu itxage.s nud tMUK's, or titch' owncrs,may )? acting tbrougtt them on thcir originidi! ('f thc arts of the appticd to cxptahtottc hmnehaft'T nMuthcr sorccrer aud divinf)', till it tthnost.stt.'nisn.sthou~h wo were comingnenr thc end of his tist, aud iui};htset dowu practices to ft gcncrat not basfd on tlii. inc-utalproefss,as cxcL'ptions nde. tho subjective Whcu a lockof hair is eut off'as a. memoriat, connexion betwecu it and its former owncr, is not severed. In thc mind of the fricndwhntreasurMit up, it recaHsthoughts of his prsence,it is still sonn-tinng buiongingto him. know,howcvcr, thnt thc objectiveconnexionwas eut by the aud that whnt is donc to that hair aftcrward~ i. not fif-issors, Mt by thu head on whichit grcw. But tlis i.-iexactty wttat th savage Imsnot curncto know. Ho fw)'.that thu subjective bond is unbroken in bis own mind,and he bclicves t))at the scpamtc from objectivebond,whichbis mindnevcrgets c)(;ar)y it, is unbrokcn too. Thfrcforp.in tho reniotest parts of thc wortd, tlie sorecrcr gct'! chppingsof thc hait-of his cncmy, of his fuod,and practices itpon parings of his naits, !caving!i them, that their former possessor nmyfull sick and die. T))is is why South Sea Island chic6 bad .cn-ants atway.sfuDowing them with spittoons,that t)te spittte might bc buried in some Mod. t'dtMti<-k. etc.EdinbNrsh, tSH. Bsypt, LftM, Ej; w).). p.3<7-S. p. iNt. K



secret place, where no sorco'cr could find it, and why even brothersand sistersItttdthtjir foodin scpartttf baskets. In tho istand of Tanna, in the Xcw Hcbridcs,th~t'c was a cotony of who Ih'cd hy t))t'i)'art. Tht'y eoUcctfd tmy di.sGasu-tuakt'rs such os tho ?i/f((~' or rubhishthat had ht;)ungfdto aoy f'no,. skin uf a han:umhc h:)d cittmt,w)'tt))p'dit iu n !~nf Uko t\ ci~)-, :tnd bunit it stuwtyat om; cud. As it )'un)t, the owncr j~'t :u)dif it wai< burnt to tt)c t'nd, hu dicd. W)n;u worseand worsc, a man ff)) ill, )iu ktn.'w that sonic sf'rccrt'r was bnrning his which cou!d ht' hoard f"r tnitt" nud s)K')t-tru)n{x'ts, t'ubLis)), tu stop, and wait for tlie werc Uwu to signt to thc sorc<;rcr:< whieitwou)dbc sent ncxt inorni)~. ~tight a~cr night, prc-scttts t[r. TunK'r uscd to hcar thu ntctauctx~y too-touing ci' thc to stnp pla~uht~ their vifthns. tjheHs, ctttrcath)~ thc wizat'tt.s h'' b~i~'ed that M) sick tiimscH', And when a dMeasp-makcr aud had hi.sKh<U.s tuo Uown somcoue wasburuitt~ his ruLbis)), for MM'cy.' It i.snut nt'cdfuito ~ivu anothcr d~criptiou aftcr this, the proecs'!i.s so pcrffct)ythc satnf iu principe whcrovt'r in Africa,' in Indin* in Nortit it is fouud, att over Pu)ytic'<ia,~ of this kind aud South Ainmea,' iu Austndia." Supcr~titiun.s tMtu htdr audnait.s hctutt~ to Xnruastt'ifU), Jewish,and Mos~'m luro. T))cyan-ativc t<' this day in Htn'o))?, wt~'n', for iustancu, owm'r,and thu U~nuauwh" walks ~c't' uai)sion-tsthcit' furnK'r tho Italiau ducsnot )ikf to tn~t a i')t-kut' Ilis hair iu the hauds s)t")))dhc hcwitchotor<;)MU)uurt'd cfn))\'otK'sthe !);~ain.<t !)ts witl.~ Oou of the b(.'staccuuut.swu ha\'c' "f the ort of procuring death by surcu'y,i.s ~vn iu Sir Jautcs Htncr.sonTennpnt's greut work on C~y)ou. !t is not that th~'c is muek thut is tS, 42). Tmer, M<. 't'utynMh,' Utist,itu., t-itiie &Liid tUtJCustum:! f;' thX'X<;at.m')cn! vol. Yo). J. il. '.Mati~icr 'MaMMM l'olack, Macif, Loiidoti, t~ndot), ISIO, ]S<0, w!.i. fd. ii. p. S~f. \i)ti:mti,'t'iji,' 2~ t'titdMM, roL u. p. :S: EUM, e tc. t. Mi2, L Wibin. toiiambMi C.<sdu, r. S70..). p. 2t&t).&C. LMos~t')M,/ Exp. 1MS, I~adM), p.<< Or.!U)Mtr. Rotjerttt, t't70. vd.il. inTr.Eti). C.<}., Snc. London, Kkmm, ).. l<iS.Fit:Roy, tSCJ, j).S. i'i.,t'. X~. !!ht)).ri.i)!e, Commatti Human) <!<ncrb SteU~eMtt,Ue Oricine Ham);a)~, 1SM, p.69, ii.f. 2H .Story, Kbn <J! vut. Thjuiitttj mdUne X.,t'uL <!t<. L'.me, ttum~, i!.p.342.



it dMo-ibcs, but just thc contrary its pccohar in thc procp~acs lies in its prcst-nting,amoog a MtnewhatMotated intportanCo w))i<')) i'! q'uto a tittk musumof tho race,a systcm of fiorccry, dissimitar trihes in th remotest arts practiscd antong th uto.<t rgionsof tho wort't. Th accountMas fonows:" Tho vidahu statc<)to tho magistrat~'th:)t a ~cnt'm) bcli';f fxisted among of a eerotnony,per. the TtunUs[of C\-y!un]h) the Mat c<T';ct.s formed with thu knttof a chitd,with t)io design of producing th dt'ath of f.n indiv!duatngaiost wh'jtn tho iucantatiott is ofa first. dil'fcted. Th sku)i f n.matL' ehitd, aud particu!ar!y a)'c regardcd M morecertain bon),is prefcrred, nod thc <'H'c<'t!i if it he kitiGt! cxprcsstyfor thc occatioti but for ordinary purposes, th ))c'adof one whohad di<'d a natumt (k'at)tis preisto dmw sumcdto bo su(Hei''))t. T)ie f~'m of tttc cc't't;tW)ny aftpr it tMs certain ngnrcs and cahnii.stie signs upon thc ftku)), becn scrapcd and dcnudcdof the Hcsh adding the natuc of tho individuatupon whomthe charmis to takc f~ct. A pastc ti! thcu prcpared, coniposcdof Kand from thc funtprints of th intcndcd victitn, and a portion of his hair tnoistcncdwith his sidh'a, nud this, bcing sprcatt upon a tcadun p)ate, i.s taken, wherc togcthur wit)i th skuti, tu t)te gr:t\'eyarduf th vittagG, for fnrty ))ig))tsthe cvi[ spirihiarc in\'okcd tu ()e:itruy tho pcrbeticf of tho natives Is, ttmt son dcnonnced. Thc univcr.-itd as the ccrc<nony procccd. aud th pastu dries up 00 t))e teadeu away and dcctinc,and that death, ptatc, thc sufR'rcr will wa.stc as au inuvitabtc cottsc[[uoncp, !nu.st t'oHow. Hcre we ha\'c at once thc nanif. the carth.entting, titc tfair anft sativa, thc cursing, and thu dryhtg t)p. Dm uso of thc sku)I lies in its associationwith d~'ath,and wcsitaUpru~'utty nnd it uscd in the samc way In a vcry din'rcnt p)aec'. Even t!)c spiriti! of t)ic doad may be acted on through the remainsof their bodies. Though the savagccommotnyhotds that aftcr (teath thc solgocs it.s owu way,for t))0 most part indcpendcnttyof thu body to which it oncubdonged,yet in his ]uindthe sont and th bodyof his cnemy or hi~fricndare inse. pand))yassociated,and thus he comes to hold, in his inoonsMtent way,that a bond of connexionmust after at) survive bett.ii. 6tS. T\'nn<'nt, 'Ccytot,'
K ft a



tween them. Thoreforc,th African fastcns the jaw of his slain enemyto a tabor or a horn, and his skuU to the big drum, that every crash nnd Matt may Renda thriU of agony through the ghost of their dcad owner.' T)t8 connexionbctwcen a eut lock of hair and its former owncr ia, m the mind at toast, much ctoser than M nocemiary for thse purposcs. As bas been secn,tho rcmains of a perRon's food in'e !tuS!cicnt to hewtt<-h hun by. In a wttchcraft caM iu th scvcntccnth ccntury, th supposed sorecrcMcoufemedthat "thcrc wosa gtovo of th said Lord Henry buriedin the ground, and as that ghjvo did rot and wustc, so did the Hverof the naid )ont rot and waste. Indt-ed,any as-iociation of idensin a tnan'f!miud, the voguest simUanty of <brmor position, even a jncre coineidcncc in titnc, iHsuMt'icntto enabje tho magicianto workfrom associationIn his own miud, to nssociation in the materialworid. Nor is t!K'rc any cssentiatditferenco in the process, whRtherhis art i<that of the divineror of th sorcerer,thnt it, whether his object is morety to H)retet! something that will hnppcn to a person, or actuaiy to mako that something happcn or if hc is only concernedwith tho Marchingout ofthc hiddcu past, the proectisremaius much tho samo, the intention only is diH'crcnt. Out of th cndtpssstut-eof cxampies,1 \vi)l dono more than take a fewtypical c:bics. Thcy hang up channs in th Pacifie Mands to keep ttm'vcs and trcspnsst'rs out of ptantations n <ewcocoa-uut Icavos,ptait~'d into the fonn of a shark, will cause tho thit'f who disrcgard. it to be eatcn by a rua) onf two sticks, set onc acroMthe othcr, willsend a pain right acrosK his body, and tho verynight of t)M'sptabus will send thiovc!: and trespassfr. offin tcn-<u' In Kfnuchatka,when something had been stotcn, and thc thipf could not lie discovcred,they wouldthrow nt'rve.s orsincws into the fire, that as they shrank and wriggledwith th hent, the ]iKOmight happen to thc body of th thief.* In Kcw Xcatand,whpn a maie child had been baptized in the nntivnmanncr, und )iadreceived its name,thfy 'QuinM;' C.U.,vol. )i).p.3:2. RSmM, p. Ui Ktomn, vol. iii.f. 29. ]!nmd, Turner, p.!?<. du KMMtttmtbt Deitr. 22. KnMhemeaUMw, C f~ l'arie, t70S,p. Klemm, ve). ii. p.297.



tht-ust small pcbHcs, th xize of a large pin's head, downit throat, to niake itx heart caUous,hard, au'! incapable of pity.~ Basuto child in South Africa,ono may sec itound th neck ofa a Hon'oc)awfur "ecnrity, hanginga Mte's foot t~ give owiftnm.o, )))'tm iron ring tu give a powcr of iron rsistance.~ Tho Rcd bear, Indian hunter wfa)-sornamentx of thu ctawxof t))egt'ixiity that bu may Le eudowed witti it.s courage attd ferocity,' a sintplor chann t)mu thut wharehy th magiciant!niado meu ionneibit: m PJhty'ti hme, ht whk'h th head and tait of a dragon,ma.rrowof a lion and hair from his forehead,foautof a victorieuxracchorst', ntx) etaws of a dog, were bound together in a pice of deerskin, with atternate siuews of tt decr and M ~azettc~ Th Tyrok'su huntur still wears tufttiof eagte'tidowu in his httt, to gnin the eagtc'.skccit sight aud courage.' Many uf t))e tbod-prcjudices of savage races dpend ou thc bctief wltid) helongs to this ctass of superstitions,that th qualifiesof the eateu pass into th cater. Thus, autuug th Dayaks,yonug men sometimcs anstai)) fD.'mt))c fiesh of deer, lest it should tnakc them timid, and hetofL- pig-hunt thcy avoid oii, lest thc ~ame should slip through their (ingers,"nud in the santcway thc nesh of stow-goingand cuwardtyanimais is notto bc caten Lut thcylove tho meatof hythe warriors of South Amenea; tigers,stags, and hoaM, fur courage and spccd.~ An Engtiiih nterchant in Shanghai, at the titnc of thu Titeping attack, met )tisChincscservant caiTyinghutnc a hpart, and askcd him what lie had got thcre. He said it WMthe heurt of a rebe],and that lie was going to take it home and cat it to make him brave. Thu vcry hume thing is rccordcd in Ashanti, whpro the ehiefi} e atc th heurt ofSir C'hark'sM'Carthy, to obtain hiffcourage.' When a Maori war-partyis to start, th priest!)set up sticksiu and he whosestick is Nomt tho grouud to represent thu wan'ioni, tl)o diviner In tho Fiji Istand)!, downis to fall in th batttc." will shakc a bunch of dry cocoa-uuts tu see whcthera sick c)u!dwill die if ait fait oH it will recovet'; it'any rcmain on, it < f- S~. Yatc, p. 8S. xxi.t. 24. 69, Plin., 111. fii. tschaolcentt, p.Ci). f. l111rt St. vol. w). 1M. M"=. i. p. John, p.170. imrt M<Mkmf<, Wnttke, p. 1M. vt. i. p.9:9. Rochehrt, p. 410. M.nth90r, o. M'.i. )'-~0. F<'M~ J. L Wibon, p.tM.



wHIdie. Ho w:Uapin a cocoa-nut,and dcidea question nceordingto whcreth cye of the uut M<s towardawhen at rcnt again, or he wiHsit ou thc {;roundnnd tahe omcMfrom his legs; if the right !cg tronbk's nrst, it is go"d if th h-ft,it is evit; or hu wiHdceidf hy whfthcr a )eaf tastus swt.-<t or bittcr, or whcthc)'])0 bih's it e)'m through Kt once,or whcthc)th-ops ofwa.torwill ruu dowu hi.s arm tu thc wriiitatld give tt ~oou or f)))toft by t))c way uod jL;i\ :( hiu)ouc.' In Uritish tUtswer, Gumna, whon young e)~drcn nt-chctrothcd,trccs a)-cptnntef! hy th respectivepartiesm witnp.t.ot thc poutmct, and if cither trcc shoutd ))!)pp(;)t to withfr, tliu citit't it beiung'i to i.ssure <o diu.' A )j)ight)y diHcrmt idc!) ttppcttrs ttorth ot' t))e l'ithmux, in thc Cc-ntmtAmcrie:nt thc twu brothcrs,starting tatc, w)n.-r< un thur dangcruu.s juun~y tu thc !:mdof Xibaiba,whcrettn'ir iath~r had pcrii'hcd,ptant (;ac))a cane iu thu t)tidd!cof their grandmotiK-r'.s housc,that she mny knowby its Honrishingor withcrittg whetherthcy aro a!ivc or dcad.' And agaiu,to tuke stories from th CM Wortd, when Devits~ita wouMnot let Ouhasena teaveher to go with ))i. )ncrehau<)isc tu tho Jand of Cathay, Sh'a appcaredto th<tn in a drcam, aud gave to cach a red Jotus that wuutdfade if thu uthcr wutM uufaithfut and so, in the OernMnta)c, whcn the two daughtcrs of Queen Witowitte wurc turnpd iuto Howers, t))(; two priucc's whowcrc their tovershad fach a xprigof his tni.strcsii'~ that wasto stay iiowcr, frcsh whitc their iovowastruc.' On this prineip)cof association, it ii)easy tu underiitaod!tow, in the Old Wurtd,thu haniL-s uf the hcaveu!ybodic: and their positionnt thc timu uf u man'j! birth, should hve to do with tns charactcr aud iate whitc, iu th aatMiogyof th Aztecs, tho astroHMMcai ])aro a ~i)Mi]a!' sigMs conuMiouwith th parts ofthe human body,so thnt tho sign of thu Skult lias to do with WiUh)t)s,Mji,' p. X~. J. tt. ))<-nMu, LtLoun) in Hritb)) 'Mimimmty Mahm;'Lond<t), t8~, Kcv. Yuh rMif!, ])nu~'ur,Topot ~S6~, r. U!. Sftumhim m),i. !!)Mtta, );.!39. J. xtxt W.anmo), 'KM<-t-. Md HMMtnMK-n;' M)i. (Kttinjjen, 1SS7-0. vt)). iii.pp.US. )'.427. HSS.t!ttbo~tim, vd.iit.p.]M9 DMOtuttt (i'mmM) \-<t. v.p.< (~cw 't t.m)k', i'eithttti'.



thu head, Midthe xign of th ftint with the teeth.' Why fish of may bc caught in most plenty when the Sun ts in th Kign Pisces,is as e)earas th rcason why trees an' tu bu Mhid,or while thu moonis on tho vendables g)tt)n;n:d,or n~nuro u.scd, wanc,fut' thse thin~s ha\u h) fait, or bc euusnmed,or rot; on th othcr ham),grat'ts are tu bc set whitc the moouM wtiitp, it is onty luekyto bc;iti an uu<)crtak!ng whchthc wKxht~ Mud mooni.sun the mcrcMe, as bas beft) !)(;)deven in modemtimM. It is as ctcar why the Chinc.scductor should ad'Hini.to' tho ttcads,middtes,and Mots of ptantt, as medicme fur the Itcads, and )egHof his patit-nta !'Mpecth'c!y, and whypassages boftics, in booksiookedat while somothought is in the reader's miud, shoutd be takeu a-! omens, from Western Europe to Eastem Asia, in old time!)aud ncw. Wheu it is home in mind that the TahitiaM nsenhe thcir ititcruat paius to demonswho are inside them, tym{; their itttcstiuc.sin knot.s,it becomes easy to undcrstand why the Lapianders, undcr certain circumstances, object to knots hcixg tif~I in clothcs,and !iowit cornesto p~!ii~ tu tie magieknotti, that, iu Germany,witchus art still b<j)icvfd whichbring abuut a con'cspondingkhotting iusidothcir victimii' bodies. Aud su ottfrotnono phase to anothcr uf witclicraftand supcrstitiou. It wuutd bu tjuitc intcHigibk ou this principte, that tho sor. rcrcr shouldtttink it pos.sibtc toImpt'fsshis owumind uponthe outcr worid,uveu without any pxtcntat link of communication. Th mcrc prc.sence of thc thought in his mind might bc cnough to cause, as it were by reffuetiou,a correspondingrcality. He is usuatty l'uund,howcvm', working his will by some material mcans,or at Icnst by an utturanco of it iuto the world. 'i'tns sucm.sto he tho case with the rainmaker, or wcatherchanger,whcrever lie M met with, that is to say, amongmost races of mau bctuwthu itighcst culture. Sontetiniesttoworks as the Samoau ntinmakers with by ck'ar asiociation of id<a.-i, thcir tiacrcdstonp,which th~'ywet when thuy want ratH,and put tu tho firu to dry whentbcy want to dry the weather~or the Laplnnd wizards,with thc wiuds they used to seU to our VatiotN w).ii.f). 7} ~b. v.nml vi.ExpL MS., Kioj~)"roM)jh, MMt )fM ix.3! xviii. H xni.S4. 'i'ttm<r, p.317, ;).j:i. l'titt.,



sea.eaptainsin &knotted cord,to be let ont by untying it knot by knot. lu tho notabtcpracticcof kUtin~ an enemyby prophcsying that he will die, or by utteri))~a wish that ho may, th outwardMetof speechcorne'! bctwccnthe thought and thc reatity, but purhapsa met-eunxpokcnwisb n~y bc hetd suftieicnt. T)ti.skiud of bcwitchingis fouud ovcrahnostas wide (t range its th pmctk-csof thc miomaker,and extnuaHkc thcm iuto thc uppert'ugion!! uf our raef. Theto <)w)t)t ttwcttYe)in Muffat toun, That Mid thmtnhttt w)td deeMina Thcmtnbtcr o' thotoun. deo'd tnd thofou): bMnt thoweaver wi'thowudd o' his)u)nc, They r And ta'd:t weot-woMd onthowMtock tocM." As bas becu so oftcu suit),thse two arts are cucouragcdby th unftuiing test of succs. if they havo but timc cnottgh, Md thc httcr justifies itsctf by kitting th patient throughhis own imagination. Wheu hc heaMtitut hc ttas bcen "wishett," he goes home aud takp.sto his bcd ttt unce. It is impossible to redizo thc state of inin't into which thc continua) tetrot' of witchcra~ brings th savagt;. It is hdd by n~ny tribcs tu bu thu nfcG&sary cause of death. Over grcat part of Africa,in South AnK-rica and PuiynH.sia. whcn !t tnan die. thf (p)pstion is at once, whukii)cd hitn atxi thc Huothsaycrif!rusortcd to to find the murderur, that t)<udead muMmay bc avenged. Thu Abipum'shdd that thcre wa)ino such thing as ratura! death, aud that if it werunot for t)ic nmgicians and th Spauiar<s,M man woutddiu mdcs.she werc kiucd. Ti~ notion that, afterai), a. man might p(.-r)tap.< die of himst-~ cotnmout of an oid AustraUanto tlie corpseut a. curiousiyin th addre.s-} to tjtc otiK-)'bJnck.MJowx funera], If thot)comL-st and they a~kthcc whokHtedthcc,auswcr,'No une, but 1 d!ed.= Tilprearc of eouMo branchesof thc sava~ wiz<u-d')i art that are not connectedwit)t ttic tncntat proccss tu w)tiehsu many of )ni)pr:(cticesmay be rd'errcd. ]Ic i.s oftcn a doctorwith iiomcskill iu surgt-ry and medicinc, am) an expert jugg!cr and oftcn,though knaveryis not th basis of his profession, a cun. R.C)m)nh!M, 'PoptthuRhymo!{Seothn.) Ettinbn~h, 18M, p.i!:i. lang, 'QttCttuhBd!' ijOO. Lo~(.t), 190), p.



ning knave. Ono of the most notable superstitions of t!ie hutnan race, high tmd bw, M the beUef in the Evil Eye. as we nt) du, tt)c stnntgu powerwhich ono tnind has K.nowing, uf workingupon anothcr through thu eye, a powcr which is net tho iess efrtMtnfur hums whully tux.'xphuncd, it sfftns not uuruasonnbleh) xuppofc thut the bcliff in the tnystcriutts infiuenecs of thf Evil Eye ttuwsfrom th knowkdga of wttat the uf th<!will, whitc exprience bas <;yccan du as au )U!itt'unM))t not yet set sueh timits as w< rc'co~niseto thc range of its actiun. Tho hun'or whichiittVitgcs su oftcu Imveof being tookcd full in thu face, is quitc consistentwith this fcoting. You n)ay look at him or his, but you must not starp, and ahove al), you must uot luokhi)u full in tlie facf, that i.sto suy,you tuuMtnot do just what the strongcr n)ind dues when it uses th eye as au instrument to fo)-ceits witt upouthc wcaker. It is ck'ar that thc superstitionswhich hve hccn eursority descrihedin thi); ehapter,arc no )m.'rccasuatcxtmvagancc!) of the humanmind. T))e wayin whichthe magie arts itin-ctaken to themsch'cs the verb to do," as chumiu~ to hc doing sometimesjj-ivesu~ an oppurtunity of testing ~<t!' M'<e~c<tc< their hnportftuccin the popu!nr tnind. As in Madagasettrthu fiorcorerti und diviuprsof Matit:m:)n!tgobythc namc ofxi~offtt, that is"worket'x, su word.si)) thu hutguagcs of our Aryan race Mhuw a hku transitiun. In M<m.skt'it, tnagic lias posscfMCtt itsetf of a whotc fantity uf wor<i dc'rivcd front Af, to "do," sorccn'. /'r~<n:, fnchtmting, (iitem)iy, working,) M; ~t, n t)ff~),work), and su ot), M, <:)[ch:tiitntcut (frum ~'<.(<'Mt<t, wititoLatin /<:e<'e has pruduccd in thu Romance tanguagc!<, cnchauttnunt, o!d Frunch /f'<u)v, Portuguusc Italiau /t<~fM', ~c~tro (whc))cu /e(M'), :mda doxeutuur~, audGrimm hotds that thc must probable dcrivtttion of :(tit~ct', U!d High Gt/rman :"~<(< i.s h'otn :tw<t, Uothic Mt~)<,tu f~, as modem Uurman~MMt tm'ans to bcwitch,and othcr like utymotogi~s arc tu bu found.~ Thu he!iefau<ipmcticestu winchsuch words refrr furm a compactand organic whole,tno~tiydevp)o))cd fro)n ~t. i. t!.73. K)!b,M)M)aj!<<!iGtr Wiirtttb. <.< "MtMo." (.trMutu, PMet, 'Uri)jine!t!' tm-tii.p.64t. Dhit, h. M.t..984, ~) i. ii. t. WOrterb. DicfetthMh, Vcr~). 1~ (!9.



u stato of unnd in which suhj~tive nnd objective connexions <tre Motyet cit'arty separated. What thcn does this mai))) of videnceK))ow fromthu ethnotoK'st')! point of view what is tlui position of sorecry in thc histo'y of mankind? When Dr, Martine. th~ Uav:u-iantntVt.'th.-r, wa.stying ouc uight in his tmun~oekin an ludian but in South Am''nca, (md )dt tho inhaLitunts ticoaed to bc Mtuep,cach i'amityiti its owu wcruuttermpt~d by x strangt.'sight. Intt place,))t8reOexiotts dark cornerthere nmspnn otd wonan, nakod, (.-uverud withdust and ashc'i,<tmisembk pictm'f of )n)ngcr<mdwrctchp<)ncssit was thc stavc of tny husts, a capttve takch froui unothcr tribe. Mho crept cautioustyto the hcarth nnd btcwup the n)-c, brooght out smnc hfr)M and hits uf huntan hair, inurmurod somuthiu~ iu an carnest tonf, aud grinnedaud ~sticutatcd strangcty townrditthe chiMnm uf her mtMteM.Sho scmtdmd )~akuH, throw herbs and hair roHedinto bais iuto the nre, and soon. For a,long whitc1 coutd uot conecivowhat aU this meant, titt nt last springing frotn tny tuuntnockand coming ciosuto her, 1 saw by her tcrror and thc itnptoring gesturu shu madeto me hot tu bctray Itur,that she wa.spmctiKing tna~tc arts to dcstroy the chiMrcn of hcr cttG!nIe.s and oppt-M-sors.""This," he conttnues, wasnot tiic nmt cxamp)cof surccry 1 had metwith innoug thf InftiiUts. When 1 cnusideredwttat detnsiouitand darkMMmust Ixn'o becu workh~ m th tuunan miud befuro )mm coutd eonM to fear aud invukedark tinktMwnpuwprs for another's hurt,whcn 1 co'nsittt.-rcd that so comph'x a. superstition was but the ronumit of att originaHypure wot'iitnpof uatuM, and what a.chain of complications must itavc preceded such a dgradation."etc. <;tc.' 1 cannotbut ttunk that vr. Martius' dduction is th abso. luto i'evcrseof tho trut)). Looking at th practice.sof sorccry among the tower mce.sati n whote,they ha\'u nut thu appear&ueeof mutitatcd and tnt-iuudprstuod fragtncut~ of a higher System of beltef and kuowtedge. Among savage tribes wo find fannHcsof customs and superstitionsin grcat part traceabtc to the same principte, thc confusionuf imaginatiou and Dr.v. M)trtht< <m't Xut:no(t 'V<:fK"eg<<t d<rAmerih<niMhm Mmtt.-hhdt;' lti3!).



rcaHty,of subjectiveand o~eotive, of the mind and tho outcr worU. Atxungthu higher races we nnd indecd many of thc mme customs,but t))cy are scattercd, pmctisod hy tho vu!gar with titth' notion uf thon' meaning, hxAfd down upon with contcmptby thc muru instructfd, or cxphuuud as mystic symnnd at last droppct)utt' onu hy ono ns th woHdgrows boti.sm.s, wiscr. Ti)ci-ti is M cut'ioHs haudfu)of phun euva~ superstitions atnotfg thc ntk's tu which thc ItutMn Ftamen DiatMhad to couf'orn). Hc w~snut oolyprohibitcd from touching a dog, a t-aw t)K'at,bmuts, and ivy, but lie might not even shc-g<mt, natnc thf'm, h'' ntight not )))n'f! n hnot tied in hi.sctothcs,and thc pari)~.sof hi.s)):)i)s nnd t)t<jctipping!!of his hair werecottcctMt nud buricdundo-a )ueky trec.' MoHttic dUTerence docs thf mre euurttiuf time makc in such thingo as thcsf, that 0, tuodern tni.S!iiontu'y te a savagu tribu may teant tu uttdcrfttand t)K')u bettcr than t)tc RutUtUM whopmctised thctu two thousand agu. year<i It is quitc tntc titat there arc anotnatieii among th supenititioufipmctifC!) uf the ifjwurt'accs, proccediugi!uf which thc mcaning i.s not cipar,signs of thc hreaking-downor stif~ning into formatism of bctich carricd downby tradition to a distance fromthcir xourcc and ht-sidM, titu ritus uf an old religion,ea)'ricd down through a n<!W ont. )nay mix with such practiccs as imvebcpn d~scribed wttitu ttic ad))crcnt8of oue retigion hL-r(. arc apt to aNcrihe to ntagieth bctiufsand wonduri) of aHuthcr, as thc Christiaushdd Odin, and thc Roman!)M'Mcx, to ]mvo heeu mighty cnchantorsof ancicnt timcs. But when wo sec tho wholesystcmof sorccryaud divination con)parativc!y compact and iutfnigihteamoug savage tribus, tc&scouipaet aud tess intcuigihtc among tho low~r eivitixcd races,and still tess thcrc sccnisrcason tu thixk that such imperatnongdurset~'s, ffctiun and incunsifitcn(;y as aru tu bo fuund mnong this ctass of superstitionsin thu iowcr tcvcis of our meu, arc signsof a degeneratiun(soto spcak) from a systcmof crror that ~'asmore pcrfcct and harmoniousin tt yct tower condition of nmnkind. whcn tnan hada )cssctear view of'thc di<cret)co betweenwhat was in him and whatwas out of him, than th towest savagM AutM x. H Httt.,Q.tt., eut. Mi)M,Xutt<at etc. AtU~t;



we havo ever studied,wheu ))Mtifo waa more iiku <t long dretttuthan oveu tho iifu t!)at thc Paris are tcadingat thMday, dccp in th tore.stsof Sout)t Atnerica. Theru is <t rouiarkabh' pcculiarity by which thc sorcerv uf tho xavagc Kcctustu repudiatu thc notion ut its having eume dowM front wtnfthiog higtio-,aud tu datf itsctf ft-um thu chiM. huoduf thc htmum met-. Th~rc is oue nutnica) iu))trtnt)<i)tt (if th ))u)t)e )jc aUowfdto it) whid) wugivc over to yottog may who indeed thot-un~hty chiidK.')), and Mtjoyit,t)nttpp~'ciHtu Mttic. BehoM thchild, byXatUM'tf hw, Mn<Uy l'h'tMed witha ntttte, tMded with xtraw." Whcn thc digtiity of numifuudis t" Le cunter~tt on a Smrnesc prince by cutti))~ hi.shuit- und giving hh)) a new dreM, they shttkca mtttc-bcforu tutu as hc gt)c.s, tu .shuw that ti)t the ccronony is pcrt'onucd, hc is still a chiid. As if tu kccp ut! iu ntind uf his ptucc in instut-y, thc sitvagetnagicitU) contiuuttHy with wottdcrft)!put-tinupity c)i))g!! tu thu same ijtstrmncnt. It is ?hune)) <jfhoufstifd tugcttK't-, M)))owt) Ltudd~'r with peas iu it, or, mnrc ufteti than unytinttg t.')sc, a odabash with stuucsor shdis or bum.'siutjidc. lt is his grt instrmuent in curing thc thc aceotnpanitmjntuf his Xtfdit.'iuc-~ngfi, !;ick, and tho symbot uf )ti!i profussion,am'jng thc Rcd Indian.s, amung ti)c Suuth Amcricau trib~, a)t() in Aft-ica. For th tnagician's work,it hotd!!it:! own agninst far highfr iuiitrumchts, tttti witisticsand pipes of thc Atuerican, and cvctt thc cuu)parativc)y higit-ctaii!) thttM, Itatmouieous,and stringed itMtnnucnt.s of th negro.' Ncxt abwc thc ratttc in thc Mt-alc uf musicalinstrumeutsi< titu drum, aud it tuo itas becu tu a grcat oxtcnt adopt~d i~ythc with magie(igurus; it is an impor. sorccrcr,and, oftcu paint<-d t:mt imp)cment to ttitu i)t Laptaud, in Siberia, tuuong sume Nurth Ameriean aud sutuc Soutit Amcricau tribcx.~ Thc vut. t. j).MU, Ctttin, !?'. &hM.)cm{t, i. p.Mh)pMt ii.p.t7i'. C)Nr)< )Mrt td. vi. 'Centm) t(.ix, Yu). i. t). vo). p. M7. tinttMt, AMm,' ii.p.2'M.PutdtM, voi. it. p.JSN!), etc.etc. t-oi. ii.p.7~. Khoua. tB2u, 0. H.,Mt. ii. JM.n:)mtr<!r, tU-2. See xv. p. M9, Stmbo, ]. K2. in t'ittkertot), v<.t. t!e)!<mnt, i. p. ]CS,180. B&MMttin, 'laphux),' p. 93. 'HM.of B.Tr. London, Mothm, Chtte,' roi. i i. Mt). tSOO, p. Mk~r, T~. tottit,' Htnifefi. ~).ii.p.t:!3. 1?74, p. U7. StetittiftiM,



clinging togother of ttavagosorccry with thse childish inxtruwith the theory that both bclongto mcnto,is in full consiatcncy the infancy of mankind. WIth )css truth to nature and history, tho modem xpirit-rapper,though his bringing up th of tho dcad by doing hocus-pucus under a table or in a xptritf) (tark room is so liko the procct.'t)iH~s of tho African mgangtt or the Rod Indian mcdicine-tntm,bas cast ofPth properac. companitm'nts of his tntd~ nm)juggies wit)t fi()t))csand accordions. Tho q'tpfition whctttcr titcro M any hifitorica) connexioti of the lower mees,{s dt)itinet among thc xupeMtitious practice:) from that of their devctopmcntfromthe human inind. Onthe whote,th smniarity that runa through the soj'cerer'sart in tho most t'entte eountrics,not only in principte, but so often in detnits, as for instance in tho wide prevafenceof the practice of bewitching hy tockti of hnir and rubbi.'ihwhich once bctoHgedto the victitn,often nn'ouMth viewtitat thcse coincidences arc not indcpendcntgrowths from thc samo principle, but practiceswhichhnvc xprcadfroin ono gco~mphicaJsourec. 1 hve put togcthcr in anothcr place sumoaceuunts of onc of the most widelysprcad phf'nomemtof Mtwry, the prctcndK! extraction of bit': of wood, stonc, hair, and such ttdngx, from the hodiMof thc xick, which iii b!)t!C() thc bcticf that up<~n discasc !s canscd hy such objects having been cunjurcd into thcm. T)n' vahtc of thm bcHcf to tho ethnotogi-itdpends mueh on its bcing difncutt t" cxplain it, and tlierc-forea)-<u dinicutt tu look npnn it as having often arisen imk'pcudenttyin and to a particutar tho human mind. But front th intetligiMo, stato of !nit)d o)x' might a)so say rcasouabtc, bcHc~ and dt'scribfd in thc prcxcntchapter, it practiccswhich ))avc)'<'t'n seems ha~ty prudent tu draw infcrcnccsas to the descentand cummunicationof thc )'acc.s anwng w!)omthcy art; ~bnnd,at lenst whik the ethnotogica) argumpnt t'ron)bcticfs and custotns in its infancy. ii!8<i!! To turn now to a din~rcnt snbjcct, the samo state of mind whic)thas had so large a share in the devetopmentof sorccr)', bas aisomanifesteditself iu a very rcmarkabic scricaof observances regardingspokcn wonh, prohibitingtho mention of t!)c



nnmesof people,or even Mmettmeaof animaisand things. A man will not uttcr his own name i)u.ban<t nnd wifowill not utter one atMthor'H will not namcs thc son or daughtcr-in.taw mentionth uameof the fathcr or mothcr-io-taw, and t'< <-< tho Htm~'s of chicfs may uot he uttered, oor the nantcsof cer. taiu othcr jMrsous, nor of supcrhnmau bei))~s,nor of nuinMh and things to whieh supuro~tora)powcrsarc ascribed. Thcsc various prohibitions arc nut found a)t tugfthc)-, but ouo tribu may holdto xuvcnttof thum. A few dctaitswill.sutt!co to give an tdettofthc cxtcnt and vat'icty oftius serk'.s offinpcrstitionf. Th inteusu a\-t.'rtiioh which sitva~'s itavufrom utt~-nx~ thcir own t)Mn~,ha.toft'')t b<enuoticcd by travthcr! Thus Captai)) t))o uf Indians of H)-itis)[ that "one of Mayncsays Coltllnl)!R, their fitrangcfit prcjudiecs,which appMu-itopt'n-ad'i a)t tribcs alike, is a distikotu tcitmg thfir namusthus you acvcr get a man'eright namefrom hitMc[f; but thcywiit tu)) cach othcr's nampf! without hsitation."Mo DubriiihoS'cr says that thc Abiponesof South Amcricathiok it a siu tu utter their own aud wt~u a tuanwa.saskod hi;! uanK-, )ta)ncs, ht.'wmd')nud~c hiif ueighbour to ans\v(.-r for )ti)n,s and in tiku otum~r, the as tookin~to a ft'icnd Fijians aud th Stunatransarc dc'scribL'd to help thoa out of the ditBeutty,wh(.'t) thi.< indiiicrwtquestion is put to dmm. Nor does thc disiikc to mcnti"ning ordinarypcMouaI natnc.s atwKy.tstop ut this )imit. AtnonK thu A)gon<)uin tribcs, chitdrcn are gcnoraHy oaUK-d by thc o)d wotnanof the f))mi)y, usunUywith ref~rencf to somu dream, but tttis rc-alname is kept M)y)itenou.s[y secret, and what usuaUy passMfur thc utuno is a. mere nieknatue,<iuehas Little Fox," or Rcd-Head." The reat name is hard)y ever roveatcdevcn by tho gmvo-post, but the totem or symbol of the chm is heM sumcicnt. Tho true came of La BeUeSauvage wa.snot Pocahontas, hcrtruc nam'i was Matokes,which they eoueualcdfrom the Eogtish,tu a superstitious f';ar of hurt by the Engtish, if hcr name was 'Britith MayM, CotutuLia,' etc. London, 1802, p.9i'S. voL IL 4~. SM a)<o DoMzha'er, p. ~fiem C)t)kt<, inTr.EUt. Soe. tndhtm,' Tt. iv. )). !<)!. a StemMn, Vit. loadot), JS62, ]90. Mmdett, HM. ofS)UM<m Lcndtn, 2SC. ISIt, p.



known."1 It M next to impossiUoto !nducaan Mian to uttcr personatnames; tho uttnost ho will do, if a potion im. pticated is presont. i.s to movohis lips, without opoaking,in the direetiouof th pcrson." Schootcraftsaw an Indian in a. court of justice, pressed to tdentity a nuw who was thore, but y <d) ))i)n.~ they could;;ct him to do wasto putihhis tips toward)) Su ~r. Back)tou.'<o (tc.so'iiw's t)uw tmt!vu wornanof VunDiomeu'i) Land threw sticks at a fncndty EngJiiihtnan, who in of native mauuo's,utGHtiuucd ))Mi~MOt-ance hor iton,who wn.'i )tt fiphcott Ncwtowu.~ lu vm-ious of KtnnrkaUocustomft pntts of the wortd,a Viu-icty fn-oob.scrv<d bctwecunK'n uud womcn,aud t))Mir &thcrs. aod !nothers-in-!aw. Thse will bu nuticed c!f!ewh(.'rc, but it i)! to mcutifM) })c-t'c, thatfunong th~ Pnya){ji of Boroco, ))ece.s.s!))'y a man tnust not p)'ot)ouncG the nmne of his father-in-taw;* nn)ongthe Omahasof North Amcnca,thc i'Mtttcraud mother. in-ttuvd" not spc-akto their son-in-taw, or mcutiou his Hame,~ nor do tt~'y ea)thim or he them by natuo amungthc Dacotahs." ft'nntj)MUti<Mun~ Agam,tho wit<).<itt ftomcp!ace.'i pruhibitL'd lier husbaud't!uamc. "A Hindou wifc is uever, tmdor anv to Muutiont)iu name of hcr hushaud. 'Hc,' eiKumstattecs, ThcMastur,' Swamy,'etc.,tu'c titles she useswhen spGakmg of, or to hft' lord. Itt no wayCimonoof the scx anuoyanother more'iMtcnspfy ond bitterly, thau hy chn~ng- ht-rM-ith havh).!j mentioncdhcr husbtUtd's han)e. It is a cnmc not casUy<brgivun. In East Africa, among the Darea, the wifu ocvc-r utters tht! 'motti of lier husbaud, or etits in his prsence,and even amon~ th Bern Amer,whoret)~ womenhve extcnMve th wt<uis still not aUowed privilegesaud grt social poM-er, to eat in tho husband's prescncM, and only mentionshis name before strangent." The Kafir custom protnb~ wn-es from thc namesof relativesof their husbandsand fathersspea.king ii.p.M:. SchMkmft, ]mrt Id.Il.<M. xhoMurton, otthSuints,' City p.Ht.. BMUtOttM, 'Att'!t)n)io,']<.?. 8~Joho, vol. i. t. 5!. Lons')) &?., ~).i. p. NiS. il. Seheokntft, part p. MO. F.doW.WM<), Mm<mJ thHindoM London, ISiiS, p.169. M'tmht~r, '0<taM)umifidte Studio:' &;t)!~hauMn, 1S64, pp.32:,626.



in-!aw. In AustraHa,a)nong th ttameswhieh in somo tribes must not bc Hpoken, arc thoso of <tfathcr- or mother.in.taw. of a son.in.law, and of pesons in somc kind of connexionby mn.rnage. Anothcr of tho Anstmtian prohibitionsM not on}y very cnrioux,but is cnriousas having npparcntivno analogue e)sGwhMc.Atn~ng certain triw.sin th ~htrmy'Rivn-district, th youths undcr~o,itMtcnd of circnnK~i.m,an opt'mtioncaUed ~t!'<<, and a~.rwnrds, thc nat:VM who hve .~eiated, and thoitc whohve t.Mtt openttt.-d u))on,though thcynKtynMetand ta!k, n)MKt ncver nwntiou one anothcr's uMncs,nor must tho name ofone evcn Le .spok~.n a third t.y pcrson i)) th pruscacc cf thc ot)K-r.' It is cspeciaUy in Eastt.-ni Afiia and P.jjytK.sia, that wc 6nd tho ntuncsof kings aud chi'fs )n'td ns sact'cd,and not to bo tightty spokcn. ]n Siant, th king tnust bo spukeuof Mme by epithut~in ludiaund But-mah.ttK-royat namu is avoidedas somethinKsacrcd nndtn.vstn-iouH and in ruh-tK-sm. the pra. hibition to mcnticu chicfs' namps bas cvcn itself unprcs.sctt in tho decpiy Jangu~c ufthe is)aut)swhcrc it pr<-vai).<' But it Js atnut~ thu (nost distant and variuus races that we find ono class oi' tuunL'.s avoidcd with ny.st~noushorror, tho naMcs of t)n. dcad. lu Nort). Amorien,tho d<'adare to hc attudcd to, nut )))putio)K-d by na)~ csppt.iaityiH tht- prsence "f a rt'tativt. In South Atnn-ica,hu must bc tucntiuucd among thc Ahipuncs as tb'i mat) whu duc.snot now exist,"or Mme such pcnpin-aitis and tht- Fm.-giatM hve n horroruf auv kind ofattusion to their deatt fricnds,and when a chiid asks for its dead fathcr or niotho-,ttn.y will 8ay, Sitcncc don't speak hitd words. 'i'hc Samoicd onJy spt.-aks of' th dead by aUus:ot), fur it wou!ddisquit't them to utter thcit- natnm? Th Austra~ !ikc thc North Atucricans,will set HaHs, up t)tc picturett crest or sytnholof t]~ dt'ad tnan'-t chm, but his natnc is not to be spokcn. Dr. Lang tricd to ~.t from at. Austratianth oame v.t.ii. M.. KyK., MC-9.T).hr<.rin M ~.noniat d<,p,Mi. i!)). 9 p. p. ~-Me, g~ M). SimpMt, ). p. )?. &-hn.kr!)ft, Joumoy, partiii.p.aat Yo). ii.p.2;:i. Mtt&hoHer, t)<N;<m), tS03) (.'FiM)!Utd,'('Sm).hy!ttttnme.'(M.3t, KttMm, ii.p. 22C. U.,Ye).



of a native whohad bcon ki)!et!. HotoM me who the tad'a father wns, who WMhix brothor, what ho was !iko, how lie walked whcn ho was alive,how!<ehetd th tomahawk m Ma loft tiaud Instfad of his rig!)t (for ho had becn loft-handed), aud with whom he usnattya.,4%ociated; but th dreadcd name never cacapcd his tip and 1 bctiovono promisesor threata couht have induced Mmto utter it. The PapUMffof the Eastern Archipelngoavoid speakinf; tho natnc!<of tho dead, and in Africa,a like pt'cjudice is foond amon~thc Masat.~ In tho Oht Wortd,Pliny mys of the Roman custom, Why, whon we mention the dcad, do we dcc)arc that wo do uot vcx thoir n)en)ory?"*and indced,the superstitiun).sstill to bofound iti ntodorn B~urupe, aud botter markcd than in aucicnt Home; i it is pcrhaps nowho-emorc notaUy than in Sfn.'t.tand, whcro ail but inipoiisibtoto gf't a wi<)ow, nt any distance of time, to tnfxttM) t)K'uame of )t(ir dcad hushand, t))ongh attwill talk about liim by the hour. No (tcad person must bc rnentioned, for his gbost willconteto ))huwhospt'akshix namc.~ To coucludettn* list, the distikoto tncntionin~thc namesof and cyorythingto which superspiritual or tittpM'humtm beingx, naturat powcrsarc nseribed,is, a~ every onc knows,verygnera!. Th Dayak willnot spcak of thu Nnai!-poxby nanM,but will call it "thu chtef" or "juogic teaves,"or my "HM ho Icft Thoeuphennsmo)'eaHiogthe Furies the Eumenides, you or graciuus oncs,' is the stuck IHustration of this fcding, and tho euphenusms for fairiesand fur the dcvil arc too famUiar to qnutc. Thc Yezidis,who wor:ittip Satan, havo a. fiorror of his namc being UMtitioncd.Tho Laptandcrswill caHthe bear "tho old man with thc fur eoat," but they do not like to tucutiou his name and East Pruaiian peasant-s still say that itt tnidwinteryou must spcak of thc wolfas th vermin,"not call him by natnc, !cst wcrc\otvc!< tcar you." lu Asia, t!te sanie dislike to speak of thc tigcr is found in Siberia, among th ).< 357. Eytc, t~B!'~teen'hnd,' pp.M7, etf. Sce tdm Yo). Kicot'M iij. ttuftho, ii.p.S70, Funtam, h. inA)). !hs.,ro). P.1S4. Ct))tW([y,'R<:))KionofAm<u!N)tt,'p.tOa. G. 'PUt).,xxfi!i.t. <Mr~ 'Shet)!md 20. !MttK)Rd))ten, IdandB;' Edh.,tSM, p. vol. i. p.62. Rt.Johtt, ttho D.M.,p.033, Wuttke, p.119. &<) anmm, 1213.




1 and in Annam, whcroho is called "Qrandinther" or Tunguz;' Lord," whitoin Sumatra, they arc spokcn of as tho witd animats" or "aneestors. The name of Brahnrn is a sacred thing in India, aa that of Johovah is to the Jews, not to bo uttercdbut on solemn occasions. Tho Mostem, it is true, bas the name of AHah fur ever on his tips, but this, as bas beeu Monly ait epithet, not tho grcat name." mcntioned, Amougthis sries of prohibitions,scvcml cases seem,like th to fall into bttmiugin cS~y among tho practices with imn~e.s, mereassociationof idcas,devoid of auy suporstitious thougbt. Thenamosof husbands,of chioEs, of supentaiM-atboings,or of the dead,may bo avoidedfrom an objection to libcrtics bcing taken with tho propcrty of a superior, from n. distiko to astiociate namesof what is sacrodwith comtnon tifo, or to revive liatefulthoughts of death and son'ow. But iu uther instances, th notioncomesout with grt ctcamoM,titat the mre opoaking ufa nameacts upon its owner, wttettterthat owner be man, beast,or spirit, whether near or far off. Somctimes it may ho exp)aincdby consideringRupernaturat cratures a'! having th powerof bearing their names wherever thcy aro uttercd, and as sometimes coming to trouble the living when thoy are thus disturbed. Where this iii a.n aceopted betief, such suyiugs as Taikof thu Devit and you sec his homs," Par)Md)t Loup," etc.,bavea far more serionsmeanitig thnn they bear to us now. Thui!ait aged Indian of Lake Atiet~gan explaitied why tho nutivuwonder-tatesmust onty bc told in th winter, ibr thcn the decp snewlies on the ground, nnd tho thick ico covers up tho waters,and su th spiritj! that dwoUthero cannot hear th laughtcrof th crowd tistening to thoir stories round tho nro in the winter lottgf. But in spring thu spirit-worM is aU ativo, and th hunter ncvcr altudes to th spirits but iu a scdatc, rvrent way, carefut lest tho stightost word shoutd givo oSence.* In other cases,howtiver,th effect of the uttcraneoof tho nameon tho name'sowuerwould seem to bo diffcrentfrom this. Th exptanation docs not hotd in th case of a man reNtTeaiittin, p.M2. in It)th'Chit),' 'Tnttetft voi. i. )).203. Mouhot, etc. ton't'm, !S04, < 292. MM&h-n. )). SehMictaft, partiii.pp.3H,?!



fusing to spcak hia own name, nor would ho bo )ikctyto ihink thut his mother-in-Jaw couldhfar whcnoverho mentienedhen). Somo of thse prohibitions of narncs hve caused a very curious phcuMaenonin iangoage. Whun th pt'ohibited naine is a word in use, and often when it is only something tike such tt word, that word ha:'to bc dropped and a nowono found to titko itx place. Sevoral languages arc known tu hve beeu and it is to bc remarked specittllya8cctcJ l'y thi!<pt-occoding, that in them tho causesof prohibition havo beon diffrent. In thc South Sea Istando,wort}'; havo been tabued, fromconnexion with thc names of chicf!) in Australia, Van Dicmen'a Land, and among tho Abipoucs of South America, from connexion with th namesof the dend white in South Africa,tho avoidancu of thu namcsof certain relatives by marriagu has ted to a restdt in some <!cg'roe tiimiho'. Captain Coukuuticcdin Tahiti that whfn a chief came to the royal dignity, any wonk rcscmbiitt~ his tMttne wcm changed. Even to calt a horsu or a dog Princu or Princes wasdis. gusting to th native mind.' Puiack says thnt front a New Xuatand chicf being ca))cd "Wai," whieh mMH<! "watot- a nowname tmd to ho given to water. A chicf was caited Maripi," or, "'knifc and knives wero caHed,in conacqucnce, by auuthct- na)nu, "nckm. Haie, tho phitotogist to the U.8. Exploring Expdition,gives au accountof tho iiimiiar Tahitian pmetiee known as te ~<, by virtuo of which, fur iniitance,the fit wasehangcdcvcMin indiffrentwordx.bccausc fiy]Jab)c thero wtM a king whosonamc was Tu. T)ms~e<~(star) was dmnged and )ioon." to/e<<,/;<t (to trikc) bocame<M7, Mcntioningtho Austratian prohibitionof uttcring the namcs of tho dcad, Mr. Eyre Mys :" In cases whet'utho namo of a native bas beuu that of suutGbi~t or anitnatof ahnost dai!y rccurreuce, a nuwname is given to the object,and <tdapt(;d in the hmguage of thu tribf. Titus ut Moorundt',a favouritoson uf tho native Tunt~rry was caUf.'dTorpooi, or thc Tcal upou T)tird cul, ii.t.. ]70. Cooit, Voyaso, vol. i. p.HS t.)). Il.p.J:M. =l'o)M)i, )-o). t-i.li. SSS.Max Ha)<it) C.& J{x;)., Sndecn's Math)-,Lectures,' i aud))<nn<:t, w).ii.p.520. Loudm), 1664, pp.Sj-4t. TyemM
). S


!)tA.<t)M ASD XA5UB!.

dcath tho appellntionof titquaitch was given to th tho chiM'R tea!, nnd thnt of torpoolattogcthcr dropped among tho Moo. rundo tribe. Th change of langunge iu Tasmauia, which bas rcsuttcd from dropping-thc namcs of the dfad, is thug deseribed by Mr.Miuigtm:" Thc cnsion andabsotntorcjection and disusc of words h\!tn tirne to tin~' I)M LfL'n uoticed as a source of change in the Ahmiginat diatects. It happoted thus:Th ntunes of mcu nnd wcttncn were takcu ft'om mtumt o))jccts aud occurr(.'ue<s nround, a", for instance, a )t gum-tt-cc,snow, htu). ttiundp)-,th wind, thc sea, ktutgaroo, tho Wur:ttt'hor Btandft'rdmr BoMuiawhcn iu btosMm, etc., but it was a s~itt~t custam in Hwrytrihu, upon th dcath uf to ahstain c\-<r aftcr from any individut)),most scrHputuu.sty the tiameof thc deet.-a.scd,a thc infractionuf mcHtioniug t-nJL', which woutd,thcy cousidered,ho fottowedhy somedite ca)annties they thcrcforeuwd gt'cat eircumtocntiun itt reterrin~ to a so as to avuid pmntmciationof the muuc,_if, fur dead pGMon, instance,Wi))iant and Mary, xtanand wifc, wcruboth dcccascd, and Lucy,the dcecascdsistcr of Wi))ian),had bcen mamcd tu J'saac, a)o duad, wtx.sc son Jt-nnuy still sun-iwd, aud they wished to speak of Mary, thcy woutd say 'th wifu of thu hrother of Jcmmy'< fathcr's wtft' and go on. Sneh a practiec must, it is cicar, havu contributcd matcriaUy to t-cduec th ouniber of thcir substautivu appt.'ttatiutM, and to ctt.'atca tK'K's. to rc'prcscnto)d idcas,whicit ucw sity for new phoneticsymbo))! vocableswout't in a)t probnbitity diHL'ron cach occa-sion, and in everyM-parate tribu thc onty cbanccof fusionof wordsbc. twt'cn tribes arisin~ out of tbc capture of fctnatc!)for wi\'<s from hostile aud aHcn peo]))e,<tcuHtont~Gnundty prvalent, and doubt!essas bt-nencialto th race in itx cOcct.s as it was savanein its modoofcx(!<:uti'))< Martin Dobrizhoft'er, thc Jesuit tnissionary,givc!!thc foitowing aceouittof tho way in wttich this chan~Rwas going on in th tangnage of the AbiponM in his tin)f. Th Abiponian tanguagc is invoh'cdin new ditfietdtiesby a ridicntuus custom whichthc savagcshavc nfcontinuaUyabuiisbingwo~tscommon tu), ii. )).3S<. Byre, in Mi))iem,R~M,etc.,fBoy. f.fTMmanh, vol. Iii.partil. ]$M,p.a?!.



to tho whotonation, and subtituting uewones in their Btead. t'uneral rites arc the origin of this custom. Th AMponcs do not Hkothat anythiog shoutdrcnutittto rcmind tht;m of the dcad. Hfoee appcHativc wo~t~hcaring any afHnitywit)) tho namcs of thc dcct-a-scd aru prfseuOy abotished. During th first ycam that 1 spcnt <nnongst th Abiponcs,it w<M usuat to xny ~ma~KNt A'/t(tm~ 'Whcn witt thcrc )je (t ~ughtcring of oxen! Un nccountof thu duath of someAbipoue, th wonl ~'/<fH<t<~e/t; was interdictfd, aud, h) tt.-(stcad, thcy wcre aU commandt), by the voicc of a crier, to say, //<))(~~w !<~ (t tiger, was exctmngcd ? Tht:wurdM<A<)'('K/ for ((~MM~/eM-; for ~f~)'M', and A'~nM(, pc~c, tt crocodile, <br 7<'<A-<7, bccaufK) thc.<fe word);horc NomeresemSpantard)!. HtuiCti to tho namcs of Abipom.-s Intetydcccatcd. Hence it M that our voeabuhu'tcsarc tio full of btots, occasiouedby our to oblitcratf hjterdictedwords, hfU'ingsuch <re(t'te:)toceiMion and Insfrttn:wonu.s. in South Africa. it appuaM that somcKafir tribes drop front thcir tanguagc wurds rt.icmUing tbc nanies of thcir fonner t.'biufx.Thus the Atna-Mbatudo uot catt the mm by its ordinary &du uaMc <~(t, but thcir iimt ehiuf's nantc havittg been Utauga, they t))K'tho \vor(t <-w<M instuad. It is ako is among the Kafirs that the pMuiitn'custum of ~-)t-/<~t<~(( MaxMUUcr fouid,wtnch i.srouarkcd upou by Prut'cssor !tt his !i<;coud course of lectures.~ Thu fuUowingaccount of it is from auother source-,tho Kcv.J. L Dchne, w!)o thus spcitk)) of it uuder the vcrb /(h)H'~t<, w])ichnteaus to be bashhd, tu keep at a distance throughtituidity,to shuu approach,to avuid tuentiotting onc's name, to be rpspectfui. "This wott!<)ciicnbesa. custombctwct'tt thu ttcarcst relations,and is excluwho, whptt marncd, are not sively applied to thc i'ctnatosc-x, <dtowed to ca!I th tmittc.s of thc rciativM of thuir bushauds nor of their fttthcrs-ht-law. Thuy must keep at a distance fromth latter. Hcnce thcy havoth habit of iuventing ucw namc'x for thc mctnbcrsof tttc family,which is ahvays t'oiot'tcd to when thoscuames !tapp<:)t to bt; cithcr dcrivcd from,or arc to somo other wottt of thc connnou lattguago, as, c<tui\'<duut rc]. ii. M:). Max < D<And)eBM-, MiiUw,



for instance,if thc fathcr or brother-in-taw is catted Umchio, whieh is (terivcdfrom amuhto, eyc)!, th isifaxi [fcmaie Kpx] will no tongcrusu amohio but .substitutcntuakangL'to (tout<or ings), etc., and hcncc, tbc ixwi R'xifaxi, '<.c. womcn-word bas or'ginated. iangungo, Othcr instancesnf change of ianguageby intcrdictingwont.s arc to hc foum). T))Lwhoworshipthc ()f.i), not onty Ycxi()is, refuseto spcak tho nitmo uf fS'Af~'o), bnt they itavo druppcd thc word~o/, "rivt-r," as tuo mueh like it, nn<)use thc word !)/' Instcad. Nor wiit thcy utter the wor<t M<(H, "thread," or "fri))~ am)cvt-tt '<t<M~, "hursu-shuc,"iunt~;f(<-t'<M(?, "fan')cr,"nrefur))iddcnw<)r()!<,hccauM thuynpproach to !)), ":tecnKCtt. It i.~curions to ohM'rvc "eursc," nnd Mi'<~<(<<, that a."discascuf ):u)~uagc hctongiogtu thf san)L' fumityhns shown it'i(itfin Kn~tish speakin~ countiT'.snod in tundcru titncs. In Ajucrica cspGciatty, a number of vcry hamttpss word.sttave hc~n tabouud of )ato yoars, not for any oift-nce of theh- own,but f"r havi))~a rc.'iembtance in sound to words tookcd upon a.s indciieatc, or c'vcnbeciUtse stan~ bas adoptcd thctti to expressiduas t~tMrcdby a somewhatovcr-iiMtidioufi propricty. Wc in Kngland an; not wltotty cicar from tbii! otictiecapunst guodtu.st- but wc-))a\'fbcoi fortunatcin secir~ it devclopcdintu its fut) ugnm'ssabroad,aud tnay)topotbat it is cb<ckedoxforatt among'our.sdvc.s. It ]nay be said in conc)udin{; thc subject of Images and Namcs, that tho c-Scctuf au inabitityto .st/parate, so ctcartyas wcdo, the externat objcct frotnthu tncrc tbougttt or Idca.of it in the nund,show;,it.sutt'vcry futty and ch'arty ht thc superfttitiouii btiUd's and pmctis of thc nntau~htman, but its rcsutts are by no mcansconnncdto such mattt.'rii.It is nut too much to say thnt nothing short uf ft hi-storyof Phifosophyamt thcm ouL Thc accumu. Religionwoutd)w t'titjniredtu futtow htted exprience ofso manyages ha:!indecd htought to u.s far dcarcr views in th(;se tnaUersthan tho savagehas, though an.M' aUwe Moucorneto the point wheruour know!edgestops,and ttto opinionswhich ordinary cducatcdmcn hold, or at teast Mt !!n)M-K<)C)DBhM, <.<.~tt(p. Dieti<nmr]r Capo Towt), ]9S7, Mt. ~Md, 'NttMreh j Lomtun, i . M7. tS<9, p.



to the relation botweenidcas and things, may corne upon,<M in time to tM oupeModtid by othcrs takcn froma higherlevel. But betwtiGuour clearncssof (icpamtion of what is in th mind fromwbat is out of it, und the mental confusion of tho lowest s&agcs of our owuday, thcre is a vast interval, More* over,as has just bcon mit!,tLe ~ppcnmncceven in the Kystem of mvage BUpcfstition, of things which seem to hve outlived the recollectionof thcir originallneaning, maypurtmps !e<td us backto a stitt eariier condition of th human mind. EspeciaUy w< may xee,h) tho m)per)itition!i tho connected with hng')a({o, vast dincrence betwccnwhata name is to ttto savageand what it i)!to us, to whom words are th countemof wi~;)ncnaud the moncyof fuulti." Lowerdown in th historyotcutturc, th woni and <h(iidca.arc fouudxticking to~thur with a tcnttcity verydinct'cnt fromthcir wcakadhsion in our minds,and thore is to hc sccu a t~ndency to grasp at th<: word as though it wero the objcct it stands for, and to hojd t!<at to ))c able ta of it, in a way that spcak of a thing gives a sort of possession wecan scarcelyrcatMc. Perbaps this tat': of mindwashanHy evcr 80 ctearty brought into view as in a story told hy Dr. Lieber. 1 was lookingtatf!y ut a uegro who w:M occuptcd in fccdingyoung tuockin~-birtkby tho hand. 'Would thcy c'at worm:)?' 1 asked. Ttte negro n'ptifd, 'Surcly not, they are too youttg,they woulduot know what tu callthc'tn.' N. Stoitim. LMtr, Laum Bn't)!'t'!U) C.,!S!it, (<.

CHAPTR VH. GHOWTH AXDDECUXE Ut' CULTURE. DIRECT recordif the tnaiustayof History.andwhcrc this faits us in rumotcplacesand times,it becoutM'juuctt more dificutt tu make out wherccn-itiiiation )tas goneforward,and wh~-rc it bas fitllcnback As to pro~rc~ n) the first ptace when nny important muvemettthas been madc in mottem timcs, titcrc have uiiuaHybeeu weU-infonncd coutcmpcrary writers, only too gM to cornebeibt-o the public with tiomuthingto sny that the woHd carpd to hear. But in going down <o thc )owcr tcvcis of traditiotmt hMtory,(hh Rtate of tliings chattges. It M not only that rpal infurmation hucomt.-s more aud more Marcf, but that tho Muno euriositythat wc fce! ahout the origiti and gi-uwttt of civitiimtion, with a disuhfortuntttulyeon)bin(.-<t positionto t:~e any scmUauccof an auijw~rrathcr ttiun live in face of incru Uank coniteious bas favourt.-d i~Nonu)cc. thc Rrowth of thc cmwd of mythic invcutomand civitizcrs, who have thcir place in the !cgcnds of so ntaxy distant agfs nnd conntn(M. Their storiesoften give us namM,dates, am) places, cven thu causes wi.ich tcd to ehangc.-just th inibrtnatiou wauted, if only it wet-utruc. And, indeed, recottcctiottsof rea! met)and thci)'hn'MftioH.-i ]favo comc to be may sotixitimf.s iucluded a.mougth t:de.sof these godt., tterocs, and tiages; aud somethuesa tnythicgarL may ctothc i-cat history, as whcn Cadmu! t=~, "T).c East," hrmgs t)~ H.nicinn lettem to Grcccc. But, as tt rutc, not history, but t~ythoto~yfa)Ie)i cold und dead, or even etymotogy,attusiu)), fancy, are thcir on!y bMis, from Sol, the sou of Oceanui!,who fbuud out how tu Miue and mett the hri]tiant, xuti.Iikugdd, aud Pyrode:),thc



Fiery," who dMoverud how to get nro from Oint, and th tncrchants who hn'cntod thu art of gtam.nmking(known in Egypt ht such rcmotcautiquity) by tnaking tires on th sandy PhHtciM) coast, tvit))theu' kftttes set to boit over them on )))mpsof natron, bmught for this tikcty purposc from thcir ship.acfosMtho wor)<!to Knhuknnt, who got thu fairius' tMang-nct i't'omwhich thf New ZeatnndcMtcarnt thc art of of whom th ncttinK,tM'dth Chineso pair, H~t and Y-Me)), o)Miuvcnt~dth bow,and thc othcr th arrow. As th gf!()sCercs and Bacchns Lecomc thc gifers of cont and wiuo to morta))!, Ho acrosf)th At!atitic thcre bas grown out of a snupte mythie cnnct'ptiou of nature, thu story of thc grcat odightcner nnd dviUzcr of Mexico. Whcu thc key whichProfussorMu!)oraud Mr. Cox ha\'c uiicdwith cuch <uceess in uutocktttg th Indo-Europcantnythotogyis put to tho uassof traditions of th Mcxieim Quctzatco))uatt, coUcctcd by tLe Abbd Brasseur,' th rcat uaturu uf thi.s per~onagcshows out nt once. He w<M thc Mtt of CtUnaxtti,th grcat To[tuc eomjuct'or who rcigned over thc land of Anahuac. Mis mothcr (ticd at ht!!birth, nttd in hix chiidhood J)uwiMcaret)for by tho vifgh) who kfpt np thc Mcrud nrc, onbton of th sun. pricstcsiiC)) ~'hif<yet a boy )tcwas bo)dm war, and fo))(wedhM iathoron his marches. But whitu hu WMfar away,a band of cn<;unc!< roso against tns father. uud with thctu joincd th(! Mixcohuas, thc "(Jtoud-Snakus," and they Mt upun t)te aged king and dtoktid ium, and buri'd his body in tho tonpto of Mixcoatt;~t), thc Mountahtof th C'toud-Snaku.s."Thnc p:t.tS(.'d on, and Quetzak'obuatt kn~w not what ))ad happcned,))ttt at tast thc Eagh' catnc to h!)n and toh! )mn thut his fathcr wasstain and had gottc downiuto the tomb. TtK'nQuctx:dw)toat) rosc aud wunt witb I)isfottowt'rx tu attack the tctnpto of thc Ctoud8nak(;s' ~lountMin.whcrMthc murdcrers bad fortitied thcmfictvcx, ntocking))!)nfrom tbch' batticmuut.s. But he mincdiu a way froin bctow,and rushcd intu thc tcmptc among them with h!s Tig<;t'i<.Mfmy he siew outright, but th hodieN of vot.i. Lwkti ii. imJiii. !<<M Hiiit. duMex!<iMC,' ve). iii.bco): DrmteUt-, xii. i ii. t)~'t<r



tho guitttMt ho howcd and haeked, and throwing red peppor on their wounds,teft them to die. After thin thcre cornes another story. Quctzalcohuatt appoarod at Panuco,up a river on thc EfMtcra Coast. He had iandedthero from his sitip, coming no man knew from whencc. Ho was tat), of whito complexion, ptcasant to look upon, with fair htm-aud bushy beard, drt;!Med in jong OowiMg t't))x's. Receivod cvor~'whore as a messcnger from hcavcu, )M travcHed in!andact'Msthe hot countrics of thc coast to thc tonperatc of tho and thcrc regions ho bccamoa. priest, a lawintcrior, gtvcr, and a king. T))CLt-autifutiaud of the Tottecs tcumed with fruit and nowcM, and his reign was titeir Gotden Age. unknowu,and the people rM'cnedin everyjoy of PovcrtyWM riches and wcU-bcing. Tho Tottecs thcmiich-e.s wcrc not like tho tiMaUdark Axtecs of later times; they wc)-eh~u of stature and fuir almost as Europcans, and (sun-like) they coutd run un~sting all tho long day. QuetzaJcohuntt hrought with him buitdcrs, painturs,astronomors,and arti.sts in tnany othcr crafts. He madc road'! fbr travc), and favouredth wayftuing mcrehants frmndistant lands. Hf was the foundor of history, tho tawgivcr,the iuvcntor of the eakndar of and davs ycars, thc compo~'r of thc Tunahnnat!,th Snn-Book,"whcre tho Tonatponhqui, ))c whocounts by th sun," rcad the destinies f men in astrotogicatprdictions,and ])c t~ulated th times of th sotcmn ccn-mcnics, t)K' festivalof t)m ncw year and of th fifty-twuycars' cyctt.. But after a ruign of years of peace and prospt-rity,trouble came upon him too. His eucmiGii hanu(.-d thcmtietvesagainst !tim, aud their head was a ehicf who bore a natnc of thc Sun, Tctxcattipoca,t))e "Smoking Mirror," a xptendid youth, a. kinsumn of Quetxak-ohuat),but his bitter cnemy. Thcy rose ag:unst Quctzdcohoat), and he departed. Th kingdon), he said, was nu longer under his charge,ho had a mission cisMwherf, for the tnastcr of distant ]andshad sent to swk him, and thn Mastc-r was thc Sun. Hc went to Cho)uttan,"tht; place of thc fugitive," aud foundcd theM anothcr cmpirf, but his cnemy fullowed him with ius armies,and Quctzakohuatt said he must begoao to tho land of forHcavenwilled that lie should vi.sitother TtapaIIan, countries,


0F C'rt.TUXE.


to spt'cadthor<} thc tight of hi~ doctrine but whon hif miiMioo WMdonc,he wouh) roturn and spond his old age with thcm. 80 hc departcd and wcnt down a river on his ship to the tien, and therc hc disappcarcd. Tho sunii);))t gtowt on tho snow~ovcrcdpcak of Orizaba long after the ttmds be!oware wmppcd iu (tnrkncss, nnd there, somo said, his botty wait carried,nod rofte to ))c~vcnin th smokc of t)tu funerat pile, nnd wltcn lie vauiiihcd, thu xuu for a timu rofused to show hhnsetf a~ain. How dint the menning' of thse tales had grown among tho whcHMuDtcxuma MfxicatH, thougitt lie saw in Cortesand th Spaniiih.shipstho roturn of the grent ruicr and hix age of go)d. ha'! como back Mfrcadyniaxy a time, to hriu~ Quetzateohuttt! aud joy, and work, npou tho carth, for hf wn.stho Sun. ti}rh(, \Vc mayevcu fiud him idottified with the Sun by nuMc,and his tti.story is po-haps a more cotnpaet and peWect fierk') of solar myths tlian hangx to the nan)e of any singic pcmonago iu our own Aryan mythotogy. Hia mother, the Dawu or the Night, givcs birth to hhn, and ttifs. His ~thcr Camaxtii is the Suu, and was worshippL'd with Sotar rites in Mexico,but ho ia the old Sun of ycstcrday. Thc douds, pcrsonMcdin the or "Ctoud-Snakes" (ttte Nihe. mythic race of the ~Uxeuhuas, iuttgsof the western hcmi'iphere),hear dowu thc old Sun and chokc itim, and hury him m thcir tnountaiu. But tho young thc Sun of to-day,ntiiht-s up into tho midst of Quetzfticuhuat), thftu fmm hc!ow, and somc hu slap ut tho first onset, and somc ho luavcs, rift with rcd wuuud.s,to die. \Vo havn thc Sun-boat of Helios, of tlw Eg'yptiaa Ha, of t!fc PotyNCNian Maui. Quetzaicohuatt, )ds bright carc'cr th-awin~ tuwarthits dose, is chused into iar tands by his kinstuau TctN'atHpoea, tho youngSun of to-Htonow. Me,too, iiiwelt-kuotvn as a Sun. god in thc Muxican tt~'ulogy. WondL'rfutiy fitting with a)t this, one ineidont aftcr anothcr iu thc htc of Qucti'atcohuatt faUsInto Itf!place. Tttc guardians of the sacrcdrtre tend him, his funcral pile is on thc top of Orixnba,!)c is the ltclper of thc maker uf thc ealcudur, tho source uf astrology, traYcUers, the begiDner of hintory, thc briuger of wcaithund huppiness. Hc is the patron of thc craftsman, whom lie lights to his



tabcur as it io writtcn ht nu aneicntSanskrit hymu, He stops <brth,thc sptendourof th sky, the widc.sccing.th far-aiming, the shiniog wandercr suroty, culivfncd by th sun, du tncn no to thcir tasks aud du their work."1 Even his pcoph' the Tottces catch from him sujar ({uaiitics. Wi)i it le even possiMcto grant to this faniousmec,iu whosu story tttc legend of Quftz<dcuhuatt is tho lending ittcidt'nt,anythiug moretitan tt mythic cxisteucH '< Tho student, t))un, Mny well )ouk suspiciousty on Htatc. tnents profM-iing to bc direct history of tt<c earty growth of nnd may evcn ~nd it best tu err on thc safoside civitization, !md uot admit thon at atl, un)e!M thcy arc s)Mwnto be probaMe hy other vidence,or unk'ss the tradition is of such a charactfr that it could hardiy have arixot Lut un a hasis of ftMt. For instanec, both thse tests seou tu bc !<atisfied by th Chineselegendcoucenungquipus. lu thc timcs of Yu)t~it is uscd ching.chc, rclated, peoptu tittto cords n)ark<dby diffrent knots, which, by t))eir numbers aud dixtanct's,servcd them ixfiteadof writiu! 'Hn; invention is aspribed to thc Kmperor Suy~itt, the PmnMthfusuf Chinai rutting names and dates out of thc question,thi.~ story onhodius the assertion that in n)d tintM the ChitK'M' uscd qnipus for rccordit,till thcy wcresupcrscdcdLy th<iart of writing. Now iu th first phtco, it is not casy to imagine how sucit a story could corne into existence,untesi it were founded ou fact and itt the M-cond place,an cxanunatiunof what i.sknownof this curious art in ot)n;r coutttrics, shows that jn-it what the ChittMe say once happened to thon, is known to iiave happfned to other mces in various parts of the worh). The quipn is a near rdation of t))Crosnryand the wampnmIt eonsistsof a cord with string. knots tied in it for the purposeof recatiingor suggcstingsuntething to thc mind. Whcn a fanncr's dauglttcr ties a knut itt her handkcrchief to remembcra commission at markct by, she tnakcs a rudimentary quipu. Darius !nadconc when lie took a thong aud tied sixty ~<) MUUM, 'Lectuns,' -x-ne! p..t!t7. ve). 8N. De dosu<!t, iii.p. HMtoiM Mn.Je h ChtM r<tTM, ~MUa, 1~7, M), i. p. 4.



that thoy ttnots in it, and gavo it to the chieh of tho lonian!), might uutio a knot each day, till, if th knots were att undone, and ho ttad not t-ctumed,they tni~ht go hack to their own !aud.' Soch w:Mtt)e striug ou which Le Bootied a knot for each ship lie met on his voyage,tu kfop in mind Its name aud poutitrv,and t!)ttt ono on w)nch hi" futticr,Abba ThuUu,tM (iMttt)it'tykuat~,aud ttn'u six tno)'<to rcotont~'i' tftat Cuptain Witson was to corne t'ack in thirty muons,or nt kast iu six bcyo]t<).~ Thix isM simplen d~vico thttt it may, for aH we kuow,ha.a Lcen invented agnitt au<t ngain,and its appearance ht several countri~ doesnot nccMStu'ity provuit to huveLecutrausmittcd f~n one euuntry to attothcr. It bas Lccnfuuud in Asia," lu ludiat~ but Afric!t,'it) Mcxipo, a)no))g th Kurth Arm;ric:Ut in South Aou'rictt." T)(e wottt WtM its grcatest dcVL'topmcnt of P~ru,and ~'~M,that is, k)Mt," butungs to th Ian!;na{;u audcommuof t-ccurd scrvedt))Ct-c a~the rcg'tfar )t~'at).s <)uipus oicationfora hi}{h)y-or~:mi!tt;d sueicty. VuuTtichudtdL'scrtbcii tied "f a thiek maittcord, with thinner eut-d'i thex)as (f~Mistit)~ on to it at certaindistances, in whichtht- knotsarutied. Thc tcttgth uf the uuipus varies much,t))c tnain tnmk bt-ingoft<n many fU!})on~, Komothncsouty a singic foot, th branches Mtdom moruthau twu fe~'t, aud u.suuttymnch lL-s.s.He ha!i itt wuight,a portowar'~ cight pound.s hu Mn-.s, du~ 'tp a <j))ipt), iu the wofxtcutt'rum whieh tim tion of which is rcprL'sentcd takeu. The conts arc ofteu of acconipanyiu~(Fig. 15) red fb)'so). uach with its owu propcr mL-aning; varionscoionrs, whitc for sitvet-, grceu fur corn, und w 0). diers,yellowfur {;otd, Thiii kttot-writit)~was especia))ysuitcd for rcckonittgs and t" i. p. 4L' i. iv.!'S. t<f)in.,x.34. H:MtMM, thn")., 3! UM. ;)).. 3<!T, Kmtf.PdcttMuxts t~n-ton, i. rof ~tMp'wn, 'Memonab H4S,t'o). Knmm (E.Tr.); London, vo). i. iv.)'. Y"''-1'- ~7. Jonn'.!m). An-hit.. tndit,' r. MU.Af.K.vol. Mt*. j).2<M, C. f)., va),i. t'. 3. iiMtiM, i. Yo). i. fp. tCt, 2t2. K!tm<)), vof. Goptet, ).. 4M. M), i. f. 235(~tjmstge whith vi.p.]! L<.Uj!i vol. )-:x))., <f)ti;ChM)e''oi]f, f t)"* cMH-Mhh). Dite. ef forLueina tatfM)c<!< *R))h)t, heinx mstaa nttMH LMtett)', p.4. c Hum'MMtMd vol. "i. 2u.BM')tefort, )).4!2. BotiphtM),


statMtictd taUcs; a sing)o knot metmt ton, & double one a hundrcd, a triptc ono a thoumnd, two singtet)Hide by aido two httttdred. Thc distnocM uf tho knots twcnty, two ()ouH<s it-on thu nMit)cM'd wcro of grt importouco,as wns tho wero p!aeed of th branches,fur thu principat Rcqueucc t)t))ucts

)-). aod nctn'tho trunk, and so tu dce)'eu:!in{; on the first brauc!)cs cotftittueii o~to'. T)iisart of rt;c)<M)in~, VottTtichudi,Mstill ix n)iOttnMugt!)uh<r<)ftnn'uofthePmm(t)tuhi};hmuuntni)t tu t<hn by thcm, su phtcau of Pont),nttd ht: had it cxp)ainctl rc'adanyuf their quipus. Oc that with a i!tt)c trouble lie cooM the 6rst branch thcy usuaUy register the butts,on the fccotxl



th cows,thew ogain they divido into miteh-cowsand thoso that are dry tho uf'xt branchescontain th catvea,according to ago and sex, thcn tho ahecp in sevcrat subdivision!), the numberoffoxeski!h;d,thoquantity of sait used,and, lastly, the particuiarsofthc eatttothat hvedied. Onother quipua is set downt!tc produccof thc hen) i)t mitk, chff.se,wool,etc. Each is indteatft by K spcial cutom'or a diH'ercutty twinett hctMting kttot. It wasin tho mmo waythnt in oM times the army rogisters wcrokept; on onecordthe Ktinget's wcre set down,on another thc iipf'armen, on third thoso with chtbs, etc., with their nfnccrs and thus also tho aeeount.t"f b:ttt)eswcrf dmwn up. In cach townwt'rc specintfunctionarit;~ whosoduty wasto tio aud intcrpret thc quipus tin'y were etdiedQuipncam~yocuna, or Knot-ofHcers.InsnfMe))t ns this kind of writing was,thc officialhistorians had attnixed, durin~ thc ttourtstnn~ of the kingdom of thc Incas,to ~rcat mcility in its interprtation. Nevcrthctcss, they werc iietdotnab!f to read a <)uipnwjthout the aid of au oral comtncntury;M'hfnonocamefroin a <tistnnt pmftncc, it wa.'i nece.s'iary togive noticuwit!i it whather it referred to census,tributc, war, aud so forth. In ordcr to indicate mattcrs Monging to their own immdiatedistrict, they madeat the tx'gitonngof thc main corti certain signa only inkept the <[uipus tcttigiUctu thcmsetvcs,and they atsocarefuDy in their proper(tepartments,so as not, for instance,to mistake a tributc eon) for ono rctating to the census. By constant ttto systemas to bc abte to rcpracticc,they so far pc'rt~'eted gister withthuir knotstho ntost important ovents of tho kingdon), and to set down th )nws and ordinancc.s. In modem tirncs,ait thc nttonpts madu to rend the ancicnt quipus hve beenin vain. Tho difncuttyin dceiphoringthctn Mvery grcat, sinco every knot indicates ait idca, and a numbcr of inturtncdiate notions arf it'ft ont. But tho principal itnpcdiment is thc want of thc ortd infonnationas tu their subjcct'mattor, whiehwasnccdfutL'vcnto tho most h'imtcddueiphercrs. Howwccvon succecdin findingtho key to thuir interever, xhou)d protation,thc rcsults wouldbo of littlo va!uo for what would corneto Hghtwouk)be mostlyccnstM-records of towns or pro-



vinees,taxation-tists,and accounts of thc propertyof dccettsod persons. Thore aro Rtill wme Indinns, in thu Muthern provtMces of Peru, whoare pcffecttyfnmiliarwith th contents of certain historiea! quipus ptfservfd fnjm nncient times but from they kccp thcir knowtcdgea profoundsecret, eupecinlly the whito met).' Comit ncnrcr to China, fjuipo.tare fonnd in the Eastern and h) PutyHcsiapMp''r,~aod ti~'y wuroin use in Archip(.')ngo Hawaii furtyycarf!a~o, in a t'orm!icpming)y not i))f''rior to thc most cMjomtGPeruvinncxnmptcs. "T)tc tax-gathercm, though can ncittu')-Mut nor thpy writo, keep very exact aceountsof a)) thc artides, ot'att kinds, coth'ctc'tfn))nt))uinhahitantsthroughout the ishmd. This is ()nno prh)cipa))y hy "ne )uan, and thc more than a Hncut' cut'da~ fnxn funr to register is not)))))}; five huhdt\-dfath)))sin kn~th. Distmet portioMS of this are aUottfd to the vanou.s districts, which are known front onf anuther by knots, ioops, and tufts, of dincroit shft))cs, sixc. aud coburs. ~eh tnx-payer iu th district ha.<! his part ih this string, and th )ttunh<rof <)o))Hrs, ho~s, doss, pip<t'.sof san<)a)wwd, cluatntityof taru, etc., at whichhf is rat~t, i.s well doHncd hy )nean.sof marks uf thf ahow kiud.s,mostingcnion<)y divcrsificd.3 Thu tutcof the qnipu bas bccn evt.'rywht.'rc to )Rsuperseded, rnorG or k'ss (.'titiruty, hy thc art of writin~. Evcu thu pieturowritittg of thu am'u'nt McxiNmsappcaMto ha.'c Lecn strun~ cnough to .supp)ant it. Whcth"r its use in Mt'xicois mentioned by auy o)d chrotnck'r or not, do uot ktMW but Botnrini p)acc<tthu fact b~'yonddouht hy oot otdyfiuding Kome iu Ttase:da,but a)s'j rceurdi)~ th<ir JUfxieau t!pccimc))ii natUL', Mword dL-rh-fd fmui th vurb //~!<M, to ~</ couut. Witen, thfrcforc, the Chmcso tcH u.s that they ottcu upun a tune usod th!s contrivancc,aud that t)w art of writio~ supcrscdcd it, thc amdo~y o)' w))at))a.staken ptucch) other J. J. v.'hictjudt, Tm) A.<h)i,]S<C, vn). il. asx. S:Mar):)m)t), '<ir 11. &Dic.of~th-hm, for. n'<. K)MM)!), C.f! vo). )). Mamten, tS2. Kmtc, !)!'<). md vn). i. p. 45S. T)'ermm Uennct, Joamt) j Lomtot), tS~), *)eademantiem Botunci, ttifto~ eh-. M'uMd, !7<e, p.!)5.



countnos makcs it extremety probabto thttt th tradition ia a. truc une, and this probabilityis roiMforced by the untiketiuess of such a story having been p)'w)nee<! by mcro <aney. Morcovcr,tho historicatvalue of cfu'tytradition does not lie itt the fntguM'otjf of real history it may prserve. cxchtMvety EvcH tho myths witic))it carnes duwu to Inter titnes may hceumoimpurtaut indirect t-'vidcnin thf hands uf th cthnohaududduwt) hy )ncmoryfrotn io~ And ancit-nt eo)n))osition.t ~onMtttiuntu gencmtiu)),cspociaityif n poetic furnt iK'tps to keep tttGtnia thcir ori~intd shap(. uft~ugivo us, if Hota sound rocurdof rmt! cvcttts,at least n pictm'e of thc ~tatcof cit'iiixation iu which thu <;omp')fitiu)i.s thunML'Ivcs h&dtheir origin. of indit'<;ct Pct'hapsuu hnux.')) CYidcnef, ht'ftnn~ on tt<c tnstory of cottorc, hns t~'f.'tt.suwuj]wot'kcdas th tnctnoriaisuf enriit.-)' status of tiocicty, which hve thus bcfu uniutcntiuttHUy prescrvfd, for iustancc, in the Hmno-ie puonM. S:t<crexemptes thiUtthe fuitowiogmight hc quutcd but as su much bas bccn f!:tid uf thu histuryuf tltu art ot'writiu~. the phteu may iicrv'' to cite wimt wL-ut.tu bc MtitL'Mut'i:)) of ft titm' 'hc;),anto:~ the ancicntOrct.'ks.pietnrc-wntin~had notas yft bcensuperwdcd by wurd-writio~, iu tbu ta)c uf Bcit~ruphun,whuttt Pt-t))'! wott)')nut ki)i, but hu scut ]ii)n into Lycia,and g(t\-o tthtt biUtL-hd si~ns,gru\'iu~ on a futdt'd taUut XMnysotd-dcstruying things, aud baduhi)u shuwtht;nt tu thf king, t!mt hc ut ttis !umd.s. ))ti~htpt.-rish ai ~tfAoM't)~, Hf~tre <r~~<tTn ttJpo'S* <!yf ~t'ypa, ~fm'fft):) r~d~'ttro~\, ~u~o~P~a trrtXTy ~f~ot y t)Mi)ytt <r<)~t~, t!~)'<!)fM')(To.' It hnppt'ns )U)t'ortut)atG)y thnt but )ittk' cvidcttccas tu the carty histury or eivitixatiutti<!to lie p)t by direct observation, that ).<, by contra.stht~thc conditiot)of Il lowraen nt dit)'crent titnfs, su as to sce w)K'therits culture bas attcrcd itt tho Mc:mM! Wutf, in !htn. U~Ue, i. p. )).,Yi. etc. t'rutei;. ]S: 2nd~).vo). t.M<)<;U Lhldell ond and Wolf, H, 1',c tM litordtr vol. t to tu Mcutt, Heult, tijft! rikm "Uen.tM' IlItem-, asuveryw"ere everythere <:).:, tist, <h~n)H~h)y hironglaty nndct!(ttMMt "M MttMt nfcth' nc~tth'e cvi'teMco uf thtmj!e')hn! TiU !touMr, wo tt'tMMk )<ow <<' t)M ftttnbxtc he~M wo :.ktt) tmtfullytahe fttety thcy wntiM,; .t! in inthc thc11111"11100 uf thmer'~ UuWCr'g u uttermlleure ttortiitcttce (he the ~ (ft'tc !m)i<'rtiUtc~ or upon bll~jt'l-t, "Ion ).)jj<Kt.",Stt<o~y "S\,IRl'lf"H txmtnwy /<ct't't<t', ('i<< Afr. IS'j:,p. CH. M



whUc. Tho contact rcquisite for ftuehau inspectionof a savnge tribu by ctviiizedH)en,bas usuaUyhad mueh tho samo eHeotas the cxperiment which an inquisitivo child tries upon tho root it put in tho ground the day boforo, by digging it up to seo whether it bas grown. It in a gnera) ndo that originalMtd indcpcttdent pro~oss is not foun'tfttuong a pcopteof lowcivi. jizatiou in pr<iicucc of a Li~hcr mce. It i.su~tum! unoughthat this fihoutdhu t)tc casf, and it ducs nut iu thu )cast uH'cct the question whcthcr the iowcr race was stationary or progrcxsittg bcfutt! tho ai-rivalof th mm-f cuttivatcd fuK-igtn.'r! Evea whcn thc contact hnxbcen but sti~tt aud temporary,it cither becotnes doubtfn) whGther progre-s Uiattusu'ju Hfterwardsitt original, or certain that it is not so. t bas bccn aMert~d,for had no bontsin thc nu.th instance, tttat th Andaman Mander!! centnr~ aud tbat tho cauoo with an uutri~ger bas o))iytatety should pruvc corappearcd atnuu~ thcm.' If tttc.sefttatou~nt.s rect, we cannot assume, upun thf'str~ugth uf K'))),that thc iti)at)derstnade th~t' inventions t)K-n)sc)vus, titat they HeGing could casiiy hve copied tb~-tufromfort.'i~neM. ~turcovt-r, thu filet that thcy now us< bita of gtaMS botttM, and iron front iu making thrir too)s und wcapuns,pM\-(.-s WK-cl:K, titat, sUght as thcir intercuursc ha.s bcen wit)) fun-ij~K-r. and bitter as is their hustiiity to thon, tbfir cunditiun bas. ncvcrthch'ss,bet.'n nmtcriatty dtaugcd by furcign iunuencc. Thoug)i direct cvtdcnct' thus ~nt.-ndtyfaits us iu traeing the hiiitory of thu I"wcr culture f tuankind,thrru ar'' mauy wav. of bringin~ ittdirwt vidence' to hrar nn thc prohk'm. Thc enrly Cuttur'Hi.story ~f Mankind is capabh' of bciug tr<atcd as an Inductivc Science, bycfdtcctmg andsr'pi'wfact.< Jt ia tt'm' that very )itt)~ ])as as yet bccu doue iu this way, as regftr'tstbc towcrraec.sat kaft; but the cvidcttcc hasoniytf <t vt'ry s!ight cxtpnt bct'n gut u)tn Il state to };ivo (h.'Httitt' )'csu)ts, and the whotc ar~mneut is cxtroncty uoccrtain nnd difMcutt a fact whieh sofHeicntty arcounts for writers f)u <))(' Origia of CivUixatiuubcing aide tu te)) n.s a)l about it, with tttat bcautifu)case and cotttidcxec which bch.ng tu thc spccn. !ativp phitosopher,whosccourse isbut iitttc obstructcdby tacts. 'Attdtnmn MnMt, r., hhn'kn,'H). U, 3].



In a Lectm'a on thc Origin of Civilization,sinec reprinted with a. Pre<acc,' tho !ate Arehbishop Whatety thus euntmarity disposes of any claim of th lower raceitto a powerof selfimprovement. t~or, all exprienceproves thut mon, kft in the )owest,or even anythingr.pproachingto the towest, degrec of barbarism in which they can possibtysnhsistnt a)),never did and Mevfi'eaM rnise thetn.sutves, utMtded,h)to a. higher condition." This view, it may bc renun'kcdin passing',Mrvesus a basis iur &theory <t, though mecK arrived atrcadyat a moderato state of cutture inay ntake prop'ess of thcmsdvcs, such racps must havo bcctt .startcdon t))cir wnyupwatd<! by a supernaturat t-cvuiatiou,to brit)~ thon to th point wharc indcpcndent prop'ess Lecame possiUc. Now, tho dnit to the low is a Lroadstatcment, savago of tho power of K'ff-itnprovcnwnt to .justif~'it, lit icast a goodnumbcrof ca.scs of tribcs t'eq'uriMg, who imvo had a fair trial unJcr favouraUe circutnsttmccs, and !)ave bcf'n found wantin~. As denuitc statcmentsof this nature, the two foliowixgarc cu)).sidcrf([ by Archhitihop What'y as fittOtcifntto ~i\'<'.sub'itancc t'~his argtuncnt andcveu thcsc will not bcar critic!s!n. Thc New ZcattUtdcr.s, whomTasmau nt-i'tdiscovered in l(i42, and w!to werc visitt for the second timo t)y Cook, ~7ycars aftfr, wf'rc ~ttn<) by hi)n exacttyin the mmc condition." Nuw Ta.")uan]tcvcr fet fout in New Zeatand. Tho partieuhu'!ihe rccot'dc'tof t)te civilixatiouof the nativM, as sGGn from his ship, occupya page or nu in his journal Ho mentions fircs sccn on shorc a sort "f truntpct Hown upon thc'ir hair iu a bunch Lchind by thu jiaiivc.s t!tc'ir drMxi))~ thc top of the hcad, with a whitf f'athcr stuck in It their doubk' canocs,juincd abovcwitha ptattonn thuir pnddlcsand s'xnctitnesuf faits; their ctothing, witich was (as it scL'nn'd) matting, uud somctiMt.sof cuttou(he wa.swron~as to this tast so. cunsidt.'ring howlitttc opportunity point, Lut very cxeu.sab)y )n' had of ctosc uxannttttti~n) t))uirsp~'ar!) and duhs a white can'ied Lya tnax in a hut and thc-s())):u-L' na}{ ~ardcn-inctosurcs Wh:Hc)y. 'Miste)hM')H!!Lc<'tNn'a)td Rfficw~Lom).'n, ]'< 'Jounttmt vandot!chmmr het ont<)fende f!w:trt, timfAMJittMS. XttMhtf), M-S. T~m~n AMMtentM), !!?'. p)..



.en on Th!*eoKingx* Mand. This meagre account M all the hasiitWhatety hfutfor assertmg that the conditionof the New Xcahtuderi! in Ta.smau's thuc was cxactty tho somcM in Cook's tituc. lu point of fact, howdocs it prove that eivifixation BMy hot bave advaneed or dectincd very consid~'ndtty whcn Cook visitod the country Tite othcr statemcnt lies in the eith)};of a ronin'k of Darwin'tiabout the Fuegian.s, whichrutH tttUff :'"Thcir skill in Mtnorespectsmay bc eomparct)to the instinct of uuima)! for it is not hnprovfd hy expfriL'nce th cano,ttM-'h' niost ingcnious work, ~o!' as it is, ha. rt'nuuncu t)if s:une, for thf )ast t\vo hundrcd and fifty ycar;< Hut it ntust he nutiecd,thnt ncither i.'i tho wreteh'd hajfd-to-tnottthlifu of the Fm'gians favourahtf to progrc.ss, nor eau a hark eaxoc t~n (ut't )n~, holding four or hve grown p'rsoxs, h~'side chihh'cn, dogo, itnptmnent.s,an(t weapou! and iu whicitIl fh'c pan hc kcpt Lurning ou a hfarth in tho roosh ~'a of Ticjm del Fxpgo, bc \\it)tut totondjte sca-guin~oua)iti<s. As to workmanship, the modem Fucgian hark canm'sarc muchabovcthc veryrude unes of the Anstndiau coast, though proha)))y hoiuwt)K'itighty finishcdoncs of tho AfgMi'juiM.s of North Atnfnca. Sir Fnmci.s Dra.ke spcaks of thofL'lit. saw in t))(' sixtcc'nth ccutury, as "mo.st arti(iciaU," and of "niost fine proportion,"aod )atf)' us tu say that thc ~cauK'u's rctuarks, thonghthey du not c)ta)))u modent om"fMn;ucttf'r or worsetn!t<)cthan they u.<c'd to )', leavctto doubt a. to t)t<iratway.shaving becti higt(-t;)a.'M craft of thcir kind, su toug as wc kuow auything aLout then)." But thc tnost KmarkaMc thittg ht thc whotu matter, is thc filet that tho Fucgiati.sshoutd hve had caooc.sut all, whiie coast-tribcs acr'Msthu stndts tnadc shift with rafts. Th!s was of course'a fact iau)i)iar to ~tr. Darwin,aud iu thu very ncxt s~ntcncuafter that '~totcd abovc, lie actuattygoc's ott to ascnhc to the fuc~ian race thu inventtou of thuirart of hoat-buiidhtg. "Witil.st bchohtiog thse savnges, onc asks, FitzRoy and Ditnritt, NMmttit'e tf Ycyftfja ot'A'h'tHt'<n!' Md '))t<tgto;' vul. i ii. SM. \-d.). ~7. t.saH, Lcodot!, r. p. 'ThcW.~MEneottttiM~tt'ySirFnmei.'Dr: Kat:tn]rti%< !<,? M-S. C.U.vo). i. p. 330. W.P. SaM-, t. LofJot), tfX?. Ktemm, 'Tierm(te)Fues", t.').i. i.. MS.



whcncc hve thcy como ? What could hnvu tempted, or what a.tribc of mcnto leavethe fine rgionsofth change contpeUcd north, tu trawt down th Con.)it!cra of backboneof America, to invont aud buitd canos,and thcn to enter on onc of thc most Inhospitabtc eountriMwithin the Hnnts of tho gtobo ? Of this part of Mr. Dttrwtn't K'tttftt-kt, hnwcver, Archbitfhfp Whatety did not think it neee~arytu toke notice. 1 htn'c bmught forwan)thcsu statoncutif uf his, not fur th his particuhu'viMWN, put'pose of t)if!c's.<i)t~ Lut of Uht.stmtiu~ th unsouttd rchttion ht whichthcury ha.ssu uften hccu placed tu fact. But far mon.-prutitabtework than th criticiKM an<l eonstt'm.'tmn uf Mpceututivu theurius,tnay )? donu Ly col)cct!ng fset-!or grunps uf tacts !cading tu direct mfcrcnees. Wtten ))0th fitet and mfercnccnr< soutid,t.'vcrysuch argument is a stMpgained, whitc if cithcr bc unsuond,a distinct statement of fact und ifisncis the best meansuf s"~in{; thum currccted,or, if needfui, discardt.'d tdtogt'thcr. A principal o);jcct of t)m prcsent ehaptcr, is tu LrinK furward a variety uf instances dnn\'n from sources whfrc indirect evideuce bearing on our enrlyhistory Is to bc sought. As examptt"! of cvidcncc from tnnguagc, a few cases may bc yv'n. The word m~<(h~'oK,indicati))~the pnmitit'o art of bas pasfcdo)t with thu growth it-ckouingby pcbbtcs,or c/ct(?f, of scicm-uto dosignatc th workin~uf probtctns fur bcyond thc reach of th abacu. 80, thougb th McjficaM,when they wcrcdi~covcrcd, hnd <t high numericutxysifin and wcre good thu wurtt M/, xtom- renKunc<) as un iutc~rtdpart reckoncr.s, uf onc of thcit' suts of uunK'ratsfor conuting animais and thingn; cenfe~ "uuo stone," o)i~ "two utonc," eM<"thrcc stone," etc., niefUtin~nothing tnoretha)) one, two, thrcc. Nor is ~texico the on)y country whurc this cur'uus pl)eiton)cnou oceUM.Thu Mutayssay fur unenot ouiyM(, but atso w"'t(<,that Is litcraHy unestunc,"and thu Javans say not utdy '<thutM<[~<,thut is,"onc(;urn,ur!!ucd,"and m like maunM' th Niai',iangnagccaMs oucaud twoMt'i&x'tand <~<Ht!'t;((, tttat 1 is, apparcntty, onc fruit," twofruits." 1Cmw(ttn), tic.fm.t t'ic.<,f M.hiii. M~h)Lm.!<M);t; L~tot), HS2,'-d.i. M). M'!me etxnti. txvii.,



StiU more notabte is tho Aztee tcrm for an e<)ipsp. Thc idea that th sun and moouarc swaliowcd or bitten by dragons, or great dogs,ur othcr crcaturc.s, i-~net on)y v<;rycuntMonin th Oid Wor)d, but it M ~'cn found in North and South Amorica.and Poiyncsia.' But thorc i.s ~'videncG thut t)ntincieutMexicansumicriitoodthe Ma) eau.scof cc)ipse< Thcy arc rcpresMntfdin the picturc-writingsby u. fi~ur~' of the tnoou'.s dise covcnng ptrt uf th suti'.s, and UtissytnLo), Humboidt rcinarks, "proves exuet notK'tts M.stu thc ca't.w:of cetipscs it rennnds us uf th attegorica)dauccut' th Mcxican priests, which rcpr~'utcd the <nou)tdcvouriog the sm). Yet th Mcxicansp~sfn-Mt thc memon' uf Mn cnrtict-st<ttcof astrononucat knowtcdgt;,hy caUin~ ectipsus(~' thu sutt und moon~Kf(<tu~<;K<t<u, ;e~t gM~,that i; 1)~'.sun's being caten,thc moou's bcing e!Hen,"just as fhc Finns !iay,K "th muon is eat~n," and t!i(i Tahiti!U).s,that sy&!<M, shu in )M. <(t,that is btttcn ur pinchcd."In thc Jttcxicaticc)ebmtion of thc ~c<M<<n<A-~M~), ut-cctipsoof thu suu, two of thu t.ao-ijiccd of the sun aud tuoot).~ capth'ci! appuarcd as !ikcn<sses ~VItcti a thit)~ or au art is muncd in ouc cuuntryby a wm'd bekNpng tu th iangttagc of anotho-, as )t' /<(tKimoc/ and tho Hke,it is oftcn~uod uvideoccthat thu thing M~e&)t, or art itsctf camefrum th~-nce, with it. This brinyng its nntm.' kindof vidence, <jfc!iiization, ims hearing upou thu progrc.-M be(.'ntuuch and succt;s(ful!y workcd,Lut it has to bc used with grt caution wh~tt th furei~n taogua~e is Mh hnportant mcdium of instruction,or xpokenby a race dotnittantor powprfuj in tho coontry. Af htstnnc~suf wonk goud or bad as historieal vidence, nmy be takcn tho Arabie wotds in Sp:u)is)<. Whth: ~M<Hi.<a (a)e}tt.'my),a~oi';t~ (bornoo!i), c~:<((irrigatiog chttanc!), ~)-;<~<(e (nprieot),andnnmy morL-, tnay rcntiy with thmn bistoriea! infonnatiottof tnorcur )cssvaluf, it carry 'jM<t); Unhou, M<. ~)mo)<-mft, 'DeutMhtiMyth~if,' p;t.~~f-S, mrt i. \-oL fi. ),. )!t. DuT~n-,Hii.t.UeN. p. Sn. D~.rith.trw, dM AntiHe),' << j v<.). ii. j).37t. TurMt, ftum, ]C6?, Mt. 'rojyNeiitt.'i.. ItututmMt, \'H<a', );).S'). 'C:Mt~, 'fiottMdM OS- Hritam, M)'t)Mk.!M;' J).M. p. M9. E)tM. M). vo). ii. p.~C. Ii, Myn. RM., Kit~m). !ti<t. Knt. AMth'< t<;M, p. U9. Hum~Ut, YaM, ~). M.



nmst be t'orne ni n)in<), that thc innuenceof th Arable tauin Sptin was so ~cat, that it has often given wordsfor }{Uttgu what was thcru )ung before Muunsh times,(t~(tC)'<t)t (MorpMt)), '.(&c<'u~(uproar), ((~f (hi)t), a))d .soou not satisfted with theit- uwu wurd f"r h'-ad, tu (;xp)'s )t head of catttf, th a)!it <t'a,Arabie!<t~, head. 80 thc New tnust ncc<J!! Sp:u)ia)'ds H')'Luukis ~ood evutcucoas tu Zcatandprs'use ut' 6t<~<~t<~<t wtm tau~tt thon tu t'cad but th natuu that thc Tahitian uobtcsarc uuw t'o)umon)y adoptm~,instead of thc nativetcnn is bad videnceas tu th origin of casteainong thta thcy <{<'(/, like th tit)c ni' <t'ff, which i.sa native a.ttonpt at ~fe)'t<0)'. Mvent))c utymotu~y f a wur~tmay somutimesthrow Hght of art uf 111"1 ulili kuo\v)c<tgn uad 1'1'0111 one h1U1l1l11issiou kuowlcdgcfrom une euuntry count,y upon the tnutsmis.sion upouthu tu anutho', as whcrc wu may wu howtttu Rotn:mmadc SM~.<M<< by tmnstatin~; ~oorao'tf, aud th OcrmaM,making hittMett' word fur "supfrstitiut' <''~K!'<Mcmtshot'M'bcfbt'c f/e/ot~ that M uver-b'Hcf,"had thu s~<- of Mt~eM<<'<w hitn whcu hc iutroduccd into )d.'itaunuagca notion whteh it ))ad purhap.t hardty t'fatizcd bctb)-< Tu takc a more tipcouiative case of I~\'ury dilti!l'lmt used ittAttssvtl1'C Id \IIthu tcn'IlI'tI~ tivL'c wf)! but vurydmctt.'nt wht;rcdid tim Russians~et thu uscd invcutioufroui iuRuNii~a!'o known, asuot'a. ttiud.thctca-unM Ttn'y gct tt'uir tea frotn Chuta, whcrc tua-urns much rcscmblt!)goui'owu ha\'c tung bceu in use. But th apparatus is tio in t)te Kapk!i Muscum, new thin~ in Europe,aud thu Mpccim'*u chocotate cltocolute if it"it it vero wcrc culuttrcdvith cohjurudwith tlte thc cuuventiuual cuuvL'ntiuuat cotour,and culuur, and une whichMt<Mt, woutd had a tap put in to rfplacc thc ongiua.! purhaps be ouly remarkcd upuit at an Engti.shtea.tabtu as t~ing bcautiM but <j)d.fahhioncd.It wa.skcpt hot byc)):u'co!d buruing in a tube in th xtiddtc, )ikethc Russiau urns. Now bas bcen thc namoof a ~<'x..-t just tfswcnti~ t!<M <)~criptiMt (a~Ot~y, "hcif-boitcr"),and uf this term prcsurvcd,f<//tf~N(t thc Ru.<.sian t)a<ncfur thfir urns,wio<'<'su)f-boi)cr,"is an exact translattun. Th cuineidcnpf su~c.st.t that they may hve reivcd both th t)nng and its Muncthrou~h C'o)t.stautiuopte. ~torcuvcr,therc is ruasun to think that th Wfstcni uicmcut in Chinuscart is far moru importMat thau Is popuhtr!y supposed,and thu tca-urn is su pecu)iar aa apparatus,and su -itrikiugtyatiku in auciunt Itaty and in (.'bina,that it in itcarcdy



posstMcthat th two sitouht hc tho resutt!!of ficpantto invention. The Russiansactuony snppty Bokhamwith omo'.f)' Bo that on the whotcthm-cscumsfair {{round for th viewthat the hot-watfr Mm originatcd very car)y in Europe, and travettcd east os furas China. It oftcn happcnsthat an oM art or CMtom, whid) ])N!! )A'pn for g<m:)'alpurpo.'it's BUpcrse<!(id hy somumore cunvcnicnt arm so)cnn) ccrenuMtioft rangctncnt, is kept up long ttt'turwani.s und uther ntatteM undcr thc controt of priests om! oHiciats, who are commonty averse to change as inv'ntions hve often to wait )f'ngaftcr they h<n'ceome into ~encnd u.w bct'orcthcy arc oniciaUyrcco~niit~'d. Woodcuta! tics wcrc givcn ibr receipts by our Exchcfjucr up to th time of Wiitiam !V.,a!, if to kecp up, as longas tuight Le,the rcmcmhranccof thf time whcn "our tbrcfathcMhad no other bookf)Lot the .scot'o and the taDy." It i.struc thnt the ttotchc-d Kxchequcr taity had long had a Latin inscription on it, and at iast thcrc was given into the bargain a fair EttgUsh roecipt,writtcn on a sepMatc papcr. Thu ta))y stn'i\'c!! stit), not on)y In thc brokcu sixin outtyiug district~ pencc, and in the bargain.'i of pea.s:mts but in thu counterfoitof thu bankcr's chque. Surne evidencu of this ccrcmonia!kt.'cpi:)g up of arts 8Up('r.(;dfdin privatc he givenin tt)G dtaptcrs on th Stunc Agu and Fire)ifc, wHI making. Such Itdps as titpsuin worMng out thc probicm of the Ori~in and Progresiiof C'dturc gruw scarc<ras wc dcsccn(t a)t)ong tho )owcrracps,and thusc <'f whichwc hn\'c iittit; or no histo)'ic<dkM('wk'()gc. Mcrf uLscrvation of arts in u'-c, and of tu tt'ibM living ordcad, form.fat prcscnt th bjcet.sttc-ton~in~ t)n!k uf th<;videnceof thc historyof their culture aceessiMf' to tts. Of <hcscrMords an immensemass bas becn cuUKtct). Lut they are vcry hard to rend. an otjet't carrifs its hi.stoty MittPttin Sotnctimcs,!n<)ced, its funn. as suntcofttm Ks'juitnauxkniv~'sbruught to Hngtand, which arc uarvudout of a Nt)g!cpic of bom. in imitationof European kuivcs with handicii,and show that thc maker wai) 'Tnn-ch Yambfty, i)tCentnt!A~);'t<i)Kbn, ISC<,IM. Pictet, 'Onjiime' t~rti).r. <2S.



acquainted with thoso highcr instrument! though he Lad not thc imn <o mako a biodc of, M'even !t few wraps to fix along the cdgo of thc bone Uade, M thcy so often do. Thc kccping up In Btone architecture of designs hotonging to woodcn bttitdings,fun'ixhcs com'tu.sivc proof)!of th growth, in sevcnd countriM,of thc art of buitding in stone from t)<e <u'tofbuitdn)g in woott,)m Mr~nm'ntwhieh is usedwith extraontinary ck'arncss and p(~('r in 5ft'. I'r~t))Mott'sHimdbook. In Centrt America nnd Asia Minorthure are stit! to bt: sfen stone buitdiogs more or tcss rniit~y copiud from woodcnconstructiot)s,whik-in Eg)'))t a !ikf phcnomcnoutnay be tmeed in structures betun~ing to th ronote a~ of titc pymmids. 'l'))o studcnt may sec, ahnost !Mif ho bad becn standing by whfn thoy wcrc buitt, how the urchitect, w))i)c adopting thc tK'w tuntoriat, beg!U)by copyin~ from thc wowtunstructures to whiehttc bad bc(.'naccnst'jmfd. Spcaking of tbc Lyeian tombs winch still retnain with thcir bcams, phtnks,and paup!s,as it, were turnod from wo~t into Htonc, .Mr. F(.'rgtMson remarktt upon thu Vtducuf mtc))nmnutnfttt!!as tt;Mn)sof th begimii))~ of stonu arebitccture atnonK the pcopic wbo buitt th~n. wbcrHVcr th procc.ssmn be detected, it is in vain to took for cartier buildings. It i)' onty in tbc infancy of stoue architecture tbat tncn ndhcre tu woodcnfonns,and as soon ax ttabit givcs thon fanntiurity with tht! ncw tnateria!,they abanaH tract' of t))u don tho incongruiticsuf thc Ktyif,and wc !u.sc 1 ge." origiaai fonn, whicit ncvcr reappears at an ftft<*r Thcre couidhardiy bc a bctter mustration of an t.-thnotogical argument dcrivcd front the incre preschK' of an art, than in Marsden's rutnark about t)tc iron-smeit~rsof Madagascar. It is weHknownthat thc ~faditi~scan-s arc connected by tan~uage with thc great ~ta)ayo-ro!ynesian f:mtity wbictt extonds hatf round thc giobL- but thf art of ~mciting iron bas outy been t'ound)n t))e istandsof tinfi vast district nearEastL-rn Asia, nnd !n MadagascurItsctf. Kvcn in Xcw Z~idand,witcn! thcrc is good iron orc, thcrc wa.sno knowkdgo of iron. Xuw at thu tinie of our becotning Mquaintcd with the racM of Africa, tn HandLaok efArc)t!t<MtMn! Loajott, t8M, w). i. 'F<!tB'~< 'Btustntte't t'p.US,208, ?0, <:<<.



central latitudes aud far down into the soutt), they wero irousmeheM, )U)dhad heen so for wc know not how kng, and AMca M only thruo or fuur hundred mUcs from Madagascar. whcreas Smnatm is tht't:u or four thousattd. Nevcrthcicss, with thf Marsdt'n'sobiiM'vation conncctsthc art in Mt't'gitSt'tndistant Mast~'nAtt'hip'tag", mthHrt)m)twith th nci~htx)urin{{ ))) s)na)) funmccs ut' ~)u<;tti))i.; African <uti)'pnt. The )))-uef.s.s or pits is mueitthc siunein thusotwo districts, but thu bctiows un! <)it!cront. Thf usualAfrican )je))uw8 eunsist uf twu skinK with vulvexworkm!aftcniatcty t'y han<), so a tu give tt cuntiouous ')nm~i)t,nmch the xantuas thos<;of Modurn lidia. Tttt.'sc were not unty in usL' atnong thc ancifnt Grceks and bot <u'e fittUt" )?.'tbond it) Suntjtcfn K)))'"p<' 1 saw a Ronttmff, wandt'riugtiokcrat wurk at Pt'st'tnt with a pair of goatskiuii wit)) ttte ttair on,which h~ compMMed aiturnuteiy tu drive a cun'ettt uf air intuhis tire, opouittgaud shutting with his hands thu stits which8erv<d as \-atv<s. Serrt ')<'thse f-kin-Lfitows arc often u.scdut t'ncc in Africa,and tin'rf arc to be found itnpt-uvfdfurnis which approach )nnrc m'arty tu our LcHows with huards,but the pri)K'ip)cis thu sttun- But thc Matay htuwiog apparatutii.sfiutm'thing very digrent it is a duuMcof two batuhuo.s, fuur Lan'ckd air f<jrci))~-puu)p. It con.si.sts and five ieft long,which aru set uprigttt, iuche.s in dia)at.'t(;r wttichatf opcn abovf, and ctosudhclow, t'unnin~ thc cytindcrs. hambuu tubes w)tieh convcrgf and tn<-t-t t'xpt hy two iOBaH uf a bunett of (cathers or ut t!tti fitt;. Eacit piston con.sistx othur soft substance,which cxpands and iits tightiy in the driveu down,and coi)apscs cytiudcr whitc it is hcing forciMy tttkttiMairpa.'Maxit i.sdntwn np; and a b<'ypti)'chfdon a hi};h Mcator stand wot'ksthe twu pistons aitcrnateiy hy thc piston-rods,whicitn)'f sticks. (It is )ikcty that cach cyiindcr may havu t).vatvc tu prevcnt tttc return dmug))t.) Siuutar contrivanpcs hve heun dcscrihett chicwtn.'rcin the Eastern in Ja\a, ttindanao, Bonico, and New Guinca, Arehi}n:)ago, K<UT. oft \'m!tte 3M. AmktMcn, p. ~"<.i!'M;k)mu!.c, l'othm~,)~.2U3, ii. Afric*! <tn't t!<4<, 'R~mton~ UmMtttritiM)) U'~tun, ;). 97! UuCMUt', t )mt ) ttetbim unt)t<: Atth)!~)hom~r, ])nnAfrMt f. Ct,etc. tt[ft)CM)!, See ve). s. Afn'un .tMrictft. i i. inW<:<t WtiU, ).. tit.te ):M"tt




and iu Sian), th cytinders buing sometimcs tMmboosnnd somctitm'shoH'twcd trunks of h'ws. Marfden cauedattention to tho fact that the apparatus uwd in Madagascaris simitar tu that of Sumatra. ThM-o is a description and dmwing iu EHis'tt whieh nc~d not lie (juotcd iu datait, as it docs MadngasH))' not diHcr i)t pt'htt'ipif.' t't'utfttJiitt of t])c KMstcruAt'ctnpctitgu. A stuglc cy!in<)ct' is fi0toct!m<s u.sed h) ~hidMy~'fu', t)t)d pet'. )):tpstdsoin Burnco,hut af a. t-u!u th Utr )tt<t)'f <td\'n))tagpuuM of twu or st-vend at uneu is a<tuptt.'(t.Thc Chiptun wot'hi!)~ nuso tmkfrt., who pmcttsu th art, qnitt' uoknuwn in Hm'opc, "f pttchin~ tt CMst-iron vcssetwit)) a cjut uf tndtcd it-un,potbnn this cxtmM'dhmryfmtt witlt au nh- furctng-ptttnp, whidt ))!).s i)jd(.'ed but Il M))~ tr'mt: and a pistonpackudwhh fcathcrs, but is in'pt'ut'ct) hynth't.'s aud a pussitgewhich ~ivu it wh:tt is kttowna.sa "()ouh)cactiun," so that the singtc ban-c!dues th workoi'two in t))<! rudct-cmMtructiotf of thc ishmd.f.' It MCM.S frotn ti'L' appcttnmcc uf t))is Mt)tMrk)))e <tpp(tt'HttM in Madagascarand in ttni Eastft-nArchipfiago,that the art of iron.stncttin~i)t thcsu distant Jistm-ts bas had acomtounoripu. Vcrylikfiy th art may haye ~)m.' i'rum Smnatra ur Java to but if so, this tnust ha\'c happ<nc<! wheuthey wcrc Madaga-wa)-, in the Irot) Age, tu n'hichwc havf uo rea-sonto suppose they had corne in t)K- titnt.' of thch' c<mm'xio)t thu with ironies Maot'is and Tahitians. ~tn~-nagc tht'oM-.s nu fight un tiic < taattur iron is panudin Ma)ay,Mf<,and in Ma)<tgft.y, It is Lut fGHomthat (he tt'au.snn~sion of an art tu distant rt'giunscan bc traecd, fxc~'pt amoug c'tnpanttivt'ty high races, t'y such a bcautihd p!ccc of fvidem-e lis this. Thu statc of t)ti))~ amo))gthc towt-rtnhfs which prc.scnt. ii.s(.-)f tu tho studcnt, is a )inb.<ti)))tiat simHarity in knowtcd~ arts, and cu.stonts, running throngh the who)c wo)-)d. ~ut that the witutc culture ofati tnhM is M)i)<t',far frum it; but ifnnyart urcufj. tom bf!onging to a low trihc is st/k'ct<() <ttt'an<!<)))), it ix twc))ty Jtist.f Jatu,t..).i. ).),.]?, ]~. DiUMjfMr, ))(tfHbtt, ;<.]!)t. ]!;tt))u), CthM), tu),i. !M. ))i~))~~<'f '(.pt){m;'Lon~n, ~?U:)-N, in Tr. t.t).UM, Kth. ?. U.W. Soc. i LMKtun, JSCS, p. &r),'1').!)~ L..n<)mt, (1. lM:t,p. 7U. 'Tmtebin iNdo.Otimt,' Xnuhft, eh;. biedo)), vo). i i. I3X. 18t!(, Ht)! vol.i. p. :)n]'. Ferey, 'Mm))!gMatt'M)!(n!t)tfs'Londott, !Mj, t.)'. 2. 746. i!r3-S,



to one that somcthingsubstanthtiylike it tnay be tbund in ut !<*ast one place thousandsofmih?soff,though it vcryfrcqucntty happens that thcre are large portions of the carth's Burfaco !ying ttctwecn,whcroit has nut hft'n otMervcd. Jndccd, thtjrc are few thittgs in eoukury, boats,ornactuthing, nno.s,vesiiets, found in one ptaec.thut eannut ho matchcd more or le!)!) tnent.<, wc g*' itttu suM!)<jt(ti)s,or t'ifie ucarty soncwhcru etsu,un!c.ss to thc levelof thc Pt'mvitUts nnd M~xioms,or ut tcast of th highpst South Sc!tIshuxten. Affw iHu)!t)'!tt)u)).t tnay serve to which prevaib so ]!Ugo!y give an idc~ui' th kicd f )'i))H):t)'ity tunong t))c simp)ft'arts of maxkiod. Thc must rndimottary hird-trap is that tu whichthe huntfr M whcrc (-'uHhts his ownt)'np,a-siu Austrfttiit, thus dcscribcs it : A nativuwilltitrctctthimsctf upou a rock as if nstt-ep in th su)), holdinga piccf oi' iish iu hi.s upen hand th hird, hc it hawk or crow,sceing ttte prcy, and uut uhsprvingany mottun iu th native,pouces on th fish,aod, in t))e instant of seizing hitn on the (iK und it, M caught by thc native,whosuon t)<row.s tnakes a mat of him." Wan),thu nussionary,dwiarc.sthat a tanx* monk~'y in India, whusufomt thc ct'owsused to plundcr whitc he sut oti thu top of his polp, did tioniethittgvery ucar this,byshtunming dcad within reach of thf food.attd seizing thc nnit crow tftat ca)m'c!osufttongh. Wfx'u he hnd caught it, thc story says, hc put it betwccn )ti.s knecs, dctiheratety pktckud it, and thrcw it up !nto thc air. Thc other crowitset upon their disaDM! compattionand pcckod it tu death, httt they let th )noukt,'y's xtorc atuno (.'Vfrafti-r. Th< Esquimaux su far unprovcsupun the Austndian fonu of thc art as tu huiM hhnsutfaiittic .'inow-hut to sit h), with a ijoic Jargc enonghfor t)im to put )nshaud thmugh tu clutch thc Lirdthat emesdcwn 1 upou ttic bait.~ Therc is a. curious little art, praetiiicd iu various countnei!, that ut' e!inthh)g trccs by thu aid of hoops,fctteM,ur ropt-.s. Fathcr Uitij thus dcscriks it amoug thc Indians of South AtHcrica:" Theyare tdt cxtrouL'tyactive in ctimbiug trcti.i, and cvcu th wcakcrwomeu may be uot unconnnoulysecn w).i. tt :< \)U-J,HMmM,' C.(! vu[. i. p.SU CaHitu, p. 4~. KtMtuu, )t !i.p. 262. vu).



aud pJucktngth fntit nt theh-tups. If th bark is so ftmooth stippcrythat thcy c.numtgo np by ctittgiug,they UManother tactUM.Thcy m:tk<j Il hoopof wijd vines,nnd putting their feet inside,they uftcit s a Mtppwtitt c)it))bing."t This iHwhttt th toddy-dmwcrof(X'y)utt Ut<<to dimb tho paJmwith/but thu u'gro of tt)< West Coastuf Africa tnakes a t<t)'~er hoop Mundthf tr~Haud ttcts insutc it, rcstin}: th lower part of his tmekngniustit.tUtdjct'ksit up tttc trunk wit)t hiM htmds.ittitth' nt a titnf, dmwu)~ his legs up aftt;r it." Ellis dcseribcst)tc TuhititH)boys tying thcit' fet.'t to~fther, fuur or fivc iuchM with:t picenof pahn-bitt'k, and withthe nid of thiitft-'ttt'r npftt't, tu g:tthef the nut-t;' nud Bitckhoust' guio~up thecuco:t.pa))))'i tneutiotisn diftcrott p!un in use in up<M.su)H-mtc))i))g in Van Dioufn'xLttnd. Tim )mti\'Lwmn'n w)M ctinittcd tifc tull, stnooth gu)n-tt'(.'<s did ))')t eut nutctu. after thc Auiitnttiax w)K'ruth bin-kWtt.trnugh and J'juse)K'Hf thu phm, L-xcupt ~t'ound. Having ~ot ov<rthis p:tt't by the nutdtci!, tttey tfnt'w found the truc n rope twiceM tun~ Ms was nce~siiary to ~ncu)nand passit, put thcir hatdK'ts un thcn' biu'c,ctuppcd hcnd)!, tho tt'ce nud grasping thf n)puwith ptacingthcir feet ag!)i)).st tbc-irhauds,thcy httchcdit up by jo'k~ nnd putiudthenMetvfs up th cuunnous trunk ahno.'ita iast as Il mat) wouid)nou))t u htddcr/ Thc aucicut Muxicauart of turning thc watc)- <'ftitfit' iakcs tu aecuuot by cunstructiu;;tt"ating gardct)))upun thon, bas )~'uu abandoncd,appaK'nttyon accunutuf tbt; smkuig of thc tu nllowth tnud gardons whicharu ))ow shattow~'tK'u~t Wfttcr.-), to rcst upott titc twttum. At thf thuc uf I~unbutdt'svisit tu Mexico, there wct'L' still .sonu'to Lu sft.'u,thoHgh hoK'cvct', Thc tfuati))~ orc/t<ttK'irnumberwasfast d<;cn'M.itt~. g:Ut)ct)s, iouud i)t ~)'c:ttnotnbcM.attdsct'pK.t)pa~\vbn;hthc Spimiardi! werf nd uf whichstiti existediu hi.stitnu un the Iaku ot'Chaiet), mfts funued of rcd.s, Mots,aud bmndtes of uuderwood. T)tt' vo). il. p.<<). &0)ht<!i!, Sto~a HNm-, USO-j, AmcntatM 'sfio <)! Si)ij, M), ii.f. ]9ti. Tha K:tt)tm)Mt o))th K.AmatoM Lotubn, t MM, xiii. 7. m),il. M9. !!<? riit)., TmneMt, 'Ccybn,' inrin):ertot), vol, xvi. iii.p.290. AdttttMtt p.C<2. Kkmn), C.f)., vol. 1. tui.i. r. 371. I. 1H. <Htii'. IheUtOua;, 'Atti.tntfia,'




adian!!laid on tho tangtodma<M quantttict of t!to btack moutd, which ia naturaHyimpregnatc'd with catt, Lut by WMhing with !ako water is madn more fertitc. Thochinampas,"hc concven carry t)n*!)ut of th Indian whoserves tinues, Bometum'it as guard for a gtoup Huatinggardenft. Tttcy arc towed,o' pt-upcttcdwith t"t)g potc's,to !nu\'e thon nt will from Hhot'ctn tu bomet with Rhorc. Thou;)) <!<mtin~ gftntt'osnf' no i"))~c)' iu Mexico, watum of they at'u still in full use i)t the shnt)ow Cashtnut'o. Tttcy arc n~dc nf tnontdtn'ap'd on nmMcsof thc sta!ks of nquatic phutts,au(t MiHtHOstty bca)' a tnan'swcight, though thf fruit is K'L')td)y pickcd frmn thu bnuks. Thcy diU't.'r fr'<mthe ancit.'nt Mcxicau cjtitiampasin aut bcing towed but nnpntud mi tixod st)t)<cs, fMtn o!K'phu'~ t" f))toi))(')'. whic)) kncp titont to thfir )n"onn~s,but a))m\'thon tu ri< nn<t fn)) with the level of the wah')' Tito iioati))~i.fhutd.s ut' thf Onuesc hkfs nre far )nnro arti. ~ciat stt'nctut't'sthiO)thnsc of Mc'xico")' (.asinuct-c'.Thu )ni.siuunryI[uf thus dfsctibcs th'wc h<' saw~t thc )ftkenf Piughou :"W'' passfd hc.sid''spvpnd ~<f\<~ '(~~(~.([uaittt nud of f'tnm'st.'indu.stt'y wtiich hve pcrjtttp. in~ftnouspro(htctiou.s occurredto nu otho' pcopt' ThuSt' Hoatmg istandsarc ct)ur. mcux rafts, constructc'd~cnerattycf hu');f hambof's,which long rcsist the dissoivin~ a''ti"n of watt'r. t'pon ttx'st' mfts th''r<' is ptaccd a toK'rat'ty thick b~'dof ~oodvpgctat'h' mouLt,aud thanks to thc patient jahonrofsontc ftnnitu'.s ofuquatic agrieutthc suriac'' of thc turists, th<:!tst"t))!!hcd cyc fi~cst'i.si)~i't'<jn) waters Ktnithtihabitatiot)! fic)ds, gardt'n.s,aud plantations of fanns scom to Uvu in on tht;.sL' grt variety. T)n' pt.'Mant.< thf mutnent~of r'st tett thuui fron hitppy ab)!)td:m<t'. Du)'i))~ is at once tht'ir tucrativcaud t)n; tittagc of thc ricc piut<,Hshing a~rccabh!pitsthnc. (~t'tt'nwhn) thcy havn gathcrf) ht thch' crop opon t)K' )akf, thcy thruw thci)' net and draw it on hoiu'd tht'ir istand toadt'd with n.sh. Manybirdf!,c.speciidty pigcuo.s aud sparrows,stay hy th''h' own chuict' in t)'sp fioating n<;Id)i tu shan' tho pcacL'auh'and sotitary happincss of tht'sc poctk'a) i'dnnde)' Towards th'' nuddtc of thc )akt', wc tnct with cnc ii.p. ]! et. )tu)nL<.Ut. 'H.~iP~it~ne t'~rut, M)),vol. inL't~k.' <-t< Lf.n'tM~. 1. T"t<vn", 'Tmt';).< t~M,Il.27!.


i )7~

of theso ht'MKnttempting it voyage. It movedwith extrme f!)owneff!i, thoughit ha<)thc windnK. Not that xai)~wcrowant. ing; there wa.sa vc-rytargc ouo ~bovo th houso,nnd several !)the Mandcrn, ot)n'rsat tho conx'rsof tho tfitand tnm-povpr, with long sweeps, wen' an't ehitdt'cn, pn)\'i<)cd tnm),worne)), worktn~with tuigitt and nxun, tt~u~ without ptttting' tu')c)t ffpefdinto t)n.'irtiu-tn. But it M likely thxt thc t'ctu'of tk)ny who un' dous uot tttuch trouLtc thfst' Hp'icuttutut tottt-inet's, ahvaysnurcto Hn'ivum timc to stf'upon t:md. Tht'y are oftun M'ento Mo\'M frotu phtcu to ptacu without tt tnotive, )ikf the i" tht- n)i')st uf thch' vnst prairies though, )t:tppk'r Mons;o!" for thumsch'cs thnu thoxowahdft'Gt's, ttn-y !):n'etoarnudto nmk<' uu't to n))ytho )M it H'ctfn (ic~'t-tiu thc tnidst of eivitixatiun, chfU'nix nnd ptcnxun'scf a nornadowith ttK' advauta~c.sof n iif~ 1 .<!t'(!c!tt<ti'y w!)cnfound in distant Muions Such coincidcnccs as ttK'KC. ou itttett'oxtw is ktxwtf tu )M\'o ttctwccnwhose tu)ut))itfnftt! t'i.stot'icat <vidc))Ct' "f takon place,arcuot 'o tu' ti~Y thun to iodfpt'tidt'xt inv<'))connL'xio)). It is sitH'tit to H.st'nttt' thc litnits of urdinuryprotion, untt'ss thc coincidL'ncc pafMc.s tofth is in thf as t)n' :u't uf putting m ftti.sc oabiHty. AnEieut )iothuusht to aS'cett)~' originatity ()Id Wortd,it woutdsp!t)-cc)y of th s:uncpracticc)))Quito, wh<')'a sttt'h'ton))a'<Lcen foutx) withfaifutCL't)) Kccnr''dtu the dK'L'k-houo )'y a gotd wh'f,~nor with tfcth stopped docs thf discuvt'ryin Hgypt "f munutnL'.s coum'xiouwit)) th'' ~'ith ~o)d,appenr to )MVfnuy ]n'<t')rica) snmo contrivan iuuoug ourw)v<< Ttms, too, tho Austm)iat).s Wt'n.' ))t tho hitt'it of cooki))~iish !<ndpit'cc.sof tneat h) hot sand,<ach ti''d up ih n shctit of bat-k,nnd thi.s is c:dk't) ))ot futiow <f~H, or tyi)t~-)tp ~M'~o'K pooki))~ hut it doc-.t that tticy hadlenrnt frotu Europe thf art of <h's.sing<i.shfx /<f<~f7/<~f. thc oecnrrcnpfof that ver)' eivHixcdinMtnunHtt, tht' JPt-rhaps fork for cath)~ mcat w!t)t, !u t))u Fiji I.sttuidx,is tu )f<'ac'cotttcd<)' hv considt.'ringit tu hve hcon indc'pt'ndentty in2n~<"). .1, !tne,'L'E!~mChin')M;' rM-h, ]S54, ;).Ut. Ko)!, in M. tioOMft, ~eM-nttttM)!t, t. ton'bt). ]S<)f, ;<. v'!). ii.p. MO. vo). li.);.2M. \HkitMM, Acf., 'i~ JKnMt". t't))).



vcHtedthero. Tho Orepks and Romansdo not appear to have ufiod forks in eating, and thcy are said nut to hn,vebeen intro. duced in Engiand fromthc Soutt) of Europe,till th beginaing of the seventceuth century.' At any rate, Haktuyt thun transiates, in 1598, a rctnark made by Gateotto Perura, coHccraing thouso of ehopstn'ks in Cttina;"thcy icode wit)) two sticks, rcfrainittgfrotn touching their tncntc with <hcir hatids,cvt'n as wo do with t'ot'kcs;" but hc finds it )tfCt.'s.s:u'y to put n ttotc in the mar~iu, \Vc,tttnt is the Ita)itU)!f and MpaniiHt)s. How long iui'ks })at!bepn uscd itt thf Suuth of Kurupc,aud whcrc thcyurigiturllycame fr')n),does uot s'fm ch'at, but thcre i;! a ronark tu the purpost; itt \it)i:u)t of RuYiibt-uck'x description of the )n!tnn<'t'.s of tth' Tattu' thr"n~h whusucountry tto travettedabum 1~}. "Titt'y eut up (ttn.'nK-Ht) int<~ tittif bits in a di.shwiths:dt and tvatt')',fur thcy tnakc uo other sauce,Ht)dttn'n withthe puint of knitu or with a little iork (/'<'c~'/<!), whieh u;s<fur fating peara they )nak<for the purpoiw,Uk<tht).s<W(; in winc,they ~ivf fach t'f tin' ~m.it.s standand appk's st~WL'd ittg rountt <')')nuuthf[dor two, afoonth~ to thr'ir nutjtbf]' umh')'wttich th f"rk niakusits appcarance Thc cireumstattCM in th Fiji Mauds, are t't'tnurkabtu. If it is known ~Ls~w))L'ru iu PutyttMia(t.'xcfptof course a.~<)i.stit)et)y aduptud with uthcr fasiuuns),it is <vrt:tintynut coumMniy xu,nttd its usf Enropt-'an with the cxtraurttinarydcvL'toptncut of appuarstu ht: cunnL'etcd th art of cuokiu~ t)K'rc,as cuntrastcdwith ntost of thc Pacifie ifdauds,whfrt', ~'ocfidty spfakiog, t)n;rc wcre no vcsscts iu whieh !i'~ud was boit~d ov~r th~' liro, aud buiti))~,if dunu lit at), w.Mdotte by n rodor proct.i.s. But th Fijiau. wcru nccomptishcdpottcr.s, and coutium' t use tituir fartitcu vc&scis forthe prparation of thcir vnrious soups and stcw~,for nMhing the itot morsct.sont uf whk'h tim furks aru usud, pcrhap. cxchMivcty. T)t<jsc wc hcar of particniarty arf ti)c cannibat furks" for catin~ man's ncsh, whieh are of wood,artisticatty Wnijht,UoMtMtie Mtmn<rt! p. 4!7. 'Th 'ttakh~-t, !'ri))<'ii'a! Xtmiptti~n! M),ii. Y"e! <-<< Lumton, ]S!<S, (Ki. jartM. p. Un), de KabnKjam, !)tHt)ktu}-<, vo). i. p.7:. Sec inFnrrhiU!, vo). ji). AytN), )'. :!<



and wero banded down as ehaped and sometimesornMnented, familyhoirtoonM.Each had its individuat namo for instance, CM which b<i!ongcd to a chief cetebrated for his enormous cannibatismwaocaMed a wordused to donoto a, <MKh~mtm<h'o, mnttUpcrsonor thiug carryinga great burdcn. It would be a romarkabia point if, (MDr. Seemanu thtMks, tho fork were onty used fur thM purpose, and wo might bo inclined to theunxc on it)( invention M connected with the tabu, so common in PttiyuMm,which restnet.s tho tabued person from touchiag hi'<food with hix haodx,and compels him to be fed or in default, to grovel on th ground and by somoune otite, tttko up his food with his mouth. But a description by Wiltiants of the furniture of a Fijian househotd, secma to impty its utiofor ordiuarypurposcs as wct). "Ou th huarth, each set on threo stom;s,are severitl pots, capaHo of holding froma quart to nvc g!tHons. Ncar t!)esc arc a cord fur Linding fuel, a iikwfrfur tryiug cooked food,and, in the hctter houMs, a woottenforka hxury whieh, probahiy, the Fijian cnjoyed whcnuur wortliyMtiitors werewout to tttkc hot food in thcir practised nngcM. But whether th use of th fork in eating eanMabout in Fiji as a conscouettcof the common use of stewed food,or from Mme more occuit cause, it seems probaMc that th<ir use of it and ours may spring from two independent inventions. That they got tho art of pottery from Asia inindcedtikctyenoogh,but there seems very little ground for thinking that the cating-fork came to them from Asia, or from anywhureeise. If an art can bc found cxifitingin one Hmited district of the world,and nowhcro dsc,ttiert! scenMto Le ground for assuming that it wasinvcntetthy the peopleamong wltcm it is found, with inuch greater conndeneo than if it appear!! in severat distant places. Any onc, howcvcr,who thinks this an unfaitinfcrcnce,mnyconsotchimsctfwith the knowledgc that Ethnologists sctdom got a chance of using it at present, cxcept for very trining arts or for unimportant modincatious. Indccd, WUthum), 'Piji,'vol. pp.212-3. sSeemmn, 'iti,'p. U9. M),i. (<. !3~. WiMxun~ t



any one whodainMa particular place as tho sourcoof oventho smaUestart, from tho mre fact of nnding it. there, must feel that ho maybo using his ownignoranceas ovidence, as though it were knowledge, It ie ccrtainiy ptayingagainst tho hutk, for a student to set up tt daim ta isotationfor any art or eus. tom, not knowing what vidence there may be ngninxthim, buried in th ground, hiddeu atnong remotetribcs, or contamed oven in ordinnry bool:~to my nothing of tho thousnnds of volumesof forgottonhistoriesand tmvels. Among tho inventions whieh it Keems possibloto traco to their original districts, is th immnMck, which M found, M it were, nativo in a grt part of South America,and tho West Indies, and i~ knownto havo sprcitd thfnco far and widoover tho world,carrying with it it. Haitian natnc,/<Mmac. Tho boomerangis a pecutitu' weapon,and moreovorthero arc fonnd besideit in its country,Austratia,intertnediatoformi! bctwcen it and tho batttc-axo or pick M that therc is grouud for cousidoringit a native invention devctopedthrough such stages into its most perfect fonn. VarionsOld Wortd mimitoit havo indced been ctaimcd af) hoomcranjpt a curved woapon shown on th Amyrian bait-rctiefif, thc throwlng-cudget of th Egyptian towler, th African MiM< or curved ch)b, the iron of the Tibbus, but withont proof bf'ing brought 7tW!~KH(t~(t fonvard that thse weapons,or tho boomurang-tiko iron projectites ofthe Neam Nam, havo either of the great pceutiantic!) of tho boomerang,th suddnswcrving from tho apparent lino of night, or the returning to tho throwcr. Th accountsgiven by ColonelLanc Fox in his instruetivo lectures (1868-9)at the United Service Institution,' of the missites(jf tho inttigcnous tribes of India, whiried in the mannor of boomerangsta bring down game,seon to me to funnsh videnceoirnitarto that from AustraHa,of tho local and graduai inventionof weapons. Sir Walter Elliot deserihcs tho rudest kind in thc South Mahmtta district as more crookeclsticks, and henco we trace thc instrument up to tho ht<to'<(tof the KnHiiof Gujerat, a weapon resemMingthe boomerangin shape, and in hcing an edged Hat missile,preservingits plane of rotation, but dinering from it in LtM inJourn. Ueittd Fm,'Mmitivo &!n-)<e tnst. WtrhM,' Royal



boingtoo thick and heavyto swerveor roturn. While admitting of the Indian tho proprietyof Co!onot Lane Fox's c!assincation and Austrnlian weaponstogether,1 think wo may regard tlleir spcciticdinerencoas showing indopendentthough partly similar developmontin tho two districts. Mr. Samuol Fcrguson bas written a very Icarncd and curions paport on supposed Europoan anaiogues of the boomerang,in eoneludingwhich ho remarks,not untruiy,that "matty of the fbrego!nginfrences will,douhttc's,appear in a high degrecspecutative." As might bo expected.ho makeotho most of tho obscuredescription of tho c<t<eY(t, set downabouttho bcginningoftho Mvcnth contury by BifthopIsidore of ScviUo.*But what is far moro to t]io purpose,Mr.Ferguson seems to havo made trial of a curved elub of aucient fihape,aud somo hammer-and cross-ahapod such as may havo been used in Europe, and to have weapons, mado thcm fly with somcthingof tho roturning flight of the boomerang. On tho whotc,it woutdbe rash to assert that the principio of tho boomerang was quite (mknown in tho Old World. Another remarkabju wcapoH,tho MfM, seems to be in th particu)arrgionof South Americawhero it was Motated foundin use,and wathercforovoryiikoty invcnted thero; but its prineiple is known atso among tho Esquimaux,whosethin of ivory knobs,aro armnged to thongii,weightedwith bunchc.s wind thctMetvesround tho bini titey are thrown at, in much tho samowayas the much stouter cordf, woigittedat tho enda with two or throe heavy stnnc halls, which form th to~M of tho Southem continent. A fewmoreinstancesmay ho given, ratiter for their quaintness than for their importance. Tho Aufitratiana practiM an ingnionsait in bce-hunting,whic!)1 hve not met with anywhcro cise. Tho hunter ottches a be, and gums a picce of down to it, so thnt it can fly but slowiy,and ho can easily fottowit home to the hive,uud got the itoncy. Tttc North Americunbee-Itunter<! do not use tins contrivance, but they put S.FergaMn, inTnMH. H.t. A. DnbMn, vol. xix. tS<3, "tttt emito Utt])i<'i teH exmterM tttttximt (~ntu <)t)tm )mto, qum <tuHem jMtm nenlonge e voMMd vittimm si prottttr j~avttttem qnA pervenit, pettrittsitquM tbtutiBce mittaturntOtH)) redit adtMm, e te. tiii. xviii. quimMt," (M<I. Uf)j!K. MjjK. Ir/SI!, tiii. 7.)



a bait of honey ona nat stone and surround it witha ring of thick white paint, acrosswhich tho beo cmwls to take night fromth edgo ofthe stono,and at onceclogsand marks itse!f.' art of changing tho co!ourof a Hve Again,there is th curions macaw's feathors from btuo or green to briniant orange or yo)!ow, by plucking them and rubbing some liquid into tho skin (it is said the milkyscrtionfroma mMUfrog or toad), whichcausesthc ncwfeathersto growwitha changeacotour.' ThisMdoncin South Amcrica, but, so far as 1 know,not eiscto supposethnt it wasinventcd where and it seemsreasonaMe there. TraveHersin the Matay Pcninsula and Sumatra describetho thrilling enectof tho tones,as of nutes and organs, that seemto grow outof tho air as they approachsoineliamlet, sometimessinglo and intcmtpted notes rising,swetunginto a hurst of hannony, and dyingaway. Thsesoundsarc produced fixed up in tho trees, slit betweenth jointsso that by bamboo!! cach bamboo beeomesan /Eotian flute of many toncs.' TInN beautifuihabit tnay weUboof native origin. But it is curions to compareit with an carlySouth Anicrican description from the provinceofPicara,nowinCotumbi&. There,at tho entrances of tho caciques' houses, were piatforms surroundedwithstout canes,on whieh (in the fashion of thc Dayaks) wereset up headsof enemies,"lookingncrccwith long hair,and thoirfaces painted in such sortas to appear !ike those of devils. In th lowerpart of th canesthere are hoteatttroughwhichth wind can pass,and whenit Mows, there isa noise whichsoundsliko th musicof dcvits. When an art is pmctisedupon some materialwhichbc!ong!i or in a largedcgree,to th place whero t)ie art is exclusivety, found,th probabilitythat it was inventedon th spot becomes almosta cortainty. No one would dispute the daim of thc Peruviansor Chiliansto have discoveredth use, for manurc, tM)& p. 328. BMMtMM, A~tr.,f. 3M. J. H.Wt<x), in By'< OmMft: TO). Y. p. EM. 'Tmvetft onthe Ammon andRioKtgM lonJon, Walta~, MM, p. 2M. De laCMMttmine, iaFh):erto)<, M), xit.p. ~8. DcbtMtofhr, Mt. i. p.M7. in'Joum.M. v oL 'lot~tt, AtcMp. iii.p. 3:. CtmMnm, 'Mt)M<m Mh,' P.1M. <CiaM je LMn, 'TMwb' mdEd.).y (Tr. Ihrkhm), HaHt~ Sec.!6M, p. 8).



ofthe /tM(KHt,or,aswe call it," guano,"which thoir excepto acetimulateon thcir tionaHyraintcss dunato bas aUowed comts,nor the claim of th dwcttcrsin the hot regions near tho Gulf of Mexico to have fuund out bow to make their c/<oco~a<< froma native ptant. Outhe other hand, when tribes are found living among tho verymatcriatswhieharc tumed to accountby simple arts e)seand yet am ignorant of thosearts, we have good ethnow!)ere, when tttey first tietUedin togicatevide!)ecas to their condition the place wherowe becomeacquaintedwith them. In investithis state gating the dinicutt proMeinof Potynctiian civilization, of things often prsents itself, not uniformly,but in a partial, various way, that gives us a gtimpsehre aud there of tho trains of events that must have taken place, in diNerenttimes aud places,to produce th complexresult we havo befbrous. It is ctcar thut a Matayo-Polynesian culture, proved by tho combined vidence of baguage, mythology, arts, and cu! toms,bas spread itselfover a grt part of the Southem Islands, from the Philippincs down to New Zealnnd, and from Easter Island to Madagascar, though the pure Malayo-Polynesianrace only fbrmsa part of tho population of the district in whichits language and civilizationmore or less prodominate. Tho original condition of th Malayo-Polynesian iamily, a.s determined by thc state of its lowermembers,prsents us with fewarts not found at lcast in a rudimentarystate in Austratia, with immenselygreater skill though thse arts werc developed and industry. In most of the SouthSea Mandathere was uo knowledgeof pottery, nor of th art of boiling foodin vessels overa fire. Great part of the racewas strictiy in the stone age, knowing nothing of motak. Tho sugar-cune grow in Tahiti,but the natives only chewcdit, knowing nothingof thc art ofsugar-makicg,' nor did they make any use of the cottonplant,though it grow thcre.' Th art of wearing was unknown iu most of thc islands away from A~ia. Though the ftnt Voy. ii. t. !M. la th Fij)bhntb, WI))J<tm<, Cook, Il., f<). M).J. t hattho is and 63, M ,My< ttupir-ome pp. ctdtiYitted,ttgar no madebutliegivm Mtothoego ottheM arts. ophion J. B.Foretcr, OhxirMtiQM Second (CoQks Vt.)-.) Jondon, li i8,p.S84.



cocoa-nutpalm was common,thoy did mot <ap it for toddy; and Dr.Seomanntmughttho F~ians tho art of extracting sago fromtheir native sago-patms.~ le other districts, however,a very diffrent state of thingo was found, In Sumatra and other islands near Asia,and in iron was smetted and workellwith much skill. Madagascar, Tho simplest kind of loomhad appcarod in tho Eastern Archipelago,only,as tho evidence seemftto ehow,to bo supplanted by a higherkind.' Pottcry waitmado there, and cven fur into as in tho Fiji Islands. All theso things were probably Po!yttesia, !atroducedfrom Asitt,to which country Hovery large a part of th present Malayculture is duc, Lut there are local arts found croppingup in diNereut groups of islands,which may he considered as native inventions peculiar to Polynesia. Thus, in somoof tho islands,it was customary to keep bread-fruit by it into a sour pasto, in whichstato it couldbe stored <ormenting value. This awayforuso out of season,an art of considornblo pastowas caUedwa/M in Tahiti, whoreCaptain Cook firstsaw it prepared,but it wouldsecmto havebeen invented at a period sincethe part of ttio raco whiehwent to th SandwichIslands were separatcd from thc Tahitians, for tho SandwichMandem kncwnothhtg of it till the English brought it to thcm from Taltiti.1 The use of t)Mintoxicatingiiquor knownas (M~, ~M, or ya~MMC, appears to be peculiar to Putyncsia,and thercforo probaUyto havo bcen inventedthere. It is true that tho usual, thoughnot universatpracticcof preparing it by chewing,gives it somercsemblanceto liquors Hoprepared on tho Amcrican continent,but thse latter are of an entirety diScrent character, being formcnted liquors of tho nature of Leer, mado from rich in starch, whilcthe (tt'o ia not fenmentedat ait, vegetables the juico of the plant it is madofrom bcing intoxicating inits freshstato.* Sternum, pp.!?), 3N. MonJen, p. ]M. Cook'a PiMt vo). Il. Thint vo). tii.p. t )t. Yfy. H., p. I9S Vay., <Th of~mm or Mlaof itttenst.!t<t etymetogy onsiml )MtY< m(tt)ing Mty ~n thatof bittorncma or pnnt!<!a<!y! N. jh<M, !ptnsont, bitter,ttnmE (M 'pint<, <!t~); 'M,'Mt.at bitter, Ra! duxpteaMo totte;jhtm, Man.Nuk., <ttM Eh)r. ''m,8<ua., a<M, c tonr,bitter,ptu~t. TJMMe thMmo My h<~hMo )Mt <o th t f wtMh ~t), thointe)[iaating only phutt drink i<)m<t<



pices of ovidenco given in this chapter hve been soicctod tem {M giving safe grounda for arguments from attM!<, than as cxamplos of the sort of matorial with which th EUtuologist haa to dea). The of many uncertainty of thc inferences lie makea must bo counterbaianced by thcir ttumber, and by the concurrence of indopcNdent Imes of rotMonBut in th argumenta given ing in favour of tho same view. hre in illustration of the gencmt method, only ono aide of history has beeu kcpt in viow, and tho facts have been treated genoraUy aM ovidonce of movcment 0)t)y ia a forward direction, or (to donne more closely what is hero trcatcd us Progress) of tho appearaneo and growth of new arts and now knowledge, whethor of a pro6tabto or hurtM nature, developed at homo or Imported from abroad. Yet we know by what has taken place within the range of history, that DecUne as well as ProgtCM in art and knowledge really goes on in th world. Is there not then vidence fbrthcomiug to prove that degradation as weUa)' hos happened to tho lower races development beyond th range of direct known facts bearing on this history ? Th subject are Manty and obscure, but by examining somo direct cndenca of Dchue, it !)my bc perhaps potisibio to form an opinion as to what indirect vidence there may probably be, und how it is tu be treated though actually to find this and use it, !:) a vcry diSercnt mattcr. th. ~<.rt~<pc)- M~t<<cMm,tm, Teng. Rwr. Kutf. '., &tm. 'M(. H,w. but atM in N. Z. to th ~(-ropfpf)o-Mtmm, or ~M jh,)M. and in 'hMti to tobMe., 'ara -om. La.tt))-,tho dnntt b ntmed h T~hittMd in other bhtt<h from tht phct it is MpnsBfd from. Ilut Mttrixer'xTonstn Mems to go tho Tomhnhuy othe)<my MMt~tht t~fticr plant .tho tho rot of this thnt, of whichin madoa pectUor kind of be~nteo, etc.; <wM = Mtter, brMMth, <tbointoxiatM with cam, or Mythin;! ebo. Thiotmb m tho~h th tmtxeof tho phnt g~c mme to tho Itmjity o( Httemm! M we my "[x:M)er)'" i<i tho rem of hot. (Seo th Vomba. MM or M~fuer, Jh)e, BmhmaNt), md t))o Chn~h MtM.&?., N. Z.) Seathey (Hh)t. of UrMi!, voL i. p. 2M) mmt'arm thu mut tt). with th South AtMnmn ~t mott.t'ftot &<)fy, a liquor um[o fn)M)ttmiMcr tho miudioeroot by chewing, with watcr, Md fentietttittt! )mt th H<auf ttttemmt or Loitimg MNMnit[<tMtj{eMy M. to thb liquor. DiM (Die.da Uttgm Tupy)gives t.er)m~ a mon)M<te form, cttttttt vinttc, a deHi-ative~0~ from cat ~hiber (ftoho). To showhow ex<i)y suchatcHonM coinclden.'e8 M that of &tMand t<ot mybo found, a GennM root tMy ho peinted out fur both, looking M tuittMc M thottih it were a t<at CM.tatot. to ehew.



AND DEt1.iN!: 0F CCt.TUBK.

Therc are devcbpments of Culture which belong to a particular ctimateor a pnrticulnr state of 8oc!ety,which rcquire ft dcspoiicgovernment,a dmocratiegnvemmcnt, an agricutturat lifo,a life in cities,a. state of continucd .poaco or of continucd war, on accumulationof weatthwhieh cxceedswhat is wantcd forneccssaricsand is accot'di))g)y devoteclto luxury aud ref!nc. ment, and so forth. Such tidu~ arc aU more or teM local and unstttUc. Tho Chtnc!!cdo not makc now the magnificent etotsonNd cnamc!s and the high'ctass porcctain of thcir ancestort) wo do not buiM churcttes,or ovcn cast chureh-boDs,<u! our <brcfathers did. lu Egypt th oxtmordiuary dcvelopmcnt of masonry,gotdsmtths' work, wcavixg, and other arts which ros to such a pitch of excellence thure thousands of years ago, have dicd ont under th inHucnt'eof forcign civitixations which contented themselvcswith a tower level of excellence in thse things, and there Keem!! to be hardiy a chamcteristic nativo ait of any hnportauce pmctiscd thcro, untcss it be tho artificial hutciringof eggs, aud even this is found in Cttina-. As Sir ThomasBrowncwritc)!in his Fragtncnt on MumnnM,' "Egypt itself is now becontcth land of obUviousuessand dotcth. Her ancient civility is gone, and her glory hath vaniahed as a phantasma. Her youthfui days are over, and hcr facehath becomewrinkled and tetrick. She poreth not upon the heavens, astronomy is dead unto hcr, and knowledge makcth othcr cycles." Th history of Central Amorica prsents a case Mmcwhat likothat of Egypt. Thc not uncommoH idea. that the dcsertcd cities, Copan, Patenque, and the rest, are th work of an extinct and quite unknown race, docs not agree with th pubtished cvidencc,which provesthat the descendants of tho old buitdersarc living thero now,spcaking th oM tanguages that were spoken beforeth Spanish C'onqucst. The ancient cities, with their wondcm of mafonry and Kuipture, are deserted, the ttpcciatnative culture hM ih grcat mea-surc disappeared, and the pcoptc have been brought to a sort of low European civilization; but a mass of records,corroboratcd in other ways, showus thc Central Atncrieansbefore th Conquest, building their grcat cities and living in thcm, cultivating, warring,



mueh like their neighbourftof Mexico,with whose saeriBeing, civilimtion thon own was inthnatciy a))ied. An cpitomo of the <hto of tho ruinod eitics may be given in thc woniswhich conclucle a retnarkabic native document pubtished in Quiche and Frne))by thc Abb Brasseur," Ainsi doncc'en est fait de tous ceuxdu Quiche, qui s'appelle jS!Mx<-C'n<?." Th ruina of the grt city of Quich are still to hc sccn Santa Cruz, its succctisor, ix a poor villageof two thousand 8outs,a league or so away.* Amongtho lower mecs, degenorationis scen to takc place as a result of wM-, of opprfsiiion by other tribcs, of expulsioninto )c6s favouraMesituationH,and of various other cauMs. But arts whieit belong to the daity life of th m<mor tho family aud cannot bc entirely suppressedby violent interferenee, do not readitydisappeM'untesi! supeKiededhy somebetter contrivancc, or tnadc unneeessaryor very difNcuit Ly a change of Hfeand manncrs. Whcn the use of metals,of pottery, of tho nint and steel, of highor too):} and wca~n.s, once fuiriy estaUisite. itself, !t HdHng baek appeat'fito bo uncommot). Tho Metat Age docs not degcnemtc intu th Stone Age except under very pecutiar circumstanees. The history of a higher wcapon is gencratty that it supptantiithose that arc )esxserviceable,to be itself supptantcd by something better. Wc read of thc Indian orator who exi~rtc') his brcthrcn to cast awayth niut and sted of the whitc nmn,and to return to the <!re-stieki! of their anccstors,and of th OnnefiCsage desiring to discardth art of writing, andreturn to the ancestrtdmethod of recordby knottcd cents, but such thingtiare rathel' talked of tlian donc. Cases of savage arts being supersededby a higher state of ctvHiiMtion arc common enough. Au Africau guide, or an Austmtmn,will knowa tnan ))y his foutnmrk,whiiewe t)aK!!y knowwhat a footmark is like at ieast, nine ngnslunen out of tell of th shoe-wearingclasseswitt uut knowthat the footM copicd in Fig. 1C, prints in th Mexican picturu.writhtgft, lire truu to nature, till tht'y hve tookedat tho print of a wct fuot on a board or a nagstone. Captain Burton rnmarked,un <t)M BmsiMt, <)< M. !\)po) Vnht.;).3~-7. See Meso t<Mt<)ft,



his roadto th gt-eatSait Lake,that bones and oMis of catt!o worolying scattcrod about,' though traveUeM arc often put to grt stH~tsfor fuel. The Gauchos of South America know bettcr, for when thoy MUa beast on a joumey, thoy use tho

Fi! 19. boues M fuel to cook the ftest)~as tho Scythiausdid in th thue of Horodotus; living in a cuuntry wanting wood, thcy madoa fireof tho bonesof thc beasts sacriflced, and boiled th Ncshoverit in &kettle, or if that were not forthcoming, in the paunch of the animal itsctf, and thus tho ox boils himseif, and tho othervictims cachthe liko." It sometimesItappons th~t degencrationis caused by conquest,whentho con~m'ringmco is in anythingat a lower level than the conquered. Therc is ouc art whoschistory{pve!i somo cxtraordinaryca~ft of this kindof dcline,thc art of irrigation by watcrcourses.Withii)a fewycam <MM pcopiu,th Spaniards, two nations,th MooTs and the Peruvians,whowere eouquert-d xMtfuI irrigntors, and had constructcd great works to bring watcr froma distance tu fertilizethe land. Thcse workswcre forthe most part attowedto go to rack and nun, and in Peru, aa in Andalusin,grt tracts of land which had bccn truitful gM'densMl baek into parctieddserts whUcin Mexicoth nu)Mof thu grcat native aqueductof Tetxcutxiuco tell the same talc. Hre,as in the imgatiun of Britistt ludi~under our own race derate, the l'esuits of higher culture in thc eoHquoref! clinedin thc face of a towerculture of tho couquero)' but the sequelMstill more eunous. Tho Spaniards m America bocame MX. M. o{th&c)tM See !!t)ntt,' tM. Benx)., thrtM, ir.<)!. Ctty t).Jfjf. Dtrwit), Darwia, Jmn~), C. ?., Toi. p. it. 8enI~eklel xxlr.Iln 6 !a Fr.61, LXX.Klomm, U Il,,1'01. iLpo Berocl., a~ p. 229 fat n tbMwith bamt byEsqtintMix). ('Mam



thomseivMgrt buitdersof watorcoumes, aad their works of this kind in Mexicoare vory extensive, and of grt bonofitto the drior regionswhorothoy havo beenconstructed. But whon a portion of torritory that had been undor Spanish rute was transibrred to tho United States, what tho Spaniards had donc to tho irrigating works of the Moorsand Poruvians, the now fiottictsdid to thoirs. In I)'roebo!'s timo thcy werolotting th old works go to ruin thus hLitory repeati!itsotf~ Tho ditiappearaneoof savage arts m prsence of a higher civilizationis howovor mostlycausedby their boingsuperseded by somettiinghigher, aud this can bardly be eaUeda decline of culture,whichmust not be confounded with tho physMat and moral deciino of )!o mauy tnbcs under the oppressionand temptatton of civiHzedmon. Heat docUnoofteu takes place whona rudo but strong race ovcKomcs a cultivated but weak face, and of this wo havo good information but noither this change,nor that whiehtakes placein tho savagein presencoof the civitizud iuvader,gives tho studcut of thc lowracesaU th informationho needs. What ho wants besides is to put tho high rneesout of tho question attogcther,and to find out how far a low racocan tosoits eumparativety simple arts and knowledgo,withoutthoso bcingsuperscdM} by somcthinghighcr in fact, how far such a ra can suner puro dccliuoin culture. This informationis, howcver,very hard to get, Livingston remarks on tho Bakalahari of South Africa showus a racowhich bas fattcu in civitization.but this fall haa happuncd, partly or who)ty, through causes acting fromwitliont. Th grcat Kalahari dsert is inhabited by two races,th Bushmeu,w)Mwere perhapstho first human intfabitants of th country, and wi)onever cnltivate tho soU,or rear any domestic animais but dogs, and thu Ba-Kahthari,who aM degraded Bcchuanas. Thse latter arc tmditionaily reported to bave once possessedhcr()s of cattlu like the othcr Bceimana!and their hartt fate bas forcedthoui to tivoa iifumuchlike, t~)oug)~ that of tho Bushmon, they itavc ncvcr forgottcn their old ways. Thoy hoc their gardons annually, though ofton all they can hopo for is a suppiy of melonsand pumpkins. Andthey carc157-16!. Ty)M, 'MMhe,'})?.



fully rear smaU herds of goats,though Livingstone bas seen them obtiged to lift water for them out of smaHweUswitha bit of ostriehegg-sheU, or by spoonfuls~*This remarkabto account brings out stronglythe mailfui struggtc of a race which bas Lonbrought downhy adverseeireumstanccs, to keep up their former civitization,whitctho Bushmen, who, for <t)Iwc know, may uevel' hve been in a highcr condition thau they arc now,makc no such etirnt If we may judge thse two races hy th sMnestandard, the Bushmen arc uither uo lowerthan ever been, or if they hve cornedown froma condithoy tM.w tion approachingt)mt of th Bechuanas,thc processof degradatiou must iudeedhvebeena. long one. Triheowhoare knownto hve once been highcr ia the scato of culture thau they are now,are tu be met with ht Asia. Some of th coastTuxguzHveby ~shing,though they arc <:tiH caUed OMchi,which is quivalenttu thu tcnn Reindeer Tunguz." No doubtth tradition is truc of the Gotdithat, though thoy have no reindeer now, they once had, like t)to Tunguz tribes north oftho Amur.' Thcreare Calmucksnorth of the Caspian of cattte and degencrated into nsherwhobave )osttheir hei~Is men. Th richest of them has still a coupleof cows. They look upon horiies, camels,and sheep as strange and wondroua crettturcswhenforeigncr!! bring them into their couutry. They listen with wonder to their old men's stories of life in tho steppes,of the grt hcrds and the ceaselesswanderingsovcr th vast plains,white thoythemselvcs dwell in huts of reeds, and carry their household goodson their backi!when they bave ta move tu a new nshing place.3 Th misembte Digger Indians of North Americaarc in part Shoshoneesor Snake Indians, whowerebroughtdownto their prsent state by their enemtes the Btackfeet,who got guns from the Hudson's Bay and thus conquered th Snakcs, and took awaytheir Compauy, hunting grounds. They lead a wandcring tife, lurkingamong from the sight of wiutcs and Indiana, MUsand crags,sHnking and subastingchlenyon witd roots and fish,and such game as so ItetpteMa mec is able to get. They are loau and abject. p.<C. UvmpftoM. Kav<mt(<i)t, p. 318. 4. C.Q-,Yo). Mi. Kbmn, p.



lookingcreatures, deservingthe name of ~M de p)'<~ givon them by tho French trappors, and they havo been drivon to abandonarts which theyposMMed in their morofortunatedays, sueh M riding, and apparentlyeven )mt-buudmg;but howfar thoir degradationhas brought withit dccUnoin other part of their former culture, it if!not cfMy to ((y.' Hero, thcn, we ixtvocasex of materitil videncewhieh,as wobappea to havo ot))crmeansof kNowing, ought to ho ti'e&ted as reeot-dingdectino. The sculptures and temptL's of Central Americaare thu workof thu MMostom of tho prsent ludiauf), though if history, tradition, and transitiomi work had ail pe. rished, it wonid hardly bc thought m. Tho gardeningof the if th accountof their origin is to bc reeeived,M Bakaiaha.ri, a proof,not of an art gniaed,but of a higher levelof civitiiiation fortho most part lost. It thus appears tliat, in th ahstract, whcn there H fbund amonga lowtribo an art or a piecoof knowicdgo which seems abovo their average level, thrco ways arc open by which its occurrence inay bc expkined. It may havo been inventedat home,it may have bcenimportedfrom abroad,or it may be a retieof a higher conditionwhich bas mostiyBuffercd dgradatike tho coluumof eart)) tion, whieh the excavatorteaves to measurethe depth ofthc ground ~~e itas clcnred<way. Etintokgiiits hve Mmetimcxtaken arts whichappeared to them too advanccd to fit wit!) th gnerai conditionof their and have treated thcm as belongingto thu latter possessors, ciasi. But whorosuch arguments have had no nid fromdirect history, but hve goce on more inspection of the arts of the tower mecs, aU that 1 eau call to miud, at least,secm open to grave exception. Thus the boomeranghfMbeen adduced (U! proof thnt tho Austratiaus werconcoin a fur higher state of civitization.~It is truc that the autliorwho argued tt)us conibunded the boomo. rang with th thrawing-cudge!, or, as a Hampshh-e man wouid ca)t it, tho m~Moy~, of thc EgyptianRjwJer, so that lie )md at derA~kMten in)ttMHfhen BtMhnmM), i~puren Spnx-he MexiM etc. etc., derK.A.v. (AM.. etc. W., 1SS4)!)ert!n, M!9, p.033, W.Cooko The Ktt.Hnt.ofSocitty Taylor, vol. i. p.M!. Loa<h)n, IMO,



!cast an imagioary high civilisation in view, of whioh tho boomerangwas an etcmont. But, M hfmbeonmentioned,intormediate formsbetweentho boomerang and tho war-clubor pick, are knownht Austratia,a state of things whiehnts mther with growth than with degeneration.' In South America,HumboldtWMso stn'ck with tho cy. tinders of very liard stone,pcrfomtedtUtd xcutpturodinto tho forma of anima!))and fruits, ttiat ho founded upon them tho argument that they were retio)of an ancient civitimtionfrom which their pofNcssom had fa))cn. "But it ia not," ho aays, tho Indians of our ownday, tho dwc!tcrson the Oronokoand tho Amazonswhotnwo Mo in tho huit dcgrce of brutaJizatioa, w!)0bave perforatedsubstance!) of snch h<tn))K'& giving them tho shapeft of animais and fruits. Such picccs uf work, liko tho pierccd and scujpturcd cmcrald)! found in the CordiIJeras of NewCranada and Quito,indicatea proviouscivilisation. At prsent tho inhabitants of theiiodistricts,cspcciatiyof the hot regionf!,hve M tittto idea of tho possibitityof cutting hart! stonef (emerald, jade, compactfelspar, and rock crystat), that soft whcn they ha,veimagined the green stone to bo nuturnUy taken out of the ground, and to tiarden aftcr it bas heon inshionedby band. But wbi)c mcntioningHumbotdt's argument, it must atsobo saidthat he bad not liad au opportunity of Jeaming how tbo.so ornanient.were mado. Mr. Wallace haN since foundthat at tcast phun cytindorfi of imperfcct rock crystal, four to eigbt incboalong,and one ineh in diameter, aro made and pcrforatcd by very low tribes on th Rio Ngre. They are not, as Humboldt Mcmsto bavo supposed,tho resutt of high mcchanica)))ki)i, but merely of tho most simple and savagoprocesscs,carried ou with tbat uttcr disrcgard of time that lets the Indian penda montbin makingan arrow. They are merely ground down into (ihapeby rubbing,and the percroNiWMo or ovcn k'ngtbwMC, is sai<! foratiug of thc cyjindcM, to be donc thua :a pointedflexibleieaf-shootof witd plantain is twirted with the bands against the bnrd stone,till, with tho aid of fine sand and water,it boresinto nnd througb it, and tbis 0. G.,yo). Lp. 310, ).c. 8ee!%rt, IL]?. SCS: KbM), p).vii. laneFox, HambcMt &Benptmd, ro).li.p.48!, ete.



ia aaidto tako yeam to do. Suoh cytindera as tho ohiofswear are saidMmctiMosto tako twomcn's livea to perfbrate.' The stonoMbrought from a groat distana up tho river,and is very high!y valued. It is, of course,not neccssary to aupposethat thse rude Indians came of ttteutsetvesto making such orna. ments they may hve imitatett things made t'y races in a higher wtato of culturo but tho vidence, as it now stands, docs not go for much in proving that tho tribes of th Rio Negrohve thentsetvesfallenfroma higher level. On tho othor hand, it ia muchcasier to go on pointingout arts practiscd by tho tesa civitizeJ races, which seem to havo thcir fitting ptaco rather in a history of progrs: than of degencration. T)na remark app)ic. to tho case just montioned, of th intcnnediato formsbetweentho boomerangand tho warclub boing found itt Aufttmtia,as though to mark the stages through which tho perfcct instrument had been dcvotoped. Severalsuch cases occur among tho art'! of fire-maMngand cookingdescribed in tho fottowingctmptcrs. To glancefor a moment at the history of Tc.<ti)o Fabrics (into which1 hope to go more fully at a future time), it may be noticed that tho spiudio for twisting thread hns been fuund in use in Asia, AMca, and North and South America, amongpeoplo whoso ruder neighbours had no botter means of mnkiug thcir nnest threador cord thMt by twistingit with tho hand, by roitingtho nb~s withthe palm, on tho thigh or somo other part!: of th body. Again, though overyknowntribe appuars to twist cord, th combinationof thse and to mako matting or wicker-work, two arts, wea~ving, whichconsiiit!! in tnatting twisted thrcads,if) very far from beinggnerai among the lowor Nes. Th step Necms from our point of viewa very simple one, but a !argo proportionof mankind had novcr mado it. Now there is a euriousart, which is neither matting nor weaving,found among wasunknown. It consistsin laying tribcs to whomreal weaving bundlosof fibres, not twisted iuto real cord, side by side, and tying or fasteningthem togethcrwith tmnsversecordsor bands; vanetics of fabrics mado in this way aro well knownin New without inSmithMMn in Stono WtdtMt, Meht,' )).278. Sco!t<t,M))!n6 18M. Bepert,



made in this way, winch lie tound in use in 8j6 among an Indian tribe N. W. of Lake Huron, tt very good cxatnp!oof thix !ntefestingtransitionwork. Nor dowa look in vain forouch a fnbnc iu Europe it is fouud in the of Switi!crtand. M. Lako HabitatiottH from Troyon'swork shows a sp<'cimeu Wangcn, whieh Lctougs to the Stone ht~ three speciAge.' Mr.John EvMM meus of fubriMft'omthc SwLjSLakes, which fonn a series uf gt'cat iutcreift. Tho fit-at (Fig.17) ii!n)sofrom Wangen, and, to ttscth'' dcfcription accotnpauying tho skutchus hc bas kmdly given me, "the wat'p consists of strands of un-twisted fibre (hemp?) Luuud togfthcr at intcrvats of about an inch apart byncarlyshuitarstrauds 'wattted in MtMng t)tem." The uoxt spcimen i. F'B.!?. (F:g. 18), from NiedM'-Wyt,show;!a of twistcd string, aud the :he warp con.si.sts grcat ath'uttcc,fbr < woofof a finerthread also twisted." The third specunon is n pieco of orttmary plain weaving. Now all thse things, Euro~an, Fotynesian, <uid Americau, scem to bc in thcir naturat and roasonable ptacMin a progrs!: upward, but it is hant tu una~iuca people,n)K!er any combinatiuuof cireumstatiCM, droppiug down to adopt a more frou th art f tvcaving, tcdiousand tei<s profitable way of workittg up the tibrcwhieh it had cost them r' so muchtmubte to prpare knowingtho and timo to better ait, <utdJetiberatety Jcvotingthoir m&terhd pp.43,<!?,<OS. L~ustBM, ison,p).vii. )i~. 24, 'IhMMti'mttetttttat:' Troyon,

Ametim i Zeahmdtm'l amongtho Indianaof North-Westom basket out to me a Mtok.Iiko and Mr.Henry Omsty pointod Ii 1 1



pntctisingtha woMe. 80 it is <t very rcasouabte aud naturat uscd to twist the!r thrcad hy thin~,that tribcs who had ))t;on sometimei! ovcreomo thctr distikc to change, <md hattd,shou)<t adopt tho fipiudtewhen they saw it in uw or such a tribo mig))tbu supposcdeapabtcof im'cntin~It but th goiu~ bm-k t'rotnthf )!pimt)u to htmd-twistmg iit <t thinj~ Hearccly coucctvnh)Q. A spiudtc i.snmde tuu uasHyby unyonc who ha!) onec of it; a stickand a bit af sumcttting )tc:tvytitr cau~ht tho idcM. n whot-li!!thf who)t:machhu. Not many ntouths a~o,<motd sccu in thc istuuf tstay,cumfot'tabty My wa.s spitmiogher Hax wittta spindic,w))iehspindtcwas siutp)y a bit of st!ck with :t putatustuck uu thu t'tid of it. Tu cunctude, th want of videnceicavusus a:! yct much in the d:u-kas tu tht- xbarew))ieh (tectincin eivitixatiuutnay havo hnditt bt'ingiojj; thL'iuwcr)':tN'.s into th stato in which wc Sud thon). Mutpfrhaps thi. difticutty mtttt'r aHcctst!to history of uf (.'utturc a.sa whcte. To partictdar tnht's, t)t:m t))u hi.story scumthat titc wor)d,whcuit bas JU)): f)')n (.'xpuricm; it wonM f))t'<~t a ~m ~M.spuf t.)cw or a ncw art, is very k))t)w)c')~c toth to t'Mcit atto~'ther, c.tpcciaUy whonit rctates to matters to man itt K''tn'ra), fur thc cunduct of bia daity life, nupot-ttUtt a)ntt!Msatis(:n:ti<jti of his daitywants, ti'iugs that corne home to n.'u')! businessnnd bosoms." Au inspection of tho geop'ap)ticat distribution uf art aud knowtuducamong nmnkind, cons tu givc sontc gruuhd.s fur tho bcHef that ttm hiiitoryof thu)owcrracL's, a.sof th higtter,is not t)tc hi~toryof a course of dt~L'nemtion, or cvcn uf cquatoscinatton!! to and fro,but of a UKjwinott w)tieh,m xpitof frcqucnt stops and retnpses,bas on thc whotcbccn forward that th';rc bas becti from ge to agu a ~rowthin Man's powcrover Nature wbich no degrading iuftuehcus bave bcouabic pennancnttyto eheck.

THKSTOXH A(.HPASTAN))PRRSHXT. THEStone Ageis thnt pcriodin th hiaf'ry ofmankind during used as a tuat<:ria! fur weaponoand whichtitone is )ut))itu:dfy tiudit convcnientto make the MtoneAge tools. Anti<tuarics nmt corneinto eontmou HN', ceaMwhencvcrtncta) impicm<nts the Bronze Age, or the Irou Age,suppncncs. But tho last tmcesof a Stono Age arc hantty knf'wnto disuppearanywhcre, in sptte of the gnrt use of mctn)s; and in studying this phaseof th worM's history fur itsftf, it may he cnnsidercd M havenot fttirlycomo still cxisting, not onlyamongsavagcsM'ho natiuof!. Wherevcr ta the use of iron, but evcu antongcivitixGd as they were used in th Stono th use of stone in~tnmK'nts, Age proper, is to he found, there thu Stone Age bas not with which titfkcrs entirctypassedaway. Thc stone hammers might he found at worktill tatfty in ronotc districts in Iretand,' thu hugu stune !naHctswith woodo)handie.swhich arc in Icc'tandfor drivingpostsaud other hcavy hamuK'rstit) u.scd ing,~and the lanects of uhsidian with which the Indians of Mexico still hlecd themscivcs, as thcir fathersused to do hefor nre stonc imptcntcut.which hve sur. the Spauish Conquc.st~ vivedfor centuriesth gnera) introduction of iron. Mcre natura) stones,pieked up and used without any artificialshaping at all, nre implouents uf a v<)'y luw ordcr. Such Mtuml tools are often fuund in use,heing for th most part and othcr stonessuited for hammera stahs,watcr-wornpcbhte.s, and anvils, and their Muptoymcntis no necc.ssary proof of a Cat. nfMm,, ofK.t. A.wt.Unhtin, Wi)'h, )M7, p.SO. &fimxkfshittuet), Kkmm, 'AOsemciM Cn)tnfwis!Me)mft h:i))ti)! ]S5S-S, i ). S6. i iL <!jU. vol. tOft p. Bneur, MMiqtt< p.



of euItUK. Amongthc towcr races,Dr. MittigMi very tow!)t~to thc she))givf.s tt j~)od iostaueoof their use, iu do.scribing mounds )fft by th natives ou th .shore.s of Van Die)nf)t'ft Land. lu ptnccswhcn?t)tc shf!)s fotmd an' univa.tve.s, rouud stoncsof ditfcreutsixcsaru mut wit)) nnf, ttte targor,on which as thcy brokc th shcHs;thu other, and )i)))a))ct', h~'in~ M<rvcd thu ))!Ut))ocr tu hronktticmwit)). Hut wh~-rc th n'f'))sc-muun<)a cons!.stof oysturx,tnus.set.s, there cocktcs,an'i otho- bivatvct), usedto opou them with, nn' gcno'atfyt'ound.' Sir itiot-knives, oi' thc sitM of nativo cnctunpmcuts' Oeot-ge Gtey's deseripttou so frc'<)ucnt)y nx.'twith in Austratia,will sfrvo as another cxof sueh an (.'nciu)tp)n<ut con.sist of a circto ampk'. Thc rotnaitM of )a)-~ OutstouesatTaogcd round the ptaec whL're the Sre bas stonc br br~-aking hecn on cachof th nat stoncs a stnath.-)' hcsidccach pair uf .stonc's a large iihdt uset) fora a s)K')t.n.sh; tt))d bunes uf cup, attd, scattfred ait arouud, ht'ukcu ~.h(;)ts kan~ar'Mt.s.~ Noraff eas's hardto finduf th u.<K' of thcsc'vcry lowK'preof thf Stunc Age can'i~tt up into higtn'r tevolsof iientativ~s civtiixation. Thu.stho tribus uf Ccntnt) and Sout)i<;rn Africa, not como ttMruughty though oftettskiifutin smitti.s'work, hav<: to the use of thc iron hannncr an') an\'i). Tt'avcncrsdc'!cribe tttctnas forgingt)t<;ir with a stouc of handy weapousand tooLs shapo aud sizu,on a hnnp of rock whicit serves as au auvili whitcsomethncsan irontumuneris uscd to givc thu tast tint.'ih." Titc (p)antittesof smoothrottfd p~'bhtc.s fountt in our aucicnt Eug)ish hitl-fortswere probabtycottcctedfor sting-stoncs but arc fuund hi'ger })ebbtcs, \'t!ryHkt:[yuscd a<!cmeking-stoncs, in earty Europ<an graves.* At thc prsentday, t))einhahitants of Ht;)igo)umt aud Rugo) not onty tum to aceountt)tc naturat net-iiinkt-fs tbnncd bychalk-iiints,eut of whichth rctnainsof <t spongf,or such thio~, ha.s bceu wa.s))cd, teaving a eouveuicut t)o)uttn'ou~hthu Hintto tie it by; but thoy havo hccti knuwu to tum suc))a pcrfuratcditiut iuto a hatnmcr, i~yfixing a Hth. !<-<fon.t.it), Hn!i~n,mTr. l!)(i:tuLii.)!.t~i.
<!n;y, Jom'm~, 't. i. p)'. M, )~M. 'CM~ii!,)). t:H: rethenc):, p. :;M; i. tt.n.kh~ttte, AM~, p. S77. Burtm), Centm) Africa, m), ii. p. 3t2: < K)ett)m, C. W., jart ii. p. <7.



handiein the hte.' And ht.stty, thc womfnwhoshet) aimondt in the southof France stitt use a xmoothwater-wornpebUo (w'c'~<'),!M<))<'it'i)np)c)t)''ntfn)-hreakinsthexh<-i)s. Thc (nstincti'j)) Letweennatum) nu') artificia)hnptoncnts is of hopractiadvahtuinnstitnatiuKthcstateot'ctdtureofMStonctrit'c. A natura) chip or t'ra~m'ntofstouc )nn\'ha\-t-))fL-)i A),<i n')wntt<tt)K'nnst'<tnsant't)g(.'d()rj)uit)t<'dt~));))Utwf)))tvo nut th' i~.st kuuwk-tt~t' uf nny triha tt)f) [owhnhitUftHy tu )iht))c cuchi))x<nun('))t.<f())'t))t'tt))it.'h'fs. Th('r';is,huw'-v<)-,ttw<ntnarke't )inc of distinctio))in the Stone Agu whichdivittes it intu a towcrnm)n hi~h'')-section. Wu ))nyunf)histonca) kuow. tc'JKCofunytnhcwho )ttn'u usudstonc instruments,and h<n-f nutb~nintm'h!d)it"f~)-iudingM-])(!Hs))inK.so)in.' oft)H:')n. But thcruar'' rcmains whichctciu'ty th" <'xi.<tf)t fsuch pruv~trihfs, imdthus thu Stunu A~c ndh into two divi.siutM, t)~ L'ugmund Stom-Age and thc Cfruuud Stun' A~~ To the formeraxd ruder uf th!!)two claies )')<)))~ th instrument-! nf thf Drift or Qoaterxiu-y and of thu eartv dcpnsit.s, bonc cavm,M)K),i)t fthe SeandmnvMn ~'nt part at JMtst.thusc or kjiikkcnnxidtUn~. Kvcn shoutt)tt tew ~round s)K')t-))(.'u;M iustrmm'ntsprove tu Lfiut~ tu tttL'sc duposits.thu easu wouid not ht' touchfdtcrM), ior thc (indit)~ of httndn'ds of ungt-uuud uutuixtd with ~rout)dutUM nnpfcutt-nts wou)dxti)! show a vast predotninauccuf c))ippi))}{ o\t-r grindit~, whicitwuutd justity thbir hci)~ c)ns.s(.'d in au UngroundStuoc A~c,(juitc distinct from the Croutx)Stoto Age in whichtnodern tribus ha\'c heoi iomxtHving. Th rude (tint imptenn-ntsfound in the drift gravats of the wnes of strata, h~-tunsto the Quatcrnary (< c. P.jst-Tcrtiat-y) <ar)iustk)tuwn of hmnanart. Siuco the long uupru<)uctiu)ts appruciatedlaboursof M. Boucherde Perthes showcdtitu historica! importance of thse rcHes, the dateof the ii~t appcarance ofmanontheca.rthha.sbt.'enmuchtk'hnted. lhavenopurpose of attempting to diseuss th coiiecti'jttof j{eo)og~cal and Kkntm.O. W.,jart iL )& (iir Jubm in hM.ntmiraUe L))Hxx:)i, tmtM<m j.rittOL.M) (' t'n!. .thti.juitics nMt<,nc TitM!' Lottdot), 2ndcd.,)!<t!i!), h<M IS(iS, <tm inttwtumt t).etenaa MfMUttfic und KcutithK teJetit;n)tte thetwo divi.'MM ufthu St~K; p-Mt Age.




anttqnarmu factand argumentbrought forwardin Sir Chartes LycH'x Antiquityof Mai),'uot only wtth Kfcrcuccto tho mon uf thc dt'ift poriud,but to thosc of tho bout)caves,and of tho aud pcat-bogs. But it maybu )'<;n)fu'k'd that uiu'tys)n.')l-b<aps t!t0 iapsoof va.st cvidcncc, tttnugbcapabicuf .showing gcoiogiea) of thesu pt'rtuJs bcing Mttntittcd pcn'Kts of titne, ime scarcuty bruu~ht into ()<:(inite chrotiotogiodteraM yct it is only geotogicttt evideueethat hns givun any basis fur dutortnining th absohttcdate ut whichth xMkcrsuf t)'M <t)'i)'t itnptexMttt tived iu ymuec nud En~tand. In att etabomte [mpcrpubti~hedin 18C4,Mr.PrcstwM)iufcr.s.frotnthc tituc it tnu.tt hve takou tu cx<'a\'atcthc riv'r-vatk'ys,uvt.n under conditionsn~uc)~ mure to such actiou, fnx)to ))or''iutu tho undorfavuuraUettinn now fuund titied with pi~ 0!' funne! tMW )yit~ iitratit thc <)c<!p s:n)d and p':tvct,that a very lonf; ptiriud tmtst ))ave fiapst'd hcd.sbcgantu Le hu'i dowu. But sinceth in)]))cu:nt-)K'aring nnd favuUM th view his opiniuu is njpunstf'xtrt;t))t; u.sthnatL-s, with thc Mamthat t)m nowuadouhtt'dcuutMntp'Jtftt~ityat'umn to hc accountMd etc..i)!mtht.'r ~'t'/<ot7'/jtt< )not)t,thc ~/'f'('f;<'()s for by ponsid'rh)~t))ittth'' g)'eatanhna);! contiuucdtu )i\'u to tt tato' pc'riodthan had bccn suppused, thau t))atth< a~e of mau tu fit withan cuortnou.s ou carth is to be strutc))cd hypoth~ticat date. th'. Pt'cstwich thu.'isurn'! up hi.svif\v of thc subject, That wc t<mstgrcat)y cxtcud our prcscnt cbrunotu~ywith respect to tho iirst cxistun of mau appuars im'vitabtt;; but that we sttoutdcount by hundrcdsofthuusandsuf ycars is, 1 um m th prc.sfutstatu of the iuquiry,uusafoaud prccottviuccd, mature. t woutd consist of A set of charMtcristicdrift imp)cments~ ccrtam tapcrhtg h)strum<utstikc hugo ):mc(;-))cad.s, shapcd, o<fa o f in iarge mtmhm' fuct.'t.s, cdgcd,and pnittttid,by taking a way wh!ch shuwsMguud dcal of skitt aod feeting for sym* iubtrumunts; niuts partty sitapcd metry; smattur iMtf-sttaped and edged, but withone end tcft uuwrougbt, cvidentiyfor ho!dPosition M<t ofthot')int-ttn))ktnmt-)!Mnng Onth A~t rrestwich. (tttoxia) 1861, ]Stit. i.tivro M<M A.Tylur, Uu theAlUion3 etc, t'hi). l'Gil. t. (ftt't)) 1(1"<'111 T Tru..o.); nuM.) ""IIIOII, Lundun, Ty)w, J!<)<, Je,I-, Un thoAmit))!! Uravul, Umvei, Ueu). 1!)<;7. in Jttm. t~ M]f, inth )SC9. Sec IM<t Lon'ton, K~n! Mint tmptommta



ing in tho hand scraperswith curviiinGaredgM rude Hakektiive! etc. Takun as a. whoh',such a m't of type)) woutdbo very uttitke, for instance,to a set of chipped UMtrumcntH bo]atc pcriod of th crottdcchi) tongiug to th comparativcty in France and Et~htnd. But a comparison of particufar types with what is fouud t')Mw))(')-p, clownauy imaginary hrMtks lino of scvcmn hetwoonthe tncn of th Drift aod thc t-~st <jftho hmnan Kpt-cics.Thc (htkc )<))i\) <u-< vcry rude, but they are like whnt tu-o fouod cisMwh~t-c, and tho'c iii m) break in the M-rics which ends iii t))Lhomtifu! spccitnonsft-umMt'xicotmd Scan'hnavia. Thu Ta.'onatnnn.s somcthtx'susf.'dfor cutting or notchin~ wooda \-vry)-t'duittstrmm-nt. Ky~witncsscs dt'scntje how th<'ywou!d pick up n snitaLk. ftat .stunc,knockoH' chips frotn une s:do. parttyor aU round thf cd~c.attd u.scit without more ado; and there is a spt'cinn'n con-cspottdingexapttyto this dcscriptiottiu th TauutonMuscutn. Au found itnptcment in th Drift ncar Ck'rmontwoutd seem to be much like this. Th Drift tot.s\vit)ia chippcd eurviUnuatedgHat one ettd, wh:c!twfrc probaHyused fur drcssi)~ icathcr amt other scrap'ng, are a go'jd (k'a) tike xpt.'cinn'n.s frutu Atoenpa. Th teafshapcd tDstruntfntsuf thc Drift di~r prit)cipa)ty fromthose of th Scaudiuavian st)c))-hcap.s, and of An~'rica,itt bcing tuadc tess tttiatty and by chippit~ uft' iar~cr Oukc.s;uod thurn are iustnmK.nt.s k-af-situpcd whichw.~ us"d by t))c Muund-Bnitdcrs of Xorth Atocrica,pcrhnp.s fur tixit~ as tccth in a war.c)ub iH Mcxican fashi'),' whifh (ti~.r mther in nuish than in xhape from thc Dt-it't E voi <))ctoo.st spc-einK-ns. spt'ciaitype of tho Drift, Utuuch-,thc puintpd t:tp<ri)~ itttptL-tncnt )ik<j a ~reat t'rotasonK-Au~rican itnpit.-nn-nt.s spear-heat),ditR-H on)yin being !nuch rot~h'-r and h.j:tYk.r. Thur<)!a\c ))(;<-)) f.,undin Asia Ktoneimptftiiettts rc.scntbiin~ tnost t-).M<:)y thc bt-st markcd of thc Drift typt;.s..Mr.J. K Taytur. Uriti.~)) Cunsutut Hasfah, obtaitK-dsume ycar.-i a~ fron) titc suu-dricd brick moundof Abu Shahrcit)in Houthen)Habytunia, two taper-pintedinstrumotts" of cttipppttOint,which,to jud~ frum a cast uf onf.of them, woutd be passcdwithuut t~sitation as Drift impicmcuts. s.))m-rA t. n~M, an. in t'r~<.?. YtH~, -)nn. Ant., ]i', ISC~.



As to the date to which thse ronarkabtc spcimen!) belong, thbre is no snMcientvidence. stone instrument,found in <t cave at Betbtchem. ducs not differ spccincailyfrom th Dri~ type. To thu'iotnust bu added t))0 quartzite imptementsof of SoutberuIndia, described Drift typefrntnthe tatcritc dc'pusits by Mr. R. BrucuFoute. With th Ungrnund Stunu Age of thc Drift, that of th Bouc Cavesis itttintatuly cunnfcted. In the Drift, geological evidenceshowsthut a tong periutluf ti)))(;must !mvcbeen ro. of the bcds whichoverticthc flint qnircd forthe aecumututton imptonents,furtho cuttin~ out of the vatteysto their present state, and so on, sincc the time whc))the tnakcMof thMo rudo touts aud wcaponsiuhHbitfdFranco and Eugtand in company with the 2?/tn<uc<:<'tM mntnmoth.andottK'rgrcat /<c/<0t'/<t<)!',the animalsnowextinct. ht thc BunoCaves this naturnlcatendar of stnttit aceumulattit! aod rc!))'<v'dis nLsotit,but th<irintimai remaiu.sbonteron thc fauna of the Drift, aud th Drift scrica of stone i)))p)ct))cnts passMiuto th Cave s<riM,' so that the men of the Drift may vcry wc')) bc the makpr. of fiome with thc grcat (juatcrnary Cave ituptoncuts coutL'mporatu-'ous mammids. Thc explorationstnadc wit))such cmincnt skill and succest in the cavernsof Perigord by M. Lartut and Mr. Christy,' distinct picturu of rude tribes brit~ into viewa. wondcrfuHy inhabitin~tho southof France,at tt rctuotc periodchamctcriscd by a fauna stran~etydin'o'ent frmn that at presfttt beton~ing and so tu the district, t)m rfindccr, ttte aurucb! th ehamoi.s, furth. Thcyscemto bave bccn hutitcriiand H.sheM, baving uo domcstieatcd aniulak, uut cvcn t)t(!d"g' but they madcthcinwith t)ycs, und selves rude uruauMntii. t!)ey suwcdwith tK'fdic!! thcy ducorattidtheir wurk. in bouc,not utdy wit)thatchedand wavcd pattenM, but witb carviugs of animais dont)witb conwcrc sidcrabtu skill and tastc. Yet their stone imp)cn)CMt!) very rude, to a.grt cxtcnt bcton~in~tu absoluteDrift types, infM:.SomeRebhire W.))")'.) D!)!in.<, ArchtM~ica) {!oc., ~e, foriMtimce, ]S(il-~p.h)7. in Tr.Ht)). iii. p. M2. Lartet &Chnoty, H. Chri't)', SM. m< 'ReMquif etc. (e<). Loft<)on, 1MS, A'~ihutic. byT.K.Jut)<s',)



ond destitute of grinding,wit!ione curions oct of exceptions, certain p-anito pcbhtcswith<tMnoothhoUuwcdeavity, sotnn'of which rosomUc MtonM used by t))GA'tstndians fo)' grinding somcthing in, pcrhapspaint to adorn thetnsftvcs witb. ft is veryenrious to iind thse Fronch trihcs Roin~Koftu-in thc art of shapin~ toots by {p'inding, and yct, sa far M wo know,ucvcr entehin~the Ideitof ~rindingn cctt. Tt)o Kto)~ itnptcntc'nts of tho ScnndinavianehcU-heapsaro a gooddoid like thuse uf the Drift amt thc Cavos,as r'gnrds their Miut-tiake.s nnd Icaf-.tftttpcd htstnuncuts, but t)n;y are ctmractcrittcdt'y th ft-cquent oceun-cncoof a kind of cclt whichis ttot a Urift tyjx;. It is rmtt'iyshapud frumtho (tint, tt)c natm-at fractureof wtuc))~ivcs it a curvcdfunn w)uL-)) tnuy Le ruugtdyc")n()ar<d tu t))at uf a mno'M ft'ont t')ott),if it tapcmd front rout to t'd~ Ht't'u, n).so,thf Un~round Stottu A~o uf hi~hft- types hve prevaits,though a vcry f<jw specintL-ns tx-un fountt. 1 may t~)ot<-5!r. Christy's opinion that thu thu(tsat)d.s of charactfristic imptcmcutsa)-t'tu bc tak<na.st))o standard ofwhat was tuade aud uscd.whitc.a.s hasvfryoftcu iu otd dt'positslying in accessihtusitutionfi,a t~w iiappGtK'd thiuK'''"ay hve g"t in in comparativc)y tnodcm tinn's. Ht-sideth want of grinding, thc avcrane ouaHty of tho ittstntnientsnf thc Uugfjund Stonc Age is vcry tow,notwiththu h-v~'t of tho sttmdiug that its hcst xpccimotsarc far abuv<; woMt oftttc Jatcr pfriud. Thf.se comLim.'d eharactt.-rs ut ruttcttcss and thc ahst.-ucu of ~i"di))g giv~ thc r~tnaitts of thu IhigroHndStotK'Agf an cxtrt-niL'ty important hcaring on tite history of Civitixation,from thu way iu whictt thfy bnng togc'thcrvidenceuf grcat ntdenes:!and gruat anti~uity. Thc antiquity of thu Drift hnptt-mbnts is, as ha.s heen said,proved hy direct gcoiogicaievidcuce. Thu Ca\'e hnp)u)icnts,cvc))of th rt'indcer pcriod, are provcd hy their fauna to bu cartio-,a.s they arc M'enut a gtanectu he rudur, than ihf'.so<~f thc crouitcch pcriod,and of tho carlicst Iakc-dwcHing'! of Switi!(;rhm(t, t)oth ht-tonging to thc GroundStone Age. To thc studcnt who viewsHuman Civitizationa.tin tttc main an upward duvc)up. Lnbhock in Nat.HM.Review, (M.]S<!1. in Soe. M<Hot Vaudoite !S2H. X!it.,




ment, a, mora fit starting-poiut coutd scnrcctybe oifcred than thix wide aod wcjt-tuarkedprogrcfsfrom an ear)icr and lower, to a iatur nnd hig)n.'r, stage ofthn historyofttmnan att Tu tum xow tu thu productions uf thu higttcr or Grouud Stouc Age,grittdi))~ is fouud nttht'r to Mnppk'toottchi])ping thnu to fittpft'sude it. Imptetnent!! arc \'<rycomntoutychipjx.'d into Rhpc tteforcthey arc ground, nnd un~nished artic)c.tof this Mnd :u'c oftcn found. Mm'covcr, such thiug. as ftakcknives, aud tteads for spt'iu' and arrows,hnvc sctdomor novur becu ground in any period,earty or )atu,for the obvionst-cason that ttic labourof grindh)~ thoa wou)dhve been wastcd,or worso. Fiake-knivcsuf obsidiauappcart<)hve bcL'nsomctimcs fhns)t<'dt'y grindi))~in Mexico,'bnt most stone knivosof tho kind scon tu h:n-cbcot usod as thfy wcre flakf') uH'. This of grindin~ or nut p'indiu~ stooe imptt.'ntL'nts is <)t)p.sti')n uf Captum C'ouk's, on ttia brou!;)tt ont ck'arlyby mtnc ronafk.-) first voyagetu t)tc South Sm.s. Me n'<ti<'(;d t)tat t))c nativesof Tahiti uwd basatt to tnaku their adxcs of and thc.-ie it was nunutt', fur which purposc m'ppssaryto .sharpcuahno.st cv~'t'y a stonc and n,cncutt-nutshc)t fut) of waterwurc kcpt atway.s ut band. WhL'tthcsaw thc ~t'w Zcahmdcrsusing, for thc finishtut'!s uf ja.spcr,chippudotf froni ing of thf'ir niwst work, f!)u:dt a btuck in xhnr])aogidar picc'); like a gundint, aud titrowing thcnt away as iioo~as tht'y wcru b)u)ttcd,hu conctudedthuy did nut grind ttiou afrf'itt hcoauso couid not. This, ))owt)x-'y cvpr.was not thctructvasun.a.s ttn'irgrhtdingjade and othcr hard stones etcartyshows but it was shnpty (.'tMier to mako ncw otK'.sthan tu grind t)K< oht. A goodset of imptctnfutsof thc GroundStuuuAgu wiHcoosist partty of instrutttcnt.'i tnadc snch as vant:t!csof spuar-huads, an'uw-!)fad! by mre chipph)~, ntid t!akc-knh'c!i,andpartiyofground i)))p)L'n)cuts,thc principal ehtMMof whieharc o.'tt.saxM,aud ))a)nt)u;t'.s. Titc word cctt (I~ttiu <'t~!, a chiiit:)) i.sa convouent tcrm for !))c)udingthc itnmcnscmass of instrument); whichiMvot))c aod nught hnvchccn used as snch. No simpleshape of chis<)s, doubt tnany or most of them wcrc rcaUy for mounting on ti.p.627. T~r'['tcmada, Mntmr')ia hdiMH i f!<it'iUe, !<)! vo). Coo!First \y. tt., m),i!.p.2' ~). iii.p.Cn.




and usiug as adzcs or axes but in the absenceof a h)md)<s, handte,or a ptacc for ou~,or a mark whero one ha-sbeon,it is oiteu hnpo.ssibtu to set dowu auy partiouar spccitucu as ccran ax< or au a~e. When, howcvcr,the taiuty )tchi'!e), cuttiug aa in a gouge, it is uo tongerpussiMo edgeis koHowed to use it as an axe,though it retaius th othcr two possible uses of chiact aud adzf. Tho water-worn pebbfe,in which a naturat edge ha!:been madestraighter and fdtarperhy ~rinding,may be tttken as th origioatattd typicittfonu of th cett. RudeSouth Americtm tribes se)cetsuitahie water.wornstoneitand rub down their edges,mmetinM-! uK-rctygntspmg them in the hand to usa them, aud sometime'!]nounting thetn in <t wucdou handte aud axes made iu this way, by griudin~ the edge uf a suitabte pebble,and fixit it in a. withe haudte, are k~owniti Au!itm)ia. th ctit.ssto which this ahuost naturtd itMtrumcnt Moreover, that, natudy, which has a doubic-convcxero-issection, betougs, is far more numerons aud uuiverMtiiy distrihuted than tite doobte-ftat, cuncavo-eonvex, triangutar, or othcr fortns. Wttcre artiticiattyKhapedcctt'! are found on)y chippedover, in high StonoAgedeposits,as in &-andit)avi:t, arn they genemity to be considcred as unnnished but whcn eelt-sof hard stone ure foundoutyground uear th cdge, attd otttcrwisc )eft rough from chippiug,tbey tnay ho takcu us denoting a rude stato uf art. Thufj ftmt c<It.sgrouud onty uear th edgc arc fuund in Northeru Hurope,aud cvcn in D~mnark but lu gnerai t'ettiiof th hardciitMtoue are found,duriug t)tc CrouudStone Age. conseieutiuusty a)! ovcr,aud evury grouud and pu)i.shed targo cdt of hard stouc H'hichin Huisiicdtu this dugreureprcscuts wucksor munths of labour,douu not so )nuc)t for any tMJtnicatadvautugti,a.s fur titu sakc of buauty aud artistic COU)piftMtH:S' Thc primitivehanuue)-, stii uscd in somu ptacos,is au ovat pubbte,hcldiu tho haud. Ab'n-cthi~ cornesthu nutura)tx;bbk, or thu artifieitttjy or uutchcd to iihapcd stom, whtdt is groo\'c() hve a buntwithu fastfnpd ronud it as a haudh',as uur stniths UMunthcavychiscts. Above this ag:uu is thc !)ighcst kiud, the stonchammerwith a hu)c through it furthe haudiu. Tins i."n'<t fnuodout of th 0)d Worid. porttapsnot out of Europe;




and eventhe Moxieana, whoin manythingariva)tc<t or excettcd the stonc'workersof ancient Europe,donot seemto hve got boyondgrooving their htunmMs. Th stone axe propcr, as. distmguisticdfrom thc mre cctt by its more comptexshape, a!Kt by its bcing boredor otherwise(ittcdfora hand)e,Is best Stonc Age, and in tho reprcsented Ht the highcfit HuropetUi tn).nshiou to thc Bronze Age. Sjjecitdiustnum'nt.sand varieticsitruuf grt intfrest to th& t).sgiving i)jdiyid)):tiity to thf pruductiousofthe Ethttogmpher, StonuAge of diHcreuttitntM and ptnccs. Ttu):), thc rude trianwith which the P)tpna)tshead their gtdar Hak<sof ob.sidiMU of their race. Thse spcara wero spearsarc very t-haracteristic protjabtywimt ttn-y w~ru using !u Sch')uteu'8time; "long staveswith \'(.'ry)oug sharpe thh)~ at thc ends thcreu~ which (as we thottght) werc (tmn.'sof btack fishc.s." Among colts, the PotynMitU) n'ixc htadc, tu bc sucn m atmost ntiy mu-seum, if ft wcH-markcd d')ub)ehatchut~ and type us is thc Aun;hcat) an ctaboratfly-furtncd Affricau kn!f(; Ttn' Pech'~ knives or Fict's knivcs, of Sitetiand, tnadc from a rock with a fijaty st-ctupceutmr. Tttey appcar to bc cfHcicutinstruchjavagu, sccu cuttmgcuLba~e with onu uot ments,a.san oid wonumwa.s longsi ne. As t)K'rcarc a goud manyspcial instrument!! tiko ttx'se itt diHun.'nt itsc!f of parts of the worh),thf ide~ naturaHy sug~fcsts to provecounexiou trying tu use theni as ethnological vidence, or intetvouMebetwenntwo districts whurca xintHarttnug is fouud. Fur instance, among thc most curious phcttoincnain thc' hiiitoryof stone itnpk'tncntsis thuoccurrence of une of tho cctt ofgrccti jatte, highest types of tho Stouc Age,th p~)is))ed of a)t piacf. in thc wortd, in Austudia, whcrc tho gunerat of thc native stonc itnpIenK'nts chamctpr i.s so cxtrutuutytow. There ifi a quan'y of tliis vury hard and t~-autit'ui stone in. Victoria,und ti~' natives on thc river Utunctg~rind it into douMc-convcx ttatehct b)a<)c' a procc-ss wtnch inust recuire gn*atiahour,and tticsc b)ad<sthey tixwith native thread into vn). rMvhM, ] MM) 2. i.,p. M. .~huotemft, 4' <i)pt. )artii.).). 1 Id., i l. 1-3. 1 -3. Alj(~h.. inthoIMlrlburnb inIho M., jl':trl artii. l'I. 4ii, 'figo. is!). ;)).45, tiJiobut~h Atxither "1I\III.n qxximttt A))t)<)mnM' A/lti<uurics' M r. P aeidn'ihM). ~fuMum, pn:'<'nt<i<) hj'



ctcfb sticks,<U)d use th)))as L~tttc-ftxes. Two ofthe bt~dcsiu question Me in th<Mus<utn()f th S'JcictyofAMtif~Mtnt'ft in Hdinhm'gh, pt'cst.'otfdby Dr. Mackay, whu got thc'm uuar thc phtcewhNf th<?y were nmdc. They nro o)))yinfuriur tu itie Htn.itc(j)t.< of tho stunf HUtterud front New &n)aud, ht uf uutthxj whichthu MM'n woutd t):).vu wantiog the aecuracy ta)")urw!thw[nch)tcwott!d ttttve givt'n.ond t))cc<Mi)fck')ttiuns down thc whok-sut-t'acc till cvery inequaUtyor tiaw ~p-ouu<) had (t)!<!tpp<'<n'<'<), wite)-e:ts thu Austratian )t:M bceu coutcttt with potishi)));iuto t))u huttuw ;)):tcc. ittstcad uf ~rinJtug thcm ont. W<;rcwe obti~'d t') iutcr, trmu t)tf prc.tt'nceof th<)e ef!t. iu Austndia, th;tt tht; nath'M m une part oi'the high-etiM-! thc makin~ of stun<htfpte. couxtryhad thfnMt'h'cs dt.'vctupfd tncnts M inn)M)Mu)y th rfitt uf their racu,white they b~'yottd t'<;n)ai))(.) in ut)K'r r~fjx'ctsiu ttie iiatuu)uwstatc uf Mviiixation, thc qua!i(,y of stonuiittptL'nx.'ttts wun)dhnvc to be prutty tnuch givut) upas it tL'stof cutture imywttut'f. Fortunittfty theru M nu casier way ou),of thc di<Hc)t)ty.rutish~d itHU'unmnts of this j{rwnjitdc hve b'~cn,tungt~ or re<'cnt)y, ottuof thc tuost in thu t.shuutsof t)tc ludiun in~tortant iton.s of tnstUufnctuM Occau (md the Pacifie,<mdthc South Au.stratinns ntny hava icamt fromaonH~ta)nyor P~tyut.'siiU) sour~ t)tc art of shaping thcsc ttigh-ctass wcap'xts. Thu tikciihouduf this bciug thuir rca! hiftory M struo~h~ntid Ly pruufswu hve of intercoursc hftWL'ett AtMtndiaand thc surruttodi))~i.s]!Utd& Bcsides tho ktmWM uf th tr'ptutg-fishurs uf ~tucassart') th yeath' visit.-i Uutf ut CarpL'uttH'm, !mdthc!(pp<)i'ime(,' of th outrig~r-ciUtOo ht HfMt Austmiiaiu CuptainCuuk's ti)nt;,thcru Mmythologiml cvtdcncewhict) scemstu can'y pr~ufof [;om)cxtou far downth t:ast c'm.t. Auuth~rc"tneidcneo of this ]<indm!ty hc mentioned hero, thou~h in th ahsfncc nf cottat~m)vidence it wuuU bu unwisc to dmw:my <M))d))sio)t frmnit. Thure i.'< n wctt-known New 2t:!thutd t)MOi~'e,ar~K-~K. It is an cdgpd WMtpun, club of btjnoor stox. whtchbas hcctt comp~rcdto a bca.ver's tai!, or is stiU more tikc a so()a-watcrbotttc with th butb and it is a vcry cO'cetivc Hattcncd, weajMnin a tmnd-to-hand H~ht,bfing se shaq) thnt a nMn's s!<tt}t may be split at CM




Mowwith it. Througitthc ncck it ht)sa huit'for a wt'wt-cunt. Th T)(~'eis tnade of thf bum.'of a \t)atf, ot-of stune,)Utd thu 1. 1 nnd M'urk'd H'it!) fi)tMt,whichMt'o of~'pfMJ<n)c hnntensL' thc most pt-pL'iuus tubour,w~n.Hmot)~ hcir)<joh)s of th Maori (.'hi<t's. Onu wuuM ttnuk thnt suc!)a p<eu!iar wt'np'mwas ttantty to ))<* )na()<; tik~-ty in'tt'p'.mtcottyl'y tw" )'.M't's but Ktonm gives (i)nwi)t~ ot' H sharp-ud~t'd l'cruvinu wca))on, of (tm'kLmwnjasper,' which ia so exactty like th Xuw~'nfan't Mt~'e, cwen tothc wnst-<'ot'<),that asin~k drftwin~ot'onc of th )nttt;r, shmva ht ft-unt am) profito in Fig. IK,will scn'e for )x'th. Thcre p!m)t!tn))y he tt bu a mi..takcnlollt nnstakcabout this wcap'n Well}JOIl IJcillgrcatty bcit)g rcnlly 1 Feruvtan,Mranothcr frum Cuxco,ut'a ~t'M'msh 18. amptiibotieittf'nc.isfi~urcdbyRivutttaud T.-icttudi,~ curiousty cuongh, in cumpanywith a wocdt'nwarwhk'h is hanHy<tMtiuguisha)))o chtb, from Tunga in Cutombia, from a common Pofynfsia))i!'rt)). If we knew uf tmy coxm'xion hctwct'tt the civiHattiunsof P(.'runud thf Sunth Sf~ tituse <'x(nt0tt)inft)'y rc.st.')ub)M);cc.s I.s)att').f, mig)tt b(;f;cuuttt(.ti for without ttusitation,as c<u)sc<) hy <tir''ctttfmsnu.ssinn. Whcu, howcvur,t)'eir full vatuf has b~'h giveu to the diffrences iti th pruductiunsof t))o Cruuod Stone A{{e, there remains a Ksidue uf a most retnarkaDe kind. lu th tir~ ttake-knive.s, phcc, very Mmattnumber uf c)as.s(.'s, sct-apers, and celts and ))!)tnn)t.'rs, tukc itt thc grcat arrow-headf!, spcar !na.ssof spcimensin musums and in th .second ptaef, tho prm'nilin~chametcr of thcso mpkmcnt.s,whet)iermodo~nor thouxandsofycam oid, whettx.'rfuuhdun thi.'i.sideuf thc worid or th other, is a nmrkcd unifortuity. Ttte Kthnographer wifo hns studicd th stono imptuments of Europe A.si:t, Kurth or or Polyn~ia,may cottsidcrthe sp(.t'!n)ct< Soutt) Amct-ica, from th district hc has studied, as types fro)nw))ich those of ot))or districts di{!er,as a c)ass,by the prsenceor absenceof a fuw itt moreor pecutiar instrmufots, nud individuaUy importaut C.W.,~rt ii.p.Sa. Kkmn, Ki~m dut.r<;r. &T~-huJi, l'ht~,rt. xitiii.




dfaits uf shapo and nnish, untcss,M somettmfs happcna,they do not perct'ptiblydiHt'r)tt ait. So grcat is this uniformityin thu stonc imptcmfntsofdiH'creutptaccs and times, tbat it goes far to ncutridise thcir vatue as disttnctivc of ditt'crcnt race!). It is dear that )Mgrcat hetp in tracing th minute history of t))(igrowtttand migrationof tnht.'s, Mto bc got ft'oman an'owhead whieh might hftvc comc from Patagunia,or Sibcrin, or t))c I.s)e of Mitn, or frum a cctt whtch might bc, for a)t its appcanmec shows,M'xtean. Irish, or Tahitian. If an observer, toh'raUy acqunintedwith stoue unpkments, had an unticketett collectionptaced bofore tnnt, thc targenexsof thc tmmber of tipceimeuswtuch he wcutd uot coutidftitty a.ssign,by mre inspuction,to th'jir proper countru'x, woutd serve as a fair mcasure of thdr ge))cr:d unitunnity. Even whcn aidcd ))y ot'tftt a j~'Mt )x')p,t)<; would hnve to mincratogtcidknow)edgc, teavc a large fractionuf tht! whutc in an uuctasscd hcap, confessing that tt< did nut koow within ttiousand!;of milfi! or thousandsof years, whareattd whca thcy WM'L' tnade. t How, then, is this rcmarkabte uniformity to bu (.'xptamed! Tite princip)uthat umn doL'sthe satnu thing under the same circumstauccswi account for mm:h, but it is very duubtt'u) whcttx'rit eattbo strctchcd far enough tu :MC')Ut)t for cvot the gTfaterproportionof t))c tacts in question. Thc othcr sidoof the arguntunt is, of course, that rcst'mbtauccis duc to connexion,aud the truth is madf; up of thc t\vu,though in what proportionswe do not know. It may he that, though th pro. Memis too obi<cure to Le worked out atone,the unifonnityof devetopmcntIn ditiurent rgions of thu StonHAge mny some day Me8ucccssfu))y brought in with otht'r Hnusof argument, based on ()c-cp-)ying agreont.'nts in eu)tt))'e,which tend to contratize thf carty history of mecsof very muikc nppearance, and Hvingin widetydistant agfs aud countrics. To tm-u to an casier branc)) uf thf.' subjcct,1 hve brought. togothcr hre, as a contribution to th history of thc Stonu whicb shows that it bas prcv:u~d in Age,a body of evidunce ancicut or up to modem thncs, in t'vcry grt district of th inhabited wortd. By the aid of this, it may be possible to sketch at toast somcrude outline of thc history of its graduai


AX)) t'REHHtT.


dediuoand ftdt, whichfotiuwedon thc hnrcductionof mtal in use of h<t(.'r th univerMd priodeuptoourowntitnt'it.whcn ironbas )<t nothing of thc anex'nt statc <'fthings, excepta few retxnattts,of intt't't'st tu fjtbnotojfists and anti~uariet, but of no praet!e<d itnportan tu thc w'u'tdnt hu'gf. Jn the nrst ptacc, thct'e arc pat-tiiof th worittwhoseinhabitimts,when thcy wt'ru(tiscovcrodin modem timL'sby more ut' mct~)s,but u~mg advan('c(t racM,wcre fuund not possciised atone, shc)!, bone, spHt caucs, and su forth, for purpt'ses in tnakingtoutsnud weapons to which wo apply metats. Nowas we hve no evidfnpo that th inhnhitants of Au~tratia,th SouthSca s)ands,ntfd a consideraUe part of North aod South hco) possf.ssfdof nx-'tats,it scems rcasnnAmerifa,hnd t.'v<;)' abte to coo.sidcrthusc districts as eouuttics where original Stunc A~f cut)d)tiu))shati ncvM' hcen intcrffred with, untit they catn<withint)tc t'an~<of Kump'an dtscovft'y. But in othcr pa)'ts of Xorth and Suuth Aincrica,such interfe)'cnc(i hnd ah'fady takeu ptace bcfot'uthc tinte of Cohunbus. Thc native coppct' of Xurth Ameriea had LeMihu'gctyuscd by thu mec known tu us as thu MoundUnihtft's,"whohve )<;ft as mcmurints of thcir cxi.stcnce the cnonnous mounds and of thc MississippiVaHcy.' Ttx'y do not secm to fortincations Itavcuudorstoodthe art of tnfttit)~ cuppcr, of <Ypn of forging ithot,buttohavct)'cat<*ditasa]<hidftti!tHc'abiestutK', w))ichthcy got in piecc-sout of th gro~md, or knockfd ot i'rom the grcat naturat blocks, and hanxncred into knivci!, axes, aud ornaments. Thc use of native coppcr was chMcts, conHm'd tu thc Mound BuitdMs,l'cr thc Europcan by Honica.us expiorers found it in use for kniv~ icc-chisci! ornament.'i, etc., in the nurthern part of the Continent, cspcciauyamong the Esquimauxund the Canadian Indians.~ 'i'hc copperwbieh CaptainCookfound in ahundance atnong thu Indians of Prince WiUiam'sSound, was no duubt nativf.~ Th iron used for '.<ee&)ui<:rA!'Mia.t:t. M"'), nf!:tat<: At~r. nf X. Y.,Stnithxunmn Cootr. WMhinijton, ]S5), &]')!?, ~itJ. 'Thot'ohr )7C-7. Kichanbon, H~ioui);' t;dittbutt;)f, H(;).p. pp. thMuyt.t-ot.iii.p.ZW. K)em))),C.U.,to).ii.p.IS. Thini vo). ii. [!.3SU. Couk, Voy.,




arrow.hcads by thc Indians at thc mouth of thc Rio de la Ptat~waNtMdoubtmftforic. Thishaitbfcnfoundinttsc <nnongt)tu Enquimaux. Tticre is a ttarpoou.puintof wah-uft tusk in the Britisit Muxcum, headcd wit))n, btadoof tnctforie irun, and a knifn,a)M of tusk, whieh is cdg'cdby fixing ht M a prouve. Hutt~e rowofchip~ofhn;tcofit:irt)ua)nug in.strmncnt.s do uot appMU' o)d thuy nre just like th'MuiH which th Estjuunaux at prcscut ntouot tnur'.fl!!uf Em'opcau iru)), and timt-tjis uo pvidfucc t)i:tt tt~'y iHett thL-irnativu mcttjut-ie irou, untit thuir tutercourso with Eut'opctms ht modem times t)ad taught them thu nattn'c and use of thc mctat. It is indued vcry .stt'angu that thcr xhoutd ha no truMs fouud atuoit~ thcm uf knuwtod~' uf ntutat-wm'k, attd of tht'r arts, which eue wuuld exocet a race so rcecpth'c of f'm'ign kuowtcdguto ))avc ~t frotn contact witk ttm Xot'ttttnet), iu t)tc tenth aud futuwing eenturius but I hve not sucuecdt.'f) in Hndiu~ any distinct uvidencuof thu kmd. lu thc )'jW(;t-t):trtofthtiNut'th<ntC'mtim-nt,iu Romand sonf other districtsof t)K' Southt'n), thc Stunc A~c wns uot cxtittct at th'; timu uf Cututnhus; it was indfCftin astatcof devftoptnt.'nt))arJ)ysnrpftfiscd anywhcrc iu tho wurid, but at thf t'aoc titn'j severa)n~tid. wct'c in c'~nmonuse. Guid aud sitvcr wcru wurkcd with wutidcrfutskill, but chicfiyfor onmmcnta) purposcs. Titungkatmo.stati t)te ~otd aud sit\'cr wwk of MexicoLas luuj~ thfrc are sti)I a~ogonc to thc Muttiu~-pot, a f(.v spt.'cinn.'ns whk'hshowthat thu Spaoishco)K)U(.'ror.'i wuro not ru)nau';i)tgin the wondurf'ut stortM th<ytutd of tim tikUl of th native guld.s)uit))s. 1 havu Muu a pairof~otd cagtc ontatncut.sin tho B<;r)in which wiHconiparuahnost witil Museutn, th Ktruscanworkforde~u and dclicacyof Hnish. But what Is sti)t tuoru i.st))at hrunzo,madeof wcD~judgcd i)n])urtant proof and was in uso on Loth continents. tin, portions copp(;r Thc Pcrnvians u.sedhrcnzc,and pcrhaps coppcra<M, for too!s and wcaponf!. Titu Mcxicanbronze axc-hfadesaM to bo seen in euitectiuns, and wc knowby thc picturc-writinjpthat buth thc Mcxicani! and the buHdt!r:i of th ruitifd citicsof Central Atnerica~ mounted thcm by simpiy stickiug tttem into a HmJuta it) fa),i. Dte.sdm M. Cm~'x, Ktt)pLuMUj;h, Code!

AUtr-t'AS'i' ANU t'ttt-St:ST. Tt!K S't'(H<K


woodcn club,n~the mndcrnAfriMn ntonnt. )ux ironaxe.h)a(h'. Thc tittic hronxebc)k ofM'-xicoand South Amcricaarecored eastin~, which are by no tncans novicc's work, and othcr bronxe castings frotn th fattor countty aru ev'n morercmfu'k~U~S How tho art!) of wurktnggo!d, Mh-ft-, coppcr, aud brouze came into Amcrica, we do net know, !)or ou) we pve))te)) ou t))e Nurthumand Sout))cmConwhethert))eir uppeamnee to tt'aco Mcxican or not. It is po.ssib)c tinent was ind(.~x)ndout a,))d pernnps evun to the I.sthconnexiondownto Nicamgua, mus of Pannom, whito on th othcr ttaud the northern inhntiot unitc'ataintcdwit)t th nabitfmtft of South A'ncriea wc-ro tions farthM-dowu th continent. But no certain proof of connexionor tntcreourse of uny kiud bftwen Mexicoand Peru scemsas yet tu hvebeen tnade eut. AU that wcknow tiu, and broMc had thcro coppt-'r, certuintyis that g'j)< sitvt.'r, intrmk'd thentsch'esiunongth itnpk'un'nt.saud ornamentsuf )na<)ean approaehto workedHtone,thoo~)tthey )md xcin-ceiy driving them eut of use,and that th traditions of Lotitcontinents nscrihed tht-ir higiierculture to certain foreigncrswho werc tookcdupon as supcrnaturat hfiug.s. If wurcason upon thu snppnsitionthat thseremurkahiyunanhnou.sicgcudstnay perhapscontain historica).in c"tnbination witit mytincai eic. monts, thc ([ucstiun su~ests it.scif,w))eru,for a thou.sandor werenx'n hundn.'d yc:u"!m'forothu Spanish discovury, fiftet.'n tu hc fuund who conidtcat:))thc M'xican.sand Pcruviansto to sn)L'itand work make bronifc,and couidnot tcach t))MtM hctudf iron! Th peopleuf Asiaseetn th only mfn ou whoiic such a daim eau bc sustaincdat att. Tho Massa~'ta'of Central Ajiiawere In thc Bron: Age in tin; titne of Hcrodotus, who,describingtheir use uf bronxf for spuar and arrow-hcad! and of gotd ritther tt ornantc-nta) aud othor thing~, hattte-axes, for ronarks that t)n;ymakc no u.st'of iroti or sih'L'r, purnoiiM, ttn-y hvenonc in their eottntry,whitc go)d and brouzcabound." Four coutunes tator, Stmbomodinfs thm rcmark, saying that Tytor,Maico p. i!3t!. < Kw)~ttk, )tMi) i Kcw Yuft:, I!< fp. <!it-~M. i.StS. t!ero<i.,




they hve no sUver,little irun, but abundunceof gotd and bronxc.' Th Tatari)were Ht th Iron Age when visitcd by mt'dia'vat travt'Hers, and the histnry of thc transition front bmnxeto iron in Centra)Asia,of which woseem to hve hre a gtimpse,is fur thc most parr obscnro. The tnatter is, however,thc moreworthyof rcmnrkfrotn its hcaringou the argn. ment for th connexion of th culture of Mexicoand that of Asia,gt-ounded hy Humbotdton th simitaritiesin the mytho!ogyand the catendarof thc two (listricts, If we now turn to tho ttistory of th Stono Age in Asia, Africo,and Europe,we shatt indced (ind ahnnst everywhero videnceof a Stonc Perifx). which preeeded a Bronze or Iron but this is onlyto he had in sxmtt part fromth direct Pcrio<), inspection of races living without metid imph-ments. T))o Kamchadats of horth-otstemAsia,a race a:! yet ethnoto~icaHy were found by the Kosak invadefs u'iin~ eutting-tf)o)H inolated, of fftonG and bone. It is rccordedtitttt with thse instntmentt! it took thcm three yeaMto hotiowout a cano,and ono year to scoopout one of th woodentrou~hs in whieh they cooked thcir <bod but pmhahty a iat'ge aHowancofor cxnggeration must be mfn)cin this story. It t!!curiousto notice that, thirty or fortyyears a~, Ennan got in Kamchatka one of thc Stone numbcrs in Mexico, Age reliesfoundin suchenormoutt a nuted on' whicha successionof stone bjades ))ad prism of chsiditu), been naked; but thouj~hone wou)d bave thougbt that th rceent use of stone instruments in the country comparativety woutd have beonstill fresh in thc monory of th peoplo,th nativeswhodug it up had no idea what it was.' Stone knivcs, bave been found in the hig)) xorth-castof Siberis, tnoreovcr, on tho site of dcsertedyourts of modem date, said to hve becn occupiet) by the settJedGhukehi,or Shata~ 4 ChineseHtcratut-e bas preserved varionsnoticesofthennding and use of sto)Mimpicments. Such is a pnss:)~ speaking of arrowswith stoneheadssent as tribute by the barbariansin the reign cf Wu-Wang (about B.c.1100),aud two w))ic)tmention =KntchcutMnU; xi.8,6. .Sonbo, p. 2!). roi.iii.)).<). KnnNM, IMm,' inCf.)). afMm), am) Ha<y<M:h<!W, ett.,Voy. v.p.NS. Tr. L<jnduu, ]?, t-u).



3)t 1

tho actualutioof ttucharrows itt Chiua, whethcr by Chineseor TatiHft. up to the 13th centnry of nor cm.' Again, referringto in th province uf Kwan-tong,in Soothcm Uhinn, Nim-hiu-fu, it is stated, "Tttuy (!)<(), iu thf mountaint und atnong thc rocks which surround it, a hcavy stone,so hard t)t:tt hutchcts aod other cnttihg mstrutucnts Mt!nm'te fro)n tt. It M to tM tftnctnbered thnt China is not in)Mhitcd only by th mcn usuntiyknowntu ttx as th Chinese,but t'y anothcr, or acvcmt othorfar t<"N cutturcd races tho nMuntaiusof Kw~u-tott~ nnd th other southernprovincesbc!))gespeciallyinhnbited by such rudoand seemittgty a Chiabori~inattribM. Ttten' is, besidcx, nese traditionspcaking of the use of stone for wt~pousanMt~ thftnseh'fs in early times, whic)timplicsnt k'ntit tho hnow)M)gc that this is Ktatu of thinp! ct~u'aetorixin~ a raceut a lowstngo of culture,und tnny rcnUyonhody a recolluctionof thcir own mmte wcnpons; thos~ were of CHrty history. Fn-hi, they fiity, thosc of Shin-nung WL'rc af sto)K', a)t<t Chi-yo tnado wo<x). mutto)x.'s.~ Among the grcnt Tittar Mce to which tho Tnrks nndMongots, and our Hun~nnan. Ltpps, aud Fhms ht'ton~,ncconnts ofStonc Agemay hc tbund, iu thc most rt'tnarka))tc ofwhieh the widclypr<:vatHug identhnt stonc iustnnncuts fouud hunt'd in thcgrount) are thundt'rhn)t.s, is vury Wt'H brou~htiutovit'w. of Itt thc ChinHso Ettcyctopa'dia thu fntpcror Kang-hi, who in 16C2,the Mtowittg bf'gauto reii{)) passadeoceurti : "<~)tHy-s~)x'Thc shapc and substattcuof jightningstoties vary according tu place. Thc wnndcrit)gMongols, whetherof th coasts of titc castern scit,or the ncighhourhood of t))e Sha-mo,use thcu iu the inanucr of copper nnd fitcel. There arc some of thcse stoocs w)tic))ttavp thc shapc of a. somo are madc tikt- toaUcts. hatchet, others that of a kt)iR;, Thuse H~htning-stonc!! are uf diH'crfnt coh'urs thcro are htackishuttes, othersare greM)ish. A rotnancc of the time of the Taog,mys that thct'c w~ tit Yu-Mt'u-si a grt MiaodeA.W. iK"rnm.t. ut t)MC'<)),;reM~f Frunks, t're-hi.-tM!cA~h~u)oi;y' )Xor'ic)t, tStM), )).2<U. = Cn..sier, vul, i. p. 191. tS)!i, Ueh Chim l'.u'M,
Oo~uct, vol. iii. p. !M1.




dicatcd to tho ttmndcr, nnd that thc peopio of the country uscd to inake offcringstherc of ttif~rentthings, to gct some of thse f)toNc.s. This fubleix ridioduui).Th tighttung.stones aro metats,atones,pcbbtes,whichthe fireof the thundcr )ms mctaand ututiug iMGparabty morphoscdby splitting them suddenty ftiaet-Mtt substaHecs. Therearc someof thse stoMs m which a hindof vitrificationis distioctty to hp o~'n'e<). Moreover,withm thc iaitt M'uturythe Tungux of northGtMtcnt Siberia, bftonging to th mtocTatar mce, wcr<! using stone arrow-heMts,' whi)c Tacitu)) long bctM-otnadf a tjhnitar rcmark us to their rctativcsthe Fion. whosc "cnty hnpc i8 in their )n'rows, which,t'rom want of h-un, thcy make sharp with bones." "Soin itt sagittis spes,quM, inupm ferri, ossibusaspcrant. But the Tuogux havobecu expert irou-workcM as as we havo auy distinct kouwfM)~)M)g' of thon),and anwvheadsof stoneand bonu maysurvive, for an indefinitc numtjcr of centuries, tho main part of thc Stouc Age to which they pt'opoly betong. Even tho Egyptiens, in th hcight of tbeir used stone an-ow.hcad.! civitizatiot), in huntixg,notwithstanding their vast weatth of bronzeand iron. Th pccu!iar arrows wliiett arc being shot at witd uxe~in the ba-s-rdict.! of Bem Hasstu~a~ stiH tu bc sccn in coUections; are they spcial as to their wcdgc~hapedflint heads,Hxedwith the hmad edge ~rcmost, a shapc like that of t))c wood~n-hcadcd Mrd-botta 1 of thc AtiddfeAges. The stone an-ow-hoatts found on th battk.n~h) of Marathon arc ofton dcscribfd,but arrow.hcnds and othcr instrumentsof thc Mtouc Age arc wmmoHin Grcek 0 aud soi), may bc pra~Aryan. It iii clear, howevcr,that meta) 1 must bc vcry couunonand cheaptohc uscttin Mwastefuta way as in heudingau arrow,perhapsonlyfora singte shot. If we go back eigtttcen hundred years,an account may bo fuund of a people living underStono Age conditionsin a part of Asia mue!) t~s remote than Tartary and Ouna. Stmbo 1 p' M'Mi~ d. Kkm; hn.7?0,.t.y.p.~j. vi. Kk.M.,t:.U.,vu: KavetEtein, p.4. Il TtM. Utint). ?<xM. nnlt H.D. <!rimm, i. )' t7S A,tu), 1: <WiUtimmt., vol. i. pp. j):;). r. Ace.,



givesthe Miowingdescriptionof the nsh-cntersinhahiting tho coast of the prsent Betoochistan,on th Arahian Sea, and, like th AfeutianMotKJcrti ffM)Ot)crB timcs, buildingthuir hnts of th booes of whatcs,with their jaw! for doorways:" Tho country of tho Ichthyophagi is n low coast,for the most part without trees,except palms,a sort of acanthns,ami tamari~)!; i of waterand pu)tivatedfuodthete is tt <ka)-th. Botttthe peuple and their cattto eat fish,aud drink rain- and wc)t-wat<r, and th Heshof th cattte tastes of 6sh. In making their dwe))ingi),they tnostty use th bones of whate~, and oyster-sheUs, the rihi! serving fur bcatns nxd pt-ops.and the jaw-honefi for doorways thc vcrtebrtc thcy use for mortars, in w))ichthey pound their 8Ut)-dricd niiit, and uf thi! wittt th mixture of a tittte corn,they mnkc bread,fur, though they have no h-un, they have mi)))!. And this is th<j)es:)wonderfu), Mcin;; that they ean get the miil!;frotn c~t'whcM,but h<weau tht'y drem thc tnittstonc!) whuu worn down? with the stoncs, they nay, with which they sharpcn tht'ir arrow: and darts [of wood, with point.-)] hard<)edin tjie nre. Of tho nsh, part thuy cook in ovens,but tnost thcy eat raw,and thcy catch thon in nets of pidm-bark. Thoughdirect historygives but partial means of proving th cxi.stcnofa StoneAge overAsia attd Europe, thc findiug of anciont stonc touls and weapoua,in ahnost cvery district of thusotwo continents, provesthat thcy wcrcin funn<rtimes inhabited by Stono Age races, though whether in any partieular spot thc tribc.swc nrst nnd living t)(ere are their descendants as wcitas their succeMors, this evideneocannot tcU us. How, for instance, are we to tell what race madoand use<) thc ohsidianflakeswhichwere found with potishedagate and carnenan beadiiundcr thc chief comer-stoneof the grcat tempte of Khwsabad ? A)) through Western Asia, and nM-thof the Hima)aya,t.t"m' imptonents arc scattered broadeast through the tand; whito China, to judge from thc stondur vidence forthcoming,iiccntiito havo had its Stono Age like other rusions. Japan aboundsin Stone Age relies,of which Van Sk'botd Jtv. Stmtx), S,2.




bas given drawing!!M() descriptions in hio grt work and his uwn cotk'ction at Lcyden is vory rich in spcimens. Thc an-ow.heads ofobsidian, {tint,ehort, etc., are of typos like thuso <bu)tdeifipwhcre. Thoir prt-scncf is sotnutimpsaccouutcd for by stnrit's that thcy were raim.d from tho sky, or that evory ycar au anny uf spirits Hythrough th tur wtthnun aud sturtM wheuth sky ckiu-s,pcop)cgo out and hunt in th Mtnd~r tho stone arrows thcy havu drupped. Thc atMW.hcudM arc found )uost ahundantty iti t)~ tturth ut' thc grcal ititandof Kippon,in tho M-Mdk-d )au<tof thc W:'d M<-tt, n popututk'nwhuwureMtty !ato aod with diHicu!ty hrought under th Mikado dynasty, and who hc!un!; te ttn.' sato;! Aino race as the pn.'scnt inhtthitants <tf thc istuud uf Jrs.so attd thc southon KurHe8. In Jupau, stone cetts ar<-frc'jnentty tu )~ f.~tud in tttu cu~-etions of nuucrittitof nativu a"mt.ur.s, utxt thcy arc still somutitncs with othcr ohjccts of f,tu)iu. T)icyscon ouly uf dug up avouge symtuctry and finish. Hw, ngain, t<K)uativus caH sueh a stone coit a "thtmdurho)t,"Aft/KeA't, or fe~M ~ww<Mt<&n-t, t~tt~'axo of T<-ngu,"Tcngu ),f.i))gUte guardian of i.cavcn. Thc notionis al.socun-fttt that thcy arc itupjont-'nt.s of the vit Spirit.whosc symtx'i is the fox.wltencc th t)a)W!) of'Fuxhtttchet," "Fox-ptauc." As a fox.piauc, a douhic-ftatcctt M sinjwuin Sichotd's piatc.s,which tnay ha\-c )icrv(.-d th purposo of a ptamj,ot-,if it wasfixedto a h:mdtc, that of au adxc. He. stonc knivcs (uot tnero Hakcs) gu)arty shapcd an' rcpresentcdi Mme arc like tho stonu knivcs of KgYpt,but rougher; thc Japam-.w. n-cognisct)K'tnas stonc-knivt.'s." Sumewiiichiiave hcct) dug up art- kfpt in th toupies as rcticsof th tune of tho Ka)t)I,th spirits or dn'inities from whont thc Japatiose iioid t)M)n.sfi\s to Le dcscumh-d,imd whosu worsitip is tho otd religionof thu Japaucsf, thf way ot-doctrineof th Kami, more cummunty known ))y t)x' Otincsc tenn, Sin.ttt. ~me stono knives.drawn Ly Sieboidon Japancse authority,sectu to be of a s!aty rock, whieh ha.s admittcd of their bfing very ucatly mado in euriou.ss)tapus. Onc vcry highiy nnishcd spceimen is caUud tho stone knifc of t))u"Grt;M. Dragon,"a tM-m whieh 1')..Fr. v. Stetx,).). 'Ki~n, At~ivtur !t~:)tn:i(,uns n Jt~ti;' < Lc)-~B, i i. n. tutiii.pp.4:, etc. ~32,etc., )<trt ).)utc9



maybo exptainedhy th tact that th couvcntionatdragon of Japan hM a swordut thend of h)!'tait. Agaiu, Java aboundsin very high-ctass stono hnptetnents, and tiueh tttings are foandon thu Matay Pcninsuta,though in Luththse districtsthc natives,unuke th Polyncsians, whoso conncetedwith theirx,<)oaot efeu kMow ianguagcM M ctaM-iy whfttstonc cott'iarc, and ho)d with Kotnany other nationsthat tLey are thunderbotts.' lu ludia an accouutof th (tiscovcryby Mr.H. P. Le McKuritit' of a grt numherof aMcicnt stune edts was pubtixhcd in 186t. Hu fouudthcm st~n'ed of th Jubbutup in viMages and in other sttCK;d pore district, ncar thc Mahaduos, places and sinee theu manyntuttiitm'u bt'ctt met with by other obHMrvt;rs.~ ludia ha.s nowto bo reckonedamong euuntricswhich affbrdrdic.sMut oftfyof th Stcnu A~c, but of ttx rudcr period of un}!oHsht'd itnptutuents, prucfdmg thu tnure advanecdperiod uf th ground ec)t. lu Eumpu,aucicut iitoxcimptc-nn'htsare fuund frun)ea.stto and i'rom)jurt)ttu fi'~ut)t, tho t'<iics purhaps of r:tecs nuw wc.st, cxtinct, or absurbudiu uthurs, ur of thu Tatar population of Fintand an() Laptand,orof tbat uncht-ssed racewhich survives in th Basque populationabout tho PyreneM,who,unIikHthe Fixnftuud I~apps, cannutas yt:t ciaita rctatiunshipwith a survivingparent stock. As tu our ownAryanor Indo-Europc'at) race, our nrst kuowtcdgt;of it, ut thu runtuteperiod of which a picture lias beeu n-constructedby th studyof the Vedas,and a eotnparisottof th Sanskrit with othcr Aryan tongnes, showsa Bronze Age prcvaitingamong ttton wh~utheyset out on their migrations t'rotnCentra) Asia to found th Aryan nittionfi,thc indians, rersiaus, Orceks,Germans,and th n-st.~ A genend viewof th succL'Mion of metat to stone a)t over th<' wortd,justifies a befiefthat thc AryatM wcMno exceptiou to tho gnera! nde, in 'Archmbj;)M)Jmm<),'Ko. 42. Hur), Yattt, JM-O. 't'apmxit.'t't). LeMeturitir, inJoam. At Sw.Hcnpt), ISCt,Ko.t, p. Si. Th<)!t)'f, As. t. &e.,At.r. etc., 1564, W~-r,'JttdiMhe S)thMj) D<!rt)B, 1S:7, p. 9. MM Mond Mimer, LcetoM' et< MriM, p.230,

2) S



aud thnt thcy, too, usctt stono instruments bcfore they hnd meta! oncs but ttiere M Htt)o knownvidencehearing ou tho mattcr beyondthat ufa fbw Aryan words,wjucharoworthmeu. tioning, thou~htht'y wiUnot carry mue))weightof argumfnt. Th nature of this cvidcncu may bc nmdc cif'ar, by noticiug )towit cornus into existunec m ptaces wherethc itttroduetiunof tMctut ts mattcrof history. In thcsn plat't-sit tMwthtMs(xq)pcos thnt oi() wonts,rc~t-nng tu stuoe )u)d'itunuinsh'UMK'ntt), nt'e transfem.'d to nx'ta) nnd tucta) instt'utnt.'ut.s, :md t)tcs wofd)! taku thfir pittcc as reticsof the Stone Age pr'scn'cd iu namMfor tanguage. Titus,itt North A)ncrif.'atho A)gu))<jt)in is to my, copper am) brassarc v/<M'M!'<A' and:<t!<K<M',that "red-Htuxo"nud "y~ttow-stonc," wtii)e the na)nt'<<w~that i.sused by sonx'Indian tribcs 0)' CatiR'nnafor at) is, fitonc," tuetais indist'ritninatciy. In the Dchwarc iatt~ua~t',~Mt i)) Ko that it is videntthat th winte,"tmdwxM is "stonc name of sih'ur,o~Mi(t~i.tneans whitc-iitonc," whitcthu tt'rmination "stonc is di.sntihto iHM)f<Mt<(M)<, "){o]d." In tbc Mandan hmgttngp, thc words m/, "knifc," ad Mt/f<(Kj!'< eotmt'etcd.~ Having thus cxnmptcsof th "ftiht," a)t' (')L'arty Stonc A~' bas k-ftit.s )ttark i)t iat~uagu.in way in which t)Kraces amo))~witomit bas bccn supcrscdudwithin uur kttowtcdgc,it is tmtufatthat we shoutd cxpwt tu findwurdstuarkiug t)K-satne change in thc Kpccchuf mfn wh" )aa<)< tho samo transition in times not ck'ar)y known to hittory. AVhatbas hpt-n donc in this way as yct comcs to VMry Httk', but Jacob (.irinnnI)as M'tan c'x:un)))<; 0!d /<~)t<)f< by citing two words, Nuri!L-Afn<t't)'< mcaning.both"haMt))cr"and"r.)t;k," and I~ntin a oamc pos'iibty Nf'.fMMt, bcion~ing to a tinn.'when instrmncnts to eut with, w-f-'ft-f, w~n' stiH cf stonc, and whiehxtHi kefps closeto Oh) (~'nnan sAf,Angto-Saxonw. a k)nfc. Thc-ro may possihjyb<'son'' connfxion bctwc<n w~<~,arrnw, and W.)'i(M, stot)' andin])).'tnanncr bctWM'n i-ianskrit ;'</?, arrxw, H~'b)\'w ~'M,stonc, whitc in th< S<n)itic fantiiy of tangumes, VO,c/i< arrow,~!1, c/<M~'(/ gruvct.stanc,arc Luth r<atcd to thf \-Mrb )'sn, cA~<< to eut. But agmuiitthe InfurMx'o )ortii. p~.SSO, 39r,<e3, .'i()C fart!ii.pp.~ti, 4). =~-ho~cmft, n. ~t.,p. )ti5 '}.)).<p. <!]f). ')rit<i)n.



from thse words,thHttiteir connexionbetongf to a time whcn stone was the usuat mnteriat for sharp instnnnents,th&re tiea that knifeand Htone might get from tho thi!)Btmngot)juctiun, oame mot ntunefjojfprcfsmgsharpness,or auy other quatity without havin~ anything directtyto do thcy hve in common, /<?!)',mttyhve been with one anothcr,wttitf th Mmeword, for "htunmct-" and "rock," fuumi !m t'quatty xuitaUu!)a)n<! wero caHedbecausoaUhammeri! without thp hammur being HO ori~inoltyfitooc.s.' to briug Amongth Somitic race,howcvcr,it scetns possibta fonvartt botter ovidencothan this of an oarty Stone Age. If of cne way of tnmstating.wc Snd in two pa:Mages wo foHow th Otd Testampot au accouutof the use of tiharp xtoucs cr stone kuives for circmnciiiion Exottusiv. 2.?, And Zipporuh Jo-shuav. 2, At that titne Jctooka stom! (is. ~j. hovali saut to Joshua, Make t)[eH knh'f.s of stonc" (nb'm C~, <7tw</t~)()'<)')). As thcy stand, howcvcr,those pa.s. sages atf uot sunic~nt tu pr<j\'cthc ea.sc,fur th(.'t'eis jnuch of ~ot', ~t', as th same amhiguityas tu tho ongioat tjtt.'anixj; uf thc wordsjust nn-utiouod. Ucof !))f)M m the ctymotugici! senius refer!!thum to i~ <;a< to cut, and th rcadings "an a knifo," aud knivesof udges, <e. sharp knivcs," havo <idgc, etahn. It rcmatus to hc ~'cn which so far ut h:a.t au c<)U:d L'! vn.'w supportcdhy tu)'t))ervidence'. lu tho first ptaw, thf 8eptuag!ut attogcthcr faveurs th wcro of titone, by rfading opinion that thu knives in qut.-stion iu thc first p)acu~'i)~o<a ctunc,or pcbUf, and iu thc second, MtonukniYMcf stuu'})~rpt aftpoT~ot), ~a~a~ta; w/Mw cut stone. ThMt'are tuentionedagttin in thc rcmarkaUupiMsago which futtowstliu accuunt uf thu dt'ath and hurial of Joshua (Jotihuaxxiv.2930), And it came to passafter thse thing.s,that Jushna the son of Nuu, thc scn'ant uf Jctiovah, diod, boinj;n,hundrcdand tcn ycaM otd, <ut th'y huric'd tmn winch ia in in thc hontcr of hit!inhcritanccitt Timnath S(.'r:d), Mount Ephrnim,on the northsi()cof thc hit[ ffOitash." Hre foUows in tho LXX.a pMsagcnot in the Ilebrcw text which <M offoMM in)ieeht)i"k &K'!th, Mj tienfey, IntMt Mttnexiott thmtMitt}! Q.W.L.,pafti.t.. !M.



bas conte down to ua. K~ ~f ~Mf ~<r*a~-oC <~ r~ ~)~<?of <j!Mtt~o~<t~r~ <)tft, TM t~a~M rat w~t-at, <)' <tTtTKpt~tf fOM; ftov! 'I<rp< raAyaAoi-, Sr<~ya/tf e~rMf! Atyt~rrof xaM Wft'fa~t KJptc;' ~f~ fMo ?<o "And tht.'ru tiK'yhud with him iu tho ~<ni~<t~af. tombwhct'oin the stoncknivc! whcrcwith they buned hhn thorG, hc circun)ci!'e<) th chndtfn ofismc) at th Gi)gah,whcnht;lcd them ont of Eg)'pt, as thf Lord conouauded. Aud they are thet-ouuto thiti dny." Any eue who is disposedtu Bein this statcment a httc iutcrpol~tiou,tnay imagine an ongiu for it. Tbe cpening of a tumtdus eonttuning,as they so comuMt))y do, a quMitity of sharp hMtnnnMitsuf ntune, tnight suggesttu )t J<w who onty kttcw suc!) thin~ us ciremttcising kniv' thu Idea that h<.< i~w bofoMhim thu tutnb of Jushua,atni, burk'd with his body, the stone knive:! whcrcwith hu ci)-cumci.sed tho chiMrenof Israc). How far the modem Jews &)))ow the transtatiun"stouc," "knives of stoue," 1 MtUMtentircty .~y, but twu mo()cnt Jcwish traostationsuf the Pcntatcuch which 1 )m\'M eotMtdtcd Kad "stonc in Kxudusiv. 2J. It !s to bc Mnarkcdthat tho Rabbhucatlaw adtnitxsuch n use it stands thus : fin ,fi-)i3n i~ 'xn') n~iani 1123 i~Bm ~~o ,)i~tc tc"i rnaQ e~n? e"ovt9 n:f! n~n~o 'omi e~ccM t~ rsM ~3 ~33 '?ia'? -'mtNn nisM "~303 Wc may ciremneisewiHt auything. cvcu with a Hint,wit)t o-ysta! (g)ass) or with attythi)~ that cuts, except with the sharpcdgu ut' a rfcd,hocause fnchanteM tnaku use of thnt, or it maybring on a di.sca.se, and it iHa pr~eoptofthc wiscmcnto circumcisG with irnu,whcthurin th form of a knit'uor uf scisbut it is custotnat'y tu use a knifc. Now aii Prof~or tium, Lamrus, n mo.st cuotjfcteutju<)gcin such mattcrs, t-cMarktid to me with rcift-cuecto this question,th mre mention of a j&). ]SS!).Eh!M)tcreGt)caJ LXX., Fidd, (Mm), iMtt~nfOttadt, nnd.<htr tmTettm'e.t. Mreetter ('Die Beachtexims~r hmeUten,' \'Mnmt, IMS, p.70), t <M<! M tt)f< onacMant etthe ohJMtionabte <tp)mt<!n.



practico in tho RabbinieathookaM uot good evidencethat it uvcr really <:xi)fted, that their writcM }tabituanyexercise xeuittg thcir fotite imagination)! in devisiug cases which might po: siMyoccur,and thcn argue upon thcm a!) st'rioustyos though they were reat matteM of praetieat importauce. But ti)oro are observed facts,which tend to bnnf; thc.su~trticutar ortlinanccs out of th rcgiou o(' i'ancy, and into that of fuct. As to tho prohibitionf tho usM of the reud knifL-, it iiito be noticetl that tttiit (itt the funn of a sharp ttpiintcrof bamboo)was the rugutfu' ittstt-mneot with which eircumeision was performcd iK th Fiji iataud)! Attd as to thc use of th stonoeircum. cising hnitc,it is Ktatcdby Lcuthoif,who is tooked upon as u guod authority, that it WMin use in /Hthiopm in his time, Tho A)n~jah,au ~Ethiopianrace,purfonu circunMision with stotte knivc! "Ahttuah gvus ~Etitiopuntcuttris lupitleiscircutudsioncm pcragit. This won)db<-it) th sixt~'uth (t.'ntury. And t))ough th modem Jews ~m-raHy use a steci kttit'e,ttK-re appf;ars to ht; a r<'markab)(] exception to this cuxtMn thitt wttett a uudo chi)d dicsbet'on! thccighthday, it is ncv(irt))')es!i circumcisudbeforc buri~), Lut thii! is dont', not wittt the ordiuary itMtrumeut, but with a frugniunt of tiiut or S g!tMS.~ Uader thc rcsL'n'atiou just stat~, a rcco~ntiou autoug tl)o Jcwish ot'diuanccfi of the praetice of shm~htfri)~ a bettst with a ['ihatp] stottc,!t)ayiK-re be cited frou]the Mishua 'm~3tne*ntc ,n:~s') ,3 ,T''?aB3!:nwn If a personbas duuKhtfrcd[a b~'ast]with a haud-sicide, a i.e. cican, or fit to hc [sha~)] stone,or a rend, it is c(f/t<f< t'atett. Hen: ))ut ou)y the contuxt,but thu nueussit)' of tihcdding the a))ima)')i Uood,provoi that a propercutting ihstt'mtiL'nt of iitotie, or at k'tMt a sharp-cdgL'd piwc, Is on-aut. ~L i. li. S2!);vul.il. 2:2; \'Mt)). <. rr. "<-Mo." MariMr, "toft. i . ]<!ti. T h YY'UmMM, 't'iji,' m), p. PenitM~~ (Jntns&A'm'"thAh)ay eut thenmMtMtt mn)at chiUbirth with :) nttt:m han) kttife, th'm~h thcy ironMtM, ~"Mm. M. At~h!))., vol. i. p.:N!<. Lud<))<i Hifitom JEthiujuot Fmtkfurt.on.Mninc. !5St,iii.L 21, 2). furthisIItltelucn~ Je ~Ir. a Aly My tutherity autlierity ufthc Re. uftbe ~)-tbhf~ttemettt is Mr. lt'hilil' 'hHip At-mbitM, Ahmhatu, &xr<;t!t[y s.Cretal)' fonB<!<! mMM~Mt Citvmduh Sjms!;uc Stniet, &)muB. eh.1.& UixhM, TreatMCh<))in,



Beforedrawingany inforeneefrom thse piecet of vidence, it will be wct) to Lring together other accounts of the Utso of eutting ittstrumentsof stone,glass,etc., by peoplowho, though in possession of irou knives,for Mme reason or other did not chooscto appty thcm to certain purposcs. ThMs tbc practice of McnRcingo beafit,not with a knifo or an axe, but withtt sharp stone,tm.'ibecn obs<rvedon tho Wcst Cua.stof Afncft during the tast century, as will bc more fully dcttutud in pago225. Au often quot(.-dinstance of th use of a stone knifo fora ceremonm) purposc, where imn wuuld havo been much tnoro convenifnt,is t))e passage in Hurudutuswhich rctatcKthat, in umdc the tucisinnin the sittuof Egypt,thu t)tU))))ny-embat)nfrs th eorpsewith a stiurp ~Ethiopiestunc.' Th Mcount givMtt Diodorus Sioutus Mi'uuM-:"And iirst, thc body tx-in);iaid by ou th ground, ho whois ctuicdthc serihc marks on its !<;ft .si<)c howfM tho incisiunis to be madc. Tho) thc so-cafted siittcr (pamchistes), jtm'ing au Ethiopie stonc, (md cuttiug th Hesh as tar as ~hu law aHows, infitanttymns 08~th bystandcM pur. suinghitnand petting him wit)t stuncs,cursing ttijn,aud as it wcrc, turning th horror of thc decd up'm him," iur tte who hurts a citizen is hcid worthyuf abhorrcncc.~ Thfrc Me two kindsuf stouc knivostound in excavationsand toMtba h) Egypt, hothof ehipp~dHint,and vcry ncntty madu one kind is tikca very sma!! cicav~r,th other hns tnoro of th(; chamch'r of <t iancet,and wouMs~m tho moru suitubic of thu two for the cmbahncr'spurjtose. Kotcworthyfron)this point of view,is anotiter descriptionhy that of thc covcnantof btoM)among thc Horodotus, Arnhiauf a )nan standing botwcc-n wh<;ru thc parti(.swith a sharp stoM made cuts in th insidc of thcir hauds, and with th Uood smcared seveti stom-s )yihg in thc midst, catiing on thcir dfitiM! Omttdand AUtat~ A story rutatMtby Phny, of th wny in whieh the ha)s:nn of Jutica, or "h:d)n of Uik'ad," was t'xtraetcd,cornes undcr thu 'iamc catcgory. Th Im'isiun: Le says,had to Le inade in thc trcc with knives uf gtass,stum', or ii.$6. th)M)., DM.Sie., i. !)t. iii. S. Htfo.).,


ANC !'KK8K!)T.

22i t

bone,<orit hurts it to wuund its vital parts with iron, and it dief)fort)nvith.' as these, it bas With regard to th reason of sueh pmetieM been auggcstedthat there was a praeticat advantagein tho use as icss tiabtuto cause infur cireumeision, of tho atone k)ti<G Hammation than a knife of bronzeor iron. From this point of vie\vPliny's statement bas bcen quoted, that the mutilation of tho priests of UyLde was donc with a shcrd of Samian waro (Sami& tost&),ai! thus avoidmg danger But thc idea of a stoneinstrument having any practicat advautage over an irou one in cuttiug a living su~cct, and evena dead body or a tree, will notmeet with mueh acecptancu. 1 caunotbut tbink that most,if not a)),of the (~nos are to bc expiaitiedaa bcing, to use th wordin uo hamb sotsc, but accordiugto what seemf!its casesof i~cM~t'M!, of th "standing over" pruperetymology, of old habits into the tni'tst uf a new and changcd statu of thiogs, of thc rctcntinn of aucient practices for cerumoniai long aft' they had becu snpcrscdcdfurth conunonpurposes, phtcouses of ordinary )ifo. Sncha viewtakes in cvery instance w))ic)t bas buen mentioned,thougb the rcasouof iroa not being adoptedby the modcrn Jews in une case as wcttas in another is notc)ear. As to PHny's story of the b:dm of Gilead, 1 ani totd, ou comptent autbority, that thc use of stone and such thingsinstcad of iron for making incisionsin the treo, if ever it without any rcanyexisted, toutd be nothing but a supertitition in rcason. It mayperhap!!tell in favourof the story fttundation true, that it is onty ono of tt number of casesmentioned bMing by Piiny, of plants as to which ttie simitar notion prev:u)ed, t))at they wuttht be spoitcd by bcing touchedwith an irun in. struntent.' Thcrc secms, on the whotc,to be a fair case for bcthat among th Israetites,as in Arabia. Ethiopia and !i<;ving a eercmonitduse of stone instrumentslongsurvived tho t~gypt, are to be gnrtadoption of metal, and that such observances interprctedas relies of an earlier Stone Age; whiteincidentatty thesameargument tnakes it probable that the rite of circumxii.S4. t'iit)., xxM. 4a,xi.M!). l'titt., S7,xxtii. St.x~. 0, C~. nm.,itix.




cisionbc)o))god to the Stone Age atnong tho ancient sraGntcii, as wuknowit d')c.samong thf modem AustraHaus." With regard to th foregoingaccount.t, there is a point which requis furthet-rcmark. G)Ms bas bcen mcutionod by th sideof fitonc.as a ntatcria) for n)aking shnrp instruments oi'; and it )nayscem at fir~t sight an unreasonaUo thing to make tho ttMof a pi'odttctionwhich betongi!tu so advftnpfit) a tatc of ctvitimtion ns ~!a!M, vidence of a HtunoAge. But xavagca I)ave su unMtimous)y sctUm) it, th&t g)as.sis a kind of Mtone titat whcre a knife uf pecutiartysuitftbte for such pHqMscs, gtass, or a wcapon armed witt) it, M ibund, it may ho conii. cf a stono OM. dcnt)y fict ()ownas tho immdiate sucm.<sor Tho Fuc~iansand th AndanMUt IxhmdcMare found to !mvc usfd in this m:<n!)('r t)tc hits ut' hrokcn gtass that <uno n) thcir hve bcon uhso'VM) to takc a pice way tha NewXcatandeM of gtMsin ptacc of thu xh)u'}j stonc with whieh t)n.'y eut thcir bodics in mourniNgfor the dead and th North Anicricau Indians to nx onc in a woodcnhandtc, in p)acu of t])c nharp stonowit))wfuehthu native pttk'me used to Le arm~)~ Thc Austratianssuhstitutcd such picecs,whcn thcy coutd ~t thon), ibi- th angtttar pices of fitune with which tticir tauecs aud jagged knivMwcrc mountcd. Thf Cht'i.styMusum coutains Mtnc intor~ting tipccinMns of thoic Austrann)i itMtrumcttts, which date thonsch-cs in a curiout!way a.s hc)ongit)}f to thu timc of cfmtaet with Europca)). They wcro nriginatiy iict with Ktonc tecth but where thse hav~-bcfu knockcd uut, t))eir ptacci; hve hecn ~Umthy newoncs of broko) gtass. To comptetu tho mrwy of th Stone Age aud its traces in the wortd.Africa bas now to Le ntore fully examined. Thiff grcat continentis now cntireiy ia the Iron Age. Thc tnhcs who do not KmettttK'ir own iron, as tho Bushmeu, get thcir suppiiesft-um others and in the immensecentrt and westcnt tracts abovc th R;uator, tito-c appeam to Le no record of tribes tiving without it. In South Africa, howevcr,the case is di<R:rent;and tht! accounts uf thc Kn~ish voyages round 'f. F.AnpM, 'nuth A)ft~)h !))uxtmt<-<);' London, !St7,p).v. t-'iM Adventun) !t.).v, 'Yoy.f H.)t..S. andJh. Y~). ii Lo<t.)ua, 1SSO, p. JSt. MonM, t..30:. ht. p.243. Mdei,p. )44.




th CapeofGood Hopc about th beginningof the seventcenth itt Pnrcbas's'Pilgrimes/givo quito a ctear c<nttn'y,c<)Hect<'d hist"ry of the transition fromtho Stone to the Iron Ag,which wasthen taking place. Then,as now,th inhabitants of Madagascarha't their iron knivcs and Kpcar-t~ads; an<ttheywontd tmvo sitvcr in paymt:ut for thcir cnttte, !. for a shecp, nnd 3a. (:< for t cow. But on th Wf<t African MMt,north of the Cape,thcrc wero pastoral tribcs, pt'obably Hottentots, who evidcntly did not kuow then, at they do uow,how to work tho abundant iron ore of t))eit'country. At SntdttnhftBay, in 1598,John Dttvis couldget fat-taHedsheep aud bunoeks for bits of otd iron aud ntntx,nudin 1()04a grcnt buflockwas still to be bought for a piccf of an otd iron h"op. But nuty scvcn yeaM later, Nicho. tas Dount")), Captainc of thc P'-ppcr-Comc," Lt'gins to write of tho chau~uin this detightfutstate of ttnngs. "Salruct'tdty to aU our uation iu tonner tune bccn cmnf'~rtabtc dania.))a\'in!; yeelding tmveiiing tins way, botb outwards and homewar~h), thon abondanceof itesh, as sbeepe and becvcs hrought downo by tho satungointmbitant. and sold fur trifles,as a beife for a piceof an iron hoopc of fourctccneiuches long,and a sttccpe fur a teiMier pice Lut nowtbi~ If!at au cud, spoitt pcrhaps by the Dutdnncn, who n.sc to spoyk all places whero titcy cotnc (onelyrctipecting thc'ir ownc prsent occasions) by th<ir ouer tnnehliberitlitie,"etc., etc.' Stonc implernentsfroni South Africa,titi !utftyvery scarcein coUcetion. arc now sent over in plenty. Thu cthnotogica.t scrapers, Christy Muscunt eontains arrow-bcads,Rpear-heads, &c. and an adzo nwuntcd in its witho handtc, whichbM been figured,scemsto indicntemodem use." A nativeDamant story indeud clearlyprservesa reeoMection of the thnc, possit))ysevcral generittionsago, when stonc axes were used to eut down trees. Thc tale is a sort of Housc that Jack BuUt," in which a little girl's moth'r givt's her a ncedtc,and she goes and nnds hur fatbfr suwin~thongswith <!7. i. ).).. US,J3M. S7ii. rutthM. Yo). it) 'TmM!. rrc-hitt. Sm in Consret! 15GS, p. 6~. G.V.du Noyer, HtMk, tit47. 'AfdxM')'~) JeurtM),'



thonM,M fihcgivcshim thc ncedk and ho breaks it an't gn'cs her an axe. Going(arthcr un shc met thc lads who ww in citargoof thc cattie. t'hey wcrebusy taking out honuy,and m ot-dcrto get at it thoy wru obtigcdto eut down thc trocs with stones." ShoaddM.s.<ed <h<m:" Our sons, howis it that you use atonesin ordcrto get at the honcy? Why do you not Ktty, us tho axe?" and so on.' Evcu now,1 h~vo OurSMt-tium.give never met witha ctoue imptementfront Wcst Africa. Yet thu foUowiug that thcy passage rft~ting to th Yurubacountry,show*! are to bu fuuudthere as u~whM'c. Thcstonesor thuudorbotts which Sanp;ocastt down from ttcuvcnnrc preserved as Mtc~-d rclict. In appcurancc t)K'yarc identicat with tho fiocatk'dtonehatchc't~ picht.'dup in thu ti~dxof Atnuricu. back twutttousaud years or su, record is tu bu ibund Guinj~ nt toast of a partial Stonc Age condition in north-ea.stem At'riea. It appcarsfrom Hc'rodctusthut the Ainean Kthiopiuns in th armyof Xcrxesnot onty hcadedthcir an~ws with tihurp fitone,but ha<t spcaMann<d with sharpcncdhorns uf anteiopM, whitcthe Liby<ms had woodeujavctius Itardunudnt thc point by 6rt' Strabo tnentions in Kthiopia a tribe who pointcd their rced an'uwsin this way,audanothcr who used as WHapous th(; homs of antctupcs.~ It i.s interustin~ to ob~ryc thut in Soutit Africathc spt'ar !)(:adcdia this waybas survived up to our owuthnc t! Andffiisousawth natives ut WatfMch Bay th' (ish h-ftat luw spcaring horn atwuter, witb a {~-m.sbock's tachfd to a dendt'r.stick.~ Tt-acesof a St'mc A~c in E~'pt, in the use of tbc' utone <jfthc stone kniit; i'or ccronouiat punMscs, arrow-h<;ad,attd hve bcuu a)rca')yf!}Mkfnof. No accnunt of th nndiug of fitonc imptonents in Kurttt Africa scons to hve bcen pubIis]tmt till Mr. Omsty, iti a journcy made in Atgct'ia in ]8H3, found thctn thcrc. Ho met with fiint nake.knivcs, and pt))i~ht.-d arrow-heads, celts, nt Cunstantinc; nnkm, an-owhc'ads,aud a bcautifuHychippcd lancu.hcad of quartzite, at on th coast and Sak~sauda targe pick-xbapodinstruDct!y< MAM~'p. 90. Xkek, 'R<y))!m) ~weu,(Jr.MjCM. inSmith'x.tthn efYorute tang. p.xvi., M), i Cuntr., < Yii. n. 1. Ikt~d., <i. n. <K), Stmbo, <,u, AmkniMB, p. ]5.




ment, from tho dsert Houth-castof Oran,on the confinesof ou the ptatcau of th Attaa,south Morocco. At Hou-Merxoug, ofCoxstantino,he found,in a bare, (h'serted,stonyplaceamong t))o tnountains,a eoncctiouoi' tombs, ]UOU or l-MOin nutnber, made uf th rndo Hmestoncsiabs, set up with ono tab to fonn a roof, m as to make perfect duimeus,etosudcuambeH whfre thu htifs weru))t)ck('d that wick~tt in. Tra'titio))!<ays peoptc iived therf, and t'~r thcir sins xtotteswcrcDthied upon no they buiit thse chn)n))crx to crecp into. thom frum hGavfti, Near thifi retnn)k:tb)cuecropoHs, Mr. ChriiityfoundSint-Hakca and arrow-hends. If wc go WMtward ns far as thc Canary Mands,we <inda to be of AMean uri~h),living in th fourtccnth race,coosidcrcd eentury undcr purc)yStum' Age conditions,making Itatehets, and axes of green and "p~'ar-hcads of ohsidia)), kmves,hutCft-s, wittt honts.' an'i dig~mg-stick!! jasper, nnd pnnting their pt-ars thitt they tnigttt ttavu once had tttc use of irun, It is ))os.si))t<i tu thc istands,where therc is no and )tav(! )oft it on n-))Mving ore, but no videnceof thitihaving been th caseseems to havo becn fomxt. In Western Africa,wtteuthc god Chnawongcame downto hi.stempte at htbode on t))e Cutd Coast oncf a year, with a sound )iko a ni~ht of wi!d geese m spring, his worshippers sacrineed an ox to him, kiniug it nut with a knife,but with a sharp fitone.~Ktetnmtooksupun this its a sign of t))e high thc anti<)uityof the ceremony,and, taking into considration videncea.sto the keepingup of th use of stone furceremoniat a higtdypropurposcsiuto th Iron Age,th infureneeHeon.s bab)e one, attttongh there ix another side to this argutnent. In order to briug this iuto \'iew, and to adducc some ot)ter facts beariug un videnceof th Stonc Age, it will bc neee!)sary to say itresomethingmore of th Myttt of th Thunder' bott. For ges it bas becn conuuontytbought that, with th Hash Xitt-treOe -k.-i !k~&mnm;'t'<*m. tS< M;<:r.W<))4 ncrthdot, 'Ui.ft.MM 'te A. YiM~Kt, '~u eurk~M<si i. pp.'M,)~, t:M. t!"ry <-h'v). i. ;Mrt. XLUM:t j), ;.)'. 7f-'i.t-iC. Ft.rtun~ htrit,At)
mimer, p. t<. Ktoutm, C. U., t<.t. iii. p. U78. <<



of lightning,thcro M)s,somctimcsat tcast, a sotid bodywhich is known as the thnnder-bo)t,thunder-stono,etc.,as in the dirgo m 'Cymhetinc,' Founomore tho tightnit)g.a<Hh, Nor thoU.<)fetxM thunder-staao." The actualfitllingof meteone stoncs may have had to do with tho gmwtkof this thwry, but wbatevcr its origh),it is ono of tho most widdy spread belicfs in the wor)d. Th thing conBidot'ed to be the thundurbottMnot alw~ysdefinedin accounts given. It is desenbudas a stune,' or it may bc a bit of ironore, or pctbapsiruu~or a bcluutt)itc, ~At~ffr); su cattud fron ~A~Mf.adart.apparcnttywith tho idca of its being a <hnMderbott for this s~ar-tiko fossitM still caitt-din Eugtand a thund<r-<!tonc." Dr. FalconcrMentions th name of Hghttting-)x.))ps"or"thu)tder-bo)iM,"giveutofossi!bonc8 brought downas charms from thc ptatcau of Chanthan itt the HiuMla.yiM," wherc,of cours< frquent thundcrfttormsare seen tu accounttbr their pn-scuce. But it is atso ItcHev~tthat thu stonoceltsand haanncrsfuund buricd in thc ground arc tbttttderbolts. Tho couutryMks of thu Weatof Eugtaudxt;U ho)d thnt t))(i"thttnder-axpi!"they find, ft.')!from thc sky, and tho Shet)andcMagrce in th opinion. In Brittany, th itiuerant umb)-c!ia-men<)cr of Carnac luquires oo bis rounds for ~K')'M de <o)M)M')'< aud takMtbcm in payntent for rcpain: and tboso art fair cxat)tp)cs of what may be found in other countries in Europe,and not in thosc inbabitcd by our Aryan mce atone,for the Finnshve thc mmc bcticf.< T))e remarkabte Chineseae. countof thc thundt-r-stoncs ))asbecn a)rcadyquotcd, and it has been noticed that stone celts are he)d to bo tbundurbottsin Japan and the EtlsternArebipetago. Even m a country whero the use of stone axes by th Indians is matter of modcrn history,and in some places nctua!!ysurvives to this day, tho de UttinmeMomt-Kt.ft,' Ihomn, 't]<M<-htjYi))K~'M etc. UtrMht, ]70j,).. 109 Afnot). (W<st HeKr. v). 1.p. tB!) LotttMn, Kth., (Khyem). Joxnttt ofDiite. )4)in. S)i<:):< andLottd'it), ]S(!3, p. ?3. t'tM. R.MM);. t'eb. <t. SL- 25,1S04, p. <Kh-mn, C.W.,]ortIl.p.CB and CaUrtn, PiMMeMyth(.bp< p. <2.




their Portuf~uc~ BraxittMM use, for sucli a stonu axu-bfadu, "thundurbutt" (Latin wont f-w&ca,' that is,")i~))tni)~ ?;<'?'<'). butonoofscvc'rat Asthc!!toncaxMandham)f)(,'t'tar(; of objects thou~ht tu bu thund'rbutts, it M pruhabto chti'sc.s that tbumythtuok thon toiti<).-)fMtatin)'!wh''))<)n'irr<'<uuw and nature hadbMenfu)'j.;ott')),audt))(;)'t;a.sunuft)K'u'))uing Thi.svifw foundbur)Mtund<'rKroundwa)iof(;')Ur.st!tn)k))')wn. i.ssuppf'rtcdt'y th tact of tbf cxi~~ncc'uf such iustrmncnt.s a)Maceouutet) fur by takittt; th<t)t npiuto mythutoKy b<in){ <u't: mincd armw-))(;a<t.s otitcrways. Thui!ir Japan thf stuttLfromheaven,or <tmpped spirits whoshoot t))cM, by t)m Xyn)K white in Europe tt~'y arc fiury weapunii, t~Mff'Me,<o~<f, or n<agici:m.'<, shot by iairipM and itt thc Korth of Iretand tho wii!ardt!titi)t drawttton out frunt t))0 bodics ofoVLTioukeJ" catt)e.~ Dr. Dattic) Wiison ttK-uti"us an int<rL'.stin);r pwtChri!!tianmyt)t,w)ti<'itpr~ai)<dit)Scot)amtti))tht!(;tu.wuf wtum.' hanmn'rs t'unndburi';d itt thc thc last ccutury, that t)<L' puuttd. wero Purgutot'yHtunm'rs fur thu dwd tu kuuckwith at thu gatcs.~ Thcinabitityofthcworid tu undcrstnnd the nature of tho stuuennptetnt.-ub fuuttd Lurifdin thc K')""d, i" nut xmrucont-mn arrows, shuwn iu the nn-ths of thund~rhoits, spicuousty thah m thc s))!un scit'nccthat bas and pur~atury hatnnK'rs, as in China. hn hmught to buar upon thcm in Kurop~as WL-H Itis instructivetoKccAdnanusT'jtti'). in his))!t't'ditiou<'f on Gftns,' stru~ting a~aitMtthu phit'jsopherif.Ho B~-thius giv(.s drawinpif iiomH ordioary stonu axM and hanuncrs,and tullshowthc natundistssay that th<yarc K'nuratcd in thc sky eut~h'htidin a c)uud hy thc cin-mnhy a f'd~ureouscx)ud:ttiun nxet)humour,and tire as it wcre bakcd hard by intcosu )x.'at, and the weapon becoMM pointcd by thc datnp ndxc~with it nyiugfmmtho dry part, and tcavin~thc otttcr end dunser,but thu the cxha)ation.s prc.ssit so hartt t))atit brcak.sont t))n!U~h doud,and)nak(.'stbu))derandiisbt)U~. Hut,)K-says,ifthis ii.)i. M. tS~~) Y. 'tkMMu'h t-'nmkfurt, t, t-i.L t'r.Max. tinMitim;' Wie-t, C~.K.). A.,j..)f. \i).)c, !M,cf. u{ Scuthitd <)tt)))Uth, tMt, M'. <M,<:t< Wi!;n, AKh~y, etc., .1



t'c reaj)y tho way in whichthcy an' gcnoratM),it is odd that th<y nre not r~und,and that tht-y httvc hnjcs thrnugh tht'tn, andthtMchuh'sttutcquathrott~h.t'tttwxh'.statthecndH. It is hardtyfohcht.-ti'Md.hothinks.t Spccuiationonthu natomi ori~in of hi~h-t'iass stnno wcapons an<ttoob has new but xmuufaiot t-ehocsof the long sincc tticd out in EumjK-, C))i))"M'<')npcn))''8))))i)'))))ywt.-rt'hf'Krd nmonKtts but tatt'ty, in the argutn~ntson th~ ttaturat fonnatiun uf thc Hittt imp!etnt.'ntsin tho Drift, With regard,then, tu t)tf u.sc of t)tt)t)do'~))tsas fm'oisLing cndL'nc'-ofancnr)y 8t"nc Age, it may bf )aiddown that such a myth, whcnwc ean ))(.' surt.'that it t'cft'rs t" attificia) Ktono impiGtnctits, provus that such things were found t)y n pGojtte who,)x.-i))~ of )))f;ta), had fur~otto) th<' nature and pM!!M.G<) us~ nf th~sc ntdc instruments of Mu-ik'rtimes. Kan~.hi's s rumarks that sunx- of the s-ca))<d "H~htnin~-stonm" werc like ))atchf.'ts, and tnidk't.s. nm)Ptiny's mctttiMiof t~utnc kmvpx. <'f t))Ct'<WNtfor thundt-r-stouM ))cin~ like nxcs~an: cases 'in point. ]!utt))en](.')'cnK'))tionoft)n-Lt-)if.'t'inthund<'rbott'i as fo)'c;(amp)cin Mada~sca)-~ and Arracan, onlygives t'aHin~, a ea.SLfor furthcr in<n)iry ou th suspic-ionthat the timndcrhoit.sin thserelions may turn out tu hc stonc imp)(.i))cnts, as thcyh:n'L'snoftcndf)net-)<!cwht.'rc. Ti)L' thundcrhohis thou~ht tu hve a ntnKicat po\\cr, and thprc is csp(;ciai)y "m' nution,in f'onm'xio)) witi)whichit comcs intuus~. Thi.si.-i that itp)-c!!t.n-csthup):t(.-t-whc)fitis)<cpt ir'jnt!i~htni)~,tht'id(-a)~n~appar(;nt)yh<)-c,asi)tthu))(..):<.f about thf "witdnru" whip)< will ht- p~nt)y mentionK),that titre aj~in,o that w)n-rt-t)h.-)i~htni)~)uMstrut')<.itwiiI)t<)t thc' phtcc wtK'rpa titUthtt-rhott is put is niadc saft' hy itavi))}; struck once,tttough harnik'ssty. In Shettand tho LuL-n ah-t'ady thutKh'r)x))t)! (whidtar< stuncaxus)protect fru)nthunder, whik in CornwaU thc stone hatehctsand arrow-huads, whichfau frutn thc ctuuds whcre the thundcr produced them, announec Ly <!etnMmnmt & ).N),Mt)M t!.)ct))iu. K.-cti.uit etr.AJrhum t)H..rM,' TutthM !jet.k)t.)'i)!p.4'
''t'tm.xxxYii.Sl. C.~tuan, )fyth. 'Hm'Mwbijasatr/MLi.pp.W.SNS. ~f Him)uo.<,)). M7.



change ofcolourtt changeof wcathcr.' It) (icnnany, the hnusc from the storm whcn a in whicha thunderbutt is k<'ptis Mtfu axd Mgainit is M)d totnpmtMapprouchin~.it b<i))s to f!wcat, of it, that he whochastctytjL'arcththi.s,shatt not)'f ntrnck lry nor tho hcuse or town wherc that stunc i.s, whitc ii~htnit)~, ttcarty the satnf n)fa coac.s uut ni Diuy's account of tho which is "like thu hco'ts of tut'toiM.'s, and fattittg',as <<)'o<f<<tf, they thitik, with tt)Uhdt;r, putf! out, if you will bctieve it, whnt hiMhecustmek t'y ti~htoitt~ lu thc tttythotogy of unr t'a, the Lott of th Thundcr-god hutds a protnint'nt ptaet;. To him, be h'' ttdr~ or Zcus the Tjnutor or Hcavcu-~ft, or thu very thundor ttsftf ht p<ri!'))), an attribute the hctt witicithe huri.-) Thor, the Aryitnsgivc MH witt) Ughtni))~fnjtn tht; ctonds. Now it is p'js.sibjct)mt thi. wasthc rnuaum~ of tho RumanJupiter Lapis. Thc sncrp')ftint washcpt in the tetnpie nf Jupiter Fun.'trcts,an<!bruu~htuut to he fiwomby, nnd with it th<; pater patratus stnotu thu victim shtittto cunuL-cratt; thu sutonn tr~-aticsof thc Roman pt.'opk. If by public muns~),' hc ~tid, ur by wickt.'dfnmd, th<-y. 0 J')\ stnitc thon t)n: RomattpL-op)c, swcrvciirxt,iti that d:tV. as 1 hero t"-day xhaH stnitf this h" at)d smitHthem su mneh taon', as tttou art abtc-raudstrongL-r.' Attd haviugsaid this, !)c struck thf hog with :).tHntstmx. To tho.<e whur~'adthis, it wi))scon probable that the tiiot of oui, Jupiter washdd eithcr tu bc a thunderbolt or to repr<SL-)tt aud thc practicccannut butakun as havinK of nus~ityeontu Stone Ag<st'(.'it)g that it nu~ht quitf ax well duwnfr<~n att cM'ty of ))K'ta).s.Thc sacrcd ha\'t' spnmgup ainottg a rac~! pussfssct) of ind~initety,as ~< Mf7<c, instnom'ut ifi cunnnottty.spt.'k~n found ff'f.t'ifm ~7e~ but it !nay hnvu bcen a flint itnph.'mc'nt buricd in th grouud, for ah'cady in the amiftit sung of the ArvatBrfthrft),' thf thundcrbf'it M spukot of as a ccit (<'wtM) "fjuom tibci cuuoi dec.stumumtonarunt, and, as )tas J. )!un(, )tt.tfeKt. Authft't~t. m),ii.j'. 3)7. Il.Hmt,'l'.)j)uhfKo))M))cm ofW."f K<!):hnJ,' ~ttd ~ries, i!M. 55. U.M.,n'.!'J), H7". P)in.,x)fXfii. <!rimm, M. ttannUtt). i. N<; xxx. t3. C.!nn')i'!< ''rhum, M., p. H7t. <Liv., Xt-~N 'Ih-m~uuftdM t'utttK,' p. :M. Kuim,



been shown,at k.Mtthts dcvctopmentof tho myth of th thun. derbott bctongs tu an ge whentho nature of thu buried stono tmpletnont )tM ))ccnforgottcn. Yct if att wo knfwabout tho mattcr was that ncti))).-) wero sacrin.-tx! with a nint on certain oceasMM.nnd that t).c Fctia)es earricd tt.McHinti.with them )nto <btt.,gncountriM whcrc a trenty wus to bc Mtemnizcdit bc nttght .)uitc ptausiUyargued that we had ))ere tM.~e ~,9a pmcttco w).ich had c.np down,un.ha~cd, frout the timo w).cn the fath~n of the HunMttrace usc'd atone imptetnentsfor the onhimry purp~ses of life. This is th other sidc of th ar~mont, whic).must not Le !{ept out of sight in interpretins us a rc)ic uf the Stone Age, thc We.st African cerenMnyof thc ~.ast un thc y~n-ty sacritiee tu ~~hten~ Oimawonf not with a kait. but wit))a ~onu.' iiharp Th cxanutMtiuti of thc evideneubc-aringon tho Stone A"e two k.adinK iact.s. In th first pt, w.th.n thc h.nit.s of th. Stone Age it.s.tf, au unmi.stakabto upward dcvdop,ncnt in th Munie of a~.s is to bc dMc..rncd tn ti.c tracM uf an c-arty pc-riodwh~.nstono hnpiements wcro on y usc-din their rudu ct.ipp.d statc, and wcrc. neverm-oundor M)ow~) ).y a tatc-rpc-riod p<)).sh..d, wh<ngrinding came to tje to app)K-d nnpMvcsuci)stone instrutncnt.s as rcquircd:t And .nthe ..cond p)ace,a ho<)y of cvidcnccfr..m every~t district ot th habttabic H)uh<. to pro~ that wh~-re t.nitbr.ntytt..nd.s n.an is fuund usi,~ n.<ta) for his tooLsand eittier his ancust.~ or th~ f..nncr occupantsofthe wcapon.s, Mit, if there wcre any once madc .shiftwith stone. h woutd hc weti tu ttave the c~~ dcnce fu))..r from Komo parts of tho worM.as from Sonth~-n A.,a and Crural AMca.butwc u~d not Mp..ctfrom thcnce anythtng but coxfinnationofwhat Matrcady known. C.Gt., ~1lxmb'r \1. iv.l'. Sil,rc"tillg illl\:lcl/ou, to IlCil"t"Rn or l:rnrtire -?=1:~ ,rt ' ~'< vu). U.)<),. 'Ctn-a.Mtn,' ]<.t. t!t!,

AXDVES3EM. PIRE, COOKIXn, TttEHE aroa numberof stories,oH and new, of tribes of man. kind living in ignorance of tho art of nrc-nmking. Such a state of things is indecd usuiutypresupposed by the wideor Cre-bringer! and Pluspread tegetutsof first fire-mftkcrx in his essayon thc question Whethor watcr or firo is ta)'c)t, the more uscfut? givcs a typim)view of the matter. Firo wa. inventa, as they say, by Prometheus,and our life shows wasnot a poetic fiction. For there are sorneracesof that t))M tncu whotivewithout fire, houttetess, hearthims, and dwctting ix the open air. Th tuodernpoint of vicw is, ttowover, very of diNcrentfrom Phttareh's, aud whcutho mention a nretefta race appeaMin eompany witha Protm'thfus, mythotogy,not history,ctaunsit. Thc mre a~ertionthat iu a certain ptacoa cliflicult race is,or was,to bc found livingwithoutfire is tMOtt: of such statcnicnt! it to dcatwith. In examining a collection ifiwettto pay particutar attention to thc niodo-noues,on which cvidenccmay bc broughtto bcar. cottatera) What is known of thc native civitimtion of the Canary Islands, th making of pottcry, the cooking in underground nodoubtttiat thf Guanehes tcaves ovens,the useof th firc--drill, knew howto produceand use fireat th tinie of thc Europcan expditionshi the 14th and 15thcenturies. Yet AntonioGalvano, writing his treatisc about the middtc of the sixteenth century, dclares that in times past they ate raw meat, for want of nre." Farther un in th same book he has another do Saavedra,retumstory ofa nrelesapeople, In 1929,Alvaro t' Plut.,'AqMtmJp'i'ntitio'



ing from the Motucca-! towa~) the Paeif!c coast of Mexico, fmitedeastwarft atong thc north coast of New Guiuca, and havinggonc four <)t-f;vo')pg]'('Gs<M)t))of the Linc.cmssHt to the again not-th.<u)d di.scovun.-d an i.stam) of tattoccd p~-opte, whichIte ca))cdh)~ de lus Pintades,or th is)oof piun~d nx-n. Bcyond thit Mand, in tO" or t2" N., tht.y found nMny sn.aH ftnooth onm t.thet, fuit of patm!! aud ~'MM, n))d thcsc they catt~t Los Jantinc.s, "Th Oardo. Thc nativfs )md oo domMticat)in):tl.s, in a white ctuth of gr:).<'), thcy werc dtf.s.sp.) ate cocoa-nutsfor bt-Md,nnd mw fish,which they took in t))e which praus they nMdc out of drift pinc-wood with thcir tuottt of sitct). T))fystuodin turror of fin', for it thcy had tM\'er!tc<-t) se (espnntarMn du fo~, por<(ncunoca o virant).' 1 a)n Mut awitrot)Mt t)tL-su ishnx))) hovc b~pnidentifit.'d, but thcy woutd seetn to MmowttfM ahout thc Radackor Chatham ~np. Th accountof th natiws, to jnd~ by its gcncm)consistency with what if kttown of tho corutnon eating of mw Ycgcttdj)~ aud fish in othur cora! istands io th Pacifie, scons tu ttavc conicnMsttyor attog~thctfrotu au <ye-w:t)tt'.ss, am) tifc stafment that t)tcy!)ad Mu firc ts oot to bc smutnarityset downtM a tacn- fiction,like that about thc CauaryLstands. It ].as fortunatciy happeuc-ft, that a v<-ry.si)nihuttuwevm-, story has corne iu ourow)) ti)uf ahout attothcreorat is)imd,uudfrcircu)u. up KtancM whieh :dtow <~its tn-cMraey bci)~ tc.stcd. Whcn th<! Ututcd Stat~s' Kxptont~ Expuditiott, undcr Cut)))nudor<; Fakaafuur How.)it(-h Witk~s,vi.sitt.-d Ixhmdin J841, tht-y ))tad<! thc Mowing rcnmrk.s:"Thc)-(! wn.<no i,i~ uf p)accs for nor uf tirp,and it is bpiitjMdtfiat aH cuoking, any ajttx-omm.-c thcir provi.sio))~ an- 'tt~h mw. W))itt ttn.snpittiun, sH-fU~thotud was th atann thu native R.Jtwifun thcy saw 0~ spar~ ctnanfttingfro'ntht.-f)i)ttaudstcci,andth('c)t)i.-i.siohtjfsu)oke front tho tuuuttt.s of tho.scwh<jwerefitnokh)"~ 2 ci"'ar.s." withinthc very workwhMt contains thse CurioustyMMugh, rcmarks, partictdars are given whic))stiow that fire was in rcatity a iamitiat-thing in t))c is!and. Mr. Hte, thc ethno. 'M~.na of th. WurM;' K.):)~ S-j. ~d. ]!,t)2, [.).. M, IH" ~)~n., '!88. Narr.fU.R Hx))!mn); Wi)):M, Kxp., 1M)i-42 J~hn, !S4S, r.,).v.p.



not on)y mentionstho nppcaraneeof graphf'r to tho expdition, smokoon the ncighbouringDuke of York's Istund as bemg videnceof natives bcing there, but bc ~ivcs thc na)nefor tire in ttto tanjpmgeof Fahaafo,/t,'a must widety-spread Matayowottt, tu th t'orni Po)y)x.'ijian correspouding ~t. Somo Miday ycars tatct-,the Rcv.Coorgc Tnnwragain Motionst))it: w<u'd <t~.and ~ivM))psi.)t") n notive stot-yabuut tire, which is au in. of the wayia whiuha uiPt-ftnyth mny xevff. terfsting cxa.mpte thfiMs bti u pice of historie (iviticncc. Thc accmtotwhich the inhabitanta of Fakaatb K'VGof the introduction of fira is thus tcifttfd. Thc origin of (iro thcy tuooog thon.st-tvcs tn~'e to Mafuike,but, uutike th ~fafuikcof the mythoto~yof sumuother istauds, this w:M an o[d Mind /at~. Ta!at)~Iwcot d"wn to her in hfr lowern-gions, and askot her to givo him sumoof )Mr fire. Shc obstmatcty rcfu~d uutit he tht-catcncd tu kill her, and thun iihe yictdod. With thu lire hc tnadc her wcreto )'<cooko(twith it, tUKt what wch' stiit to say whnt Hst* h Mttcu mw, and then b~m the titnc of cooking !ood." Uttcr )nyt)t as ttus story is, it yet joins with the (.'videucoof htn~uagoht bnn~ing thf ttistory of thc Mandcri!who teU it iuto cotmcxiott with the history of thc distant New Zcahtndcrs. H be)ot)gs to t)u;~reat Po)ym;sitm )uyth of Mimi,who,th New Maud story sitys, wcut away to thc thvoilittgof his grt an. ccstrcss~tah~~ika, mid got fire ft~iu hcr~ Aud it provesttmt, ('v<;nin tho pa~t titne wttfit t)K'sc two Vfr.sion.s of the story branchcd ot! onc to hc found in Fukttufu,and thc othc'r in ~ow Xuatand,Motonly was Hre known, but it.s diseo\'L'ry had a thing of thf forgottL'upast, ur a myth wouid b~com:ah'Mtdy not hve btic-n appHcdto cxphdn it. In his accountof the nativus of Faknafo.~1)-. Tunn't-spcaks of thcir recoUM-tion uf the titne wh~'ntitcy uscd fh'o ia f(;Ui))g treus, and lie uic'ntions,mott'ovt't',somo curious native ordinaneMS Xotire MaHoW(;d to bu kiadtcd nt ruspectiagtire. of thu pooptu ai thc ycar round. It is night iu the huMscs sao-Mi to the god, and su,aftcr sundown,tttoy oit and chat in !Me,HtbtMK'"[' etc.,f t'. E~).! l'hihde)[)).).t ). tu), yi. JSft), pp.H! MM. Sir' Cwy. 'M;n<Mmn Hyth.')~ L~tun,IM.'i, ;). 4}-').



the dark. Ther< arc only two cxceptionit to thc m)e first, <irc ta cookf!sh caught in the nij{ht,but tbf.'n it )))ustnot bu taken tu thoir houses.nofy tu the cooking.housu, and second,a ii~)tt is attowednt night i))a bouse wherethcro happonsto ))ea cottnnement."1 It is likelythat Witkexmay hve misintorpreted tho urpriseof tho nativM at secingeigars stnoked,aud fire produeedfton thc fitut aud steel, ils woUas thu eating of mw ~iih and t)tGabscuccof sigus of tKtukutt; m the dwoiUnm. If the simitar story of t)ni is)andG!-s of LosJardine!)K-aitycamo ,froman cyc-witnesf!, it may have anse))in muchtho fiameway. In KotiMbne's timc, t)tc peoltlu of th Hadack j~roup(which t))!ty he pct-haps the very Jantincs iu question)w~rcjnst :<s tnuch atitonishedat thu smith's fur~f,though tire was a wcH. knownthing to thetn.~ Thc circumstancesof Magathauns' of the Ladroncs diocovery or Marian Manda, and t)if Philippines,in i$2t, are knowu to us fromthc narrative of his companionAntulio Pi~afetta, who deitcntw!! ttte manmirsand oustomsof the natives,but without a hint that fn-ewas anythiugxtrangeto thatn. This prepoiitcrouo additionmust Lu sought in !atfr autttOM. In 1C52,Hon), not contentwith quotit Cah'anu'ftstoriesof the Canariesand Los Jantines, adds th natives of thc Philippinesas a race destitute uf nrc.~ But the story of th LadroneIstanders is evcn mnrercmarkabJethan this. Tho arts uf thse peopie arc describedby Pi~afetta with Kotne dctait. He n)('ntionsthc slight ctotitingof hiu'kworu by the womun,thu mats and baskets, th wuodenhuuses, the canoswith uutrig~r. and ho noticesthat the nativeshad no weaponsbut lance!)pointcdwith fishhones,and had no notion of wliat arrows wcre. Tttey stoie everything thcy coutd lay hands on,and at last Magathaens weuton shorcwith forty ntea, burnt fortyor n~y of theh-bouses, amikittedsevenof th people. A Jmndrcd and cighty years aftenrards the Jesuit Father Lo Qebienbroughtout a newfeaturc in the story. What is tno<ft TunMr, Voc:t)i. 'u!yMMm,' ])p. N! Mtd Ottu y.K.)t.M, Htt.km~-)C:MWMMnr, ii. p.Oi'. !M),vol. De Jtontitu, On~t)i).M Th Americitnitf t(!ti!, Mu)!m-, pp.204.St. StO V')).p. M. (ir~'uct,



astonishing,nnd what peopb willfiud it haut ta bet!cve,i:) timt they had never Mon fire. This fit nece~ary ck'tnfht was ou. tirc!y unknown to thoo). Tht'y neither kncw its use nor its moru surprisfd thau when t))cy (tuntitics and thcy worenc\'<;r Mnv it f"r tho ftt'st time on thc du.sccnt t)mt MageUan matte o)t oneof their MtMndf, whcrohc hurnt sometifty of thcir house!), to pnnish thse istandersfor thc troubic thcy ttnd s'vcn him. thc fire as a hind of fumnat which at. T))oyHt first t't.'gMrdet) tached itsetf to the wocd on whichit fed. Thc iiriitwho caino too noar it haviug burnt thcntsctvush-ightencdthc rest, aud otdy dared !~k at it from afar ibt' fca)',thoy said, of boing bittcn hy it, and )ust thm tembte <mi)u:d shontdwonnd thcm by its viotcnt bfMtth,"etc. etc. He gocs on to tdt how they soongot accustotm'd to it andtearnt tu use it.' Jt i.'in. cunousi)h<stnttio)) of the change in hifttoricat criticism that bas ojtm' sinc'j1700,that ttif Jf.'<uithisturinushotdd havo cxpcctet)su singutar a sto''y,uot tneutioued by thc' eye-witncM whodcscribcd t))o discuvL'ry, to bc ruivud without thc production of tho s)i{;htpst & )mndrcd nnd t'i~hty ypars cvidcnce, at'turdate, aud that thc publie shoutd have justitied tnit couHdcnculu thuir crcdntityby bctiKving au<!uuoting his acc<junt. Witcthct'bo took it dirccttyfromany othcr bookor uot 1 eat). uot tell but it is to bc obscrvctt,that if wu add Catvanu's story abuut LosJar()incsto Pigaf'etta'stncutiuuof ~litgidhacus of t)ic Ladronc liitanduM, we tnay aceount burning tbo Jtouoc.'i for tbe sourcesof aHFathcr Le Gobieu'sstory,except thc idca of tbu Hru b<;in}; att attim:tt,which may be supptiud <jut uf HM-odotus. Byth Egyptianoniso it hath bcuu hcid that fire is a Hvingbeast, andthat it devourscvcrythiugit can seize, and when iittudwitb food it pcrishe)!with wintt it )tus dcvourcd."g Tberu are storiesof <irck"is men in Atncrica, to which 1 can only rcfcr. Futtter Lafitan spL'aksimh'fiuitdy uf thcre Luiu" such.~ Fat))cr Lombard,of the Companyof Je.su! writing in 1730from Kuurou,in Frchdt Guyana,gi\'us an aecountof tho h)e< Leaobicn,HutoiredM )hmnM PnM, Uuo, p. . iii.JU. HL-M).,
t~tit!Ht, M.t'nn des SimMgw Atn~n~min!! !'an", ~3<, m), i. p. 40.



trihe of At))ikoua).M on tho r:cr Oyapok,who are a)t<o called "toug.cart'd rndiatts," thc-ir MH-s being strctchot) to their tihouhtcrs. This nation,h<- my; which hns bccn hithcrto unkuown,is c!!trc)))c)y savait' thcy hve no kttowicdgc of (ire.' It is u Vt-ry curions thit)~ that ont-o<'the otdesttoriesof ?a ace of tircipn'! men is ntso the newest. In Ethiopia, the s.ty.-t gfogMpijerPotnpon:ns M(-)n. titcru )))'ept'opk' to whom fire WMxu totatty unktMwnhd~Mthc eo)))i))~ of Mudoxus, and M with it whf'n they f<nw woudroustyworc they p)t-n.SMt it, thftt they Lad the p~test dt'tight in embmcing the Bamesand bosomstill thoy wcre hut-t. 0 ttiding burnint! things in t![(.-itPlixy p)aet"!thse fircte~ nn-tt in his ptttnio~ueof mott-itrous hftwM-n th dumb mcu and ttn- pygtnies. To Kthiopinutri))(.'s, Ire Mys, the use of <tt-c f.u)m', wn:!tmknownhofurcthc titnc of Ptok'myLnthy)-u.s. ki)~ of Egypte HM )ncntio))(.f the ntune tftut ho, ton, i.squotit the vovagfs ofPto)(.')uy Ltttiiyrus showft of EuduKU;! of CyMcu)).Whether there wa.s),ucha pfr.suttas Kudoxus,aod whether hf rt;a))y tuade thc voyagesattributcd to jjhn or not, is uut vury cL-M- but his story, !iho t))ttt uf Smd))ad,cnthodicsnotiot).s eurrt'nt at the ti)fn-it was written. And with tiuchtf'nacityducs the popuhtr tuind ho!d ou to otd stont's, t))at xuw,aftcr a iapse of sMnetwo thousaudycarf!, the firctc.'N ))K-n aud tiie pygmif!) arc brought by t))e tuo()<-ni Ethiopiansinto cv~))dust-r contact ttmt) iti tht' pa~s of Ptiny. Dr. Kmpf \\as tultl that the Doko.s,mcn four ft'pt higjt. living Knuthof KuO'it and Su.<a, .snLsistcdon roots and iM.-rpcnt.s, and 1 WL-ru hut actjHttintt-d with fir< As far as the pygtniGf! )u-e conccrucd,thurt; upp~rs tu uf a foundation for thc sturv, iti. a race uf .naUinun rca])yiivi))~tho-c. Krapf' was .shuwtt a fdavc f<~urfwt high, wh'), thL-ytold )ti))),was a Duko. But txitWL'cn f(au'f~-t.-t au(t thn'c spnutt,t)tc hfif;ht as~i~ned hy Piihy to pygtny rac~ ~iM~herc,"tJK-rcis a dit}'(.-r(.-n. Kor i.sthis th ody instance of'thc wondut-fut of o)dstoriMiu pfDDancttce tffis part of tiiti wor)d,f;nitc irt-f!!p<ctivM)y of thcir being truc. L<!ttr(-!t dihntcs et(;orietMc.< xx.p. t'M-i):), v.,). t.c. (!t,i;net, 9. Hit. v).:). ,) m it.~. <Km).(. Tntwh, et. in H.t AMa; f~tm. t.S~u, p. ~i)..te. ~.e t'ertf, dtr EthnuKftphiM '!ru)t~:it~e tSJ: p. XtS. Lei)~i). )')in. vii.




Within no ~rcat distance, an old ncgro gttvc Mr. Pethcriek an monhc had nn't with in )ns travcts, acconntof tho n)on.str'jt<< nn'n with ey<xundcr thcir annpits, tttt' nx'n withfour t'ycs, thc* thc tncn with long faits, and thc m'n whosc cnrs were o bi~ thnt th<'y covcn'd thcu' hodu-'s;~su <n.'a)'ty hns th moticru African)<pt to t)n' wondo'-ta)M thut wft'e current m the time "t' Diny." An unqucstionaLtt.' accouut nf a fin'ksstritx' wou)d'hoof tho to thc cthno~aphct',pt'ovi)~, ait it wou)ddo, )ti~))<<tint~'rc.st madc by t)tc mces who cati produce <it'e, il ~f)tMt stop forwnr<! for this is an art which, once h'arnt, cnntd hartHyLe lust. But wheti wo seu that sturic-iof suc))t)'i)x'shve bfunKt't up ngtuu an'! n~)in without auy sound bftsis,w))i)cfm't))M'information, w)n-'u bruu){htto bcat' ou a scriMof such .sturies,tells a~aittst th'm ~o tar as it ~m's, Wt;are hard!y wan'aHtndin trusting ottu'rs of t))C satnc kind just hucattsf wc hve no mcans of of such tc.stiu~thon. A e~ust.'is n')ir<<) for th'' <t)'p<arancc storics in thc wor)d,but it doM)iot foUow that thi.s causemust h'' thu rt'al cxi.st(;neeof fir(.'tciN iu their trihu-s a mcrc ))<;)k'f an.swcrthc purpo.sc, will aud thi.t tM'ti<fMkuownto hin'c becn cun'ent for agf's,fsp<eia))y conit)~ ont in th'i PruXtctheus-h'~cndsof varions relions of titf worid. Exprience s)nm's ))ow such nn idca, whpn oocefairty afioat, will aft~ert it.setf fron tnnc to tune ht storin'!fnrntM)n.'d with phtef, (httt;, and <:ircumstanc<It must he roncmtK'r'd,too,that the nrctt-.ss met)tonn uttly onc nf a nunibcrof racus tnf'ntionud by writcrs. o)d and !K'w, as hfixg d)stingui:<h''d hy th want of somt.'thin~ wttich man usuaHy poss~sscs,who itavuno tangua~ no namcs, no idca of sph'ituat bfing'i, no drcams, no ntouths, no heads, or no noses,Lut whn.sc)'fa[ cxi.stL'nct'more amtn'ateknowicdj~ has hy nu nK'anstt'ndcd tu contirn). In connexionwith thc storiesof nrf.'tc.ss tribcs, sotneuccount.s of a kind of tnmsiti'nat statc may )w ntcntiom'd hcrc. )!r. Bitckhouscwa.'ttotd hy a nativu of Van Dictncn't Land,that his nncL'~tors had no mcan.sof makin~ tire t~-t'orctticir acqoaintancc wittt Kur'jpeanf!. T))'-y~ot it <irstfront th sky, and prcscn'ed it hy carryin~ nrebmnds about with tl)em, and t't.-tbct-kk, t.. t' 3~ 'i.



if thcsc went out, thcy tookcdfor tho smokoof tho firoof somo othor ptu'ty,or for stnoutdcrinjif ronains of a tatety-abandoncd firo of their own.' Thix eurious aceount fits with th Tasmaniau tnyth rccordfd hy M)-.Mi))igan,which tft)< how fire wtMthrown down Hkc a 8tar by two bhtck-fettowx, who M'o now in tho sky, thc twin stars Caxtorand Po)h)x~ Mcreover, Mr. M.tttigiuihinMctf, ou tho <)uest;on being put to hhn, bas answot'edit in a way very much Nt-rcsponding to Mr. Backhouse's aceouut, tu the dt'cct that th TasmMtiansncvcr produccd (iro by artificialtneansat ull, but atwayscarried it with them from onc campingptacf to aMothor. A~ain,a statctncnt of thu Kamekiud ix t'fportcd to havu b~n mauc by Mr. Mac Douall Stuart at thc m<;4.M~tiu); uf th Bnti~ Assuciation, that fire was ubtaitK'dhy thc natives of the ttouthem part of AustraHa hy th frictionof two t)iMC< of wuoduvcr a bunch of dry grass but that in t!te nurth this )Md<j is uukuowu,firebrands hf'ing constauttycamcd about and rcnfwed,and if, by auy accidc'nt, they bceonc <xt)Mgt)M)K'd, a journcy of gr(;atiength has to ht! uudcrtakcnin urdM-to chtain iire fromothcr 9 So Mr. natives.' Augas dectarcs that tiumutribes of Wt-st Austratia hve no mcansof kiudting fire, but if it goMout t)ioy get it from somc encatnptnfntncar tbt'y say that thcir nro funnerty came downfrom the north.* Witti thuso xttttemcnts two things must hc hornu iu tniud. Thc simptcapparatus for making firo by frictionwas in cotnmottuse anmog Austratian tribes, and in Tasmania. And it has bccn severaititncs rcmarkcd that Austratiuns,atthuugh actjuaintud with thu art of making new fire with this in.strutnent,yct finding ttte proccs. trouMosonM, cspcciatiyiu wct wuathcr, Ciurybuming hmudi) about witb thcm evcrywherc, so as to bu ahio to tight a fircat a tnonfnt's notice.~ Thc accounts, thon, of thc lindiug of nrulcss tribes arc of BMkhouM-. 'A't!.(m)M,'p.i" <~t.).'<. 'Athum-nm,' t.t!j. p.f,)j;t.
At~M, 't~ ).if" f). t. )'. Ui


UHti.').) in Tt'. Ktb. Sf. v..).iii.p. ~S!).ttutmnt <)o <rt'm))e,'Vq-.)(;e vn). M. rA~tmhtjc i. p. ~t; Mr.Mot Lu)~k'<n nurtih uM ~'cuufttti fttik'b with"Mt t)t':Ktt uf )ire')MttkittS, iti 'l'n;hiitt~ricTit)n-i/ ftfc,orwhtMUt pp.03, 4: S<7.



truc to Mme extent, but a highty doubtfut eliaracter; possiMy !X)t probabtyso. Of tho existencoof others who nre poss~sed of fire, but CMtttotproduce it for theinscives, thcre is )nore consMeraMo ovidonce. But, ou tho other hnnd, both th possf'ssioaof tire, aud t!te art of makiog it, tjftong certaiuly to tho vnst mftjoritynf mnnkind,nnd hve donc so as far bm'k aft which htwu bccn found wueau trace. Thc tuethod.'i, howover, itt use for muh'ug tire aru vury vuriuus. A survcy of ti)(; cunof tho art ix diScrcnt p<trtj< of the wur)d, <)itton tts kuown to us hy direct vidence,is cnough to make it probable that nearty aH the difleront procusscs (buod in usu aro th succcswrsof mder onci); <md,besido thiit, thcro is a mass of inditvct eviof ttistory, as it (teueewhieh ?!);)up soineof th shortcoming!! docsiu thc inv<;stigatton of the Stone Agu. Amung sorneof mecsof mankind, t])clowcrmcthotk of fire-making th )n~h<;st arc still to be seen cropping ont throu~h th higher proeM.su.s by w))ich,fur so mauy a~<s, t)h'y hve bt/eti ovorhud. T)tt: friction of twu picces cf wcod tnay pt'rhaps hc the original menusof firc-makiuKu.scd by mau but, b(.'twet:n tlie rudust and the most artificial way in whichthis may be donc',there is a ponsideraMe range of progrs* Cne of thc tiituptestmachinesfor producingHr<: is that which A btuut-pointed stick tnay he Ctuiet)tbe"tiek-and-groovt: Mrunidungftgn~voot'it.s own makittgiaa picecof woud tyittgou t))c gt'uun't, sumewhat as shown iu the ima~itMry dmwin~.Fig.NO. Mr.Darwin !<ays t)tat t))o vct'y ))~))twoudofthoJYt~<;<M <t<t<tM!M was utotu use<t for the purposuitt Tahiti. A nativewould pro~ufire w!th it in a fc\v secunds ttc hinisctffounditveryhardwork, Fif.~o. l.tutattcngthsuccucdcd. Thi.s stick-and-groovu pfocess ttM bcen repoatetttydcsenbed in thc Soutii Sea Islands, namc)y,in Tahiti, New Zca)aud,thc Sand-



wic)),Tonga, Samoa, and Radack groups;' but 1 ha,vc never found it distinctty mcntioned ont of this rgion of thc wortd. Kvcnshoutdit be known ctscwhore,it.sisotationin a particuhu' district round whk'hothcr proct.'ssfsprcvait wouM stitt be an ethnographicatfact of sorno innMftanec. It ia to be noticcd atso,titat it cnes much neat'er than nre-dniing to t))e yet of strikiug tire with two piccosuf spUt bamhoo. Nmpkr procL'iis T)totiUou)! tuttkfs it possibtctu stt'ikcfire coatingofthis ca))<; wit)tit and titis is donc iu Eastcru Asin,ami atso in the grt Hatay istandsof Bornet)and Sunmtra/ at or noar th sum'eu wttcneo tho hi~horPotyocsian race i.ssupposcd to have spread ovct'the PacifieJsiandi!. But it wuu)dapp~'arthat the striking tire with bamhoo,sitnpieas it seonM, i.sfur fimncrf'aMn nut so as the use uf the more eutnptexinction-appamtus; cuuvcoK'ut i forMarsden wons toconsidcr t)mfirc-dri)!as thc rcgntar native iustruttu'nt iu Sumatm, though ho says ho has a)soxeeuthe ft!'fct produccdmoresimptyhy rubbingonu bit of bamhoo, mn)t; witha sharp cdge,acrossauothcr. th "stick-and-gt'oovc By a change iu the way uf wc~kin~, hecomesthf "nrf-dri))." 1 hve bt'Ot oMi~cd to coin hoth th~u tt'rms,xo suitabieones bcingforthcotniog. T))t' ft'c-tirit), in its .simpiL'st funn, i.s rcprcscntcd in Fig. 21 and Captain rouarks un it and its use, nniong thc native tri))cxof Cook'ii Austndia,may scrvea)suas (t gt-ncratdcschptiunof it u)) over t)tt' wortd, setting nsidcnnnur dutai!s. "Tht-y prutim'cfirewith greatfacitity. and spn'ad it in a wonderfuttnanuc't'.To pru<tuce it tht'y tttkc two pifcc' of dry soft wuud; one M a stick about ci~ht ur ninuinehMtut)~,the othur piccei.sfit: thc stick thcy and pressingit ujjonthc shapciitoan obtuse puint at one <'u<), othur.tum it nintb)yby holdingit behvcen hoth thcir itands.ns wf doa chocotatc nnU,ot'tcn shii'ting their hands up, aud then m),iii.p.< !'nhM):, v~t. i. )tt<!S.Tyernmn in X:nr., ttN<) Ihm'in, ttennet m),i. ;). H). OttKLttmnn, 'iM~Mi)uiM! ft. ~rtin, tSj:),). Ht! )1. S. f. n'. <f.<rt~t<...<. V!))! <<~-<f<, (h~f, f'tnM';r, Mariner, 'T"~ctt'. 'F.ur Ymr!! if)th<! t 'a.'i~ L.tn)"n, p.]~ W:d)~.)c, t~n')'.)), ))i4!) v<'L iii. ]S<. meMi~tt M'tiremmio vol. ii.p. 377. K~ttchuc, ))y n)hbin& iM tt'0;!i<'cM H~AMitiM,'u. uut K'<')'cf~rt, <tn))inf, of*<*), vol.i. Il. 2'~U. St. Jotm, vut.i. p. ~7. Miu~tM, i~-nM);. p. (!0.Set !"S. v'<). i. 'Ccytun,' t!. Tu.~m(,



AND YE89Et.8.


the pressureaa much as movingthem downupon it, to increMa possible. Bythis mothodthcy get firein IcMthan two minutes, .rl v,w ihn trie amnllnefo,nn,4 anct r from smauest aparK thcy increase it with grcttt 1 Hpeedand clexterity." Tho samo instrument ia known itt Tasmania.' It appe~rs usun) both in Austmiia and cbcwhere to Iny th towcr picce on tt)o ground, hotding it firm with feet or hnco). A good dpend on the kind of deal may woodnsct!,and its dryness, etc., for in somocountrie):it scems to take much more time and labour,two tnen oftcn working !t nnn~nnmirnnff ftt t~n ~fmnf tho stick when his eompanion hands hve cornedo\m nearfy to thc bottom, and soon till tho nro comes. in a Coutrastingwith tho isolation of the stiek-and-groovo range of tho simple fire-drillis singledistrict, th geograpitieal and Tasmanians, immense. Its use among tho AustmHaM, whichdistiugtudttheir culture from one of the ehamcteM forms that of the Potyuesianii; while it appears again among tho in Sumatra.' aud th Caro!inc&*It was found by Cook Matayf! in Unaht.shka,aud J)ytho Russiansin Kamehatka; where, for manyyears, (liut and steel couidnotdriveit out of use among tho oatives, who went on carrying overy man Itis fire-sticks.' of Sikkim,a TIhctanrace It romainsin use amongthe LepchKs of Northem India.~ Therc ii! rcason to supposethat it prevailed in India bcforetho An-ans invadedthe country,bringing with them an Improvcdappamtns,forat this day it is used by and by the wild Veddahi! the Yenadis,indigenesof Suuth India," S.Auttndit, FtMt pi.27. Va)-. H.,~t. iii.p. 2S4. AB~M, Coa):, Mftnden, p.60. LuMjoei:, p. O. < KotMbMe, ThM v.).ii.p. ;it3. vol. lii.p. !4. Vof., Cook, 30. vot. p. !9. !Ath<m, D<M)-. Eth., KtMhetHMikow, iii. f. 3?0. inTr.Eth.Soc., vol. Shottt,



<t racoM cttpttNeof rsistif foreign innovationthM of Coylon, thcy havo not leantt to smoko tobacco.' It pt'evaih, or has douo so wit))!nmM!crM and thm'.t,in South and West Africa,9 it wasin use amongth Guanches of th C'nnnryIslands ix tho .usGt'cutccoth ccntury.~ In Il North Amct'!c&it is JesprHtcdamong Esquimaux ttnd Imtian tribe: It was in usa in Mexico," and Fig. 22, taken ~'om nn ancient Mexican pieturo. witing, ohows th drill bong twirtcd whi!o firc, dt'aH'n in the usunt conventmnfu munner,cornes 22. out from tho )m)owhero th point rcvotves. It was iu use in Central Atucnea,"in th West Indies/ and in Sonth America, down as far <Mtho SttuitsofMagcttan.~ Ttio namo of fire-drill bas not, Imwcvct',bcen adopted to this cintpk'fit form. Th!s ruJo instrutnarctywithrefercneo ment is, as may well be supposf'd, vcry wastefu! of timo and power,and it hnxtx-cn improvedhy fievemicontnvanccswlueh so elosely to thosc apptk~ to boring.to!x,that th con'cspond most convenient thon togct))<'r. Evcn t))e p)an is to ctaMtfy has heen fouud itt Mscfor cturnsyplanof thc sitnpio fn'c-th-iU It hns bocn tn~xtionodat page 190, as in use boring ho)e!)L for drilling hardstone anMn~rude Indians of South America, vd.i:. f. 4:L ]hi)~ TtmMt, 'Ccyton,' inTr.Hth. &?.,tM3,p. 291. !Cma)i',t..)B9. K)emM,C.W.,j.Mti.[,.(if. !M<K)muti\'ob. <]3. p.a t})M, 'C:M):MyM<tn<h Lomton, U04, j).8. <KktU))), C.H.,M), jj. p. 2X9.Seh<m[cmft, ptttt f. St4. LmkM, p. K, hfihm, 'JthettndN&mvogeft ii.p. :itg. A)ttMft)nuM!'t'!tn)t, li' Yt.). Vtttiam Kh~Lm-mt);)<, MS. S<Hen MS., Bnuminr, 2<3. 'fotMt.Vxh,' pp.N<, 218, delusJndm &Jataanm, Utit!tt. 'n~rh Oenmtt !:J7, vi.S. und r u), n nd Sph ~[!)rti~ i). p.3Si', phh'<.:['nn)tM, t-o). ili.)..9S3 vo). it. tt.ii. p. 122. MtntM'er, p. t3M. Motim, Yo). il. p. 118. Ur<;i)x< dela Vcet,'CcMMentMiM Re~M (&<(! Ms. t<).)thdn,), 1723, p.



nnd, w)mtif much morosurprMng,th natives of Madagascar horeditok'sby woritingthcir th'iUbetween tho palms of thoir JutnJx,' though tht'y were so fur advanccd in tho arts as to of coursethe very drillsworkedin makeand use irou too).< and t)us primitivewn.y wo-cpointcd with iron. Tho principte of tho commouearpoutcr's bracc,withwhich he workfthis centre-bit, is applied to <tr<)<)a)<in~ t'y Mvery simple devtco repreMntcdin Fis*.23,which i.fdfawnKccordingto Mr. DanYin's d<'serip. tionoftho]))MtUs(!tt by tho Gauchosof tlie lui un ~'illipas tilkili(mr Pmnpas;"takn)j etastie xtick abnut cightcen inchM long, I)e presses Ottoend (m h).s hrcast,nndth othcr pi~.23. (whichi.pointcd)ina holein a piccoof wood, nnd thon )'apid!y turns the curvcd part, like a. cfn'pGntor's centre-bit. Thc Gauchos, it shoukt bc aro uot fmvagt's, Lut hatf-witd tterdsmcn of mixcd o)M(.'n'(!d, Europ~u, Indian, and AMcan blood,whowouldprobably only useMuctt n mcans of kmdHngtire whentho flint and steelwcre fortL<* momentnot nt hnnd,and their fire-drillis not ontylike thc earpentcr'sbrace,))ut ntost !ikc!ysuggestcdby it. Tu wind a cordor thong rouud tho drill, so as, by puHing tho t\vo ends attcmntc')y, to makc it revolvcveryrapidly,if a. grt itnprovcmenton mcre !)and-twi)')in~. As Kuhn bas wasin use for horingin Europein poiutcdout, thi.scontrivaneo remote timos Odysifus dMenhesit in tcUing howhc and his : compauion!) put out the pye of tho Cyctops <! ~ex~ <T't <~fm', e~ < &'f< <'<~(~<f4<~<)t, ~<e~ <M))<~<<)' NMer 4t)!rtT<t Tp)ary t~xt~fof jM;p e! M otti T'CrepBer v' hroowffotwu' brooaetovvu~ ~<b~t l.dvr. <))mt~, .4r" <Mp<<f t Kt.* <~M)~t 4f~< <f<<T<)MT))~ M), inNMivol. !:i.p.<SS. DM~'in, EUit.'M~tsamM,' i. p.317. 'H<!Ktbk<m{t i~. .3M. 382. des <M., KuitN, Penen,' p.39. !tom.
)t9 2



cf theolivo theneeMnsr thxhMp~ut titake ofthewood They T)mHt tt intohh oye, whtk th abovo thon), standing Boted )t intothhte :a')mt'htpwright beteth a ttmtx')', thdrtU MdfMwnrd, thathb menbelow drive bttckwetd Cuiding theendt ofththong while th point ftMMMd wttheut ?uU!tttf eeMing." In modem Indut, butter~hunis are workcd with a cord in this way, and the Brahmans still use a cord-driH in producing tho sacred <it'e, as will bc more Mty stated presenHy. Halfway round the world,thc ~me thing is found amoug tho Es. quimaux. Davis (after whoin Davis's Stmits are nanted) describes i)i 1586 how GreenJaudor"beganne to kindte a firo in this maner; he tuoko a piece of a board wherein was a hole halfe thorow into that !'o!a hc puts tho end of a round stick like unto a bedstanb,wettiug the end thereuf in Trane, aud in fashionof a turner with a piece of lether, by his violent

t'i~~t. motion docth vory speedity pmduco <irc. Th cut,Fig.24, is tuken ft'oma dmwing of the h~t century,rcprescnting two tu ~ocp t)tc Esquimaux makiug 6tf, one hoUIng a cnMS-picee and force it weH down to its bearing, whilethe spiodtc 8t<:ady vol. iii.p. 104. HaUnyt,

otherpulls th thong.1 This form of the apparatas takes two men to work it, but th Esquimaux havo devised a modification of it which a man can work atone. Sir E. Beleherthus its use for drUtiug htes by tacans of a point of green describes beiug pa~ed twice round th drill, jado:" Thc tttong thc uppcr end is steadied by n mouthpiece of wood, having a piceof th Mme stone imbedded,with tt countersunk cavity. Thishc!d finnty bctween th teeth directs th tool. Anyworkman would ho astonislied at tho performance of this tool on ivory but having once tricd it myself, 1 found ti)e jar or vibrationon the jaws, head, and brai)), quite enoughto prevent There is a set of Esquimaux apparatuafor myrepeating it. making nre in the same manncr, iu the Edinburgh Induotriat

Musum,nnd Fig. 25 is intcuded to show the wayin which it is worked. Th thong-drill with the mouthpiecobas been fbundin use in the Alcutian Islands, both for boring liolesand formaking i!r(' Lasity, there is a kind of cord-drillused by thu New Zeahnderf)in boring holes through hard greenstone, as etc.,iu which thu spindie itself is weightcd. It M described a <jharp wooden stick ten inchex long, to th centre of which toHudxm'o Htt)ry BUm, Yoytse Boy Londoa, l~S,pp.M! 23<. Sir E.Belcher, lnTr.Et)). Soc., 1M1, p. 11". w!.ii:.p.tC! KotKbue,



aro attadtcd, M as to exert pressure and per<brm two stoNM the offico of a Hy-whceL Tbc rcquisitorotatory motionis given to t!)ostie~ by two titriugspulledattcmatcty. Thet'omu~tof course bo .sontotnu:msof kecpin~ the spittdtc npright. The New Zeatnndcrsdu nut ~cemto hve uscd th<ir drill for liremalung as well as for boriu~ but to liave kcpt to thcir stickand-groove. To fMLstttute for the merothong or cord a bowwith a kMsc fur une !mndnowdoes atring, is a still furthcr improvement, thc work of two in driving thu Hpindh*.Thc centre,In which its end turns, mny be hdd downwith t!)ootbcr lmad,or (as is very usuat),set againiitt)n:breast of th uperatur. The bowdrill, thus fonncd, is a most ancicnt tmd wett-kttowttboriug iastrutneut, ian'ititu'tu titc artisan i)i )audt;ruEuropeas it wus h) tutficnt Kgypt. Th unty phce whercittave found auy uuticcof its use forHt'e-nmkingts among tho North AmericauIndmtts. Thc plate ft'oni whiehF!g.20!atakcnis tnarked hy Sckooicmft. as t'cpresentingthe appa~tM used by tho Sioux,or Dacotahs. mcy.aswcuastue pj. NasknpcuIndians of a. whomDr. D. WiLson n"tiecsn.t nmltiug fit-o with a bowuad<t, drill, may possUitytmv~caught thc idcn from thu European Loring iustnnmittt.~ little contnvaneejknownto Ettgiiith Lnstty,the)'ui.sit cunou.s toohaakcMa.s thu "ptnnp-'h'iH,"ffum its )x.'iugworkcd up and do\vn Jikca pu)))?. That ftej't ht t))c Londuntoot-shopa !s all of mcta), uxpandioginto n butb itistcad of the disk silownin Fig. 27, which rcprcscnt.s titu kiud uscd iu Switzer* of a woodunKphtdtc, anued \vith a steel point, taud, consifiting aud weightcd with a woodcudisk. A string is made fut to ~L1.p.2M. 'N<w 'nMMMN, !!m)M<),' 'Pn;hMtetic i).p.9~. ScMcnft, tart iii.td.iM.U.Wiho)), Mon j w).



thoends of thc cro~-picee,and in the middtoto th top of tho downit unwinds spindle. As tho haod bringfi thu croM-picce tho cord, driving th spindta rouiK); <t!:tho hand is liftcd agnin,the di.sk, actin~ as tt tiy-whfc),runs ou M)dre-windtt the cofd, and )io ou. Holtxappt'd says that tho pump-driU is as <vcU known a)))0))~tho Oi'icntnt )):ttionsas tha bt'east'dri)), though it iii titttu used it) Eu~tand cxeept by china aud gtuss menderM.'F~rhaps it mny huyo tbund its wayover fromA'iM tu tho South Sua Islatid.4;at any rate it i.'ifoundthcrc'. Fig. 28 shows it as used in Fnkaatb or Bowditch Mand, diifering fromthc Swissforhi only in huing anned with a stone instead of a steel point, aud in ItM'ingno hte through the cross-picce.~



Mr.Turner dcscnbeiiIt ht thc m'ighbourit)~S:uuoanor NavigatoM'Istnuds,as pointcd with tt MtitM'asitii-uecjit, got from tho forftgnct's,~but tho specimeHpresented by him to tite hns a stono poiut. Tho nftth'es HuntcrmnMusumat GtMgow useit fbr driUingth~h' iiiih-Itookii Nmdcof s!n:U for which purM<t vol.U MMhmjicid HitMi'uJ.'tien London, Hotttat't'fe), TamiB~ 1850, S:7. Wi;k~ S. Kq. )-d.v.p. t7. TMMr, p. 2N.



pose,M for drilling holes in china, it ii!peculiarlyadapted, tho and evcnnesaof its prGMnre Hghtnesa iesscningtho danger of cmcMng thse brittle matermts. One wouH ttnnk that this quality woutdmake tho pump-dnH particutartyunsuitable for fire-making but neverthetess, by making it very large and hcavy,it has been turned to this serviM in North Amcnea, amongthe IroquoisIndians. Fig. 29 (drawnto a smaUscale) reprsenta thcir apparatus, whichis thus dcscribed by Mr. Lcwi!)H. Morgan:" Tfu~ is a-u Indian invL'ntiot), uud of grt autiquity. It consistcdof ntt upright shaft, about fottrfeet in k'ngt!),and un inch in diameter, with a MmU whect set upon the lowcr part, to give it nMmcntun). In a notch at the top of the shaftwas set a string, attaehed to a bowubout thrco fcct in.kngth. Th hwfr point rcstcd upon a Uock of dry wood, ncar u_1_1 whtctt are placed Mnatt pieces of pjg punk. When ready to use, th string is first coiled around th shaft, by tuming it with th hand. The bowis then puUed dowuwafds, thus uncoitmg th string, and revolving the shaft towardsthe left. By th momentumgh'en to the whce). the string is aga!u coilcd up in a reverse manncr,aud thc bowagain drawnup. The bow is agam pulled downwards,nnd the revotutionof the shaft th stnug, and rccoitiugit as before. This reversed,uncoiling altematc revolutionof the shaft is contiuucd,until sparks arc emittcd from thc point where it rests upon tho piece of dry woodbelow. Sparks arc produced in a fcw moments by the intensity of thc friction, aud ignitc the punk, which speedily fumishesanM. 1 It is now necessaryto notice other methods of producing fire whichbave beenfound in use in vanouaparta of tho world. Thereis a weM.known Mientinc toy made to showthat heat is 38]. ~l.H.MorsM), 'L<mjjtteofthttrM)<iois;'R<x!h<6ter,U.8., ]S:], 1).



of nir. It consistsof a brass tube generatedby th compreMiou etosednt one end, into whicha pnnkcd piston is sharpty foreed clown,thus igniting n, piece of tindet' within thc tube. It is eunous to <indan apparatus on this prixciptc (mndu in hard wood,ivory,&c.) used as a practicnl lneans of making Cru in Birmah,and even amongth Mniays.' Tho natives of Tierra del Fuego itre notabiy dMtiuguiohcd from their northcrn ucighbours by thcir \vay of nrc-nMking. In l.'i20, MagalhaeM on his famou.t voyage visitedthe gigantic Ptttagonian.who thoughtth Spaniards had corne down fmnt to tho EuropeauvisitoMthc native heaven,aN't who,exptainmg told them of their chief god, Setebos. Thc savages theo)ogy, from whom Shakespearebon-owcdthcse traits to fumis!)thc picture of tho "scrvant-monster," CalibtU)~showed theit' tnannct' of makiug fire, which was by th friction of two picesof wood.' But tho t'ut.'giausImvo for cotturips used a highcrmethod,striking sparkswith a flint fromti picee uf irou pyrites upoti thcir tindcr. This processis describedas still in use! and is evidenttywhat Captain Waitis mcant hy saying (in 1767), that To kindle a fire thcy strike a pcbb)e against & piceof mundic. A much eartier aceountof th Munething appears in th voyageof Sarmiento de Oamboa,in 1579-80." Irou pyrites answcrs extremely welt instead of th steel, and wasfoundin regular use in high northem latitudes in Americu, aMong th Slave and Dog Rib Indian~ It is probablyth 'Oext). AsM)).' Mt. ii.t..413 Citmemn, thstiM, 'Mthyim Mh,' p. ]39. tM."H!MtthMttMdroj)p<dfr<)mh<Ntr<!tt)" ('Tttnttest.'Mtii. 'M<no2.) <M tt it-ou)d contn)t <km't M<boo." 21. gnd, my (N.,Mti.KtM inPinkerton, vol. xi. tittir proMM WM the fi)!tfetto, M ~itnptttit h)m<t~)rii)inf;, ffom ftMomt mDntke'tt WorUEocotnpmiMd,' Hait. oppcftn &x'. (1S77-M) UM <S. tS: p. < W. P.Snow, Th-rm del Fuego,' tt<. m).H.f. 3':0. i. li.!]. ~-o). 1. W))i<, itt!hw)(eswert)), !!<tfmiettto do (hnn)xa, ol EatrMtm Jo M~nme:);'M<Mtn<), 'YM);o ]76S, 229. Yunn!) de domMj~xita dooro )'. pcdMmpoterm), y pintades pMtdot, y cm f ditemn jitata j' tMt~ntitndott! jon)tut Mine))" <))M j-w<et<M, qM~m MM)* delitsquetmhto, une Joe))o* tom4 un<ptamat fuegoy tnep) y tirvKn(Me doyeNt, )!!M: conel t~ema). F<u<ce<M es (ciUM fneso de quo )) (temchtt & en) d o esalmtMm) de cottM <tfMr~)f<jm pht~ veta, porque ~ffo enet Mr<i." 3!. C. il. p.SC. MMtaiMie, V~He* Lend~, !Mt,r. Kkmm, N.,vol.



"iron-stonc" whieh the Esquimaux eaU t</)ft&-afH'tnt!M~ aud from which they strike fire with a fmgmmt of tliut,~and is perhapt; roien-ed to m Fathcr Le Jeunes statement that tho <!e Algonquin Indiau.s strikf (iro with two Minerats (pt<!)')'e x:Kte)~ Tho use of irott pyritosfor strikittg firowas kuowu to tho Grccks MthtRomaus, MuJit sharcd with tiiut thu natuo of ~H'c-stouc,~n~, ~yi'<~< which it aud sumo other metaUie ut'. tiutphuret. havosiu taken cntiru possusiion Tito Alashkans are reportcd to obtiUttfiru by fitriking tugethcr two pices of quartz rubbed with sutphur ovur somo strewed wittt fuathcMwhcro thc suiphur dry graM ot' tuofM, of thc prucc'ssat'u ~vcn in the faits und sunitar dc.sct'iptious adjacent ista))ds/' Fathc'r ZucchcUi,whowas a missionaryin West An'ica about titc L~inning of lust e<utut'y,gives tho futlowitigaccount of thu way iu which, ho tiays, tho uegrocx mado ~ro ou their jounteyH:" Whcn thpy foundu Rrc-stouu ou th foad, th(.y lay dcwu hy it un titcir kneM, (Ft:uct'st<!)t)) took a iittio pice of wood iu ttn-'ir ))ands,and threw Nand botwicu ttni iitotMaud thc wood,rubbing them oo ~ng ugaiMt one aoother till thc woodbcgan tu burn, nnd itcrowiththey aH Hghted thuir pipes, and Kuweut tipeedityforth agaiu smoking cti thcir journcy. It is possible that uot HInt (tu; is usuai), but pyrites,tnay hre bc mcaut by~<e)'~t. Thu Hintaud stcct may itavc cutut;iuto use nt any timo after tho bcgiuniug d' the Iruu ge, but histury faibi tu teH us tho date of its itttruductiouin Cn-cpf and Home,Chitt!), and niost othcr distriet-softhe Oid Wor)d. 1)))uud')t tinics it bas madc its way with irutt i)ttu ]nany ucw ptaccs, thuugh it tias tiot thc' Hrc-stickxat oncu somcatway:i bccu Mbteto Nupersudu times, it scons, froma difncuity iu gcttittg ni)it.'<.Fur instance, it wa.sncc(.'ssu'y iu Sumatra to imjfort thu Ointsfrom abrond, and thus they did Mot conn:itmucdiatutyinto guncraluse among th native aud there may perhaps be a simitar rcaiioufor the i. Haye.'Ardic!)(t J-.m'ne.t f~n.)ott, ]S(iO, p. Xt7. Le etc, \11. ToI. w).ii. H.)'. :!a, LeJcmc, J.IUle, 'lwluton,' IMstion,' etc.(tt)94)r~M,10M, (103~) j Pari-, 1035, Lafillllt, po p .t't. Latitan, )1. te N.Hmsift p. t:!). Coo):, ThintVey., vo[.ii. t.. JitJ. BtUioc), Ex)), vol. iiitf. MC. KettehM, MMoM. Mtn) n~h Conse!' XMteheUi, 'MerckwOfdi~ Hei)!<).!)<!Khn:i))un!{ i' 3H. PttnMoh, inC,p.



Hrc-drUt htn'mg M<)its gfoundto tM.sday among someoi th iron-usingi-accsof SouthcruAfrien. Ti)<! Otfchs wcre fitmiliarwith the use of th bunnng-kns in th thne of Aristopham's, w])omt.'ntiunsit in tho Ctouds,' in a dialoguebctween Socratesand Strcpsiadc.'i : &f;'o<<'<. now!'H<!et If Mtno Yety{j~od youanother qNeation. Mn~i't onoeuttrcd M()K:ttoa to rtcoTer CYc howwonid ajfchuit talents, tell me, you !tP ? youcancel fotmd clever to cMcetthe suit, .~Hytia~. 1 have as youwill Rvery way tterMe yoM~etf. AfMfM. Whttt kindot?way P ? navoyouev<tMen that xtona in th druggiits' ~'<~thA'<. that ehops, t)mt pretty, ono, wttJt Y ? ttMMpaMnt they lightttM .'<x'MfM. Thctysta!, Y ? yountean I(h). AYnyo'aA'j'. .<ix;~M. whatthen? WeU, 1tfkcthi<, andwhmtheclerk ~H~'af/t-f. onteti) thsuit,1stand SeppoM t owMdii themn,md tnett thm,a long off, outtholetteti). tt-ey .<wnt<f. th ctcYer, Very hy Gmccs At a much iater periot!Pliny )))0)t)on.s that gl~ boUs with watcr put into them, whennet uppo.sito to thc sun, gct so hot as to set ctothc.son fire; aud that he Huds sufgeousconsider thc best means uf cautoryto bo a.erystat baU ptacedopposite to thcsuu's ntys.~ Thc Chiucsu eomutoutyuse thc bunting. Icns to light tire with, as wellaa the flint atKtstct;t,and wohear of the Siamcscusing it to producc tt<;w sacrt.'d6rp.~ Thc (act t)tat firo may ht; pmduccd by refifetitt~ the stttt'x was know))as t':tr!y as PHny's time (A.D. mys wit!) ]nirro)-.s 23-7~), ax ifMMtmH'ks, "~ci)~ tbat concavotnjn'oM placed opposite to thu suu's rays igulte thmg:!more caiiitythau auy oti)f)'H)'c' Then.' i.s sumc rcMOttto supposeth:tt tho !<ttow* Icdge uf t)u!) phcnumcttuuworkcdbackward!:intu ttistot'y,attaehh)); itself tu twu fantou.snamMof ojd t!m(;s,Archimcdcs and Numa l'ompitius. Thu story of At'chimedcssctting the Hect on fire at Syracuse with burumg mirrors, probably unknownas it waM to htstoriausfur ccutude~after tas time, need <!(< xMt~i. O. ~tt)x!.<, ?j!7, r)i))y, 67,Jaa:yii. a An<t<){)h., 'Oest). t)Mb,c).:ii.p.6t. )!Mti<m, A'ha. whiii. C10. <Hiny, ii. IU.



not be further romarked on hre but th story of Numa reappears on tho other side of tho worM,under circumstnncM which make itt discussionn, mattcr of unpwtMK'e to ethnography. It is rchted by Ptutarcti m his lifuuf Xuma,written in th first ceutury, that among thc ordixanccs made fur thc Vcstat was the Virgins when they were establishcd in Ronc, t))CM following. If the sacred (irowhich it was their duty to kecp continuallyburning sliould happcH tu gu uut, it wasnot to bc Ughtcdagain from anothor tire, but new fitfiwas to be made by Hghting from thc sun a pure and undefiled ftame. And they kiadto it especiattywit))vussds whicharc stxtpcdhoHow from tho Mdc of an isoscelestriangto with a (\'(.'rticat) right angle, and couvergnfrom the cireumfercnecto a siugtecentre. When such an instruincut i<set opposite to thu sut), so that th impittgingrays from all sides crowd and Md togethcr round th M-ntrc, kindlcs it dividcs th rarcned air, aud (}uick)y th )ight'st and driest mutters applied to it, th heamsaequiring by the reputsion n body and ncry xtroke. Storics of Numa's ofdinauccswill ltardly be daimfd as sobcr history, though it is possible that such a prnecssn<this may hvebt'en used, at k'ast itt late times, to rckiudio 'thu tire of Vestn. But there is in Festus another account of thc wayin which this was donc, having it) its favour every auatogyfrotnti)c pruetico! uf kiudling the sacredfire umong uur Indo-European race,both in Asiaattd iu Europe. If thc fire of Vcstawert: cxtinguistted, the virgins werescourgcd by the pri~sts, whosepraeticeit wa:) to drillinto a buardof auspiciouswoodtill the nt'c camt. which was rcecived aud Ctu'riedto thc t<u)p)cby thc virgit), in a brazen colander. Th pandicl passage to that in th tife of Numa is tu bc found in tho accountof thc feast of Raymi, ur thc Sun, ccicbrated in aucient Pcru, according to Oarciia.so du ta Vcga, 'Vite Nettm:)), ix.7. Kum ?Mtm. "!gni<VMtte <i qmmto iatentmttMB t-erberibtM eMt,vit~ieM t tCexbMtar poetiScibm), moseMttabuhm Mi<!M mattritc qMibN!! tttxdto cribro~eo Yifj~ tcde'o tttebtttc,qututque Mteptmn iptem ftrret." See Vid. I. i. 0. ]h.,




whoM'CommentariM' weroHmt pnblithed in M09.10, the Spanish disceveryhtving tnken place in la27. Ho saysthis festivalwas cetebratedat tho fummcr ~otstice. "Tho flro for this Mcnficeha<!to )<enow,given, a~fthcy said, hy the hand of the mu). For which purposethoy took a grt hracctet, whichthoy caU<<)'~tt)t<t ()ikoth othefs whichthe IncaacoN)montywora on the icft wrist),which bmcok't t!te high priest and had as ita mekept it was hr~'r thM)thecommononcf!, dattiona concavecup likc a hatf orange,hightypo)i)ihed; they Mt it ag'aiast the Hun,aud at a ctihain point whcro the mya iMuing from th cup came togother, they put a ttttto finely. cardedcotton,as they did not knowhowto make tinder, which 8)tort)ytouk fire, as it natttraHydoe.t. With this <ire,thus hunit, and all given by the hund of thf Sun, the sacrificeWtM the )npat of that day wus roastcd. And they can'ied Mmeof the 6m to th Toupie nf thc Sun, and to tho Housa of th Vh'gins,whore t))eykept it up att thc year, and it wasa bad omeli if thcy let it out in any way. If, on th eve of th fe!<tival, which was whouthc m.'cp&sary prcparatiotMibr th fol. towingday were made,therc \vas notm to light tho newfire, they made it withtwothiu smoothsticks as hig as one's little finger, and hnlf a yard long,Loring one against tho other ~O!"eo!t <~f); thosn little sticks are cinnamon (&(u')'<')iiit!o aud thcy caUbut)) the sticks themselvesand the flre. colourcd, oneaud the MHno tenn scn'iug fur nounnnd makinKV-y<(c, verb. Tho ludians use ttieminstead of flint and steel, aud carry thon on theirjourncys to get nro wheu they liaveto pasa tnu uight iu uninhabitcdphtces,"etc.etc.* Jf pifcmnsttmtitdity of dotait were enougit to make a story wc might hc ubiiged to receive this otic,and even to crediLtc, argue ou thu wouderfut a~recmcntof the mauncr of Jdndiing in Rome and iu Pfru. But thc coiiieidesices the mcrcd <irt< betwceuUarci)aso'!i Virgiu.sof the Sun and Ptutarch'i Vostat Virgins go hrther t))au t!)i< Wo are uot ou)y cxppctcdtf of thc Sun, that thcy kept up betiovothat thoro were V!rg'itM a sacredfire whoseextinctionwas an cvit omen,aud that this ure was Hghtcd hy the Kuu'srays coneeutratedm a. concave fH-dhM dola V<'s', p. 1M.



nunror. We ara atsotold that in Cumo, Mm Rome,th ~irgm foundunfait!)ft)t wasto bc pnni.s)tcd hy the spcial puaitfhment of beiug burifda)ivc.' This in tt'atty too mue)). Whatcvcr may bc the rcat basisoffaet itt the neeounts uf t))c Virpus of the Sun und thn f<'nstof ]~(y)ni,<h<loforunef'sc''ms,<o me !tt detail M least, most.probaUc,thnt part ur all of thc accciMory but tho rca)ixatiou of an htc-itof whichGarcihtto not ftixtot'y, himitetfstrikes tho kcy-uote w)K'nhc ~y. of this sautt;fonst of Raymi, that it wnsccichratef)lIy thu Incas "in tho city of WtM ('<!ftJ~t(t).~ Thusu W/cA H)M</tC)' .K(M)M COXCO, (f/MC/XC of 8p:H)i)!h wltohnppcn to hveMpct'ioncc of tho oid chrunictcrt) Atncnca kaaw howth< w))u)< ntco was po.sffsscdhy a ptMsiou for hrin~inKout thc Oht Worid htorics in a new gt)M~withn local ))!t!jittttioM and K )m)uc in America. Cafpitaso's.sturyof the burning-tnifK))', it tu )w an adaptatiou fM)n s')))po.sit)~ Ptutarch, woutd not cvcn hc' thc bc.st ittustratiun uf this modem phase of Mythotogy that distinctionmust bc rcten'cd for the repmduetionhy <mothcrchrooicteruf anothcrof P)ntMch' storics, that of tlto nhout that was raiscd whon thc Rotnan hcndd ptoctainiedtho tiborty of th Greckf!,sucha tihout that it bruught t)to cruW!t tmtt)din~ down tntn the mcccoursefront the xhynbove." 'l'he IncMS, says SartniL'xto, we)'c M fciu'cd,th'tt if tiley wt'nt out thrnu~h tit~ ki)<i;t)')))t, aad aitowcda curtain of thcit' Iittcr.st" bu tifted that t)n.'ir va.'Na)'! might fie <))M)H, thcymist.) so ~t-patan acc)amatiunthat thcy mndoth< birds fa!tfrotuwhtiru titey wcrc ttyht~ aho\'e,so thut the pcoptccould catch t)K')H iu titcir ))atnts. of Garcitaso'x stnry of tho Asamfit thn a~Mtract pussUMUty lighth~ < the mt'rcd (ire with coupavomirrorfi, thcro is n" more to Le saut than against Ptutarch's. With a ~nndp~rabo!icmin'or oniy twoinehesiu dianK'tcr,1 !)avc JightcttLmwn sun of no cxtraordiuary powcr, amt papct' under an Eng)i.s)t othcr surfaces wjtiph will tnakc a good canstic will aHswcr, GfmihM t)ehVcjjt,p. ]~. Compte 'HM.del Ptn),' Diego Ffmandel, S<!vi)tc,tiM; "jrn~dMj'MtmtNtitr.ttit.'uMvctttt-CtOteiftfMMaMaMnaih YtitJjjtux' )ointMtt.tm, le Uuo." itftemKtM luego M., t).192. x. F)ut., T.(~uinct. MMuiMitM, )K MS. ciled roi.i. p.S; < ~nnitnte, Fn;.st<, Pcnt,



thongh of coutfo thcy havoicm bxrning powcrthan a pambo. !uidof rovolutionof equat sixe. Titorcis cvcna matoriatbasis out of whieh the Pennian fttory)nay hnvcgrown. In tho an. eicnt totnb~of Peru, tnirrorsboth of pyritpsand obsidianhava bcen fuund. Some, thrce or four inchcs in <)):nnL't.o', were of pyrites,potishcdou t!~ fit pmbaHy )nofo hrokcnModntc.t Lut one is mentioncdmensunng uLout a foot and a !m)f fiidc, in eircmnibn'ucc), whieh had )t ))catttit'nf)y-[)oi))ihe() (pt-ubttb)y concavesufface, so as to nmgnity t)))j<'ct!i and con!)i<terab)y,~ ottcha mtt'for may have )K'cnused fur tuaking Sre. Jndect!, the objection to the story of the Yirginsof the Sun M not that be unmust of UMessity any of th details 1 ]m\'otm'Ntioned truc, but thnt thc apparent traces of absorptionfroln Ptutat'eh whatcvcrt'<;sts on CarcHusfj de h Vcga, unsupporto't invaHdato testimony. To couctudethe notiw of the art of nre-tnakiu~h) gnerai, its last ptmso,the inventionuf tucifertnatetiesin our own day, is fast spreuding overt)te wortd,aud liritigitigmost othft' fire. of curious relies uf Making instrunteuts duwntu the condition a past tirno. date far haek in the But though someof th hi~hcr mcthod.'i Wortd,the cmpioymcutof the woodenfrie. historyof the (Md tiun.appamtus in Europe, cvptt t'ort)! practica)purposes of ordinary)ifc, bas cotne up throu);h tttc cta~icidaud t))fdia.d tunes into th )ast ccnttn'y,nnd fur all wuknow it mny still exitit. Ptinyspfak.suftt~tindin~ausc atnoo~<))uontp'j.st.-} uf annie.s and amu))~shcpt'erds, stonu to striku tiro with not Leiugn)waysto )x; had," ond hf a rctnarkabh'aecountdati))~ from17<!8, whMtwill lie quoteclpr''scnt!y,its nM;byRussiau Mspukenof as an exist. for )naki))~fire in thu woodti peasant.<! date, it i.stnening custotn, jttfit as, at <tmucti more recL'nt tiunedthat the Portu~nosoBrazitia))!! stin ha\ recouMe tu thc n') uthur means of K'*tti"na light arc fut't)(firc-dt'U),w)K'n t)tc carty usuuf thc incomin~ For thc tnost part, howuvcr, strument in the Old Worid is only to ))(:tiaccd !u anci<;nt J.m &t')h),'ReMon HMuncaMthtrU, Ut!,p. C)i). xn. rr. =l'!iny, t'r. MM. t. Wcht., Me)) BniiUien' i!.p. ta. 'RchM (IStS- vol.



myths,in certainceromonialpraeticeswhichhve been brought down unehangodinto a new state of culture, and in descriptions by Oreek nnd Roman writers of tho art. It had tost, even then, its practicatimportance in cver~'day life,thongh tin. in rites for which it on,as it still does in our owu <)ay, gerinj~ wasnecessary to use pure w<M./it'< not the tame firo that lay likoa domestie animal upouthe hearth. Tho trnditionsof inventors of tho art of Dre-makingbv tho friction of woodhve in so far an historieal vaiuf, that they thc uxuat practico. bringcicariyinto viewa periodwhuntitis WM There is a ChinMC myt)) that points to sueh a stato of ttnngf), and whiehmoreover prcstint' in t)tLstory of thc nrc-bird," an ttnalugywith a fi~t of myth.s beton~i)~ to onr own race, whichtuaywcitbe due tu a dccp-tying cthnoto~'ictt! connexion. "A ~'at sage went to walk beyond thf boundtiof the tnoon and the sun hc mw a trL-c, and un this trco a bird, which pecked at it and made tire comc forth. Thc sage was struck with this, tooka branch of the trfo and pt~udnc~Dre from it, and thonce this grt pcrsona~o wn.seaUedSuY-iin. Thc itself, apparentty of tite kind spokcnof itra friction-apparatM as th fire-drill,is mentioncd in Mon'ison'sChineso Dictionan instnunfnt to oLtain tire. A spccuhtm forob. ar)'. tS'u~. tainin~(irofromthe sun is eatted ~t<yor A'<-sMy. J/A-ot~,an ntensi) to procure nro from wood by rutatory friction, ~'y~'<'M- the first person who procurcd Hrc for the use of man." Titc vo-yexisteuceof a Chinc.sG namo ibr thc nre-driti shows that it is, or bas bcen,in use in the country. The absence of evideuce rclatin}; to iire.making in tho Bibleis rcmnrkabic. Jf, iudeed,the ibHowiu~ passagefromtho of Saneboniathonbe foundcdon a Phnician iegend, cosmogony it prservesnu old Sctnitie reconi of thc use of thc nre-stick. "They aay that frotnthe windKofpia,and tns wifoBaan.whidt is interprte)!Night, tbcrc were bom mortfd men, eaHcd/Eon and ProtogOttos; aud /Eon fumid !<ow to get food from trocs. And thosebom from them were caiied Genusand Gcnca,and they inhabitedPheenieia. Morcover, t!iey sa.y that, again, fromOcKOs, sonof ~Eonand Protogonos, ttn;rcwerobom mortat M).:ii.p. M!. StC Cnguct, Koh)), f. M.etc.



dtitdrcn, whosen:nncswcrc Phus, Pur, nnd P))bx (Light,Fire, nttd Fiftmo). Thcsf, t!)''ysay, t'onndout howto mnketin' from use. Firetin'friction ot'pi('eGSt)fw~)d,amttau~Ltits tnaMn~ t'y f'rictinoisnot unknownta th AMbs.thcir instrument bdngthf si tnp)(')Hr<<)riH. t'hun~h dit'cct history d<j<itn't t<j)tus th<tt thf Finn!)aud Lftpps usod th tiru-driit b'-furc tht-y h~d th'- <!intMttdstt;), re t)K'n;isap)t.ssn~sat'')yp)'('.s('n'ing't))t-n<')uu)'yot'itsu!!eina wh~senftth'c tUftrf is ftunitiM tu our caMfruM FitUtishpoc))), itsimit!ttioutU'Hiawat))m. !'<mu j)oika, tmthm. TuoMen kinnuitHU~nhintun, ).<iket.<iu m:hytt<:U, pttkt.'nti'~KtpMhtttisstt, wKtkchi.tM WMttei~sa." thepoor of TtMu), Pann, <!on lit. ot t <ho hof firo-elmfll, ire~'hurn, Chunlillg Chunut)); fiel'Ct.'ly ft<rct')y a mmttt hitn. M(;tt<'r)tt){ fk'ry tpttfkt inHpon! whiu' CtothK) K!'nti<;nt. aud!dt!nit<)f tn a tvhitt! tonnent. It i.s howt'ver,by uur cwn t'acc t))at t)tc most KmarkaMe bn<tyofuvi(tct.of thf ancicnt usu uf tht:-firc-dritt ))as bccu prf.n-M). DK'vcryin.strutneut.tiitust-dinIndiat'ut'kind))~ thci.!n.-t'itn-i:d<iru~'cn).s)K-Ycrt'!)Kn'('<')))U)}j''dsi)K'ut))uti)nc w)n.'t)<)m'nnccstor.std'tt)K'irt':tst(.'nthutnut"i)t\!u)uHut-')])' tti.sthu.s dc.st'rihcd:"T)K')fr's hywhidt (ire-i.subtamn't front woodi.seittt'dchuntiu~, as it)'cnt)j)<st)mtLyw)iich in It cunsi.<ts huttct- iu In'tiit st')):u'at<di'r'on tuitk. n dri))iusf'ttf'pi''c'jt'!u':mi-W('()dittt<[m)th''rbyput[itt~!t strhtKtic<lto it with ajcrk with t)K'"m' htmd,whi)c thc othd' Thc i!<s)Mk<'ncd,n))d!!()a)t'')-)tat'')y<itIt)tuw<)()()tnk''sfin\ <<t"n or nxh~'t in (h')j:tn'f')f im asfi rt'isrt'CL'tVcd'ttt sistant BmhmM). Hyt)tisd''s(')')pti~nitwtjn)<t.t'(.')t)t)tnttho In'.tiiuiinstrument ist)t's:mK'in ))rih(;i)')';a.st)n-H.<')aini!Htx th')n~-<)rit),h<wninFi.!j;t. !ti.-idm'nhy!Hh)w-stt-!)ndL'd curd'jfcuw)):urnndii'n'p;dt)K-r'i-![)~')'.tHy!tpk'c'f duwtiupun t)" upp'T t;ndot' t)tc spindk',to kc~'p woodpn-ssud 'Ku..<t'n.j..&M,i. v.





it<!t)Wutoit-t))L'!u-!ui; !)tt)n'n!t)m'oft'n)tm-t)n'ust)n'H)'< oameot'this !uakt'r,t)t'i"s''('')))))()")) withth'Sanskrit )'j)i))')k'(t))'f/<'<,ha.sncvc)'h<')'t)Lrf)k''n. r"'<th)yhothh(* an') t))c C'))inL'.<c Sny-jin tuay hc nuthin~ more thttt) ))t;MuuitiMtti~usni't)tutir<ttri)L Proft't-sorKu)m.inhi'!n)yth<')<r!t)tr''ntisff)n'Fi)'cnn<i AmL)'Mia,'h:t'ic<)i)t't;tct)t[<)un))tityut'vi(it'tt'ft't'U)(j~'t;ka)nt Litt)t):mth")'!i,whi<'htn:tk''sit:tj)'j)''ar<)!!ttt)n;Ht'('-tnak!)<~ittwhusuu.~o wns kept u[) in Ktu'')})' w.'t.< uot the .stickst)'tt))K'))t. nmt'~)''K)V).hut <)t<nn"')rin. TtK'opcrati~n i.s <u.tinctty <)t'st')')))t'dn'i))')n)~')r())'i)ii)ti.r;)tudits(;('ta-i,)mu't'nvcr.th:tt ttmf)r'h'i!)\vas\urk~Jit)!tm-it')ttKu)'<'})'asin!))<))!ta)xt !tU)'jUH't)t(.'E-!<jui!naux,wititac~t-<)'))'tt)o)ty.t'"t'ti)t;spit)')t''i.s compart t~rsj)uk<'nof as. a'rf'~ur)',w))!c)) instrument,as itppt'ars ht t)K' pa.s.sa~'qu"t<;()t'rumtin; (.Aty.ii'yat pa~u~'t; wasn <tt-iH drivcn ))ya tlion~ TJmtrac('suft)n'")'Iti)'tna):it)jH'it)!n'M)ontHm'"j)''n'f"r t)K'n)'Mtp!H't.iudu.(;c"t))n'xiunwit)tt)n;am'it-nt!mdwidt;fprcm)rite "f t)tc ~cw Fir~, whkh ht'ttjn~.st< t))HAn''tn.s with ann)))~uthcr LnmdK- of thf hmaan t'ac~ imd f.s))t'(m))y onc \'at'K't\t this )'it'w)nc)t ttas )n;!dit.sowucven in Cormany M)'[Kn)f)a))dint<.)quitc)fttf'<i)t)'in'ij)it'fa)It))<f!brt.sof t)t<'Churc))t"putit()')M')(. T))i.si.swhatt)n.'C<nnn)).'jcan ~t~/<j't''<f'an'tw<)i~'thoujj!'))w)tct)t('t'th(.'tt.'nni.st))C utn!('r.tud)itt'ra))y,"rw)K'tht'rit)uMjt'')p[)~ta~))tt)u'!d,tmd stands fur fir<'nm')t.'t'y/')'<~')t'nt))hitt~,isn(jtc)(':n'. W))att)K'it:ttnrt'nnd<)hi~'t())'th<')n'f(mrci.<,n)ay)'cs('cB in Rt'i.k's nt'cuttutf thc pmrti' in (!c)')u!myin thu fic'v'nhr~kot uut :nn'))~ thu tpfnth f'ntury :" Wh''n it n)ut'r:tin)K).s c:ttt)' and tttc hurds)tave .suO'fr')tauett hitt'm, groitt nnd '<tn!tH thci'arnK'r.<dctL'rtnhtftutnak<'ntt<'f(Uit'c. Onanappuintcd thurc nuist lie )m sm~tc fiamc of fin.' in any house or ou <)ay nny JK'arth. From each tiousc straw, nnd wato', :t)Kthnt.sh'!fM!,t)K'"pj";rMtJ)t'w(;r)))~k')t):t)')Mt)t'<r<'mfhmf'n)'(fnf',M!dth< ~in<Uet)n-m'mf/<'t."rn!<m. ~mK~~M~r~m~k Lutter T)'t; :uu)tt'<h,T.rf<H<,f<!<ft. MiuiMtit!):fith (KtthM,r.7~ mrr~t'"ndstutht-u~'ftr:un":)t<ythvKtuittt:mx. 'KtdM,'t)mJ<kuMfttk.<Feutn'<:tc.,pj).3!<iti)~Th<phr!Mtu',tt'vchiu<Si)j~.)Muf.FMt<)<,t;t.



w"t)dmust))of(:'t<-hcd,!tn(ttt.stM)t'Mk-jM.stdriv('n<ttstintothe gt'')tHtd,audahoIcb<))'f<tt))rhughit;int))i.sawo<jdc)twindia.ssis stuck, wc)tstncarcdwith eart-pitch aud tar, nnd turuc't round su )o))~that, witht)tf tMrecht'ntaud f"rc< it givcs forth fin'. T))isiscau~htit)pr"p'r)t)att'riat'incrt;asedwithstntW, ))t'at)),n))'tbt'u.tnvuu(),tiUitb)t;aks()nti))t')!t)u))M'ct)fin'; )jL'sutnewhatspr<;a(t out t<u~t)n\'ay.'< bctwcfu tut this U)tMt wai).< or i'fncM.nn4 t))c eattk' Mud~'rN's hHitt') with stick-. iunt whips tw" or t)tn'<'ti)m'i thruu~h It," etc.' Vttt'u;us ways ut'amu~ing the ttppamtusare tru.'ntioncd an') othf't' by Mciske bffmth'jritk's quutct) )'y (h'itn))),sue)t !Mfixin~ <))<; x])i))'no twwutw~p".st.<'tc. H"wt)n.'s)<im))L'i.<<tumcdisso)netimc.s donLttut but in s<cra) ptaccs tttc tudinn praeticcut'drtving tt wit)ta)'npcw')tmd)'<)um)it,audpu)k'dbaekw:u''t.'iimdt"rwar')s, H cart whcctis spuu cuun-'s cL'artyintu viL'w wtiitL'sumutiums )'~mKtn]M'uanax)')ras])indtfi.sWt)rk'dro<)hdwit)t)<vcr. t'ubbcdviot')tt)y t't)t'r, till ti~' tire 'mn' or t\u ptauk.s HM Sfons to tiavc hccu kept up t') tatc ycars in The tMGdfiru Ucrmauy. Itt (h'fat Uritaitt, thf m'~t tm~'m McuuntI tta\'c tm't with ()atMf'rotni8~<i/' Thc Mirror of June2tth of that uftin- nte, M ycar tHkt'st'rmnt)<t' I't.'rth(.'ourit'r' a <)<sct'iptiun pM't<'rmt;dt)')tfart'rutnP<rt)).))yaf!um<'t'w)tohad)usts('vcrat citt))~' t'y some (tisuasc:"A f'-wst~n'-swcr~ pit'd to~ctht'rin th!'b!HH-y!U''t,!Htdwut.it)-f)aLs)t!tnn~)K'<niftidttK'rt.)n,titufnc[ wasignitt'd )jy<t'<7/'t',thnt i. tireuhtaim'd Ly frieti)))) th'; in to witm's.s tht.'Mtk'tnnity, t)t<' ttci~hbuurshnvht~ bL'cu<'a))t-'d in thf urdt/r of catitc were m:utt'to pass thruu~)t thc tiatUL'.s, th herses ao'.tfuJiu~ t))''it't)iguityK)t')a}jL',cu)u)<)<))ein~wita withthuswinc." with SonMvarx'tit's ui' thc rite of thf X''w Fin', con)K-ctt;d th('Suu-wo)ship!!o<k'f'p)y]'o't')i<)t))cpupu):tt'niind)r)))u wcre t'uuutt.'nancud, or at )c':t.st ht'furc th thnt; uf thc Vt;<)a.s, t'))f'ratcd,))ythfC)n)reh. Hucharft))'' tKXtfin'satEa.st~)', Mid.smmu~rK\c,!HLd!iutnt: otite)'tuu's;ant). in nut;c:c,thu)''j '~riu]ttt,I~.M.,)'7". t'ont !t~drU)t].-u.L'{t"Yit)S~ItMr!:ttt't,<&fW.p.~j':J. -'<tntn)n,t).)..j'p.
''K'thn.j. )!r.m),Vi~.iii.)'J' \uU)ic,'Ut;ut.'c))<!r\'t.))tt:t~Tj;h"H")'.J~)'






r.r. 1 UA- JI. 1is _e fur suppoM)~ that th <ddrite wnstak<'n np into th gt-ound ttoman Oiurt'h, in the practiccof putting outthc church candtcs on Eastpr P~vf, and ii~htin~ ttx'tn a~in witheonsceratcd newtnade nrc,

OnKt~tet Etthareatt h qucneht tn <fryphtce, Amt And fruhajf~iHc fr".h tire atittheOint trom ontthSintinfct'ht i tetellt mtonne w)th \ Ith KOlemno!l'mec ftgaillc ~race Tho ttoth imiow thh a~itMt one, prient jfK'ttt dttuntfen numy ALraude when'of <toth man with mind ttdn' ho)m*. cv~'ry ~reedio when thcfmmfut or xtonne btitc): That, n))))ca)'C!<, tempe~t Mn'm. r fk!e.< thhh<' mate befromstroke nfhuriful )}y ti~htinff mny Hem th tmfM of thc n'tinn )nyth"!<'gy comf' uut with bcautit'ntctcarnp.ss.Thu ti~htuin}; is thc (iretfmt tiiu.sfromthu h<avch)yfh'e-churn,at t))'' g'M).whir) it in thf ctou'ts. Th Xcw Firu is its rt'prcsmtittive~n carth and,ttkc thu thundf)'fromtho ii~fttoin~-rtn.s)) ttn' h'ot'itin whiehit is, bo)t, pn'st't-VMs for th )i}{htnh)~ strikes no p]acotwief. But in this eo'cn~tty thc f!i)tt an<)steel has su)-r.se<t<'<! thc ancicnt friction-fire an'), imtcf.'d,t)K' \<<tprn etcr~ as a it.a.s h~th''tiish. h* thf C~pindariesof ruk', disc~UitctMtKf) Cartuman,in th pij~hthccntury,there i.sa prohibitionf ''i)['M of this opsact'itc~'signcs <)uost<t<'r~)'vocant. T))erc'.snit positionby thu (,'hurehwaii,in ~reat meature.to Lrcak the connexionhctwecnthe ott) ffstivatsof thf Sun,whieh thc Chnrch attowm),nn') t)n.' )ightin~ uf th nt'cdn~ which is so ctosety conneetcdwith the Sun-wor~hip in onr aticiutitAryan tnytitothat hrin~ t<~y. Still, ('vcnin Ocrtnany.thcrt' arc docmnc'nts the two tfgcth'-r. A ~tos.saryto th Capitutaricssays, "thf rustic futks in many phtcc'sin (!t'rmany,mid ind~cd on ttn; fcn.stof St. John thc Haptist.]<u))a stakc froni a ))c'd~c and bind a ropc rouad it, whichtt~'y pnU hith';r and thithcr till it takes nrc," etc. and a Low(jpnnan hnokof LT)3 spuaks of thu ")to'(/'<)v, that thcy saw~t out of wuod"to light the St. John'.sLonnrc,and through whichthe pe')p)e leapt and ran,nnd drovcthfit' c:)tt)u.~ It appL'at's, tttat t)tM Eastem andWp.st(.'ni chm'chc.s howevcr, <'<!<. i. p.t. t/4)d"n. ]SM, )!nUM), T'~HhfAnti~uhiM:'
t';tj'. C~rhmtttmi H! Ormun, t). M., p.< n.

U.M.. 5~ S~ 'jrimtM, ).)).

~).<.< Lt-t..<. v. X<)iM." Xi.mc,



diReredwidetyiut))ci)'trcatment uf th <j)dntf. Th Western aud, a.sht)'as they coutd, put duwn the cto'gy diseuuntenaueed, ucctXire but in Ru~ia it was uut unty aH"wed,but wus (aud saxetion, vcry tikctymay bf sti))) pmetiscdunder ccck'siastica! thc pricst Lt-iugthc chk'f actur in th t;t;rcm')t)y. Thi.sint't'~-sti)~ tact scons nut tu havu bwn knowtt tu Ori))tt)tatf<! whieh provcs it, is KtiU Kuht), uud th f')))uwin~pas. that thu uncK-uttirc-makiug M )t.<s(.-t-ti))S ft)t't)i0' )\'t))<tt-k!)L)< by tncttutt was stit) us~-d)M Mussinfur praetica) M wctt !M Mn.'tnottitt) purpuscsit) thc last century. !t is euntaincdht tm ttccuuntoi' tite n'h'cntun's uf fuur Rossian sititors,whu were istand of Kast-S))itxbfrg';n.' thc dt'SL't-t driv(.'n a stormnjKXt t)Y that if 'nte rn))s viuk-nttyt~ttx.'r two Tht'ykncw,hum-vt;)-, wiH piews uf dry w')'"),om*haut attd thc uther suft,thc ):tttt.'r t)tis hfin~ ()m way in which thc Htts.siaa c'attjh(ire. Uosufes ohtain tir' wh~n th'yarf in thf wu~d' thcre is atso peasant-s i)t <t'ry vi)):tgwh~ruth'rc is u n'ti~iott<i ewt)M)n',jx't-fur'ttt-'f t" thon. P~rhapit a church, whichcuutd))"t hav' hct-u uukttnwn t'~r tm.-hfrt' tu ~iY(iau accottut of it wi)lbf uut disa~rcL'aUt.' thi.s ccrftnouy,though it (tocs uut bctuhg to thc story. Th 18th ut' Au~nst, 0)d Stytc. is MtHed by th Rus~ians~'o< t t))(.scbt-ing thc xuu~ uf two tMartyrs,caftfd FIoms /,t-t'(H', to and J.aurus in ti)c Ronan Kah-ndar; thcy t'aU,uceut-ding uf thi.s)attt;r,on th'' :)t)t of thf .<:ti't Mutith,wh!n thc I''(-.sth':ti On thi.<day thc Russiati t-<-i<j))mt(;i tht.' B(.-huadittg John iM nt thf .idc of uring t)t't' )x't'<j t.' thc t'i)h)~!cin))'(:)), pt'a.-ants a pit with tw" out~t: ))).'forc -.vhich thcy hnw dug thc <'vctun}{ hus hi.s bridtc, whi'tt is tnadc uf titnc-trccbark. H:n-))ho]-.<c <'ncat't'.r th'- uth''r, K" '"tu th~ pit, at tt~c TheYh't thf h'fr.c.s, opposite ont)ct uf which tt)L' priest stauds with.au aspcrgingbru~h i~ hi.s hand, with whi<;hhc spnnkh'i th<mwith ttuty watcr. As suun as thu herses arc cuinc <ut, ttn.'irbrid)cs aM takou ot, and tttey an' tnade tu ~o betwecn twu <ircs,which caU ~'<<y f/",that is, an- kitidlcdwith what thc Hu.ssiuns Hf'tf.-)ronarktho expjatiittiun. <irc,'ut' whieh1 will ~i''<Ltivin~ intu utuuf uf t!te hut-;M thruw thc hridh-'s Ihg that th peasaut.s (AnE. h et& Ki?',t. )'. t-t.' )!.y.'Nr'i.htn!'!<.r )~~)<ut)<iMM.' v~t. i.) I'!a!nrtu)j,



thse rires totmrnthMMUp. Hct'GisttM'mannct'ofkmdHng this G~ (t~on.or tiving tire. Some men take tttd uf the endsof a mapte stntt',verydry, and abuut tt fathom)on~. This stttO' whiehmust atso ttn'y )(")dfast <wr!t piMcuf ))irch-w('<x), t)CYctyJry,fmd\vhi).<tt))('y\-i~))-ons)ynt))t)tU!<ti~'u}M)tt)K' n ]astwno<),w)tic))t-)n)ttchs')ftGrtha)ttt)<'<)rs<,it)nt))H))('siun short tiun. and x<n'cstu kiutllu the p~ir f tires, uf which 1 ii:n't' justtnndctnenUun." Tu sum up nuw,in )t f~wwonts,tho hi.t'<rvof tho art of t)mt the counnon notton th~t. the t't-tcmakinKttt-f,H(tppctution of two pn'CL's )n<t))<)d ust'f),hna uf wuottwast)~ n)-i}{i))!d Ktn!ngnndwhk-h'n)~i<t('))Minit.<f!tv'jur,attdvt-rytittte t))Kt.ca)t))t'!d)<'){t'()n!.{:d!t.tit. Jt.)t!ts))<Mt"M'nt)t!)tintnnny districtsw)n'n' tuKi~'rnK'thut)~ hfn'u )<!t~pn'tit<). its fumx,'t' t'i!!tcn<nsahuusch<)!')!U'tispr<)VM)))ytnK'st)mt)ta\ff)njtt' dowut'<us ia .r!d dit~'r~-nt <)<(.' tt.s'j way. 'SV)t';t'c ufpyritL's fur .strikin~iin; i.s t'uux')~-xisting m cutnpMty with it in ~urth A)ncnt.'H.iti-!at)ca'!tfikc)ythattht-fin'ticki.-<the'))<)''rinstnuncut. Pt;r)titp-! fMt tf-urtu~ on this ~t<-sthftnust uotaHM tiun i.-f t))cu<~ut'pyrite.-) "f Tiurm itthabitaot!! by thc ntisp)-a)j)c det Fut'gu. 1 <)'j not knowthat th firc-sticksimvt:f'vut't~n fL'eu reasu)mb)c t)n.m,butit .sc~msmore tu .upp'p that nutu)].~ tht-ywcruU!<udtmt)n'YWL'rcs))pp)ant<'t.)byt)n'd).cuvt'ryt)fthe 1\ iirc-tn:tkmgprt)pt'rtyufpyritp.sthau<t<nmk<sui)tsijj)ufiMU)ta pc-"]))c))u<xf;t)ti'))<toawurtd-wid<'t-u)o. Thi<artut'.strikin~ itr<inste~l<)t')ah<.r!uu.s)ypr'i')u('it)~itwit)tth<'<)ri)),)sn';t, iudwd, th <jnh'ttntj~it; whichittc cuitur~ uf t)iis me' stnn'is ahuvut)mt uf thctt' mo'thfrn nfiH:h))uurs, (.n'eutituufi)! as hiM tiunetl,tf~c tast wc)\'fuund cruftbut rid'ts, U!!))~uo tmvignhtt; whiicthc Fuc~ians tt~st.' hy ));)nn-imsof tuni bitrk can'jfs, !md the )owMt()ua)ity. !t is worthyof not~ t])ut thb Pouvions, thoughtht.-y)~) pyrites, audhMk('thon<jduh'st<)p'')is))<))t; facesinto ntirr'!)-.<, <)u nut '<('c)n to )f:tV(; tMt'<) it tu strikc fh'u with. lft)K'ydidMt,tiK'ir<'i\-i)i!tti<mst<Mdi))thi.sm:)tt<-r bMtow that of thu tnnch-dL'spisud FtK'cia)L<.Thu nxdott .\tt'xican.sai.somudcmi] rw.sufpotishcdpyrite, and porttapsthcy umyh!t\-t'us('ditt'jstnku{n-c;'Lutt))~wuodt-tifr)t-tion-npp)t')tf.ct.<).y:))M.t.in)!r:i.i.).),thjt)MJt~.)~M(;M~.utut!.it.k



Kvcnthf'Ure-dnih! Nh)sW!M<M'ttti)))yt;u))tm''na))Mn~thom. of Pfru nnd Mexicowcreuf tt'c .huptust kind, twh'h'd butwecn t)m)mt~)swit!MuttU)yco)ttnv!mccto)c.s'nt)K)hbour,Ko.t!)at <'Vt'nthcn)'t<jH-n)HMUX!Ut')I'<'))!)ntrit't'!<))!H'ft'cne!t('d,m t))i!!)'sp~ct,ahi~hcrst!tn'f!n'tth:Ht<)h'sccu)j)pa)'ativt;ty ('ivit)Xt'))))'npt("<. T<jtm'))nuwftmnthc!u'tut'maititi~<it'ctf'f)tff.'<'t)t-)pt'i))i<)). uuiv'rstd us pijM)u!<t"it"mankif)'t. Th<'it)'t'<tC<M)<.i))~ Fifuit.ctt'a))t'M)Lft)f('hntH!))))';n;f:t'utt)tn't'a)'cfmnn).t;tt f)ttMn~.<!n'!)~<Vt'r:dJit~rt'nt)n'uct.sst;.<<th!(t<'u))t('undt;rth<) distribution ot'thcseproc'ssL"! ~t'))(.'m)tc'r)t),tmtt!tvi'wut't)t<; t)Vt'rt))t'Wt)rJd))Mvthr'.)W.u)jn.')ightunt))ct'!n')y<(':Yt:)o})mcut '~HumanCu)tm'(. Ru:Mtm~"i')))'<nHti~h\'d))'L-t;tt.-xpo:!urutnt)'cfh'csf<'mstha <))tt'iit(;t)t')du)m'<')'s:))(ykn"wnto)n!Mtkin').)~ntt)tct)~'<jf.ut))e ki))duf't'ni.s :).)) vc'rvp'tK'tft). T)'Att<i;m)fm]<):)!)')(. in hujjuwtrm'i. su t)):tt ttk'y tire c"uti<H[:t))y ):L'L')) .s)ft"u)')t')'i')~ ft!H'cotf)ytc)cat'aH'Hyth')<h''s:H:n)ytinK;t')';uukt)tci)' )itttu)'i~iU)t)H.<h.' luAMMthctmtivu.stit.kcpus-.L's-iunut' !tS'tt'n't-i"t),'tt-.str<JYth'Utts.!U)'(c)<tr"ntt)n.'i)id~.)<'a\ i)~"n)yth'h'yw!d)s.'<t:mdh)~.w))ict)t)n'y)nakcr'd)n'twit)t Hutt))L"-tjar<3 !tfir(',suast')tMkcjuiut-iof)'))iti<'t;ct'u.wit)ti)t.~ 'xntstud expdients,~ud)tnmchconuu'))n')'~)t')t)"f'n'!t~'<('a Iut)mtnu~tt-fa)j'jt':ttc);i))')uf ~a)m't'H))itiuthc~n)und. thisc'~kht~ittumtt.'r~routtdov'ns.hot.tuttc~arfputittwith tt~fuud,!Mittt!tftitfttni:u'S(~)th-S).'Mjs!)tnd})r:u'm'c,w)iiL'))if Ttn.'M~ta~KyjttattscL'tns ~)t'wc))k)MW)itu!)L'cddL'.scn))Hun. t~))ct)t(;n)t)!)jutttn; Pu)ym'si!UtS)mdthL'it'Ct)tn)(.'xiu))s i)avui'yKu)nf.'ans:ttnun")M)yuttht'nrt,whic)(is~nn'tM(;d InU~ with)ittl't'n'tti~'n'n<*t'i!)<~hcr)':u'ts~tth<w')r)d. M'wH,thctr!t\'t;))')''s<titm<:)'i-i"t't.t:upt\~)![n'dLynmkh~:tti)~ i)!ah'))t;iut)n'~t'~nud.inwtti(;ha!i:id'))'iant))i-iattct'want!< Tho pk~'d,:u)dc')\'Gt'dm)'ynL.tuuL')i)~(k')t')[<u('th<[)(tr))'A-.c. th.tM.)t)iMt'i!.trikt:f!rrNit)t.;t)t.)i)!h~h~t))'t)Mj,t~'y)!n))<t).)y <ft'tj!mt~<.
'M..UM, ).<. ~Kt.'H~n.C.U..v").iii.p.'J: ~)'M.j. '').t'h~L").Jt' M"tht,Mi"i"mr)')a!r.<.<t-.inS.At'n~j



bm'ied mat io <t hte iu th gro~nd, nnd Canat'y Is)<utdcM H~htedHfir' ov~'rit axd a simiiarpraeti is tttiHsometinn's in t)n*i~and of Mantitnx~ whik'<unu))g {ounj.t the B<duin' nnd ht ptaecsit) .Northand South Ax~liM, t)tc )H-<)<'t:s cnnx'scven ettMC)' tu that tto.'din <)<<' Suuth S< Ms." It i-.t))i.< wxtct!ii}'))si<'n oi' ttiCttrt which tnakt")it .'Mm'whut d'~tt'tfn)v;h<'tht't' Ktcnuu i:; right n)t'))).id<rin~ it)! ueeum'))~'m Austraiiaas onL'of thc t'csuit.sufint~-com-.sL'with ))<u)\' (.-ivitixMt i.):unh!. T))ctMtn'M coukin utnh-~round oveus un Yundi.stittit~n-t.sof thu cuast tMtnetiMes ttottitutiL-s are us~), an'! sunn'timfsnot.~ When tucat M- Y~etabic.sarc kfpt R'r tnony hours o)) a uf tf~astin~an<t gratiug abuvu n st~w <iff, the <.t)t)t)<i))atid)) it will kft'p <u)a stnukit~ hrings thu iuudinto it statu in whif.'ti iti thf tropim. Jfau <)t'Lf.'ry, long whit~ <;v</n in thc nccount t'f bisadvcntttt-cs the Ittdiausof Uraiti). a))out m7, de<un')nH )iC)'ib(.'sthe wuodcngratina set up un jum-furkM) posts, "whk'h in thuir tangna~e t)K-y a)) a t<)c'(M <jn this tt~-y ck'd fuodwittt a stuwntt' uod~t-ucatit, and as tht'y dit) not salt tLcir )u'jat this proccss Mfvm)thon as a tm-ansof kccpm~ thfu' gamf and ti.sh. To th<;word t"<'f<!t t))< tenu <'<')K')u))~s t'?<t'<')', ~(wtfc; ~iv<')t tu tiic FfL-m-h hunt't-.suf St. Dumingo, front t)M-htttc Hushuf t)n.witdoxt-nand <MtHf! in thia pt-t-ptu-itiK way.aud app)i<d)Mi.s appropriah'tytn th ruversof thc Hpanish Maith 'J'Jtcprupfss bas ht-cufuHttdL'tsuwhfn; ix South A)Ufnca,"axd purhapsas fat-Xunh lis Durida.~'i'hc Haitian nanM ff)' &fratncwurk uf stick.s set upon pu.<t;<. wa.'i <<<M.(t, aduptcd into MjMui.sh and Eu~tish fur instance, the Pm'uvian ait'. t'nd~M, tnadc (~-crdiiiicuit ~t-oumthy suttit)j{up ou pitc'.sM )!arker-W(')!M-.) i. jat-ti. vol. i. t:t). t~rthdot, 'LaTffrc At'tt'ittom';hn.s,]s.7,)..iK. XaKr)', C. ~L Kfcmm,C., il. p. :M ~). iv. ]~u. rit~Mm-. i). Tr. I-:th. S..c., tMt, ). 1-

Htn) \YM<)MC, t~).ii.p. :M. rurtbtt.tu),v. f. 220. Hum)x))dt )!<mf.)at~, SM'. \d. iii. t. thki~t, p.3'

< Cu-.):, J)-t V..y. tf., m), iii. p. i!:)3.* Lu. :t<7. (!r<y, Juunm! t' i. ii. p. !70 m), j~. 274. Khmtu. C. )! vo). i. jj. Mur. Krrc. y..), ii. j). 2'.M. d'm Vay., tte-, )M' I~y.HMt. )t. ]::). ~mthn-. Mn~j. vni. i. ~2t'i; vot. iii. ).]). M7, S' Thc mmi ht.f<t< .tms n.M<n;ctMtwith thM nuw corn. KmM)y mKt in )inu!i). ".)A<mf/m, <)ondt tiKnm m<~ftMt, Mfar tM tn~m):)." Die. do Lininm Tupy. f)i<t.'<,

t'tHE~ COnKt~C!, AXD VESSKt.S.


wattfcd(tooringcotcred with <'<u'tt), afc caUedtwf~foao;' nnd Uampicr tipcaksof havins "a Uart'acm' uf split Bamboo~to x)<f'pon. Thf Atncrican mode ut' Mastiug ou suchft framework is the origin ot'ottr tenu to &/'&f<'M< thon~h its meiming bas chttngcdtu tftat uf r'M.<ti))~ an auinud wh'jt~. Thc <n-t of us pritcti.scdby the Amcnc~ns,ti) bttcttaittg ur tKH'tK'cutn~, fuund in At't'k'M, it) K'ttttchatkit,th< KftstcrnArchip~it~o,nud the Pek'w h)a)td. and it merles intu thc VfrycutttmonuruccMoff!n)tjj<i))g M~utto )naknit keup. Ttie mcfi iospteti~M of thfse simpiuaw) widf'-fiprca') vaneties ot' cuokin~ givf!)thf ctitoo~mpix-)very tittte videnceof th invcntcd and !<pn;ad ovft' thc way ht which lh''y hnvu ))t-L-u wot'id. But fmm thc )))<))'<' cutnph'x art of BoiiiHgthorc M smnfthing tu )w t~an't. Thf~c arc ntce:!of mankitid..fuchHs thc Fu~)!U).t and thu Bushtncu, who du not sc'em <o hi~'o knuwnhuwtn boit tud M'henttt'y t})'.st eaux.'into thc view of ufthc wut'td, au') a gn'a!: proHmi)p' whilet)n' ))i~t<(itpct);)!<s p<tif))t of thf iuwct'unes, hnvc h:td, su )un~ as wc know any. uf thou, ves~is ~f potto-yu)-M'tH)which thuyput Jiquids t.i)ing th<; firf tu bui). Betwcen thse t~'o cniut' at)d ifct nvL't' t))t.'rtj tn-i a pruecsswtnchhus hccn supGMcd~;(~ ()itM)j:), huwt'ver, tifMu.s of<rMjar~ufraction by tho ingher ttK'thodwitffiutMudt't'n uf thu cm'th's smfacc,and whicit thf-r~ is .smm:t-G:Mon to ))e. iicvc Mtec('xtt.'))d<d much fm't)K-r. It is cvcn tikc)\'that thu art of Bui))t)jj, n.scototnunfyhnmv):tu o.'i, )nay han' h't.'u dewhieh 1 proposuto VMtopfd throu~h thi.s mt~nm'diatf procL'.ss, eu))<S'~<7~f7<))~. Ttto-tiM a Xorth Attx'rican trib<;tvhu !'f<<ivod from th'ir tiro Ojitm'ns,thc nuntt;of As.siuabuuts, w "Mtonenci}{hb"ur.s tht'ir )nud<"f Loiti))~ thuir tncat, of whichL'atBui!<;t- f)'u)M tin ~i\-c.s a p~t'tit'tdMtttccuuht. Thcy diya )M)(;in thu gmund, tuke a pi'ce of tho )m!)n:d'sraw tndc, and preMit dwn wittt t).'i)'hattds cto.wtu t)ic snt<suf thc hulo,which ttius bccotm.'a a surt uf pot or hasin. This th<;ytill with watcr, nnd thcy tfmkua nundtfr of ston-.srcd-)wtin a firc cfosuby. Thc mcat v~.ii. )..9'): to).ii. jnrti. 90. T~:h"di. t'eru,' DMttpifr, CMttnt) Mrt~j, Afri~ v). ii. p. mi Km<;)t<:Minni):"w, p. <6. Httupitit-, ~).ii).]artii. )'. :M.Kcatc. S t~ p.2u:<. &r), !t;m.nH,' p. !(!


ASf) VHMRt.S. FtttE, f'0))KtX<),

!< put into th water, and the stutn-'s dmppcd in till tho mat a.sawkward and tcdious, isboi)ed. Cattin dpscnbcstho proccss n))d8ay))thatsiM'otheA'!sit)ah))i)<shad)car))tfromttwM'H)ftttusto make jMttcry,and had bcen f!(tpp)iud with vciMc!s by thetradcrs,<)~'yi<adMttirc)yd"ncawayti)Ocusttf),"cx<'Pptlike ittt otheMut' tho iog at puUie t'~tivitts w)t'')'<! thuy j.'<'tn, hutnan famity,tu takc pk'a.smcin eht'n.hiu!; Mhdpcrpt;tuatiu}{ thcit'<UtML'hteu.tu)us. Hi.scw))(')'eu)uu)t~t)n.'Siouxm'Datttc tptditi'Jt) ha.shccu cotas,to wh'on t))'' Assinubuios ))c)u)t~. that th<it' ft(t))c~usod to cu'~k thf gtomtin itMown preiifrvmt s):it),whichth<'yi'ctup on four stick-!ptantt'd in t))<rou))d, aHdputwat<)',nt('Mt,!md)tutt!tut)Mint<tit. Th'Siuuxhad in cuunn"n with <h<')))<).s)t uf tho t))<'art of st~uc-))<i)ing northetf) tnbc'f!. Fnt)n.'rCifarh'vuix,wntit)~ ab~c a ct'tttury kctt)ei) a~o,speaksof thf Indiax.sut tht; ~ut'th as ttsiu~wmxh-tt in t\'d-hut stonc.s, iU)dhuiting thu wat~'rin thcm hy thf~wi)).~ but ovoi then h-un pots wcrc st)p''t'<din;{ both thc.sf vessc).') and thc pott<t'yot'othcr t)'i)~.s.~To spccif'y ntore p:n'ticuhu')y. and thu Cn.'t. aru thc ~tionaes and Suun~ucis,' thc B)tn.-kt'fct or SnakM knuwntu hve bwn stunt.b~ijcrs tin' S))".<h"))ct's uf S):)v<:s, Indiaus,like thc far moreuurtht'rtytrib<M Du~-Kihs, ftc. Ktiittuakf, ur )att')ytnadt', tht'ir puts of Mots ptaitcd or rathcr twinfd so c)"sf'tythat th~'ywit)hutd watt')',buiiit)~tht;ir fondintht'tn wi)hht)tstt)nL's;~wbi)<wc.st ufthf i{t'ky Mo')t)tuin!tb''I)tdiat)su''<dt!itni!!trba.)!ftst~)M)sattuo)) vcs.scLs acoru porrid~'<and otitcr t'"od i)).'or wuud<-n sm;)t a!) at Captain Cnok found ut Xootka Suund, and La P<?ro)).su Port Fra)n;ai.s." La.stty,Sir Edwan) B<)ch<;r uict with tho uf practicu of stom;-bui)iu~ht IK~)!aunjn~ thc K-i<)uimaux JcyCapc. !'io instantty is th art of stonc-hui)i))g .supptantcdby tho kt'ttjusuf th):'whitt; tradt-r,tttat, unk's.spcrhaps iu t))c northnutv. But thc Wfst,it ]night bc hard tu tind it in c-xi.stcncc 'C!)t)io,T<').)'t. 'S.')M!ti)t'n~t,jmrtii.;t.I!'t!. *Ctmr)m'"ix,Yu).<'i.)'.<7. <)i'")!'ntft,)<tr<)'.i']. '')hntMM,]! 'h~-h!'it;.)i.S!M'<<t! 1 i. 2 11. m. l'l'.llli, J4fJ. :dIClull'rat, !!4-))fM)ctnft,)ttrti.)).2U. )1.:111 JJ. ')m'))fmft,;artiii.M'.t"7,)4(!. A,Juloh'r.Lft, .-art ''Ct).j.)!,TUn)\'u.v.,v.ii.p.32). K)nn)n.<).,tu).ii.p)).M'. in )..).hM, Tr.Kth. S.t'ut.i.)~!).).).



xtatc of thing!< in North Amo'ica, os )<))owH to us in carlit'r tune! is somewhittaa iot~ws. TJtc Mfxicttnx, and thu n'ccs hetwt-cnthon M))'! thu htionus cf P)n)inua, worc potto-s ot th time ai' th' Spsmish and the nrt oxtcndednorthward di-icovt-n-, over :m immense district. tying 'n"<tty hptwccn thf' H'ky Mountnittsaud tho Attantie, and stn.'tchint;up into ('!))t!ut:L Ju Eaiitcn) Xurt)tAtncric~the f)Mt Kur"puan disf~vercM fouod th art of farthfnwat'p.mnkit)~ in fn)!npentti'jn.nud i'orntm~ ft M))d on this .sidcuf t))f con. tfKuiar part of thc H'o))t<))'f) wm-k, thu'nt, a. high at tcast ft-'iNew Hxghtnd, th't'itc of :)))iHdMu viHt~f may be traccd, tike su manyof thu sncicnt fiettk'ML'nta in th Otd Wurtd,hy inhottK'mt'k frat:mfntsof pottcty. But thf Stone-Buik'rsL'xtondcd ta)' "ffutttont)tf Pin'ifMsidc.aud td~-o what tuity hc ron~tdycidi~'d t))e nort!K'rnhtttfof occu])i<d N'M'thAtu.'nca. In thitt )i~)'<h-t'!t.tf')'n eorm'rut' A.<ia whichi.<ofsuc)t ~xtrcmc mt'r'st tu t)x' t.'<))))o~)'ap)i(.'r, ns pn'rvintj' t)M )uw'r ittunan <'n)ttt)f ?) ncar thc high Asifttic ch'itiMtiu)]. ntn) yt.'t Mu tittta M' foondit) fo)) t~'cu. inftm.'nct'd t'y it, thc nrt ')f.St")K'-hni)it~ Tin' K<unct)ad:ds, like stom' Atn<)'i<tt) ))ui)')w<-d tribe. <Mt.'<) woodent)'t'))~hstw thc p)u'p<c, and f')))~t't'si.-itt.'d th u.<o of thc u'ont'onkin~p"t'<of the Ru'!<ian-<. that t)n' f'")d considft'in~ in thf otd-ths))M)tcd otdy kcpt its ttavuurpn'p~tty wh'/n dh'.s.s<d wa\ t Thu.s th f.ist)'))CG of it ~)'<at district of Stoue-Buitf'rsin Xo)'th<rnA'iNnxd Attto'it"!is j~ndt'nxt hv din'ct c\'i!)t'n< but t)Midfthis wc knoH'of thc pnf'titv ht a .'uthci'))district of t!tu w'jt'id. In Austndia. M)'.T. Baim's )nt'n<M)M tNtivc c'xjkitt~-ptace;! fecn on thc VictomtHn~r in I~.M-H, su~dt ho)<s in th ~mund, \ht'tt; ti;<h,wat<'r-tortf)isc,nnd, in om:iustaucc.a sm:d) afti~itto)', hftd ht'fu n~dc to Loi) t'y t)n' int)a'')'sion uf)iL'at''dstonL' in tho watcr~ Thu.sthc Au.stm)i:u)s, nt k':Mtin modon)timf'i.must hc rounted !t.< i<to)te-))ni)t'r.(.'onH'n)in.~ thc Xt-'w Xeah())d<'M, t)t!td< !t n'!))Mi'!< th:)t "tmvi))~no Yu<SL't in w))ich Capttun C'~ok wat<t-<;an);< hoit'd, t)K'it'<'(tukh~(~)f<i.<t. who))yof hakin~ 1 )<K<)j<;MiM)ik" ::u. K:rr.u. \'ul. '). iii.)'. iii. 4: H:"I:I:.llt tt,~i~I', tt~i" KmdllIJJUJ1ikllU", JI. l'. j~J.
)LhK<, in Anthr")'. )! .tu); )' p. ''iv.



and ronsting.1 But the mt'urcnpettmt people who tmvo uo vessetthat will stand tbc tire must tht.'rcforc ho t))t)tb!cto t'~it foodis not a sound onc. There is evidfn that the )!a'))n'f< knew the itt-tof stcnu.tx'itit)~,thou~))thcy uscd it but little. It M found Mnoug thon Mtt'k't'cit'cnmstauL'fit whieh give no that it was introducc'! Ht~fr <npt~in groon'! for supp'MtMg Cook'svi.sit. Tht:eurMusdt'ic<thoumn)<cads of Xt;wZti'ttmn), which Mcvt )my mumtnit;~ th~t ha\'f cvcr tx'N) u)adf iu th wt'rc tirst bt'unghtover pt'eservatiunof the i'fttturfsuf thc dca<), tu Engtandby Couk'spM'ty. Fromttcareful fkscripttonut the it app~at'tthat onu thiug proeMsof pt'cpnringthon, tnudc Kiocc, wastu jMt'boii thon (<t.swe HM(.'d tu dotraitors' hfad.s iurTonpIc c"))t)'ivt;d B:u), und this W)M hy th~win~ them "into hoiling are cuotiuuHtty wntt'r,into whichrcd-)tuti-tuttt'.s cast,to k('(.'jj up tho hcat. A ru))ttn'kmadc by MnotItO' writer ptnccs Uto existenceuf st'OK'-boiJi))~ as Il native Nt'wZodandart buvond <~estion. ThcNewZ~tnttttfrs, tdthuu~h d~titutc of Yf.s.sc!s in which tu Luit watw,had <u)in~'oimMwayof hfnting wnior te tiif hoitin~ puiut, furthe purpo.su uf makit);;).heU-<Mh opfu. This WMdune by puttittKrcd-hct .stonci) into woudenwsscta full of watcr. W))':n,t)K')'ffure, we tiud thon huiiin~ and of tite Z'o'~ ~m' whicit M'o htu'mtuss catiu~ t)tu b<'n'i<;s whcn buih'd,Lut puifiuuuu.s iu tht'it' mwstatc, it is nut Ufef.ssary tu snpp'jscthis tu havt.'LM'n fuund uut sinf-t!(.'aptain Cuuk's wa.sprohitHy'h'n~tK-t'urc withbut stunc~ time, t)<t))(;boi)i))g Itt st:t:nd ottu'r l~tytx'si~n istaudii, it :t))pi'ar~ frutu <Juuk's that .stuue-buifi))~ wts iti urdiuary use in euokcry. jouruMt.s Th tnakiug of Mttativc pudding iu Tahiti is thus tk-scrit~d. itttd pain) or pttndanttii Druad-fruit,ripe )))!U)t:ut)s, <:u'o, nuts, were nMpcd, atid bakud .scparat~-ty. scmpcd,ur bcatett up {))', A quantity'juicc, pxpn.'siit'd fr'Mncocoa-nutkuroci. wasput intu a )a)'gf tmy (~rwuud't) v~sf). Tin- othcr artictes, but fron tbc o\'ct), wo'c dcpfMitcdin this vc~c], attd a fcw hot fituneswcre M)s<) put iu to tnakc ttn; eunteut. sitnutt.'r. Few puddings iu Et~hud, hf says, ~)u:d thse. !)t the isiaud of t'iMt iii.p. M ah)T)jif<) i. p. M~. C<m):, Yoy. !).,vu!, V~ Yo). 'Xew M 2. Yxte, Mthm),' Y~t. i. p. !C~. Tkm'imtt, 'X<:wZ<;x)m),' Yate, p. 4:J.



of (ish, ftoup, and yanx! A))(t)))ooktt, thcy brou~ht )mn a UK.'st in n wooden titt'~t'd iu coco)t'))nt vessct,with titjnur, protmhty hot iitnnef! 'j'ho pmctipc.woos to hvepxiott'din thf Marand it) Hutthfim'he <)t'<')'i!)(".i thc prfparittiot)of a dish <)upstts, of /w I)i w'M~k't) trough withbut.stoncs.Whnt the Polyncsiannntionof tt )M)<t<)inj!; <rom is,as to sixc, tnay )x.' gntftcnMf thf Meuuntuf two mis-siuMaries wtt<~ an'ivf't nt <)K'is!:tndof Km'Htu,fmd wet'f rc'ct'ivM) hy a nattYu whn pttMicd out to nfet them tht'uu~h)t rou~h scft,itt a wuo<tt;n sfVG)) j)"<-di.t)), twuand <thnifwidc.~ ~'et tong MM) 1 f<'artbat th TahitMn rccipf for making~ot nmst spoi)th Wotti~'stca-urn. A native whowati ~(x~to}<t xto)')'of C'ftptftiti th Dutphiu}<aw the tca-pot<i))edfrom hrf'tthtastingon but))'') t)K'uni, and pre.sfntjy tnn)''f)titc coctco~aiu an<) put his haut) as mny hc itungintt). C'HptttiH un'tfrneath, with such ~'t~-ets t)<atttx' t)ativG;t had no L'attth'uvessc! :thd WitHis,knowin}; nud that )'"i)i))~ht a pot nvcrtho fin*was ft novcttyto t)K'm, putting nH thc!!cttnn~s t'thcr m tettin~ t)tu story, iutcrof tt~' scittdedtmtivt.'tMhe dnnped about thc prt't'd the huw)s nf tt)e rost ot tho vi.sittu's,M Mbit), ond thf n.sto)n<h)M<Mt iu which wator "hat'i))~ no vt.s.su) provitt~that th TaftitiatM coutd bf i'uhjfctedtu the actioftof Mn' had no moreidcit thnt it coutd be madf hot. ttum that it Mtdd )'c nmd~.<n)i<). ut hot Wittpr Ku duut't t))u nati\'MWt'rc cotnin~ont s)u'pri.s<'() of so untikc)y <tptacc.but t)~' wurtd swtns tu hfn'c Mccptoi witb'<ut.stuppinj; to coM.sidt'r both thc sturynnd the ittt'fn'ttt-t' th~t but watt'r cfj)ddnut be much of u mn'cttytuoong peop)c ))uitf<) att at'tic)''uf daityfood. Captaiu tu w])0)n pudding WH.s \d)i.s'.s story (as li .so comutoxiythe ensc with aecountsof sftvit~cs) ttt'ay hc tttatt'hcdL').st.'w))frc. A))dWfWt'iit uow," Kotxchuo.tnthf accoutttui'his vi.sittu tht.'J{adi(ck i.fhmdf!, fiay.s to Karick'M wh(.'rethc !<cttf<; hd afi'cadyht't'a .set dwt-'tiin~, asscuddet)round it, iookin~ on thc fin;, and th nativeswcr<; at tbc boiting watur, which s~'mL'dtu t!)L'tna!i\'< Tt un it i!. ronarkcd thnt tt~' )oauothcristandof thu s:unc c)i:<in ii. rt).i. ).. Thir.[ ~3:<. !n.f \y., ~).i. p.St". Fir..t C..uk, \y.. v..). 1. \y. ft., f'!).ii.p.~.it. '). i. j'. < k )h:t!et. Wi)i; )! n.i.i. ). ~~i.~~). 'fyemMt



nMth'hy <!)'yi)t~ t)n' ruttt of ph)Mt,!)<h) thc ~<tft/- i.< pn'.sxin~ mua)ioto hnnjM wt~-nit is to bu cato), ifoxn' uf this is bp~k<n "(! stinfd with WMt<'r iu 't Mcua-hut shfU,<md)t)th-dtill it nwdh np iuto n t))ick porrh)~' (" umtkm-Itt ihu, bis er xn t eittcmdic)'nBrci .'mt'jUtitt,") <'<c.' am)))0 duuht '))0t~h tho n:ttn'csuf th istands muntionc'). of ntany tht;)'.<. wero still stu)te-))ui)~)-s in Cnuk'stitm-,puttcry httd nlreatly notdc it-i !t))))t'!U':mcc it) rotym-.sia, in districts so titUMtfd th.tt t)~ art )nay r~'MsunaDy ))<;snpposfttto hve traYt.-HcJ fnxu istam) tu ishtud t'rout t!)u Kast~-rn Archipfiago, whcrc jx-rhapsthc Matays ~cpivt.dit fmm Asin. By Cook aud httt.'r Mptut'crst-arttK'nv~.s.~ct.-t wo-f' f'o)))dit) tin' Petew, t.'i't~nia.~ Uythis titnc Fiji, nttt)Tou~M t;P' it i.s tikcty that t)t(:sc':))fdHu)'"j)f;mvc.s.<')s )nny h.'n'~put im cud to stune.)joi)i))~ in Pu)y~-s:!t, su that its t)is;))acu)m.-nt hy the ittti-t.ducti<.u ni' pt.ttcn' nud nn't:d will hnYu tttkcu p)~ t'v t)t<;f!:tmecm)i))in:[tit)u uf thc mtiuL'nce uf )t'-i~h)'utn't)~ tribc.s nxdof Eur<'pt'au.s whichim\'Lct~ct iu .Nortit pruduccdu sitnitin' A)n<rica. 'i')<(.')\' is Eur~pcfU) cvhk'tK'c t)x' art of .t'nG-hoi)it)~. lu spit' of <s of contart with tin' Jxdu-KurupL'au rac~ a bmncit of tht- ~rcat Tata)-f:unity,<))(.' havL'k<'pt up into modem I''inn.<. ti)uL-s a r'He uf thu practicL'. Liu)t:<'u.s, "n tn.siiutMus Laptaud T'tur.m )7~. n'e'.ntcd th'- fact that in Rast Bothiahd"Thtj Fhmi.sh)i()m)r caUcdLura i.s prcparL-d )ikuotin.-rhct-r,cxcujft n"t ht-i))~))ui)M), in.tt:n) uf w!)K'hr''d-h"t stotK'.s nrc thr"wn into it. Mu)-w\(.-r. th~'quantiti~ of.stuht.s, (.-vidcntiy c:ddm'(1, w))ichar~ futntdhum.") in <jurowt) pountry,t-umftituc.s in th !<itus (jf ttnci'nt dwt'Uht~s. ~)Yt' ~rt-'atprohanititytuthc inft'rcncf which bas )K;<'tt (h'invnfrum tht'tn, ttmt tttcy Wfrc uscd ht cuuki)~. It is truc that th<;iruse may Jtavut~t'n fur bakin~ iu uxdc't~rounduv<n.s. a practicu fmmd amou~ rues who t~'M aud ntht.-rswhu art- not. But it is aetttaitvon MtonL'-buik-r' n).ii.j.j). u. K"tn').uc,
Cu..k..<tr..n.) \r.. rt. i. )). ~] t t..L ii. j.. )f~ T! V.n- y..), i. j,. K)M!!tn, C. (f.. rt). h. )<. WiHiM)t<, 'Fiji,' v..). i. ).. 'L L THmcr. p. 4~). Manucr. r'.). ii. p. K~t~. p. :i:M. Tu~r, vn). :i. ~). I.h)N:



uscd to wannt)<(.'ht!t!tt tho wi)d Iris)), cf ahont 1(!OU, t-fc-jrt) tnitkf'n'')t'i))):in~withastutK')ir<t<'a.tintuttt~f!t'e.' "f cookery u\id''tt<:<: t'y fn Asia* i hav nmt with no )X)')itivc stunc-boitiogLL'yumtKamchattM.hutsotuecxt~mcfynxte bf-cnt))'L')-t't''i iunott~Siht't-huitribt' thc Luititt~-v~c). hnvc orMKH-city tu ))f t'xj))t)in<'d is ~-ittK'r u.~ ot'w)in.')t ty thu :))'.sc-ucu < )twt:t)pots,or t'y tttc kc~tintj;uput'oMhnbits ot\n-()<L')nvarf 'fh'Uutc'h h<')'~i))~t'jttti)n(.t<uc))!)K')-M's(.wity. c'm-uy,Y.~rfiN~I<h.mnark<ofthuO.<tynks,Ih)tv'))' ctht.'r kctttfs of k'-ttte tuu")~ tttftn, aud .souM KM)) t;u))))(-r in which thcy ean )x)UfuoJ over thu hot bark .'Wfd to~t-th'')-, X<wju.st'!nch)):)rkcut~J'nttM'tintft'-Hameot'tkctir' NM-thAmo-icim iti use amongit f~ot ?-<')) kctdt's as tht'ft' hi)M' t)n.'RockyMouutains. Rivur.nMn' tnLc ot)tiif Unija)t,"r Pctu.'tusi))g for ti)is purposc thu rf~uhaThuy won-'.st"nt.-)M)i!t'rt, tir, tf'.t/tfof )tf)ts,or mtht'r huskuts.uf wu\'ftt ruut.sut' .spruc< which ih'.y but <)t''yt~') :t)s" kcttf~ "tttftj<'<'f.<pruc<)'a)')<, ha))~nvL'rt)tu)h't')t!tt.suc]tadist!mcca.stut'ccfi\'ethch'tt <.t' t))(witftin t-t.-ach ~ithout h~-in){ )))ax< it v~-ry t<<)i')H.<i)~mti"n. !nSi)'<-ria.mtt.)n~th''Us<Ya)<s,thupra(-ttCL'h!ts)A-L'tt <t uhs~t-w)uf usinK t)' ptmn'-hof t)tc .ftatt~ttcrff! twast )).< Vt-=.st.) tu cuok t)tc L)')"din "ver th re,~ and thf saniethin~ bas hL-unootic'dauK'ngtht.-Rt.-in'K-urKuriaks." Thnsthf of t)tc Scyttnans,whu,wht'n thry had st"t- t")'t )'y Hc-n'dotu.s of thes)Ct-ific<'<) usot to )'"i<the f!c.-)< ).< a suita)~ cautdro)). "~t'' s~fta.s to };iv' a s< b~-t in its owu paunc)),~ thit~.<iht))t'('<trc()fA.ia,rusem)))inj.ttitatw))ich bas conLti.-ithus tinut ttttum'Mk'nttitn'-sin tht.-t't.-)not'!Nt)rth-Hast. nutuutit:tyt))att!tcuscffstom'-)j')iiin~.tuM~tt)K'tmnt over th~' nrc, taay onct.' uf .st)itab)cvc.].') fur 'ih't.'ctb")))))~
"t"Lx!t. 'J.Hv!t))<,it)Ar')m th-. H<~):erfnmt.t )<tth~ b'O'wc.) tm-sitt )!)t"mimt)). h~t'~) *)t)t b.t~Xtt(;Mn)Mn'!tHMtihr)~<;M)ttX.Htt'n~. 'ninHh'thJ"unM)'i.p.SU;i. Tr.K:)L~t-Lit.)!2!"L K.Y')~<<)')t';i-M"'<')')'t' <M.~k<')m')! 'HnM!utJ!-TrJ,v"i,ii.)'jM,4~. '')\ne)Mnimii):p.)~. ?H~.).r.')).



haw had a rau~ in Asia far beyond the KamchatkfM promet) tory.' It ntay be that tho more convenient in veiiifch) set hoi)ih){, over tho tire, was gem'ndiy pMCb()ed in th wor)d by thc dmnsit'r stohG-boitin~. ut' which the history,ao far as t hve uecti abtc to makc it eut fnon M'iduuM within my rcach.hus thus beot sketched. Of vcs.sc).s u.sed<ot-thc hi~tur kind of Loifing,as couununtykuowu t" us, smnuthini; tuny nuwbu Mid. It is not a)).s')h)te)y that vessefsuf carthont-arc, necG.'Mary hc used i<u'this purposc. Potstoac, tnfta), etc., s))ou)<t tapi)! has bccn uscd by thu H)i<;ttin)aux, oUMis, M))d hy variousOld Wortd pcn]))p.s, to nmkt. v<ssf-).s whk-hwit)stand thc tirc~ Th(! Abatte paunch-kc'tt)cshavu just b~-pn mentioned,an<)ketth's of skius hve t~cu dc.st.-ribedamung the H~juixmux~ and even among th wHd Msh* and thc i)t)mbitant.s uf thu HcbridM, of wifoseway of Ufe(~orge Boehanati gh'~ thc fotiowinK curions accouot :" In fon(t. etuthit~. and a)i dutu~tic mattfrs, they use t))c !tnci<'))t TtK'ir tneat i.ssuppticdby ituntinH par.simony. and iishing. Th rk-.shthey boi) with watur in the pauuchor hide uf thu stan~htcredbeast fut huttth)~t)K-y M)u<;tim<'s eat it raw, w))cuthe biood I):(.s bt-t'u jtrcsscdout. For drmk t))cv havo thc bmth of thc n)L-at. Wh<-y that bas hecn kept for yfars, th~y a).sudriuk ~'(-(tiiy at thcir f(.).<ts. This kind of Busiduthcsc a)n)na)man-ria)s,pM-ta Uf)uwthcy a)) biand. of ficvcraiplants wi)t answcr thc pm'po.st-, us the bark used for k<;tt)csin Asia and Atm'rk-a,thc spathM <jf})ahtM, iu which fuud is (jt'tcnbuitud in South Atnerica,"tin- .'ipHtbambooi) in whichthc Dayaks,thf Smnatmos, and thc Sticos of Cambndin. boi) thcir rift', and cocott-nutsh<'))s, as ju.st )ncntiotte<t in thc Radack group (Japtain Couk saw c<)cott.uut shett u.scdin Th.fn..)mnt ..<e wi.r )~);et.< f..r).Mi..j; )i.)ui.)..Africa.my )mn! a "n thffi.-tor;af ).t.,Mt.-)<.i!i< t~tt-ins i<<-e tu<Mti..n u{)mt ).t.)n.:s h[ u!t[ti~ or )<oi)n)!: ht, in)!)M:):, ittAfnca,' 'KM-tt~r.) ~p..<-ltt. =Cnutx, r.i).i. p. :j Kictum, ;).7: j.itttttt..uK, C.U.,vut. ii. )<. 'Mt!.Mem S. tu!,i. ]M;;i-4. At~thr")'. 2!<7-s. ~j,. Murtitt ) t..).iji. j,j,.f!)!. t'r'i~.cr,:tt t~.ktityt.' M. j r. 'K<-m)n .tMtrMtM :tu..t.in: tfMt..rh, tj,t. ~wl~aaann U~-hmMn m.) SMtu;'(mt mtu; (udcx.) K.)itt)~!t~)t, ).M< 7. r'j. ii.p. ~i)~.W.); j,u\ !tn<) H~rti)). .Sj!ix



t Tahtti, to (!ry up th Md </f rmtiw dog in, over th fitf.' TtK'sefaets shoutdbe hot-noin min<) in <'<'nsi<icn)ig the t'otjuwmg ttteary of thf Ori~in of thf Art of Puttt-ry. It wax,1 buticy~,Gugm't whn (h-st pfipoundfd. in thc tast century, thc notion (hat t)~ wayin which putto-ycame <.< ht! was t)mt n)!nt< thtutx.'ttsuph combustib~vesscts as fM-opte thse w:th c)ny, to prott thon t'Mtnttx- fir", ti)) tht'y fuund t)mt th chty atum' wuutd auswutttte pm-po~c, an') thus ttx' !U-t of pottcry CiUUf into thu wut-ht. Tfx.-idm was not a tMt'K: etR)t't of his inMj.{itM(tMt, f~r It~ hih) met with a tjc.st.'t-iptio)) of th phstM'iug of w<M<)pn vcsspts with ctay in the souttx.'rn -that a ccrhu))C:tptniuGom~viltc Ht'nu~tn-rc. It is )-<)at<t Mitt-d h-MnHouttcur tt) 130:)..)uub)e.( thfC':tpHi'C.MdHopp, at)<) Ciuncto t)tc S'~ttho-u tndk's (apparL-htty tht; t'ast <uMtuf Sottth Amcnea). T))f)-cho foun():< ~ntk tto.) j.tyoos pt-optf-, amt an'! a little :~ncuttur(. itud hu tiviu~ Ly huating 6.s)nng. xpeaki)of <).))Asuf mats tunt skins, tt-at)i<-twurk, Lowsand t)n-uws.hfds of mats, vtthtgcs"f thh'ty to t~hty Lutsof .stak~ an<fM-att)c.s, ~tc., "an<t t);ir hou.~huJdotctt.si).< w.xx), cv<n t)K'hhoiiin~-pots.)~t ptnstctt'd wit)t a kind uf ctay, a j~ooj tinK<-)' thick, which pt-cvutttsth< <irc ft-un)Lnruit~ thon. Thc t)K-")-y of thc uri~hi of putto-y which(.iu~tn-t fmtndL-d upnh this n.'niiu'kftLh.' i s )n.t'on))t, curn~'urat~'d ))ya qnantity uf uvidt-ncLwhichha.smadf it.sappcanmcft-incc ttis titftf. Thc cum~trtsn <jftwo acconntsuf \<.st..).s fumid,utn-amon~ t)t< Hstpunmux,thu uther mnot~ thcir )n'i~h)n))tH thc L'ua):M)tk!m.s (who.sM hut~txt~' c<jnt:uns proofsnf inthnat~'c~utix.'t wit)) t)t'')tt' n;:n' .r~- tu ~ivf !;))idn) of tht' w:ty in whictt k'~ potn~nit.nttnat<;na).s, c):)y )nay co)))c t'~ sup~-rsc<tf !mdit gnutua) approach bf tnad~'towards ti)f )~)tt'T'.s art. \Vhch Jatncs itai was h) (JK-unhmd, in 1CU. ))p found thc r.ativc.s huith)~fuod ovo- tht-ir huups, in vc.ssft.s with ftono hottuu). <))td t.idc.s uf whak-'sfins.* In Un'dashka,CaptninCook foond i. p. ]97. M~r~en. .t. J~t),v<j). r. ii. j,. ;;). t;); p. <<. M.mtt.t, Thit~t t~.t. ii. j)..j5. ~.cCokinMt, \'M' p. N]s M~ri! n. ii. ~j. tu), i. 77. Metuuin.-) t~uchaut Uu,!uct, ;i. t')!tit).ti~t<;nt tt'Mo))JMh.M Oih'ttiMitM 'htt! le tr~-MMMMtt.k, tt)ttn;)ucnt h Tm't: :t~[<;)!u AM-~ndu,' etc. )~]' !)- t'M:). ).)<. < run'). t~t.iii. A:t.S~r., ti~-hm~xu, p. r'): j, iip. s):.

4 27-t


that somc of the nittivcsha<i~ot bmss kctttes fMtn thc RusMan! but thoscwho had uot, tnade their own of ILflat xtoun, wit))sidfsufchty,ttotu)))ik<nsta)tf)i))gpyc. Hcthoughtit tikt'iythat t))nyhad h-antt to boi) fr")t) <))(.. Russians,but tlle Rttssians coutd hardty i~Yctin~ht th"m to )nn)'fuch vosifds as thcst', and th npppanMK-G of a kftt)t' with a xtooehottom ut' auuther )U!ttun:tI, (no duttbt putstunc;. :mdsid(;.s tit the twu opposite Mt~'sof AML-rit'a, pvcs groun't for supptxing it to have been h) conunonuse in high tatitu'te.s. F)tun th fx:nuumtMU of uu MH-tht'nt vessetfrum Ute Fm !))-.b. S. Priccconsi.tt.rsth;tt it WH.s Is)an(t.<, very tikcty mmk ))y)))')uidH)~c)!n-f)nth)'nut.<!id';uft)!('.s))t..)tt)r)'i)t<)o<u)nu frnit. Th v(-.<.s<t ht t~uf-stiun is tnadnw!)t('rt)K)'t nft'')-thc South A)))'t'ie:)ntnanncr by a Yiunish of r<;si)).Ttx.t-i')unt nm)frcin th ~rthL-nwaru qtn.'Mt of distant nduptiouof gour't-shHpcs parts of thf wu!-)'tdws not p)-oYf )uue)t,)'ut its far as i(. gocs it tells in favour of tho ophnott that such K')'<t-t'kc vcssds may he thf succussoMnf t-Ht)~ounts. n)!u)'-int" pottcry hy (t ptfMt<t'tn}!; of ctay. Sunu.dt-tinh:;{iv<uht 1841 hy S~uicr und J~a\-is, mtheir aK'onnt. of thc tn'~nutnf.'nt.s in the Mi!)' MppiVant'y.arcmuchuM-ctothuput-po.sc. "htfiotnuofthc SouthernStatcs, it i.ssaM.the kUn.s, in whichthc nucicnt potto ht' nx-t wit)). Sutno tcry wa.shak~), iu-c nowoccosionaOy nr<)'<pru.<~ntcd still tu H)))t.unthc warc.partiidiyhurtttd, and rctainit~ thc rinds t~fthc ~))n'<)s, (.te.,ov.i- w)n<-h thcy wer< )not)c))<(),au'twhich had xothcm~ttth'ch'rt.-thovcdhythf <ir< A)a')t)~t)tt.' tndiithsidon~ titc (iutf, a ~n'atcr d~-ce of HkiH wn.s disptwd th:m wnh th~sc ou thf u;ttx;r watcrsof the Mississippi ixtd <mtta- h)kt.-f!.Th<irvc~cis w(.)-(.. gcncraOy aod of a .sxpf-nor Iargcr and tnorc synnm'tnKat. finish. Thcy muutdM) thcm "vcr j~ounts and otin-)mode).and hakud them in ov<ns. In thc constructionof th'w f hu-~usix~ it was tht-min basketsof wi)).jw or sptints,whic);, custumarytu m<M~') at the proper pct-iud, bm-nod(.n',it-inin~tho vf!)sc)pcrWt-ru fcet iu funn,and rL-taini))~ thu sunn-what"ntatM'ntidmarkix~ ofth(;ir)nf'u)')s. SnmcnfthnscfounduuthoOhMSPontu have been modcticd iu hags or t~ttings of cuarjiethrcad ur ThM CM)k, vol. ii.)..SIo. Vcy.,



t!t'Mtcd)M)'k.Ttwsepmcticestu'fstiitrf'tame'tt'ysomooftho fcuMtawe.ftft't)tt'ibo.s. Ut' this <)uscriptiu)t of pottcry nmny spfeit))t-nsarufuundwitt)t))f')-twntd~Msitsmthemt)mn!a. 1 Princo Maximitianof Wicd )nako-< thf t'uHowin~ rcnMt'kou MttK'eartht'uvcsst't.sfuundittItTdianmoumtsncarHarmuov, o)tt)n'Wtti)ast)rh''T:"T)f'yw)'c)n:t')'fnsort"f~n'y c)fty.m!H'kfd'))tt.siduwith)'i))~t)tds<'t')n<'dt<)))avu ho')) iu a ')~t)t or ba.skut,bun~ tnurkudwit)( imposions )))tddcd urti~urc'tufthiskittd. = It hit.t beot thonght, <<)(), ttmt the carty pottcry of Kuro~ ~tain!) in its oroattK'ntatif'ntt'apt'.sof itavin~ oncu passt thrun~ha stage in which thu c)ay wa.ssHfi'fjmuk'd ))y huskctworko)' ncttitti;, t.'ithfr as u hacki)~ tu support th fini.shcd nwL'i.ora.tatnontdtofotmitin. Dt'.Ktcimtiattvan~'dthi.-t iu YK.-wtwentyycarsa~). "T)iein)itation(t)fnatuntt vcASt'ts) t)um''ff)'tstritd.<. lu thc Frit'odty Iii!!U)t).< \o clayp)'e.upposus tittdvu.s.sctswhich tn'u still in :m~arty .st: thuy arc tnaduof c)))y,s)i~htty))U)-nt,andfnf)u.('dinp)!Utt;dwot-k;.tt)!t)!!othe fduftUet'tna))vc.ssct.s scf))) to hve b<)). furwe ub.scrve u)t thoscwhk'hrfnutinntt urnatnuntatum in whichptattin~ is huitatf'tt'yinci.~udtinu.s. Whatwaiinotun~ct'wantcdasft was kcpt up as an ot'namcnt. nt'cussity Dt'.Da)nf)\Vi).()untaduat!t)ni)a)'rfnMrk,o)ut.'yfar!!)ntft', ettcarty Briti.sit urt)tiwhich, tu; .says, may havu)').-<u strcn~thcocd hy ))t;in~surruundcdwitli a ptattin~ uf curds or t'u.sitf.s. It i.<! certain that VL-ry many "f thf ind~nt'd patt'rtM utt Britisitpt'ttury h:n'f tj~'uttpr'jdnct.'dhy thv i)npres.'< uf twist~'d co)'d.s o))the wct ffay,thf ]nt';titi'~M)d it )nay Le,t;t' ))))it:ttiun, ind~-ntatiunsun~t))aHyma'tc ))y t))u ptatted nftundt.si~ncd wurk")t rudururns," cte.~ Mr.U.J. Ft-cne)) mL-ntions cxpcriMtc'nts ntadt.'by hini iu suppurt cf his \'K'wson thc dcnvatiun uf ttm i)itfrtacL'dor ~tti))uehf ornahtunts ou carty Meuttish structuiMofwickur-wurk. cr'jssfs,etc., trum imitationuf Mu'ticr
*S~tit'rAP:ij<r.lsy. S<'e!dsuH:<nt,'tn'tiaMl'ittery,'tnM)[i)it!tM)nmn Kcjort.iM'}. ~t'r.Httx.yitt~,t'u!.i.;t.t'.): Kktutn,C.ti.,t~).ii.pM. 'Kt.'mtM,C.v<)).i.tt.IS! <Wi!t.i)!.Ar.')t~M..uf.~t).ui.p.~S!



Ho coated baskets with c)ay, and found the wiekcr tMttterns cameout on a))thc carthcn vess~bthus tnade,aud he seerntto think that some ancient urus ttitt pffticrvcd werc actuatty moutdfdin this way,judging frotnthu iip Lcing niarkcd as if t)ie wickcr-work h:Ktbt;fn turucdtn o\'<r the cluy coating iMidc.' aott Takcn aH togethcr, thc cvidoKM of fio nomyi)n{K't'fMt transitiotMd foruM uf pittury tnakesit pmhabte that )!c'ct))ittj[{)y it wastftroughsue!)stagt. t)mt the art grcwup into the more <!ndit, and in which it has pcrtcct fonn in which wf usu:t))y corneto hc ctMu'ty undfMtood that ctay, (doue or wtth souM ut' such mattcrs tu pt\;v(i))t mixtureuf .sand craekiug,is capabtu uf beiug used withunt any 'xtrancoussuppurt. Such is the videnceby )ncatM uf wttich1 hve attctnptcd to trace thc pMgre&s of numkiod in thtfc impot-taxturt-s, witosf cady historyliesfor thu tncst putt oui.uf thc moge of direct record. Its exattunation hrin~s into view a gradut impruvemeut in methodsuf produtin~ <!re;<)<<; supphmtingof a rude meansof buiting fuod by a highcr ouo and a pru~ffiMi fmni of gourds,bar)!,or iihc)! the vcAseis uf thc towur races to th pottcry and tnuta! of thc ttigher. Ott thc whok',progress in thcse uscfutarts appcart) tu be the m)e, and whctherits stcps bo stuwor rapid,a stcp OMeo madodoes uot secm oftcn to bc rutraccJ. 0.J. FreOth, AuAtteM'<;<< )hM)fester tStS. (~rmt<:t)',

SOME REMARKABLK CUSTOM.S. IThas long becn an acceptcddoctrine thnt Mnong th sinn!ar customsfound prevaiting in distant countnc.f, thcro arc somo whichare videnceof wurth tu the cthnotogist. But in 'M. in~ withthcxethi))~ he bas to anwer, time aftcr tinte, ncw fonnoftho hnrd '[m.'stionthut stands in hi''wayin su nmny dupartmentsof ht!)work. He tnu.sthitvcderivcdft'omotMcn'atiun (.f nMoyeafes a gencrat notion uf w)):tt~fan dom and doc'inot do, bcfurcho ean say uf auy particutar customwhicii hc finds in two distant ptacef), <ith<r that it is tikfty that a iiimitar.statfof thinga n)ay hve pt'cduccdit more than once, ur t))at it i.suntikciythat it is evou su untiketyas to approach th<* titttitof intpossihitity,that such a tiung shoutdhve grown up indcpcmk'nttyh) thf two,or ttnt'L',or twc'ntyp)accswhcre hc nnds it. In tho first casu it is wurth [ittiu or nothing to him KM fvidcncf Lcarin~ on thc t'arty hi.<tury of mankind,but io thc tattcr it gocs with n)0)\' or k-s-st'urectu pru\'t' that the it aru atticd by )))uod. or hve bf~n in con. p~optewhupos;!<i.s une f'romtht.'other or tact, or hve Lwn intim-nect! indir~'etty both frotna connnunsonr, or that s'~tm.' uf thse cumbination things bas happened in a word,that thct'u has been histurieal connexionbctwccuthetn. 1 givc some st'tcctcd fiMesuf th ArgnnK'ntfrom Sinntar it 'ieetnsnnCustonts,both wherc it sct.'tnxsound und H')K'rc sound, heforc proceedingto tiic main o~ct of thi.s cbapter, whichis to sftcct and bring into view,from th <norn)ou.s mass of mw matcriid that tiM bct'ut'cth stutk'ut, four ~rotns of wodd-widc custons which~eemto hve their root!! dccp m th oar)yhistory uf mankind.



t is n rcmarkaMetitin~to nnd !u Africathe practi whieh we assoeiatccxdusivctywith Siam and th nfi~hbounng eountries, of paying divine honour.-) to th pate-cotoutt'd,or as it M cnHo),the "w)nto"e)cphant. A nativuuf Knarca (in East Africa, south of Aby~inia) told Dr. Krapf that whitc etc. who.schido wuslike the skitt uf tt h'pcr, were found in phant.s, his cou)ttry,but snch <m tUtitnatumot xot be ki))ed, f"r it is coosidcredtm AdLar or pn'teetor of man and bas rctigious honoon! paid to it, and any onewho hit)cttit wou!d bu put to dcat)).' There mny be a historieni co)))K'xio)) hetwcen th veMrntion of th whttc t'k'phnot m Asin and At'rica, Lut th ha~it of )nn)) to K-~nrdunu.su:ttanhtuds,or ptants, or stones, with supt-rstitious uf revt'r'nce or hun'or is su ~cncnt), f~ctiM~s t))at no prudent cthnoto~istwouid Lai-c an )u'gnm';ut upon it, and still !u.ss whcn he tinds that in AMca thu atbino LutRdo shttrc!! titc sanctity of thc cicphant. On t))cotiier hand, a custom prcvatcnt in two districts conpnmtivctyncar thL'.sfmay he quotcd as an cxamp)c of somMt evide-ncf uf thf kind it) quostiun. In his account of tite Sulu IshutJs, uorth-~astof Hui-nco, Mr. SpcnsurSt. Jo]n) spmks uf a su))f)'!<tition in tttosc untri's, thnt if (rotdor peari.s are put in a packct t'y thf.-m~-tvc.s nnd disappear, th(.'ywill dfcrGase Lut if a fuwf;r"i".sof ncu arc adt~'d,thcy will kcL-p. Pearts titcy )jt-)i(.t.' wittactuattyinerte by this, and thti tmtivc!!dwaysput grahffioffice in thc pK-k't.shottt of~otd aud precioua stom-s.~Ko\ ])r. Liviu~t'jm- mcntion.s thc sumc thihg at th go)ddi~in~s of Manic:tin l'~t At'rica,south of ttic Zambcsi, wtK'M t)K'tmtivcs"hnx~thc duxt in ()uitis,)mdcvcn put in a fcwscfd. of n certain ptant as a ch)U-!n tu prc'Vftitthcir )using any uf it in thf way. Th' custotn\as pruhahlytranKnnttfd whu furn! a knowncttannut of eonthrough t)n- ~tahonK'tans, ucxtuuhetwcc-n Africa and thc MatayMnndfi, but its vcry ex. iiitcnccatonewjutd a))m).<t pruvc thut thurc must hnvu bwn a. Hnksoux'w)<L're. eonnectin~ ItttcrcoursG bt'twcon Asia an() Americain carty times is not brou~ht to our knuwied~'Ly thc (nrect hi.storieat infbt'nmtion by wilich,for instance,distant parts of A.siaand Africa aM .St. KMrf, p. cr. y-.L ii.[).292. JuhM, Utinpit-jnc, p. 036.



bmoght iuto contact; still tttcre M indirect cvidcncoteudiog to pruveA~iaticinHuem'cfat' in th intcriur of North Atncrica, aud tno foUowitt~ <uay,pcrhaps. be ht'td in sonte de~c to cunfirmand suppiement it. JohannM de Ptano C<tr{)))ti, dcand custumsuf thu 'i'at:a'.s, scrihin~m 1~4f!thc U)!ttntt;).< sayM that '")Mof their soput-stitioustraditioux conpcrns"stu'kitf~ a i:)u~ htto thc <h't. dt' iu auy way touelliligthu tire withM kuifc, or cv-'utaking tncat out of th kcttto with it knit'L', or cuttiog )n'arthe ti'f with an nxc i'~)'thuy bt.'tic'vc that so thu hcad of thu tire wuutdbc eut utt' Th prohibitionwa!inu doubt councctfd with the Asiatic firu-wor.ship, and it xc-t-ms to havo long hccn knowtt in Kuropt. for it stands among tJK' PythtMorcau toaxim.s, o'KaAftiftt' "uot tu stir t)n: tire "TiEp~X'? with a swurd," or, Ms it is ~ivt.'u L'tst'whcrc, <r~)j~M,with a))irou. lu thc fin' uorth-fast of Asia it may ht; f'umtdin t)tf ronarkabiu ottato~m-' utc~rumottiatsinsuf tht- Kinnchadais, amung w!n))a it i.sa sin tu takc up a humin~ ouh'r witil the kniff-poitit,and ii~ht tobacc~, Lut it )nust bu takcn hohi of withthc btn'chandA" Thc fu)iuwiu{; Mtatt.'tttcnt i.stak~'uuut of a !ist ufsupcrstititjniiuf thc Sioux htdiittM of North Autcrica. a stick ut' wwd "Tttfy must uot stick an awt or uwdif itttu uh <hctire. No pcrsutt tuust chop ut) it with a)) axe or kuifu, r stickan aw!i)tt'/ it. Xcit))t.'rtu't; thuyai]<jw<d tu take a wa)frutu th<;firc with a knit'f, ur auy~ttu'r .sharpin.trumctit. rcmarkabic (.'uihcidt'ucL's A~aitist t))u vicw that th<SM pruve hi.storical cuum.'xion bt.'tw~cttthe rac~.sthcy occur amun~,thc willhc this, lias thuru ~ncmted itsctf.a~in punutur-arguun'nt aud a~ititiin the wurtd,in cottttL'xiuu with tin.'i<.h;a uf tire L~iug a hvi)t~anitna), a prohihititm tu wuuttdt))* sacredcreaturef T))t;tirst uf the fuur gruups uf custutn.s, seh.'ctedas cxaotpk's "f tU) argUML'nt taking a yL't widur ran~f,i.s ha.scdupun the idcn ttutt (tiscasu is cumtuottty cau.scdhy Lit~ uf wuud, .stunf, Itair,or othor (orui~nsuhstattcc.s, havit)~got iusidt-titu bodyof tite patient. Aceorditt~iy, the fmdady is to bc curcd hy thc rineetititM xx\ii. Yii. fM!t!t<'<*tUM, tfiftnrnk,' U79,)'M<k '.Stx.vatot)) L-~rt. 'iii. 17. t'tut. 'UeH<)ttMttiotMru<'ruruu,' xt'ii. UioX. Yt'tt demtamtt: < )~-M)M<;i)jUt! t!:<))ur, Kntut~tf~t): t''fitukfutt, U~, t. iii. ~ehuut~ntft. t). ~n. ))!tft r. M".



M~icine-nMn Mtraeting thc hurtfu! thing! usua))yby sucking tho aNcctct!part till thcy com~out. Mr.Baekhousedoscrihe:) tt~' pn)ce~diugs of a nativeductr~s'! ia South Africa,whichwiit sn as n typieatcaw. A nam was takcn iit withMpain in his :U)da F'n~o wit<;h wassent fur. A" .shc si<)o, was truite ntdtCt), who !ivct)in the excopt a rope round h<r waist,the missionary at the eo-cnMny but st-nt ttia phtcc dectitx-'dto assi.-it himst-tf. witc. T!tc d~-ti'CKs iittckcdat th man'.s sidc, aud pruduced !ion)egraiMs 'jf It)(tinn em-u,whichshc soids)~'hnd dntwn ffom whk'htfad(.-au.scd )Hsiduhim.M))d th disfasc. Thc missionary's wii'e tookttt in hcr mouth,aud there Mat nothin~ th<re; but whcn sile Kuck~-d n~aih !U)d ngitiu,tho-c camemore graitMof ccra. At tast a pk'en<jftuba~'o-icaf)))adf its apjMamucc with the corn, uud .'i))owud huy t)x' tt'iek Wiui dune. Th w~nan swattowcd thu tb!.'<:u firxt to pruducf m~sca, and thf)) a quautity of IndiaMcuro,nod by t)KItclp uf thu Mpc rouud hcr waist, tihtj-wa.sab)c so to coatro) Jtt'r stumachas onty to pru. duce a R-w~Mm.s at a ti)au.' In Nurth aod S"t)th Amcrica, in Bonx'o,axd it) Au.strafia, the satuc cut-cis part uf th duc. tor'.s wurk, with th diffrenceutt)y that bones. bits uf wuod, xtoncs. tixard.s,fra~ttt.s of kuif~b)ad(.-s, )~)). uf hair, and ottu'r misc~-natK-ous at'tict's arc pruduced,aad that th tricks by w)ticb hc kc~pst)p t))c pretenct;of .suckinjjth(.'mout aM ot~ tu AustrfJia the pt-rhapsschtomsu ck-L'ra.sthc Afric:Ut ))Usinc-s is profitahjyworkcdby une .sorp~'r dtanning bits of su that anotbcr h)M to bc sent for <juartxinto the victiut'.s bo()y, to get < ""t~ It bas bccn idrcady mcntioncd that in tho Xorth of Jt-t.-tand the \vixar<).s still extract L-!f-bu)t.s, that i.s,stouo arrow-buads,fru)u the bodicsuf bewitchcdMtdc.' Southcy, w)iokuew a grcat dcaf ab)tt mvagc' goM so fitr as to say uf this cure by snckinj; out t'xtmncous ohJL-ct~ :). practiwd by tho natn-c .sorct-rcrs of Braxi),that tftcit' mode of ~uaekcry was that which is commot to a[[ savagu cunjuror. at auy t!Mkf<"Ms< 'AM~ p.SSt. A~)<-m<.)n, )).:t'J!). ~t. i. M). L.n);'< Kx; U.G.. <u). Kf~nn., ii. ),),. 3:)s. Ht.John, ](!!), vo). i. M,. ~ut. Utn, (~M.M.httd,' <M. 9~. vol. li. StiO. ).. Kyn. (irey, Jt~unmif!, ~i. ii.)!.3X7.
< Wi).)c, Cat. !<. ). A., )!). S.~thM-. tttMi),' tu), i. p. sxs.



mto, its Mnu!anty!n so tnanyaud distaat regions is highty reniMtcabtc. It ia to bc noticcd thnt, in this Hpecialimposture, wc ttavc in tht; nrst p)a<'f' thc idea that a. <)ist'aseis causcd by sotnct'xtranocns suh-tance inside thc body. Among po'<sib)o motifs for thi.s opiuiuu,it bas tu hc bome m mittd that in cases it i.s thc truc une. :<.< cortiUH whft'L't))f savit~u.sur'n;ou cutv!< )tis p!ttit;))tby t'xtmctittgfMnexp)utt<'ror fm~ttMut r<'a))y of 8t<'<tf or othcr peccnatohject rcaiiy imbL'ddcd arrow-hcHd, in hi.< ficsh. But Lcyoodthis.we hve thc tx'Uct'turtn'dtoaccouut in ronote parts uf the wortdby the samu ktmvish trick, which it is !tan)to imagine ns ~mwingop indopendcntiyin M many distant ptaecs. ht thc civitizcdwortd,the prohibition fmnt nMrryingkindred bas usnattystoppcd short '~i'urbiddingthc tnarria;c of cousins gfrtnan. It is truc that th Roman Eccif.siasticfdLaw i)!,nt fMtstin thcory.vcrydiH'CMnt from this. HaHata !ays,"Urcg"ry I. pronounecs mfttrimunyto bc unhtwfnt us far a:! the s<vcnth dcgtvc, and fVt'n. if t undfrstand )tis tneanin; t~ \Ybichscons tu ))avo iougas any retationship coutdbc tMCt'd, bcot thc maxim of strict thcologians,thougtt not ahsoJutfiy eut'orccd. But this disahitity may be r<A)m;cd hy tho dis. pensin~power to the 'munary titnits; an't in pmcticc tho t)KU)t)tc Cituon Law, for they Swifty ut' Friands go fart)K-r rt-idivpruhibit th marria~e of first cousin.s. If, how(;cr, wo c'xannnc thc iaw of marria~uan)on;;certain of th< nuddtc und l'cr races scattercd far ahd widc ovc'r tho wo)-)d, a varifty uf such prohibitions will be fonnd,which ovcrstcj) the practicc, and suntutimcii cvcn npprcxn'h the thc-oryof the R<n<an Outre)). Thu mattt.'r b<iot)}{s to that intL-resting', but dUncuit propt.'riy and ahnust unworkcd suhjcct,the C'otnp<tratn'o Juri.spruduneo of thc towcrmcM,and noonc not ver.<t.-d in Civil Law cuuld do forme t" ~ivc a rou~h idcaof it justice but it may bc p')Mih~its \'ariou.s as found among raeuswidcty.scpantted modincations, frumone anothcr in place,and, so furas wc know, in hi.'itory.~ Un f. j;ettcNtio." Mi~Hc f!!)!hto, A:< rh.vii.)nrtii. ~M CKO~e, Since thmtkctiun ofthptM.'ttt J. F. M'MM:m hiM eri'nc' Mr. jmUifhtd hi*itM~rttmt an't'ritnith'e treitUsc .\hrn~t:'(Ht)iKLur!!)t, !b')t). In thi:) wurk, th finit tu~'th'it Mtd M i<i0t)ti~ f mtu t fte dMnjtio <!y<t<:m~tM attcm~t ~ft ;'nnci~k<



In Mm, it :s mdawfn)fora Brahmanto marry a, wifc whose M the samo us !tM ctan-name or ~<~ (tit<'r<M)y,"eow-staH") ow!),a prohibitionwhichbars tnarriagcamong rctativM if the mate Hueindf'nnitciy. Thi.slaw appcars in the Coduof Manu uud connexionson tho fe. as apptying to the thref <)Mt c:Mtcs, male stdcare a)~ ibrbiddcn<omarrywithin certain widctimits. twtifM!axwng t))MHindoca a Th AbM Dubois,uGvertht'tt'ot, ah'cadycotmectcd tendeucy to foi-tutuarriagesbctwtjcniMttiHus by bluod but inastnuchas, aecf'ntingto liin aceouut,n'tattvus in tho maie lino go on ctdting one tmother brother and sister, and do not tnarry, as far as rchtiouship Ctmbc traecd, wcrc it to the tenth gon.'ratiott,and the sfum;h) the fonaie ti)M,th vcry natumt wi.shto dmwdoser tht.'fatniiy tic-can on)y bu ncthc ntaiu and futnaic tu)f, the brut)tcr' compUshcd by cmiisu)~ and so on.' chttd marryiug thc itistcr'ft, Th ChitHise pcopicis dividcdioto a jmniber of e)uns,each distingttishcd by a namc,which is borne by all its mcmb(;M, ur hfttcr to a ctan-namu, tu a surn.UMe, and corresponds among onnielvcs,for tht: wife a<)"ptsher itusband's,and the oui)and daughtcrs inherit it. The ttuntbcr of thse chm-namMis Kiitud Davis thittksthcre arc not tnuchabovo a hundref),but othcr writers tatk of three hundred,and cvcn of tt ttiousand. Now, the Chinese lawis that a tnatt utay not marry a womau of his ownsuntame, M that rctation.ship by thc ntatu side, Itowcvor distant, is an absututu bar to marnanf. This titringent of thu toaic prottibition uf tnama~c butwecn d'sc(/ndut)t!< branch won!d stictn to bc very otd,for the Uhinese rufcr its origin tu the mythic thnc.sof thc EunMrorFu-hi, whosc rci~tt is ptaced beforc the Hca dyuMty,which bcgan, according to Chincsc ntma). ht 2207t'.c. Fn-hi, it is rciatcd, dividmt the pcoptc into 100 dans, giving cach a namu,":md d!d not attow a tnan to marry a wumanof ttte Stunu xatuc, w)totin;ra relative tutnee thori~it) o< thman'itt)!e' of mm~: tMdtWxm o{<tcttnh tmM h' h'! of citecta <())! )Kth<:)t)ft"t<M t'udtu )motuuttheir teuminin); ofth )oMr mK'i, o(p~M M"ctxtoptMM. ur "cm~tnotM," cht-'HMeation cintited miiont Mi!' h of great within o rwittmttt t)!tt-ih! tlue n r <jf totheir httMt dim, j!t ttmrryin)! tteeor'UM!; Mddscan) uud olcu:uru i o2w1 O'M tLim Mtost m ost <tit)i<;)t)t. Jiltiwlt n emplifyiug (Xute (:fulu M 2Mt) a d.) l.) m)u<! rulua i" ;)ro<')eMt. prol~lcm. aimptUjriMe iii.!). S! 291. 1'). vu), i . C ohm-m, Mi'M, p. UnbuM, p.



or not, <tlaw which is xtittactuaUyin force." Thero appear to lie ahioprohibitionsupptyin~within a narrowcr range to rettttion o))thu femak sidu,<utdtu curtnia kindu of aMnity. Du whoarn of th satnc nnnity,or who IIatdc .')ay.s, tttat pt'rson.s their dfgrcc of a.Mnity bear tttc same name, howevfr <tistH)tt may bc, Cfmnottnttt'ryto~thcr. Thus, the ]a.wsdo uot 'tttow Lia two brothpMto marry twu .siftt:')'nor <twittuwt'rtu mtUTy whomhe marries."1 iionto thc (but~'tcr of a. wi~tow M th iimit In Siam, the .suventhdc~rM of htomt-afHnity with the exption that w!thin which tnan-iu~eis prohibitc<), th ki))gmay marry hix sister, as amongthc Ineaa,th LagMe uvnasty, etc., aud evun his dau~hter.~ Atnong the Land Dayaks of Bumfo tho man-ia~cof first cousix.si.ssaid to be prohibitcd.aud tt Hncof Il jar (whiehrepres~tt!!a considrable vttlue)Impo~'d on second coasios whu tuarry.' Iti Sumatra, ttn.-ehitdren of two brothfn, that tint coushfM, MaratcHiMtys ttiav uot tum'rv, whitu t)n; sititfr's K~n )nay tnarry tl)c broIn thc same istand,it thcr' dau~hicr, Lut uot t'f'cew~ i.s statcd,upot) tttc nuthorityof Sir Stamfurd RaNes,that the Battas jxttd lutL'nnarria~ in the santc tribe ta be a tn'inous after their ordierituc, and that thcy punifh thf ttctinquMttt. nnrv mannfr hy cutti)~ thftn up ativu,and cating them grilled or mwwith i':dt and red pcppcr. It is statud di.stinettythat lis crintinat is that t)n.'iri'ea.son fur consid'nng such tnun'iagcfi thc tnanattd wutnanhad aucMtorsin eonnnon.' Thu prohibition uf marryioga rdativu i.sstron~ty!nark';d amon~ tribes of tht:' MatayPcninsuta. Among thu Tutar race in Asia and Europe,simitar restrictlun:< are tu be found. Thf Ostyaksliotd it M.sinfor two pcrsf'xsofth MU))'* famity na)n<tu tnarry, so that a.mn.ntnust not take a witt;of i)i~ own tribc.~ Tue Tuttgnx <)onut marry fio1 &ni<, 39 3!'<. t. <}n;;tMt, \1. iii,p. \1. iii. Y~.). Hi, \1. 1.p. v..t. :Mt. ~'II,Pu.h" rri'))M. 31.1i, (/uel, v"i.De l" 328, 3M. D:ll'i., 1'1', ;.[). 3')7, )1, v)).ii. UB. De ThHttjjM, Du fM.k-, f~:r. tk )!tChtM; t73<), p. Mai)h, Vut. i. Il. Mt. ). p. ]9S. ~Li. )..!S. M..rsdm, St..Mm, p. 22S. tb~t-int!. Th<; Xitt. ttiat.of iiMciot~ inUr. W.C~):<! Letter oi)~m~ to MaM-kc. Taytor, vol. Lpp.t~0. V))). iii.p. St. Tr.th. Joxn). )ud. vol. i. p. 3UU. S-jc., Khip., ~i. iii.p. :!U! thim,



cond cousins; th Samoieds"avoid ait dogreesofcon~nguinity in marrying to suchtadenre,that a man uevormarriesa girt with himsc)~ttowovor desccndet!from t))osamc <ami!y difitant tho aninity and thc Lapps havo a .sitnitarcu.stom.' Even nu)o))~the Setnitic mce, who,guno'itXyspeuki))~,rivt tho of nMrryin~ h' and H),"tiOtUGthittg CtU'ibsin thc })ra<;ti of the kind M found th tt'ibc Rbus NtwaysmHmc.siuto th tnbo Modjttr,<tudt'<c<! tv< lu Afnca, thc nmrj'inge of cousitM is iooked upon M itiegat in sotae ttibef!,und the pmeticeof )t nMtM not matTyiugin )ns o\vndan is (buud in vnt'iuus places.* Thc custum in Aquapim is fspecmUy w)to )MVc feti~itM of th Mug~Mtivetwo t'iunitic') Mm)cuatuo euusider thcnM'tves rctatcd, and do not intcrtho Swi&s tnn'ct)cr in East Afrim, .suymarry.* MmMtnger, us htn'ing upcratcd in this direction. gosts Christian innHcnee Th Bni Amer, north of Abyssinia, futtowth t'utesof bhun, coufiitM oftcn tnanying-; "th Dt.-itBidet and th A))abjc,oti th othcr hand, mindftt!of their Christianorigin,observehtoodHt)if< that retationshiptu sevet)de~rcen"~ In Madagascar, )iay!i "certain ntnks are not per)nitt<ttUttdcrany cireuntstancMto intcrmarry, and aninity tu thc sixth gcncmtion atiio furbids rpstnctiuns agaiust iutcnnarintermarriasrc, yet tho prinei{Kd riagcs respect deseendantMon thc fentate sittc. C'u)tatcrat hrancitcson thf inaic side arc pcnnittcd in most cases to cercintcnnfu'ry,ou thc obwn'anceof a s)i~ht but prc.scribed th' itnpcditnentor diN~aumny,wtnch i~ supposedto K;mu\'c 0 lineationarising out ofconsa)))~uuity. Atnung th natives of Au.straHa, prohibttoryman'iage )aws hve bfun fuund. Lut thcy are \'ery far frum bfing unifonn,and hve hccn tnisunderstood. Sir Ccor~c Crcy's may iiotnctitnc.s aecountis that tht; Austraiians,su furas he is ac')uaint'd with thcn), arc dh'idfd into p'cat dans, and use thc dim-uameas a. sort ofsurnatne bcsidethc individuatnamc. Ciuidrcntakc tho
'K).'Mm,C.(t.,t-).ii!.p.<iS. Ac<of.%tmoit<)in,inPint:<!rtttt,M).ii.tt.M2. <ft~thn,e. e. R)c)Mtn)sott,'I'<<hr)tw~p.S4: *C<L~b,p.). Ihc)!)mtM<Afria,')).]Sj.Mnrtt!ninTr.Eth.M')SO), p.3:!t. UuUh.tiUH,)~. <W.tit!.m).)i.)..M!,<e<-3M(Xu~. 'Mu)t!iM(!<t'.3I!). 'K)ii<MNthi;M).w,'vu).i.j'.t(!j.



famitynumeof tho mother,and a man cannot marry a wcnnan so that hcrc it wouMseemthat onty rotationof hif owu )MU)M. tihip by the fematf side is takcn into aecount. One eH'ectof t)Mdivisionof dans in this w:ty,is that t))f dnidron uf tho Mmefatbcr by din'frcntwivcs,hanug 'tinrent names,may bt) obtigudto tftke oppositesidesin a quarret.' Mr. Eyre's expduu!!nut, huwevcr,eorr<;sp')nd riencein Suuth Austr:ditt with Sir Cfor~c Crcy's in th Wc-stand X"t't)t-West.~ (.'u)tiusbc. lievcdthe cttstumta <?fur n native to stcat a wife fron a tribo at emuity with ))is owu,and to dm~ her, stumnidwtth Uows, hmno thouj;h the wood.s )K'r relations tt'~t avenging tho aSt'uut,but taking an opportnnity of fL-tanatingin kiud. It fron) ~!iud'!) aeeount,that in sutne (tistriets the poapjx.'ttt's putatiuuis Jividcd iuto two ctan: and a mm of ono clan can I<an~dMonly marry a womauof another." In East AttstraUa, M'ribffi a curiousaud eotnpk'x systeui. Throu~h a large extent of thc iotertor, am"ng tribM pcakin~diffct'pnt diatects, thcre an' four nam''s for mun;and four fur woux-n,Ippai aud Ippata, Kubbi and Kajtota,Kuutbuand Buta, Murn and Mata. If wf catt thcsu<uursets A, B, C, D, then the nt)e is that tt mauor womauof t)~ tribe A must marry iuto B, aud a membfr uf the tribe C into D, and t'K'ew)wt, but th ehikt whose fatitcris A, takfs the munoof D, and so on A's = D; B's = C M)))ean.swcrs C'a = B; D's = A; amith ntothL'r's cquattywcU to ~ivo tho nameof the chitd, if tho mother is of tho tribe B, herchitd wiUbetougtothe tribe D.and so un. This ingnionsarrangfnteut,it will bc ~'cn, has much thc Mme ct~ct as the Hindou rfgntation.sin prcvcnting intorth mateand nmn'iagein thf nudcor femate Hue,but aHowing Hn(:to cross; th chitdren uf two hrothcrs or two sisft.'nude t)io tcM cannt marry, but the b)'other'.sehii't may HMt't'y mentions a fnrttK'r rotation, prosistt'r's. Laug, howeyur, as, so fa)' bab)ymadc to meet s'unt;incident:u c!rcuM).-<tam' th wjiotcsystcm A may atso marry as it i;ncs, it .-ituttifk's iuto his or her owntrihc, and thc chitdn't)takc tho namcuf C.' of marryin~eut of thc clan iif freIn America,titc ctMtom vct.ti.p.3M. vLii.M'.~S-3' Hyn. UKy,Juttrct~' C.U.,n;).i. )' ~~s, N1M. Lm. )'. H'ir. v')). i. ['.:M. KkMM, t;nUin<,



qucMt and we!i tttiu'kcd. More than twcnty yc&rs ago, hn' GporgeCrey ca)Icdattention to thudivisionuf t)n' At)stra!ian)t iuto fanntics,cach distiogui~Mdhy the ))an)cof some axitna) M thfir cM~st or A-o~!<f/th pracor vegctaMf,which s&rvett <md thc prohibition tico ofrfckoutug chmshij'f'ron)thc)<)otht;r; a Kh'ikingrcMonof mnmage within tho c)a)),as a)) Lt'fu'ing ManM to xintitnr UM~s fouad aulcu~ th mti~'s o<'N~rth ttitt<kttinto clans,cnch Atneriea. Th Indian tntxMare us))a))y that i.~"town '/o-(<t'm, distin~tished by a ~'Ht (A)got)f{uitt, some attinta),tMa be;n',wolf,d~er, mark "), which is cMnmouty etc., anJ may Le comptred on t))uune hand to a crcst, and un tite other to & surnamo. 't'))c totem apjiutu'sto bc hcttt as proof of dusct'nt ft'mna cummun anccstur,and tttt.'n.'furctho ut' the samo totem prohibitiou front mama~c uf two p~MOtts must act a:! a b:u' on tho sidc the totem dcsfcnfjs on, which M generaUy,if not aiways,on the fonatc side. Such a pt'ohi* bition is often mftitiuncd by writ<rs un the Xorth A))K'rica)i mtian! Morgau's accountof the Irf'quoi.'i'rutcs is particuhriy rcmarkahtt:. The faihpr an'l chitd can oever tw of thc tinc. Eaeh tiatnc etan, dcscent going in all cases by thc f~matt; Nation had ci~ht tribes, in twosets ('fourcach. 1. Wo)f, Bcar, Bc~ver, Turttc. 2. Decr. Snipt!, Hcron, Hawk. Origina))ya \Vu)fmight not marrya Hear,Braver,or Turtfo, reckoninRhitnst.'h'their hrother, but lie mi~)tt man'y into tho t)is o~tsins, and so second set, Ducr,etc., whum hc considurM) on with the rcst. But iu tatct' titocsa tnan i.sattowfdto marry into any tribc but his own.' A rt'Cfttt aceouut t'rom NorthWfst Aoicrica df.wrihcs the cnstutu anto)~ tho -fndians of Nootka Soum! a \Vtta)e, ttmrcfurt.may uot marry a Whalc, nor & Fmga Frog. A ehild, again, atwayfitak<s thc crcst of th tnot))(.'r, sothat if the tuot)n;rboa Wuif,ntt lier e)ti)drenwill dc.secnt i.stracej from the mother, be Woh'es. As a ruk', n):io, S <athcr." not fn'tnt!)M Th auaJogyof the North AmoncanIndian custom i))t)t<jrcbot, Dise. <jf '~hooktuft, pnrti. S! ~t't ii. p. 49. Lo~kic), f. M. M vol. iii.p. )U(). LeJ~ntr, li.4. Waitt, L.Il.Mur~m, ~h'nc,)Mt. p.n'. Co)t)K<b!<t, p. Si!7.



in making etanship ou tho foro with that of th AuiftndiaM sidc a.bar to marriagc,but if wc go down furthw Mouth fft)Mt)c thc reversecustotn,as m China, mtds into Centrt AuK'rica, its appMU'ancc. Uifgode L:U)da saysof th pcopteof Yue&tan, a.wifoof his nann',on th fitthur's side, tor that ))don'i <"<< this WM a vcn' vik' thh)~auxtngt))tm but they might tnnn'y cousins gerumu on thu ut'jthcr'f!sidc.' Fm-thor sout)).bukw andthe pruhibitiuttt-cappuin' on thf Jst)unu,both thc t'hmithip thc fcmate Hitte. Bcrnau say.sthat among the AtTin\))<sof British Oui~na, C'astuis dfnved trutn th mother, uud childrcn arc tdtowcdto marry h)to thcir fathcr'ti iamity, but uot intu that of thcir moth~'r. L~tty, Fatht-r Martin Dubrizas hig)))ycriminat,murthitt tho (~un~-anis h"<~'r avoid<jd, s:'y.< ria~c with th tuost distant rctativcs,and~ ~peaking of tho hc inakM thu fuUowit)~ statcmcnt:"Though tho Abiponus, uf t)m Huntau Pontif}').! tuakesthu finit and patenud indu)~f)tcc atunca b)n' to thc tuan'iage of Kfcund dc~'M uf retatMn.ship thf lndit)ii,yct thu Ahiponfs.txstntctt'd by nature tU)d tho abhorthu v~rythuught of ntan'ying cxampteof thcir auc~sturs, rctatodto thcn) hy th mostdistant tic ofrflatMuship. anv ont-' hns cutn'h)c<d me, thnt th respect tu couLong cxp<;ri';Me s:mgttinity,by which th~'y arc dcterred from mam'ing into is i)))pt:mtcd tttcir ownfmni)k"<, by nature m th ntindsof mo.st of tht; pcop)).' of Paraguay,"ctc/' ~t'rk'sof rf.strietiotis, it bas lu thc study of thix r<n)!U'kab)f to bu Lot'ncin tnixd that thcir vari"u. anumatous,aud inconsistant ~'rms )nay bc conncctfdwith intcrfcring causes, aud this ont- in particuiar. that t))e cspccia! )))Mmsof tmcing kindred is by a xystomof .surna'uc.s. ctan-namc.-t, totems, etc. This systcm ii!ncKL's.sarity om'-sid'd,and though it win kuop up thf reeunt of uuscuntcithur on thc Mate ')!' tcmatoside pcrfeetiy aud for <cr, it cannot rcc'wt hothnt uuec. In pmctiep, thu raecsof thf wordwhokcfp sueha record nt at! ))nvohad to etc-ct wttichof th two tint" mate or f(;n)!t)c, tftey wit) ko.-p up by thu fan)i)ynamcor si~n,whifothc ot)tur litK',havittg nu Lmda, p.)tu. )h!nu!t, S'.
&? UurnUb, Hut. K.*t., et< de :it: i).)Mthotr<.f, vo). i, p. oa; fut. ii. ~i! rUn-NOt)ue Atij;uun. t7M, t')). iii.



meh casy meansof record,!it more or !c!.snegtectcd,and soon fath out of sight. Uttdu)thcso ciMumstanccs, it wouidho quite naturat that t)m sign shonid corneto be considered rather than the rMtHty, the natnc mttu'r than thc rc-tationship it rccon); tUidthat a selies of ottu-stdctlrestriction. shouMconte into force,uow beanog up)n th ma)c f)Memther that) th it'nxtte, and now upon the tona)o suto mthcr t)mKthe nMto,rou~hiy matchiHgth one-si<)e<i way in winch th n'corf)uf kindred M other points hve to he con. kept up. In tmyfull discussion, sue))as the wixh tu hind diflerent trihpi)togctker in 8idere<t, friendship hy itttennamn~t), and the opinion that il wifois a shu'oto be stoten frunt th~ stmn~cr,uot taken from a mau's s own peuple. Thftfj is a g')<jd deal in this tast eoMsidcmtiMi, as wu )nay see in which,thuu~h the by th pmetice of ttte SparttU)murriag);, bride'sguurdMs httd reaUysunctiutMtt tho union,the pretcnccof carryiu~ hcr oft'hy forcewas kcpt up as tt timc-honouKdccrcis no isotatcttcustutn,it is to Lo muny. Th Sptrtan nmn'Ktge found nmong the Circu.ssians,' and in Suttth A)ncrict~ Wi). tiams says that on thc )ar~< i~)an<).< nf th Fiji ~ronp, th custumi.soft~'nfonnd "f Me-izin~ upon a won)an))yapparent or actuat force,itt ordcr to tnakc her wii'u. If sho dt)cs not npsf~' runs ott' wh~'nshe reacimsthe man's provc th procccdin~, stic .ftays.' In th'MCp<tses house, but if .'ihf;i.s satisfiL'd, th at'duction is a mcre pr~-tcuee, but it i< kept up seemin~ty as a. relie uf K rud(.'rtitnc whcn,a.s among the modo-ttAustratians, it was donG hy ne metUts:Ma nmit~r of iorm, but in ~rint eann-st. A fcw murf ca.se.will iDustratethc Hta~'sthMU~h which thM Kmarknbtc custom ))tMpassed, from thu actuat viok-nt carryittg on-'of unwijti))~w'tuun, down to th furmal of abductionkept up as a n'arriage cfronony. Atnong pr<:tunco thc Ku)sof North-HitstJndia, in pub)ic tnarkct, a yuuog man with a party of frit'nd-i will farry off Mgirl, .stn)~)i)){j; and but no on uot intcn'.stL-d sc-rt'antit)~. intt'rfo-f. and thu ~irt'.s f<tna)t;h-tMud.s Mt'u apt tu appiaud t)~ exploit.' Thu ~tantraH C.(j.,Y<;t. Kt'tmn, h'. )).2' W)t))Me. p.4!'?. Su.t'erty, p. S~u. n,Li. p. 1~. WiOhms, MtM,K<;h,,mTt-.Et)t.e.,vut.ti. ~27; <.:d!.u!<)mrM,J<r<ibM.i,. ?<



of tho MutayPeninsu!a,on the wcdding-day, givo tho bride a start, and then tho bridegroommust catch her or forfait her. Thocourseis sometimesround a ring, but sometimestbcro is a &irchase into th forest,whencean unwelcomelover may well M to bring back an unwiitingbride.' Amongthe Esquimaux of the last eentury, the form of bride-lifting wa.t in use, nor wasits senouf;meauing forgotten,for sometimeaa Greentander desirous of a secondwife,woutd simptypouncoupon an unprotcctod femate,or with hM friends' hetp carry off a girl from a dance. The fonu still continues; among the Itiptik tribe it has beon reecnt)yremarkedthat tbere is no marriageceremony further than that the lad bas by main force to carry off tho kickiHgand screaming girl, who ptays th Sabine bride aa though the marriagewere not an arranged aSair.' la modern as somethingmore China,th capture oftho bride is recognized than a ionn. Shoutd th parents of a bctrothed damsct delay to fulfil the contrnct, it is a recognizedthiug unconseionabty furthe husband etcet to carry off his bride by main force,and iudeedthe very throat of this proceedinggencratly brings tho o)dpenpicto a surrender* Tho Spartan marriage bas taxtcd in other European districts intu modern centuries. In Stavonic eountries,though sunk to mero ceremony,it is not <brgottcn/ As for our own country, where th very tcnn bridu-hi'tihg vouches for its former existence,it wasretained in thc nmn'iage customsof mock combats aud spear-throwiugin Waki) and Ireland into th last centuries.' found Lastty, restrictions from marriage aro ocetMionatty appliedto cases whcre the relationfihipis more or tess imagimry; as in ancient Rome,whereadoptionhad in somemcasuru
'Boorhn,ibM.,tf).iii.p.H. Crnnt, QniBtaad,p. 209. tbyM, Ojxn Fthr Set tonden, JS07, p. 437. < HimnMh, Shw.Mythm p. 34~. Doolittle,Chinew, rot. L p. 104. takea the mme viewtu I JMfedono BmnJ, Tt.ii. 1).t39, ]<7. Mr. M'LeUMO et th importet th Sp<u't<m whi'h hot<t)bthe fonn"f ~ture,"M intti. tMn'Mp*, h nUt of in <atinspfeviomt bn'te-tapt'uo mmat. He argues fromthe tritiedittrittUtionof th form, that the reality wm prey~tett m CM)y aoeialConditions ot th hu)mm tMe. t haireadded Mve)~ aM<s to thoM t)tet)tMttt't in the fint editioM of this work, andth who)e thouH be tMMed te Mr. M'LenmMt'f) collectionto repre!ttt !<!Mtue tho gent!) senem) Mideaceof the mbject, whith inuneof mtt<hitopertMMe in the htfttory of mmkiad. 'ytfmmkiad.



tho cfEi-ct of consanguinity in barringmarriage or among tho Modems,whero relationto a fottcr-famiiy oprtes more fully in tho same way or in the Roman Chui-cb, where sponsorsbip croates a restrictionfrom marriago, even among th eo-spon. a dispenNttion to remove. Again,two sors,which it rG(;uires mcmbcnfof a C'ircfMsian brotherhood,thongh no retationship is to be tmcedbetwccn them, may not man'y,' andcvenamong tho savage Tupinamba!) of Brazil, two mon who adoptodono MtOther as brotherswereprohibited frommarryingeachother'a aisters and daughtcrs.' But such praeticesos these may reaof tho trau~r MnaMybe set down as mcre conisequcnce!) both of thc rights aud th obligationsof connanguinity to other kindi! of connexion, and so do uot touch tho gnrt question. To conxidernow the third group of customs,it is natural enough that there stMutdbe found even among oavagetribus rutcs concerningrespect, autbority, prccfdenec,and so forth, betwec-niat))eH. and mottiGN-in-hwand their Mns- aud daughtcni-in-iaw. But with theisothere are found,in tho most distattt regions of tho wortd,rugutationawhich to a grcat ex. tent coincide, but winchlie so far out of tho ordinatycourseof socid tifo as undcMtood by tho civilizedworid,that it Mhard evento guesswhat statoof thinga ean have broughtthem iuto existence. Amongth Arawnksof South America,it wasnot lawfulfor thc son-in-lnw to see th face of his nutber-in.law. If they lived m thc m.mohouso, partition must bo set up between thcm. If thcy weutin tite samo boat, sho had to gct in first, aoas to kccp her baek turned towards him. Amongtho Ca~rilrs,Rocbcfortsays,"all t))c wonen ta)k with whomthey will, but tbc husband darcs not conversewith bis wife's relatives, oxcept on cxtraordinaryocctMions. Further north, in thc accountof the Floridan expdition of Alvar Nuncz,commonty knownas Cabe~'a de Vaca,or Cow'sHead, it is mentioned tttat the pareuts-in-lawdid not Ctitcr tho son.in.taw'shouM,nor C.(t.,T.).h.p. M. Khmm, vol. i. )..MO. SMthqr, C. <o). i i. 77. Kbtttm, U., BMt. d~ DetAttti))ea p. Budtxfott, K<tt., <:<< !t<~tcn)!Ht), !<!6<i, j).CJJ.



he theiM,nor bis brothera'-in-~w, and if they met by chance, they wentbowshot out of their way,with their hcada down a))<! oyesnxedon tho grottod,for they hctd it lad thing to "ec or speak to one another; but tho womenwerofrec to communicatc and converse with their parents-in-lawand retativoi! Higiier np on tho No)-thAn)o'ic<m contine;)t,customaof this kind have often bcen described. In the aceount of M<t)or it is o)Mfrved that Long's Expditionto the RockyMountftins, do not spenk amongtho OmahMtho fathor-and motlier-in-law to their son-in-law, nor mentionhis name,nor look in his (ace, and MMfe)'~ Among the Sioux or Dacotna, Mr. Philander Prescott romarks on thc fear of uttering certain name! Tho iather- or )nothcr-tn-!aw mu)!tnot calltheir )!on.in-w by name, and w'ceM/'o~,and thero aro other relntionshipsto whieh tho prohibition appties. He hns known an infringement of it etothe.soff his b)M:k and punished by eutting tho oH'<'ndc)-'i! throwiog t))em away.~ Hann'H)says that among t))o Indians cast of thc Rocky Mountainx, it is in')ce(int for the father- or mother-in-taw to look at, or speak to, the son- or daughtor-iniaw* Among tho CreM, it is ot~ervedby Richardson that wttitc an Indian lives with his wife'sfamilyhis nMthcr-in-hw must not spenk to or lookat hi)n,and it is also an old custom for a. man not to eat or tu sit down in th prsence of his fathcr-in-)aw.' g In someparts of An~ratia, the mothcr-in-kwdocs Knt allow the son-in-taw to sce hcr, but hideshersetfif he is near, and if she bas to pass him makc!!a circuit,keeping herself carufuUy concealedwith her c!oak. A)~, thc namcs of a fathcr- or mothcr.iu.taw and of a aou-in-law are set down among the po-sona!namcswhich mustnot bc fipokcn."In the Fiji Islands und chUdren-i!)prohibition of speech between parentft-in-iaw law has beeurecorded.~ Atnong the Dayaks of Bornco,a, man in n). i.ot HittotiiMtotcs 'te tNdiMMa-ttid, PnmtttvM Atvar Note:, t8M, xxv. vol.i. p. :i3. tte.,e)mp. ton)!Hxj)., < thrmM, SU. i~hodetaft, part p. MO. 1). to theShmet ofthy"hr 70-t. FnutUm, Jottnmy )i<a !ottJ~,t823, ))p. Re'! vol. i ii. !M. Waitt,AnthMtM)o){:<' i p. in Tr. Eth. Ste.,vol. L p. 2<'9; StatMdp. OMMJ, it,M.,m),iii.p. 2:1. T Yo). il. 3M. vol. i . )0. Nyn!, p. WiHiMox, p. t30.



must not pronouncothe name of his father-in-law, whieh oustomMr.St. John, who mentions it, iutorprets as a sign of respect.' On tho continent of Asia, among the Mongolsand the young wife may not speak to her fathcr-in-hw Cahnueks, nor sit in his prsence,~ but farther north, among tho Yakuts, Adotph Erman noticed a much more peeutiar custom. As in othcr northernrgions,th customof wearingbut Htttodothing in the hot.Btining interiorof the )iut.tMeommontherc, and thc womenoftengo about their domesticwork strippctt to the waict, nor do they ohject to do so in tho presence of fitrangem, but there are two persoM beforcwhom a Yakut wonmumust not etdcr appearin this guise, her father-in-hw and hcr hu<iband's brother.~ In Afriea.among tho Beni Amer, tho wife "hides hersct~asdoesthehusbaud ako, from tttc mutiMr-in.hw," whib amongthe Bareathe wiie hideshersetf fromher fathcr-in-taw, accordingto custom, which heroin agres with that of th aristocmtie pcoples. The prohibition of look and speech betweena manand his mother-in-lawisfound again in Asliatiti, and in th district of the Mpongwe.' Farthcr nouth,in Zutuland, the Austratian eustoms reeur with all t))eir quaint absurdity. Th KaHrand his mother-in-iawwill not mention one another'snatnes nor lookin oue another's faces,and if th twochanceto mect in a narrow fane they will preteud not to seeeach other,she s<)uatting bchind a buah,ho ttoidingup his shietdto hido his face. The native torm for these customsM "being ashamedof th mothcr-in.taw. The Basuto custoni forbidsa wifo to look in tho face of hor father-in-lawtill tho birth of her first chHd,~ and among the Banyai a. man must ait with hia knecsbent in prsenceof his mother-in-law, and must not put outhis feet towaKts her.~ Ofthis euriousserics of customs,1 have met with no interprotation whieh can bc put fbrward with conndence. Thoir objoctseemsto bo in gnerai the avoidancoof intercourseor connexionbetween parents-in-!awand childreu-in-law,someSt.Johm, vol. i. p. CL C.Q.,vol. :ii.p. M!). Ktemm, < E.T)- Tu), ii. p.420. Bnmm, Mttt)tinf!<-r, p~.32! 620. vol. J. 0. WMd, Waiti, ii. p.2t. Kat. Hie.ofMm AMot p. M. !<)!. CMtti", p. p.U2& Livtt)~h)M,



times to ouch au extent that one person may not look at the or even pronouncehis or her namc. But the t-cMons ot))er, for this avoidancearc not ctear.' It M possiblethat a fuller study of the law of <<thtmay throwsotne iight on the matter. Tho extraordinary summnry of Fijmn customs given by th Rev. ThomMWilliams,HMty bo heMquoted in full; it is probablyto bc unJeHtood M tttkhtg in occasionator local practices. "A freenowof th aS<'ct)MM bctwceH ment~m of the saine<amity Hfurther prevented by th strict observanceof n&tiou~or rc. a most onnatum] restraint Brothem tigiouscttiitoms, in'p<MtBg and sisters, first cousins,fathers. and sons-in-)aw, mother)}and thus sevordaughteK-in-taw.and brotheM-aHdsisters-in-taw.ure ally forbiddento speak to each other,or to eat from the same ditih. Tho latter embat~oextendsto husb)md)t and wives,an an-angement not likely to foster domestte joy." ElMwhero thc )iameauthcr says, "in someparts, t!)e father may not speak to his son after his Hfteenthyear. unnotiecdthe assertionthat Rcading this, woeau hardtyptMs amongth Veddasof Cey!on.a father will not sec his daughter, 3 nora motherher M)n, afterthey hvecometo ycarsof maturity.' Th fourth and huit group of customs bas long been under notice,nnd lists liave even tjeen madeof countrieswhere practices be!ongingtu it hve been found.~ Oneof thcse practices has an existiug Europeau name, the coM<f<(~, or "hatching," and this t(.-nnit tnay be eonvenipntto lisefor the whole set. By workingup th old infonnationwith th aid of somu new iauis,1 liave endeavouredto givc an account,not only of the geographieat dMtribution of th couvade, but of its nature aud meaning. The most eonvenientway of discussingit is Briit to examinethe fonni!it take:! iu South America.and the West ludies, th district whereit is not onlydevetopcdto t!)e highefft degrcc,but is also practised with a clenr notion of wbat it Sw8t. John,!hrmnn, md Fnmktin, M<cth<.Pm<. Litmnx perttNtMty of etditmf)' mjjgeBta MOCtienttieft MfMMve mm-tien tftrictiox,<u)ti th): tj!ai)Mt jMtmt ~<f<(t. t. ))p. SM WinMM, t30,!<!<. to).ii.p. U7. 'Fiji,'yo). M~Hncr, Tr.Eth.S<x'vol. iii.p. n. <M'Cuthh, voL i. }).?4 RTt., Ktsemhe!' Ji.thit)t"ro, tSa9, p. 9tt. Wttitz, Hom~Utt R vc). f ). p. M?. Dottt'ittttJ, Tr., n)t.i. p.ji). p. ?3. Li~tau,



MeanNand aftcn\n'd:<to trace its morescattercd aud obscure apjjearanccsin other quarters of the wortd. The Mtowing accountH given by Du Tertro of th Carib couvadc in tho WffttIndies. Wttcn a chitd is bont, the mother goosproscntlyto hcr work,but the father bcginfi to compbtin, and takcs tu his hammock,and there he is visitedas though ho wcre sick.and uudcrguesa course of dieting whichwould cure of tho gout th must repletc of Fronchmen. How thoy can fut ao much and uot die of it," continue!;tho nanutor, is to me,for tttey sometin)M) "(tUMMiog passtho fivef!rst dayawithout cartingor drinkittg anythittg; then up to tho teuth thcy dritik on~eoM; whieh ))as )t)MUt as much nourishmoutin it as bccr. Thse ten days passe:),they begin to eat cassava ou)y, and abstaiuing frotn uverytliing t; for the drinking Oti~cuM, ofa w))oin mot)). During this timc, howovcr,thcy ouly t.paco cat the itMide of the cassava,so that what is left Mlikc the ritn of a hat when thu Mock hM boen taken out, and all thse eassavttrims thcy kocp for th feast at th end of furty days, hanging ttton up in t))e house with a cord. Wttcn tho ibrty days an! up they iuvito thoir relations and best h tends, who being an-ived,before they set to cating, hack tho skin of this with agouti-toeth,and draw bhtud fmtu aMparts of poor WMtcb his body,in such sort that from being sick by pure imagination thcy oftcn makua real patient of him. Thit) is, howevur,so to xpeak,ouly thu ns]),for now comes the sauce thcy prpare for hitn they take sixty or cightyhn-gegrains of pimento or Indian pepper,the strongestthey eau ~et, and after wutt mashingit iu water, thcy wash with this pcppcry infusion thc wounds and scarsof thc poor fcHow, whu1 bciievo suHcDi no !esft titan if he werubuntt aiivc howcvcr,lie inust not utter a sin~tewortt if he will uot pas!!for a coward and a wrctch. This cercmony hitn back to his iiuishcd.thcybring bcd.whcro hc romainssono days more,ami Un:rest go aud tnakc goodchuct iu the housc at his cxpense..Nor is tins ati, for through the space of six whoto Monthi! tie eats Mither birds nor nsh, nrmty helieving that thia wouldinjure the chiid's stomach,and that it would participatc iu the natural faultsof th aninmk on whichits father had fed for exampic,if thc father atc turt!c, the chitd woutdbe dcafand



i') 29;;

hve no t)t-)t)))s like thts Mimt, if he ato manati, th chitd wouldhave tittk t-oundeycs like this crature, and M on with the rest."1 Tho Abntc Gilij, after mentioning th wide prevatonco of tho fustingof tho i'ather on th birth of tho chitd,among thc tribes of th east nideof South Amener goes on M foUuws: "But 1 knownot if tho causeis et[uaifywctt ktMwn, why thc IndiMM fitst in such manm'r. 1 in thc very bcgi))ning of n)y stay among them httd tho opportnnity of discovenMg it, and this was howit hitppcued. A furtifiedhouso having to be buitt furth soldiersto tivc in, as was usunt for th defeuconot uf th nussionarics atone, but aho of the reducfd Indians, the Tamanacs,thcy heing fititt gentilex, werc sunnnoned hy tho corporal Ennengitdo Letduto work at it, and it was notic<ti that a certain MarMcajM, whenthe work was doue,wcut away faiitittg,without even tasting a mouthfut. Whnt, has he no appetiter asked Lcate in surprise. 'To he sure he hai't-cjoined tho other Imiians, but his wife ims had a chijd to-dav, so ho must Mot mako use of thse vietuats,for tho littte boy would die.' But whei our wives are brought to bed,' Mid the corpom!, wecat tuore abundantty and more joyoutitythan usuai, aud our chiMren do not die of it.' 'Hut you arc tho fuuls feplied, 'aud if your eating duesnu hann Spania,rdfi,' to your bahies, you may be sure, neverthf:)Ms, that it is most hurtfui to outu' It may bu casity imagiued what taughter therewM at this absurd notion. 'But not onlythe iather's food,'the Tamauacs went ou to say, but evcn killisig Hfihor any other animal on such days,wou!ddo ))annto the chiMren.' Wijcn 1 kncw of this nonscnse,1 set mysdf to work to seek out the motive of it, and taking asido one of tho most ruaiion. ahtc of tho savagos 'tell me,' 1 said, as tho Spaniards do not ihst at th hirth oftheir chiJdrcH, furwhat re)Mon do you fast <tt such a joyfu! nMtnent ? Th childis ours,and procceds from us,' replied the savago.'and th eooked food used by gmwu Du'hrtn),Hint. G.n.desAtttiXm ttoUh~ ~r lesFmapuaParis,!<Mr, ii.p.97:,etc. SceRwM~K, Hht.K~t. et Mw..)m t)m dm M-Jt. AotittM 2nd et. B5U. ttfhm, l(!t)5, tt ).M:me from hix ).. omoMat thottho~ry N!Ytt-o WM fort))') tinit ()..<) furthitittnMaf; ftHUt~ ouly <hiM, e))~))t.



which is profitablefor us at other times, would now do ibtkft, H)olittle ehildren harm, if we atc it.' 801 observed a sort of identitywhichhe supposedtuexist betweenfttther and son," otc. Thc miationary gocs on to relate howlie curcd the Indian of th delusion,by showing that to give him &thrashing would hve no effecton his child. Atnong tho Arawaksof Surinam, for somo timc after tho birth of his child,the father must fctt no tree, fire no gun, hunt no large game he maystay near home, shoot little birds with a bowand arrow,aud angle forlittlo Hsh, but his time hanging heavy on his hands, the mostcomfoftaUething I)e ean do is to lounge in his hammock.~ Of the couvade among the fierco whosehome tuy south of th cqucstnan tribe of thu AMpones, ct'ntre of th continent,the Jesuit ntiff-sionary DohrizhoH'ergiveft a fullaccount. "No Monerdo you hear that th wife has bomo a child,than you will see the Abipono husbaud lying in bel, huddicd up withmats and skins test somoruder breath of air shouldtouchhim, Msting,kept in privnte,and for a number of from certain viande; you would days abstaining reHgiouiity swenrit washe who had had th chUd. 1 had rcad about tbis in o)<!times,and taughcd at it, never thinking 1 eoutd betievesuch maduess,and 1 uscdto suspectthat this barbarian customwas ru!atcdmorein jcst than in cantest but at tnst 1 saw it with my owncycs in use among th Abipones. Aud in truth thcy ohiiervo tbis ancoitral custom,trouMesomoas it is, tbe more wi)iing)yand diiigently from their being &)t<)gcther persuadedthat the sohrietyand quiet of the fathers is effectual fur the wctt.hcing of tho ncw-born oN~pring,and is even necessary.Hcar,1 pray,connrmation of this matter. Francisco Barreda,Deputy of th RoyaiGovernor of Tucuman,came to visit thc newcotonyof Conceicamin th tcrritory of Santiago. To him, as hc was watking with me in thc courtyard,th came up to pay lus respects,having just left CaciqueMahdcin his bed, to whichho had been connued in consequenceof his wifo's roccnt delivery. As 1 stood by, Bnrreda onered th Caciquea pinchof Spanishsnu~ but seeing thc savage refuse vol. Mitij, ii.Il.193, etc. '8)ti~)u<tiStefiaAm<!n<atM,' in Ktoxm, C.(t.,vol. ii.p. 8N. s (~(jamtt,



h contraryto custom,he thought he must bc out of his mind, for he knew him at other timea to be greedy of this nasal delicaey; so he Mked me aside to inquire tho cause of his abstinence. 1 askod him in tho Abiponian longue (for tbis Barreda. was ignorant of, as the Cacique was of Spanish),why he rcfusedhis snuffto-t!ay < Don't you kuow ? he answered, that my wifo has just Itecu confined ? Must not 1 theroforo abstain fmm stimutating my Hostntit? What a danger my wouldbring upon my chitd No more,but ho went Mieezing backto his but tu lie down agtun diroctty,lcst tlle tendfr little in<)mt fihoutdtakesotue harm if he stayed any longer with us in the open air. For they be!icvcthat tho father'ficaretessneM inttuences tho new-buru onitpriug,from a mtura! bond and sympathy of both. Hcnce if the chitd comes to a prmatur end, its dcath ii) attnbuted by t))Gwomen to tho ~ther's intemprance,thb or that cause being assigned he did not abstam frotn ntmd he ha<) Joadedhis stomach with water-hog; lie had swutuacrossthe river when th air waa c)ut)y he had ncgteeted to shttvcoff his long eyebrowi) he had devourcd undergroundhoney,stamping on th beef)withhis feet he had ridden till ho WM tited and sweated. With rnvinglike this th crowdof women accusethe father with impunityof eausingtho chitd'a death, and arc accustomedto pour curses on the unonbnding tmsband. We hve laidopen to us in thse accountsa notaMy distinct viow,among th lo'for races, of a mental state hard to trace amongthose high in th scateof civilixation. ThcCouvade implicitly dnies that physicat scpamtion of individuatt!which tt civilized man would probably set down as a first principle, commonby Matureto aH mankind, till exprienceof th psyciwiogy of th savage showed him that he was mistaking ducationfur intuition. It shows us a numbcr of distinct and distant triboadeliberately hoMingth opiniont!)at the connexion betwcenfather and child is not only,as we think, a mcrc retaFur 1 'niKtorm 1ml<\Orm (leAtoIl..nih"Vit-nng4 vol. v ol. Duhrizhot!'cr, Duhmthoaer, ii. l. p. deA~i~'nitma;' Yiennjt,1 1i84, 784, l'. ii3t, etc. 231,)!<e. Forother South Ameno))) ~Motmt* of t))<: eee couTMtc,jtict,Vuy. dela Fnnx'e Nt'tim)L, 3M. Fenam, M~'r. Jet~t-inaM AtMtcntitm, UM', f. S!. T<c))tt')i, vol. ti. tL vol. iv.p. t2!)t. Spiz l'ent,' &Murtxt! !'M\:hM, !a3f. ?. ISt),



tion of parentale, anection, duty, but that thoir very bodics Mojoinotthy a pityiiical bond,go thnt what is doue to tho ono acts directiy uponth other. Th coHvadeis not thc only re. Mtttof tho opinionwhiehthus rpudites th physicat sevcranco that Kconsto co~no so natural to us and this opinion agaitt belong)!,like Sorccry and Divination, to th mental st<ttoin which man<tt)es not Heparate th Mtbjoctivemental connexion from the ot~octivophysica!connexion,the connexionwhich M insidohia mind fromthe connexionwhich iNoutside it, in tho samo way in which most educated nien of the hi~her races make this acpttration. A few more casexwill further ithMtrate th en'eetsof sucha condition of mind. Not only is it hetd thut tho actionsof thc father, and tho food that he eats, innuencehis child bothhefureand after its birth, but that tho actions and tocd of Bun'ivors aH'eetttte pints of th dea<)on their joumcy to their home in the after lifo. Among tho Laud Dayaks of Bomeo,tho husband, beforothe birth of his cinid, may do no workwitha 8l)arp instrument except what is for th iann nor tnay he fire gun)!, nur striko uninecetisary mals, nor do any violentwork,lest bad influencesshould atfect thc child and aftcr it is bom tho father is kept in occlusion indeors for several days,and dictcd on rice and sait, io prevent not his ownbut the child'a stomach from sweiting.' In Kamchntka, the husband must not do mch things <Mbond tdedgefitavesacrosslus knce before lus child is l)orn,for such aotious do hann to his wife.~ In Orccnland,beside tho strict rgulations imposedupouwomenafter the birth of a child, tho husband must for Mmeweeksdo no workand followno occupation, cxcept thc procuring of nccessaty food, and this in order titat the child may nut die. When a Oreentttnderdies, lus soul starts to travel into the land of Torngarsuk,whero reigns perptuai summer, ail sunshine and no night, where there Mgood water, and birds,fish,spai);,aud reindeer without fit.John, <-<,). i. p. MO.'h\Eth. t))e Soc., Hf)3,S39. ComjaM <-i~t 'h~' hutt in MftAtijMcar ofthe(athm w))<oe <hi)dKn tobedn-MMCM.t. Wtn! uf Yy. iu ih-t. d e FnmtMiiC'~m-ht', ;).61, Mnd!t)j<MCM, t< Mo, MiL Htottbu ttte, Kt~ XNttt.tt.) 82. C.U.,TML ii.li.2~. SKUw, Kh:mM), Kimttiictutka,' p. 3!



end, that are to bo caught without trouble,or arc foundcooking aHve in a hugo kettle. But thc journey to thia btcMed Jandis di~cuit, the soulshave to xtidonve days or more down a precipice ait staincd with the bluodof those who havo gooo downhcfore. And it is especiatty for ti)e poor aots gricvou)! wht'n the journey m))~t)w made iu winter or m tempest,for then a Mut may como to karu),and surH'r tho other dcati),as they call it, wheu it pcrishMutterly, an(! notinng is ie<t. And tbMMtothem the most wt~tehcd tho surviihte; and thercfoM voK,for thse five days or more,mustabstain fromcertain foott, aud aH noiftywork except their neccssaryC~hing, that t!te aot onits dangerous to ban)).t journeymaynot be disturbedor como But perhaps no story on record so clearly shows howdeepty th ideaof thse ima~ittary ties is rootod in the savagomind, as oue tc!d by Mr. Wailitcoin his South Amcrica)) tour:AnIndiau, who wasone of my hunters, caughta Hnecock of the rock, and gave it to hiswifeto fecd but the poor woman was oMigcdto live J~-Moifon casMU'a-brcad and fruitit,and abstain entirely from ail anima! fuod,pcpper, and Nttt,whieh it was bolievcdwould causethc bird to die." Thc bird dicd lifter ail, and tho wontahwasbcatcn by her husband for having s kiumtit by someviotationof th rule of abstinence.' But the exptanation of the prnctices of th couvadc,from the confusionof ima~iuary ajid real relations,soundaait rnaybc so far as it gocs, is inconptete. T))eytdmostaUinvotve giving over the parentage to th father, and leaving the mother out f tho quMtiMh" Thia wtM an ancient E~yptian opinion,as Suuthc-y points out whcn tnentioningits UMststartling devetopnMntin th pmetico of theTupinamba!) ofBraxi!,whowouM ~it't: their owu wonjenas wives to their mle captiver and then, without scrupio, cat the ehUdrcnwhcn tt~'y grew up, holdingthon simplytu bc of the n<j.shand btoodof itten' enetuies. It MHtnmgethat writeMwho tmve spoken of the couvade during th haU'-century sinec Southey wrute,and bave even tluotedhun, shoutd haveso negteetcdthe contributionlie 2M'. Cmm, pp.27S, t:om<;et<!t) W:dtfnt. p. 6~J. Furothcf <c<: H. p. );()).Spix pr:Mticc.<, md But Mwti)M, r. ?1. :c<; ttgu. ~'ix md ~tartm, t).



of th tower mecsin bringing forward made to the psychology as th sourceof this romnrkablepmeticeat once th Egyptien aud American theory of parentage, and th belief h) bodi)y unionbetweenfnthcr and chitd.' Nor is the doctrineof spcial parentnge from th fathor unknownto tho Aryan race. We nKtytake it up in the Hindu code of Manu, which compares th mother to the nc)d bringing forth thc plant accordingto in th whatever seed is sownin it. Th idea is conspicuoui) Eumonideaof ~Esehyiua, whe)'ethe very p!ea.of Orestcsis that he is uot of kin to his mother Ktytemncstra, and th gods dcide thnt she who heaMtitc chiH io but M a nurse to it. who Lastly, we m~y leave it in thc hands of 8wcdent)org, dectaresthat thc Mui,whichis Kpintuatand is the rcal man, is from th father, whiteth body,whichis naturat and aftit were the ctothing of thc soul,is from the mother. Hre, he tells us, we may sec the re'Monwhy th mind and dispositionof th fathcr Mcommunieated to th chitdreM fur geuorations.' Which tieemsa somowhattop-sidedargument. To trace now the geographicat in distributionof th couvade other parts of tlle world. Th fastingobservedin South Ameriea and th West Indics is not gnrt repose, carefut nursing, and uourishing food being the treatntcnt ustta) for ttte intaginary invatid. Vcnegas mentions this kind of couvade among the Indiansof Catiiornia ZuccheHi, in West Africa Captait Vander Hart, in Bouro,in th Eastem Archipetago.' ~e country of Eastent Asia whcre Marco Polo met with thu practieeof th couvade in tho thirtecuth ccntury, appeara to be th Chineso provinceof West Yunnan,"so that tho widow'sremark to Sir Rudibras is truc in a geogntphicat sens, For Chhiefm goto bcd, though And Ue-:n intheithtdies' ateod." But it docsnot at all follow fromtttiiithat thocouvade waspracDM.Sie.i.sO. f!uuth<-y,~).t)p.S97,2<8. C.m)tMMSrht<u).)MMti)tf),p.]93!). ix.31-4U.J. F. M'Lmmu) in Fortt)i);Mty MM)), Rf.,A~r.H, tSOO. 103. S".Od.llborg, 'Tbo Truo CbribtaU ltoligiuD Ketijiiot) 103. < "rh v o). i. M. 165. 1GS. St-edotttors, \'entp, True p. Chmthm zucc,.m,J. Zucchdti, C.v.derthrt, IMM roMtom hetoihnd CeMot'<);n'W. !SM, p.t37. MttM) latintJ.,Kn, l'olu, )i)j. ii.c.di. tttmfdot'tTr. t~ttJou, Hfli), p.01.



tioed amongtho racoetlrnologically kuownto us as tho Cbinese. Th peopteamoxg whom MarcoPolo <uunJit wore probaMy ottoof the distinct)M)t) tc.'M cuituredraceswithin tho vast Chinese frontier,for it ha<) been noticMt amongthe mountain tnbes knowu M tho Miau-tsxc,or ChiHrcn of thc soit," who diScr from the Chincseproper in hody, langnsge, Mut civilimtion, and am supposedto tw, tiko tho Suntah and Gonds of India, rcmnantsof a race driven into tho ntouutains by th present dwcDcM in the ptaitM. A Chinese traveller among the Miautit!!o, givmg an aeeountof thcir ntanm'rsand customs,notices, aa though the idea werc quite strange to him, that In ouo tribe it is tho custom for th fttt!tt-rof a uew-boi'n chttd, ait ttn as its mother bas becomextroug enough to leave hor couch, to gct into bed himsetf,and there receive the congratufations of his NcquaintnncGs, as he exhibits his oSspnng."r To the districts mcuttoncd in tbe first Mtitionof tbis work,1 Itavcto add auother,South India. T)t0 account,forwhich1 have to thank Mr. F. W. Jcnnings, describMit as usual among natives of tire bigttet castes about MadrM,Seringapatam,and on the MalabarCuast. It is stated that a man, at the birth of his first sonor daughter by tbo chiefwife,or for any sou after. wards, will retire to bcd for a lunar month, living principally on a rice diet, abstaining fromexcitingfoodand from smoking at tho end of thc mouth he bathes,puts on a fresh drcss, aud gives hia frieudsa feast. The people of tbis district of India as mam)y of th indigenoua Dravidianstock, may bc dcscnbc<t moreor iessmixedwith Aryan Hindu. Tbcy are Hinduizcdto a great degreein religion and habits,but prserve someof their earlier customs, which is tiot known amongwhieh the couvade, as an Aryan Hindu practice,must probablybo couuted.~ An ancient Asiatic people recordedto bavopractised tbe couvade are the TIharcni of Poutus, at tho south of tho BIack Sen,
W. LoeUmtt, i Tr. Eth. Soe. 1801, p. 181. Rochofort(p. C!i0) sets J<t<n) th Jtq'MeM M ttnMtaing thc MMttMh) aud th mme )<tMmention at))x'!nxin ht<!fwriten, who,~tm~, tnerety M[ow<!([ h!m. b his ttttemtat bM<d pro~f o r tt mMm):o t evideNee, "impty TheddttUt am {nm u mute, )<n of tit~' t't~ lu Ma, and ttc~uamM with tath-o hitMb.



amongwhom,whenth chi!dwasborn, the father ]ay groaning in bod with his head ticd up, wjutetho mothertended him with and preptrcd hishaths.~ RM(), In Europe, the couvadonmy he traeed up fmm ancient into modem times in the ncighbourhood of the Pyronccs. Above eighteen hundred ycars ngo, Strabo nwntions th story thnt among tho Iboriansof tho North of Spain the women, aAer tho birth of chHd, tend their hushands,putting thon to bed instead of going themsftves and this Meount is connnnett by tho existenceof tho pmcticoamongtho modern Basques. In Biscay,"saya Miche), in vaHioswhoMpopulation recatts in ita u!iage<! th infancyof xeciety, thc womennse immcdiatcty after ehild-birth, and attend to the doties of th houschoht, whitothe husband gnpsto hed, taking th ba1)y with hun, and thus rcceives th neighboum'comptiment! It has been found also in Navarre*and on tho Freneh sidoof the PyKnecx. Legrand d'Aussy montioMthat in an o)d French fttbtiau thf King ofTorciore is "au lit et en couche"whenAucassinarrives and takca a stick to him, and make:;hin) pronixe to a)xdish thc custom in his reatm. Ajid tho samo autitor goes on to say that the practiccis Mid sti)I to exist in some cantons of Beam, whero it M caUed/ttn'e la coKiw/c.' Lastiy, Diodoru:) Sicutusnoticesthc Mme habit of thowife heingnpgtccted,and the hushand put to bcd and treated as thc patient,among the nativesof Corsicaahoutthc bcginningof the Christian cm." The ethnoiogica!value of the four groups of custonts now dcscribed is not to bc weighed with muoh niccty. Thc pro. hibitions of marriage among distant kindred go for icast in proving connexionby biood or intcrcoursebetween tho distant races who practMothem, as it is easy to suppose them to ii. MOC. 0.Val. Fhce. v.t<8. A)mu.Rh<x). Argomntica, Argon., iii.t, t7. Stn))<o, Mi~d. LaFaytt inRer. Bi~w !Mx,!M7,p. 201. A.deQ'MtntfftgM, <)tDcM vo). Y. Mom))' M5'), t. p. 278. MMnb, ttintntimde )')hp..eMP~ tM4, M), <ht xn* ettn*SiMo,' Sr<) he);mn't d'A~y, FoMhmx roi. !i). d. j Paris, ]SM, et Kicotctte." "AnotStin 1.t. /<t Hochef~tt, [Kt<t~ M<Ytt~, to fit cuwrit));, or *it)ti)t inthe tohrkc d ooni *h<:)) Ua)hn<< arent th b'wkittj; <am)[!e tMtt)) j < Diod. teast ixM~'t < (any my)top!ay (Cutj~n-e).] H. Si<



httvogrownup ag~in and again from nko gronndf). Bat it : hard to supposethat tho curioustyt)imi)arn-~nctioM in th intercourMbetween parents-in-tawand thoir chitdren-in.taw cita be of independentgrowth in eachof tho rcmoto districts where they prevait, and stitt moM difncutt to Mtppoaethc trick of tho curo nuaint by the pretendedcxtMctionof (ttjeets fromthe p<ttiont'i< bodyto hve madoits appeamacc independcntty in Africa, in America, in Au.')tra)m,in Europe. In fiuchcasesas thse there M considemble fo~e in tho supposi. tion of there boing often tt historicatconnexionbetween their origin in dincrent rgions Ttius, tho isolatcd occurrences of a custom among particular rMM surrounded hy other races who ignore it, may bo sometimeato the othnotogist Hke those outtying patc)tes of strata irom which the geotogmt inftirs that the formation thcy tjetong to once sptcad over intervening districts, from whieh it has bceH removed hy dentxtation; or like tho geogmphicatdistribution of plants, from which tho botaoist argues that thcy havo tmvctkd from a distant home. Th way in whichthe couvade appears in tho New and Old Wortdsis especiaUy interesting from this point of view. Among tho savago tribes of South Americait is, aa it were, at home in a mental atmosphreat ieast not so diffrent fromthat m which it came into being as to mako it a tnerc meaningtess, absurd superstition. If the cutturo of tho Caribs and Bmiiifians, cven beforethey came under o')r knowtoo far to al!owth couvadeto grow up Icdge,ha<)a<!vft))ced frcsh a)nongthem, they at teast practised it with Mtne eonsciousneM of its meaning it ltad not Mon out of unisonwith thcir mental state. Here, then, wc find eoveringa vast compact area of country,the mental strittum,so tu speak,to wttictt tho couvade most ncar!y belongi;. But if we look at its appearaneet across from C!)inatu Corsica,th state of things is widcty dincrent no thcory of its ongio can be drawn from th Asiatic and EuMpcan accountsto compote for a moment with that whichnows natumity from th observationsof tho American mi.'&iunnries, w))o found it not a mre dead custom, but a Ih-egrowth of savagepsychotogy. Thc pcoples,too, wbo bave kept it up in Asia and Europesecin t~ hve been not the



grcat progrosxive, epreatJmg,con'ptering,civiiixingnations of tho Aryan,Somitic,Mu!Chinesestocks. It cannot Le ascribed even to the Tatars, ~r th Lapps, Finns, and Hungarians mthor to havo appear to knownothing of it. It wouldtieotH Monged to that ruder population,or scrica of poput~ttOM, with and shaped by whosefate it basbeen to be funatgautated tho strouger Mtes,or driven from thcir fruitful lands to tako of th couvado refugem mountamsan(t dserts. The retaineM in MaMe tho Mtau-tsze of China, the Hinduized people of SouthemIndia,aud thc (tavage Tilutreniof Pontus. In Europe, thcy are the Btts(;uerace of the Pytenees, whoaopeculiar tuanneni,appearanw,and langunge,eoupledwith their geografa\our the view that thuy arc thc remMnsof a. phicalposition, driven westw&rd and wcstwardby thc pressureof moto peopto powerfultrihcs, till they camo to thcse last mountains with nothing but th Atlautie bcyoud. Of what stock were th wedo not know but originalbarbarian inhabitantaof Corsica, their position,aud tho fact that thoy, too, had th couvade, woutdfit with au idea not MnkMown to ethnologixts, of their haviog been a branch of th samo family,who escaped their by putting out to sca, and scttting in thcir periiecutorit MMuutaiuoui! i<taud.



HHTOMCAL TBAOtTMNS AXDMYTM8 0F OBSERVATION. THKtraditionscurrent among mankind arc partly histoncai and partly mythica]. To th ethuotogist they arc of value in two very different ways,someti)n<'s as preserving the memory of pMt evonts, sotnetimesas showin~ by their occurrencein <)i8erunt dixtrict!) of tho wurldt)tat bctwe(.')t the inhabitants of thse districts there bas bcen io Kutnoway a historical con. !t<*XMn. His grt di<Hcu)ty in deniiog wtttt t))C)nis to sepa. rate the tact oudth fiction,wttieharc huthso vatuabteitt their diffrent ways: and thw diHieuttyis aggm\'atedby the ciretunstance that thcse two eteUMntt) arc often mixed up ina tnotit complex mattncr,tnyths presenting themselvesin tho dt'CMof Itistoricatnarmtive,and historicatfaets growinginto the wi)de)it myths. I3<)tH'ccu the tradition!)of real evcnts, which are History, aud tho pure toyths,whoscorigin and devciopmoutare being brought more and more cleariy into view in otir own times hy the iaboursof Adatbcrt Kuhnand Max Mu))er, and their of storieswhich may be c:d)cd Myths school,thure tiea tnttSi! of Observation." Ttiey are infcrenccs frum ob.served&cts, which take the furm of positive assertions,and they differ principatiy from th inductionsof modem science in being much nore genernllycrudo and erroncous,nnd in taking to thcmfielvcsnamcs of peMon~ and more or Icss of putely subjective detail, whichenablesthetn to assume the appcaranco of real history. W)ten a savage builds upon th diseovet'y uf grcat boncs buricd i)) thc carth story uf a combat of t))H a riants and munsterswttoseremuins they arc, he construetft which may shapo it~eif intometorn the <<trm of Myth uf Observation



!L 1 a historicfd tradition,and bo aUth more pnzzting for th portion of scientinctruth w)tichit re:d)ycontuinf).Th object of thu prsentchftpterixtu coHect a quantity of vidence,bcarmg on thc proMouhowto K'paratoHistoricatTraditionsand Mytha of Ohfcn'ati'mfrom pure Mythe,aud fromone another. Thuugh it Mmynot ))p poxsiMeto txy down any gnrt cauonof critu-iMm by whiehthc historicatand mythicatck-nxints of tradition may bc separated,it is to wme cxteut possibleto judgc by intentt videncewhother or not a particular tegend or <;p)!)0tte has claimtu bc conaidcrett Mhistwy. It !mppct)K Mtnmtinn'sthut a tcgcnd contains statonents whichare hardty likely tu hve cne into the mimisof the origina)narmtontof th stury, except by actual cxpt't-icncc. Th ChmeM Icgend which tells us the ntuno of th ancient sa~c who taught his people to makctire hy th frictionof woodcannotL<' takcn as it stauds fur rua) history, sc<;ing tttat so many nations ascrit~ ttiis and otiternrt.sto mythic heroes,yet it onb~it-s a recollection of timo when this was the onnnary way of producing fire. Su, whot the Mme pcop)e tell us that thcy once nsed knottcd curdttlike tht; Pumvian quipus, as recontsof events, an't that th art of writing tiupersetted this ruder cxpcdicnt, wc arc in no waycntk'd upon tu receive thc natncs and dates of the im'cntwstu whumthcyaiieribethcsc arts but, at the satnc time, it is hitt-dtu imaginewhat could have put such an ideit iuto thcir hottis,nnJM'! thcrc had bcen a fuumtationof fact fur thc stwy, in tite actual use of quipus in the couutryLfforc writing Lecatncgnera!. lu the traditions whieh t))e Po!ync.sians hve preserved of ttn-ir migrations in past tintes, it is likely that some historic trut!) may bc preserved,a~d with thcit- hcip, aided hy a doser study of the ianguagcs and myths of the district, it may bo some day possihtc fur cthnotogi.ststo tikctdi ont, at tcast roughty,the history of the race fur nges betbrc the European dificovcry. Muchof the historien!vahtc of the South Sea traditions is due to their being commontyprMen'cd in verses kcpt alive hy frquent rptition, and in which cven smaU events are placedon recordwith ait accuracyand permanence that yiptdsonly to writtcu history. T))usa questionthat arose


when EUiowaa in Tahiti, ahout a certain buoyd'ut was xtoien from th Bounty nearly thirty ycars bcforo, wtMsetUed at once by a coupleof lines fromta native song. co o mea olli IlTamer "Onx'tteMe'RtK'at'M el5 E!&tepoitoaB)i({h." Sue!) a oae a thh'f, audTan)H a thief, t Stohithebttoyofmigh. Atnong th ma.ssof ContratAmcricantraditiomwhich havo becotno known through th labours of tho Abb BraMeur, tht're occur eo't<nn pa!<sag<") in the story of an carly migration of the Quichd ntec, whichhave muehthe appcamnccof vague and hrok~nstories derived in sotne way from high northent latitude.-).Thc Quiche mnnuscript tt<"icnhes the ancefto~ of thc mec as trnvelling away from thc rising of t)te sun, nnd ~oc.son t)tus:" But it is nnt c)car howthcy cn~cd t))c sea, t))fy pas-wdas though tho'c had bct'n no sca, for they pasf~'d fwr scattt't-o!mck)), and the-M t-uckii weru r'jtJ'd ou thc sand~. This if:why they cat)fd thc ptaa' mngfd stones and torn-up sands,' the nantc which thpy gat'c it on their pa.s.s;~e ~ithitt the sea, the water hcing dividcd when they passud." Thcn file peuplecuitcctedona ntountainca!M Chi Pixah,and tho-c it iit relate thcy fatstcdin darkucfisand night. Aftcrward!! that thcy removcf),aud waited for thc dawn whichwas ap. proaching, and thc tnanuscript says:"New, bc-hob),our ancit'ntsand our fittheM wcremade tonis and had thcir dawn Lchotd,wo will rciate alsoth nsing of the dawn and the apparition of thc sun, th moon,and thc stars." Grtwastheir joy whcnthey saw th mominjj; star, which came out first witt) its rcsptendent face hpforcthc sun. At last the sun itself smaUand grt, wcrc in joy; bpgan to cotne forth th animats, and ravines,and stood on tho thcy rosofrom th watcrcourscs mountain tops with thcir heads towardsw])crethe sun waf} coming. An innnmpmhiecrowd of people were t])ere, and the dawn cast !i~ht on ait thc.sp nationslit once. "At last tho face of t!te ground waa driett by the sun tike a man the sun showed !)imsclt and his presence wanned aud (tricd thc surN)is, t' Itts.,vd.i. )..~i'.
x a

308 tttSTOmeAL THAUtTt(H!S AXUMYTMS Of C'B8EKVAT)0*t. face of the ground. Bcfore thu sun appearcd,muddy and wct was thc surface of the ground,and it was hcfore th sun apand thpn ttte sun M)f !ikea man. hit peitred, But heat ou)y had uo strength, and hc did but show hhnself whouhe msc, he onty rcmained )ikc (an image'in) a mirror,and H ixnot indee()the same sun that nppcarsnow,they say ht th fitonea. Obscure as tnueh of this is, there aro thin~ in it which of thu Afcttcrepons. agre very cunoustywiththc phL-nomom Tho co)d aud darkness,the xca not tikc a fx'<t but like roeks ruttedou the mud, th longw<dtiu{; for th sun, and ititappearance at !ast with tittte st~ogth, and but jn.strisittg ahovot))e horizon, form a pieture whic!tcut-rciipond)) with the nature of the high tiorth, us tnuchas it din<-r.s truta that of thc tropictd rgions whcrc thf tmditiun is found. Wc rMutof tho people ofThute ofoM, ofter thfir 35-dayni~ht, dituMu~ hiHsto touk out <br th retuming sun, as in more ntodurutimcs of Arctic voyagersgoitigout to watchfur tttc sun towardstho closeof tho long distna) winter.~ Thf jud~ntent that it wasttot indecdth sun of Ccutm) Amcricathat appuarfd so stnmg~ty,may be ptaced hy thu fitdcof a remark madc by a savagc iu anothcr country. Sir GcorgeCrey, travcUiug in Austndia, was oHee tcHing'storics of distant eountries tu a party of nativesround th camp firc "I nowspoke to thctn of stiit inoru northern tatitutk's and went so far as tu dL-scribe thosc countricsin whichthe sun ncvcrset~i at a certain pcriod ofthc year. 'l'iieir astonishmott tMwkuewuobuuuds Ah that must bu another sun,not thu Munc asthe onewusec itcrc,' saidan old man andin spite of a)t nty at~un~nt!!to thc contmry, thu ~thers adoptcd this opinion. Th le~end uf thc intruductionof ncc in Burncoruiateshow a Dayak cfi)ubcdup a tree which grew downwardfrum the sky, and so got up tu th Ptoiades,and thcre ho founda pcrwho took him to hix housoand g!<ve R0))agc hint boitcdrice to eut. He had nevcr seen rice hcforf, and tho story mys that whenhc sawtite grains,ho thought thuy werumag~t~ Now Bm~-ur, 'P~ Vtth.'pp. B3]-<3; 'MMit'x.rn).i. p~ M!)-M. ii. Mi. iii.p. l))M. (Jrey, Pm'-ot.itu, 2M Pnr.:)tM, vd.i. 2S3. JumMth, !<t. YO). i. JfhM, KC M;,M.,) X)). UM'ttr, 0<!t~



thuro is a tradition of rcent date, among th Kectbrattah Indians of Bntish CohtntMa, in tho most graphieway whiehtG)).s the story of the first appearanceof tite white men <unong thctn howan tndian can'f was ont catching hatibut, when thnoiso of a huge scn-mooitter was ticart), ptungit)~ utong through tho thick mist; the Ind~ns (trcw up their tittca and pfutdte't to shore,wheti thc tnoniitMr provcd to bo a boat fnU of strangeand beekoned tho Inlooking men. "Th stMngen )an(!c<), dians to como to them and bring them some fish. One of thcm had ovcr his shou)<ter what was sttppoM'dto bc a stick prcsenttyho pointed it to a Mnl that was Hyingpasta violent poo went ~rthdown eamothe bird to tho gronnd. Ttie Indians died As tbey revived,theyquestioned cach otheras to their state, whcthcr any were dead, and what each had iett. Tho whites tbt:u tnattc figns for a fire to be Hghted tho Indians procf-pded at once,accordingto thcir usuat tediouspmc. tice, of rubbing two sticks togetiier. Tho sh'augcrs taughed, aud one of thon, snatching up a handfut of dry graM,struek a spark into a tittte powderptaced under it. Instantty another poo !-and N.b!aze. The Inclinnsdied After this tho newcomerswanted some fish boited: tho IndiatM,therefore, put thc fish and watcr into one of tht'ir square woodcnbucket: aud set sotne stoncs on thc fire intcnding, whcn they were hot, to cast them into thc ves~), and thus boil the food. T)to whites wero not satisricd M'ith(his way onc of thon fetcbcd a tin kettle out of th boat, put thu n.th and somowaterinto it, and thcn, strange to say, set it on the rire. Thc lodiuM tooM on with astonishment. However,thc kettle did n"t ennsumo thc water did not run into thc fire. Then,again, the Indians dicd! Wttcn th fish WM c'aten. the iitmngcrs put a kettle of rice on the tire the Indian-s tonkcd at cach other, ami whi~jcrcd ~tM~Ax, a~Aa/ttt.' or Maggot! tnnggots! Agnin,th Austmuanshve had th same idca of what.rico was, for in the Moonmdcditdect it Is called yeelilee," or "maggot! a namo which, of course,dates from the recent tirne when foreignersbrought it to th country. Whcn,there. il Kyn-, Briti-th vol. 3fS. Mayne, Cthmhh,' ii.}). p. SM.



fore,we are told in tho Borneo tato that th nrst Dayak who Rawgrains of rice took tbum for maggotx, we are, 1 tliink, justin<d in benevingthis notion to be in Borno,us ohewhcK), a real rminiscence of th introductionof riec into th country, thougn this pice of aetua! history comcxto us woveninto tho texture of an ancient myth. There ia rcason to supposethat rice WMintroduocd into the Malay islands from Ajtia; in Marsden'stime it had not becn adopted evcn in Enganoand Btttu, whichare isiandacloseto Sutnatra.' When a tradition is oncenrmty planted among the legendary Jore of a tribe, there seems scarcety any timit to the timo through which it may be kcpt up by continut reptitition from one gCNemtionto tlie next; unk'ss such an event as th comingof a strongtir and more high)ycnttivated raco cntire)y upsets the old state of society,and d<i:itMys tbu old tandtnarks. Tito traditions of the PulyneMans, for itMtauce, fiecmofteu to bc of grt ge, for thcy occur among th natives of distant isiandiiwhose !anguagoshavo had time to diverge widelyfrom a common origin but cvcu the lnost long-livedstorics &M <astdisappearing,undcr European influence,from th memory of tho people. Tho hi.storieai value of a tradition dop); not of neeessityvary invcrsdy wita its ge, and indeed this nuc-ofthroc test goc~for vcry titttc, for 8tt)novcry old fitoric:! arc, bcyonda doubt, of grcutcr historicat vatuethan othcr vcry new oncs current in th samctribo. Thero is cvcn a certain amount of cvidnncewhich tends to prot-e that thu mctnoryof thc hoge animatxof tho quaternary period has beun pfMervcdup to modemtitnes In poputtutradition. It is but quite tatcty tbat the faet of man having iivcd un t!te earth ut th sametime with tho mammoth bas become a genernlly roccivedopinion,though it< probabiiity bas becn seen by a <cwfar.sightcdthinkers for many yeurs past, and it liad becn suggested long before the late discovcrie!! in the thut severa) traditions, found in dincrcnt parts of Drih-bG()s, the world, were derived from actual memory of th rcmote timo wheu various great animt)!, gcnemity thought to havo died out before tho appcarance of tnau upon the earth, were ManiJen, 407, < Se.KXi., ).[<. vo). 39. 'M.t<)apMc:.r.'

HtSTOMCAt. TRAD!T!OSS ANDMYTHS 0F 0!MERVATKM. 3U titi)! alivc. Tho suhject is hardty ht a fttate to express ft decided opinion upon, but the videnceis worthyof the mwt caret'u! attention. Fathor Charlevoix,whosc'History of NewFntnce was pab. Hxhed m 174~, reeont!! a North AmcricMt of a tegend grt elk, "Thero M cun'cut atso among thse barbariitns ti pteasant e)Mug)itradition of a great E)k, beside whom ot!K'n!seent tiko ants. He hfts, they My, !cgs )!o high that eight teet of snow do not cm~mMi: him: hia skin is pmof against ait B0t'ts of wcaponif, aud i)c bas a sort of arm wttich cornesout of his shoutder, aud which ho use!)as wo do ours. It M hard to hnagitM that auything but the actuat mght of a live ctephaut can have given rise to this tradition. The suggestion tbat it might have beou fouudcdon th sight of a mammoth frozcnwith his Hcohand skin, as thfy are found in Siberin,is ))ot tenable, for th trunks and tai)s of ttmsc anitnats perish first, and are Not pruserve'! like the more Kotid parts, so that the Asiatic tnyths which hve grownont of th Hudingof thse fnMC!) boast?, know nothing of suc)*appenda~ea. Moreoyer, 1 1 Bosavn~uwhohad ttever heant of tho u~'f an c)t.'p))a)tt'i9 truttk wouiJ ima- < ginc frum a sight ut'thodcadftnhtmt, cvcn ifit!) tftmk were perfect, that itsusownstoLo comptred with that ofa.mtm'snrm. Th notion tha < thcindumstoryof pi'.ae. t))0Grt Etb was a real remuiisepnce of a Hving proboscHiaN, Mstrcngthc))c<! by a ronMkabic dr&wing, Fig. 30, irumoneof tho MexicatipiotuMwt-itings. It represunts a maskcd priest sacrIScinga human 1 \ictim, and Humboldt copies it in thc Vuesdes CordtftcKs 't!h!(rkt<!)X,t<)).v.p.)S7.



with thc Mtowing remarks:" houid not have had titis hideous Men cngraved, weroit not that th dguise of th aacrincing priest prsents some remarkabtoand apparentty not accidenttrG'jembtancex with th HindooOanesa[tho etephantheadedgod of wsdom]. Thc Moxicansused maske imitating th shapo of tho heads of tho serpent, the crocodile,or tho jaguar. One seems to recognizoin tho sacrincer'smask th trunk of an ctcphtmtor some pachydermrescmMntg it in tho tho head,but withan upper jawfnrnished shmpeof with incisive tccth. Th cnoot of the tapir no doubt pfetrudesa littto more than that of our pigs, but it is a long wayfrumthe tapir's snout tu tho trunk ngurud in th 1 CodexBorgianus.' Had th peopicsof Azthu)derived from Axia somo vagne notionsof tho elephunt,or, as seems to me much leu probabtc, did their traditionsreach back to the time when Americawas still inhabitcdby these gigantic anima!)!, whosepetrifiedsketetonsare found buried in th marty ground on the very ridge of the MexicanCordi))et~s?"' It may boworth white to notice in coMcctionwith Humbotdt'); rcmarks, that when Mr. BatM showed a picture of an dpitant to some South American Indians,they scttted it that the crature must bc a large kind of tapira Attempts hve been made by othor writers to connect tho memoryof animais now extinct, with mythotogicaltales cur. rent in the rgions to which they betong. Dr. Fakoner is dis. posedto cunnectthe hugo ek'phant-nghtingand worid-bcaring turtoiscsof the Hindoumythotogy with a reeotiection oftite timo whenhismonstrousHintalnyantortoisc,th Co/o<Moc/<e/y< ~1</<M, the restoatiou ofwhieh <orms fio strikinganobjectin th Bt'itish Musum,waii still ativc." Ttta savago tribes of Bn~it havo traditionsabouta being witomthcy eaHthu Curupra. Sometitnes he is describedas a kind of orang-otang, bcing covered with long,shaggy hair, and iiving in trees. At others he is saidto hvectoveufeet, and a bright red face. He ha.sa wifo and chiidren,and sometitnei!comesdownto the ropMto steat VoM <)t) HuntMjt, Cont., MS. m Ki~boM~h, ).).tv.j Jietgh w).iH. thtea, 'Atnamn)' vo).ii.p. t2S. htMttr, I'&)M.Mt.)it;,jic!~ vol. i. p. 97S. M<;M)Mn),' tomba, tSOS,



the ntandiuca." Simifar to, or the samoM t,!)i.s being, is thc Cayp~r,whom the Indianft,in thcir masqueradcs, reprcsent as a bu)ky, mi~hapen monstor,with red skin aud long stmggy racl hair, hanging hatiwaydown))is back.' With refurcncoto theso Braxitiantories,Mr.Carter B!ako remarks" In BraxH the Indians had a tradition of )t giganttcanthmpox)ape, tbo caypor~,which Kprcscnted tho African got'ijb. No such apn oxist<! ia the pn'M'ut day but in thf post-pHuceue iu Bt'azi), remaitMhtn'e been p)fsct-v<'d of an extinctapu (~-o~t</<eea fourfeet high, whichtnight possiMy httvoiived<!owu HM<<qM<M) to tito humanpenod, aud fonnud the sut'jectof th tmdition. a quimtityof eviLttsdy,CutuuelHurniltonSmith has coUceted dence, thought by hitu to bat' on the preservationof tho tncmory of cxtinct creaturcx, addiug to Fathcr Charitivoix's frumBuHbn, a North Amcgreat K)k,and thu P~reaux Boouts rican "Nakcd Bcat' aud tMiHast Indian "Ktephaut-HurM," thon iuuature.' etc., and eodcavourittgto identif~' To procecdnowfr"m tho traditiott*! whichhve,or may set to thc <bu))dation, up somcsort of ctaim to tmvc,a Iiistorical wbicharc so ofteuuabteto bo conioundcd Mythsof Observation, with them it io to be noticed that if tho inft'rence from of .sucha nfyth,shotdd happcn to facts, whicitfonns the baMM be a correct onc, and if th story shouMatso happcn to have fairly dropp~t out of sight the videnceont of whichit grew, its sparation front a rua) tradition of evcnts may bc hardty it is v<rycotnmon pussihie. Fortttttateiy for the KthnuiogMt, fur sueh storiesto betray their unhMtoric origin in oneot' both of tbese ways,cither by reeontingthings whichscumcdinueed probablewhen th mytbs arosc,but whiehmodem know)edge rpudites,or by having embodiedwith them the ftets whieh bave bccn appeaicd to ibr ges as eonnrcMti'jn of thcir troth, but whiehwe arc nowin a positionto recognize at oncea~the on whic))their mythieid~tructnre wa.s raised. very basM A good example of a Mythof Obsun'ationi.sa iiturycurrent in EjQfpt iu Strabo's tirne, but whichhc,having indeeda con. Tt. i. p.Mj vo). ii.)). M1. t. thtM, AtmtOtM,' 0.Carter tthhc htTr.Eth. Soc. IM3, j).!?. C.<ttnu)tt<m K~t. Hi<t. Smith, <'<Httm.tttSt)., pp.tOt-t.

~t4 1


MderaMoknowMgo of geology, deelines to beliove. "But oue of the wondruustbit~ he mys, "which we mw about the pyramide must not hc ptttscd over. There iic ht front of tho pyratnidacertain hcaps of th moMns' mbMab,and Muons thse tbereaMfound piecesin shapcand sizo like fentib and in somp.as it were. h.tf-pccM grains. Thcy say, th leavings ot th wotkmon'8 foai i,a.vebecn turned into stone, but this is not likely,for at hume amougus there is a lottgishridge of h'U in a ptain,.ud thmis fulluf lenUt.Uke stonesof tufa,etc." 1 .to Mcnwhose countrybas th open sea to its westit seems thut th MU p)ungesat night iHtoits waters. Now tho sun M evulcotty a mass of matter M a distance, aud very hot and when Md-Qt bodies como in contact with water thero iuUowH a htss:ng <MiM and thus th inferenco M casy and t hat when tue sun dips into t!.e wavcssuch stnughtfofward, a sound ought to be heard. Froin tho m~enec that tho h~.ng might bc h~t, to th assertion that it litrs a~tuaiy beon hcm-d, is thc c~y step by whieh the crude argument of cady sciencepa~ea iuto th fuit-gN~n Myth of Observation. In two distant countrieswjtercthe wortd seems to end westward )n the boundiessoccan,t))e story is to be found The Maerc-d Pro.ncuton'. that is Cape 8t. Vinec.nt,Htraho says, is thc wcstcmnMst not of Europe atone, but of thc whotc point, habt~Uc carth, .md thcro Posidouiust~!s how thc vutgMsay thc sun goe.< down targcr on the ocean-coast, and witha noise ahnost as it weMth sca hi~ing as tho sun ptungcs into its depths and is qucnch<-dbut this is false,as wc)ias tttat thc n)ght followsinstulltly upon its setting. Mo in th Paeinc in someofthe SocietyIslands,th mmc for sunset meaMthc of fulling the sun into th sea, and thc Run itscif is thought to be a substance fire, Mr.Ettis askcd them how rc.scniMing they knew it feU into the sea, and thcy said D.cy Itad not scen it, but Mme people of Bo~bom or Maupiti, thc most western tstandi!, had once heard th hissing occasiuned its by ptungingiuto th occaa.' Stt~M.XVii.l.M. ?~ p.68. TiM. c. (!em., 414.


Ht'!T<Mtt'Af. TXANTtfMM AS)) M\"r)!S OP OttSERVAttO}!. StS

From the inerodMtons geographer\vttorecordsth storiesof the tbssH lentitsand tho ))i<siMg M))), yet another Myth of Ob. wrvattun may be taken, whieh showffweHtho ft~y tnmMtion frota "it may hve becn," to "it was," which Hff at their root. Mr.Catlin, in oneof hia journcys,sayi)that he cameto a place whcrche eaw rocks tookiog)ts if thcy )tad actuatiydroppcd frctn tho ctouJ~tin such a confuse nMsa,and att lay whero they had Mteu." 80 iu o)d times, a routtd phnu betweenMttr<K'iUes Mid tho muuths of tho Rhne was callcd tho "stony" ai!big M a maK'xSat. phu)),ffom its beingcoveredwith Ktonef! You wottMthiuk, NtyftPompouins Mch, that tho stoneshad miMedthere, so mauy are they, and ito far and widedo thcy tte.' .Now/Esehyht)!, says Strabo, having pcreeivcdth diScu)tyof accountingibr thexe stones, or havittg heard about it fromsomeoue etxe,ha!!wrested thc whole matter into t myth. In nomelines of his, preiK'rvcd to us by Stmbo's (cotation of them, PromftiK'us, expttHtungto Hercutcs his way from the Caucase to t))c Hespcndm, tells him how whcu his mifHik!! fitilhitn iu his <ightwith th Li~u-iaus,and thc soft carth will Mot cven aSbrtthitn a stoue,Juvc, pitying his dcfMiceksa statc, will raitt downa tihoworof round pcbbhM over tho ground, ho willeitsityrout his fuefi. )n)r)ingw!tiei) Fossi)rcmain. hve tbr Mgu.s becnobjecta of curioMspecutatiou tu miUtkind. lu th taost distant rgionswhcrc huge buues havubucut'uuud,tin'y have beeu exptaincd,trutyenong)i, as being thc hunex of taonstrous bfMts, aud as plausibly, hve shownwithinthe last cmt. though,aa Jator iuvcittigations as bouesof giants. CIventhu boliefthat tury, ttut M correft~y, tho earth WMformcrtyiuhabitcd by monstersand giants,th myth-makingpowerof the humttn minf) gavo"atocat habitation and a namo witerevcr it was rcquircd,und th battles uf thoso monstcrswtth cach other, and with man, wereworkcd into thc gcncral mass of poputar tradition, with gradua)!yiutid aceufacy of dctail. Th Asiatic sagas creasing fultMiis whichha.vegrowaout uf tho Hndingof th frozenmammotho, and tho fossil Mmainsof thse aud othur grt extiuct anintats, arc execHeateMcsm point. Many of them hve ba vu), ii.p. 70. Meb, ii.c. 5. if. ), 7. Citttin, Stntho,

316 ntSTonrc.tr. -nnnmoss ~xn MYTffS ot' o~sEKVATtns'.

coUected and critieixed m an admirable paper puUished moM than twenty years ago by Von OifpM, of Berlin.' Th Siburiansarc constantlynnding bonesand teeth tif mam. moths iinL~ided in the iaccs of elin< or river baukiiat mmo depth bctowthe surface. Often a massof carth or gravot fa!)< away fromsuch a eti9',and exposes such remtuns. How could they hve got there? A plattsible explanationsnggpjtted itself, that th crature wasa huge burrowinganimal, and lived undergroum). Not ouly t)~e skeleton, but tho body in toternblo prcsprvationwitb ftcshand skin bcing;found in a frozen state in high Northern !atitud(;s,the notion grew up that it was <t monstroust:i))dof burrowiograt, and it is dMcribedin Chinese bookH uuder such namcsas /f-H-o/t, or di~gingntt," ~<H-mct), or burrowingox," <fA-Ttf,mottmrof micc," and Mo on. A which su~gc-oted itself to th native Siberian geologists di<ncu)ty wasmet in a charactcristiemanner. It was strange that whHn. ever thcy came upon a mamtnoth itnbeddcd in a eHtt',it was atways dead. It must be a crature unabtc to bear the air or the light, and whcn iu th course of its subterrancanwantlerit'gs it breaks through to the outcr air it dics itnmcdintcty. With so much knowtcdgoof thc naturat history f the creature to start from, other dt'tai).sgrow rouod it in th usua) way. Yakuts an()Tuognx hve seen the earth heavc and sink, as a matntnoth wa]kf(tbcut-at)). It frc<)uents marshe. and travd.s undcrgr'Atnd,ncyor nppcaring abovc the surface of thc carth or watcr during the day, but bas beeu iiccNat dawn in takcs and ri\-crs,just a.-) it divtjd beh'w. Thc aecouut of it given in the Chinese Encyc)op~dia of Kang-hi is as fotfows: "fc!t~t/<x.Th cu)dis extrmeand atmostcontinua!on tho eoast of the Northern Sen, hpyondthe Tai-tong-Kiang on this coast isfoond the animt f<!M-~<t;, which resembiciia rat in shape, but is as big as an ptcphant it dwc)!s in dark cavcrns. and ever {!huus the light. Thure is got from it ait ivory as whitc as that of thc ek'phant, but easier to work, aud not JiaDe to sj)iit. Its ne.sh is very cold,and fxcc))ent for rffre!!hJ. F. M. v. 0)[<!M, DieCehnrMte MtrtdtHcher RicMfthitm in ttaithttmB !!H tu (J~tMiMMehen Ostasintisciteii und ChioMisthen Ciiinesisclien ~hnftttt' \ :cbri!tell' I!orlill &t!<-n &n und 1!c:r, tUcrtitt A<IJ"18:J~); AoJ., ]S;K'); Bcrti,!SM.



!))gtho t)too(L Thc aneicnt book ~!n-y.7T<K.<y, speaks of thia animt it) thc Mlowittg t<'rtM:T])ero M iu the extremo nort)),amotfg th anowsand ico which cuver tbis rogion. a /t (mt), which wcighs up to a thuuxand ])ouuds, its Hcsh ia very whoare bcatcd. Thc ~e-~M, cath it ~K-o/ot, goodfur th<Me and spcftksof attott~r kind which is f k'ss sixc it is only, this tM iM & it burrows tiho Mys ttuthurity, htr~o buS'tttc, t)M mutes, shuns thu light, and atmost atways stays m its tmdcr. grouudcaves. It is said that it woutddie if it Sinvtho Jight of titt!sua, or cvcn of the moon."1 The story oftho manonuth being a burrcwing anima!, whieh h~sitritien frum thu 6t)'!ingits renMins exposed iu etifisor banks deepbeluwthc surface, beconmsthc more vatu'tUc M cvidcnco of th growth of myths, from the fact that oh the othcr side of the wurlda like Htory bas devctopcd itself frotn a like origin. Wheu DarwinviMttcd certain <iHs uf tlw river Paraua, hetween RuenosAyrus :u)dSant<iFd, whcr< niauy bone.s uf Mastodons are fouud,hu says, Titcmctt who took me in th eanot-,mit) they itad luttg ktMWttuf th(.St-sketetott. and had oftMt wo!)<k-red how they had gut th~rc th nMt'Ksity of a thcory hcing feit, they ca)))e to the conduMuu thnt, Hku tttG bizcacha,the ma!!todon was fornterlya burruwinj.;animai."Tho bizcachais a stnaUrabbit-iikc r"dettt, conunM) ott the Pampas. Othcrfussiirfniaius bfsidc those oftho tnammutt)hve givpt) riseto myths of obscn'atioa in Sib~-ria. The curvecltusks of the~/ifxM'ciW ~<(7<M<'Kt(a arf sometinn~ likL'thc cJawsof a munstrousbint, and whot l)oth tusks arc found unitcd bypart uf the iiku)!,thc whole nu~ht very wc)) bc tukot by a man tota))yigtMmnt of anatomy, for thu bin!')! fuot with two ctaws. Thc Siberians not onty hcUcvc thc honti! of the rhinocrosto be the daws of an enonaous hird, and eali thcm ))irds' c)aws itsdf out of accordingh',but a famUyof myths ))a8 cleveloped this belief, how thusc wingcd ntonstGM Hved in the country in th tirnc of t))CancMtorsof thc prsent iuhabitants, who ibught with thcm for the possession of thc lan(l. Onc story tells )iow thc country waswastcd hy one of thon, till a wisc tnan Hxeda M~m. M.nc. C.n., to)< p.t~t. !Mtwi. \t.Lh'.}..i~t. KkMu., 1. I:!7. U.tr")M, p.




pointer iron spcar on th top of a pine tree, and tho bird itif upon tho lance. atighted there, and kewered Adolf Ennatf connects, with much ptausihihty th wcHknown~-& of tbo Afahian Nights, and thc ~tM (y~) of with tho tales of monstrous bmtit current in tho Herodohnt, gotd.produein~rgions of Sibrie; and he even (mggcxto the rcmark that guJd.b<Mring sand rcitDyundet-licath Leditwhich contain thse futisH"birds' claws" as ait cxptauation of the "it if) said that the At'imaspi,one-eyed men, seizo pacage, (th goM) from untkmcath tho gn~ns (<ytTot 8; T.;f y~jttf ~)f<tf 'A~atr~t gt~ ~ott~~aA~cM).' At about tho Mme time as Hcrodotos, Ctcsias Lnngn eut more fuity t)io famitiM (i~u-c of thc p-iHin. "There is also gotd," ho "in th~ h)dmn f'ays, country, not found in th strcatM and wa.she<as in th river Pactotus but therc are many and ~reat motnitains,whcn.4ndwct) th gri~nf-, ibut--<botcd bit-dsof thc grcatncss of the wolf,but with )(.~sand c)aws like lions. Thc fuathcrso)tthc rest of their bodies arc Uack, but red on tho brcast. Through them it is that the gotd in thc mountains, is most t)n)U!;h di~'uit tu pientifoi, the Sik'rMn ~t." That myths of monst~us Mrds hve passM)into thc mcdifpva)notiuns ofthc p-inina admits of no .jwstiun whatcvcr. Athertus thetn as (~admn~s, with bink' beak<;amt tta~tus (h-.scnbt.-s winfp! they dwell in Scythia,and posscssthe go)d,and sitvci', aud prceiotMstoues. Thc Annm-<pi <ii;ht with <hcm. In its nest thc griHiniays th agate furits hc]p nnd medicine. It is hostik to Menuud horscs: it htMlut)~ ctaws, whicharc mado into f;oh)et..) thcy are M big as ox-horns,as imtpcd the cMatui-c itsctf Mbi~r than eight lions; of its feathersare mado 'itrot~ bowft, arrows, and innes." With regard to this descripttf'n. it iit to La obsc-rv-ud that the homs, eut in s!ice)i, nre reajty uxedfor p)atingbows;' but the hird's quitts, as they are stiit considcredto Me in thc country where they are found,arc the leg-honcs of other aoituats. Th rhiuoceros homs, supposed Ikm).,iii.no. Kmmn. w).i. pp.7n.2. R<.i-, Ct<<u.D.tt<)jtu.t.)<))ci.t: K)M.m.<U..m).),.)SX,n.)).M),.]m r- Mt. &t Latte, 'T~UMt.d aud UM ii.p.53S ~t. iii. !)5. h~tb,' v).


to hc grin!n)t*chws,wcrumountodin goM <tn<< silver in Et). ropf in tho middie agfs, and preservM)af rcHc.tin churche:. ThcM M or was ono in CorptMChrMti CoUegc,Cantbridgo, mountod on little gilt claws, which sufSeinntlyshow what it waf thooght to bo. Tho Chiocfte idea that tho tc&mmoth was a huge mt, and tho vcry nameof Mottu'rof Mice given to it, fit euriously wittt n sot of North Atnenam stories, whichmny have a like origin in the findingof fossitremainsof enonnous Hixe. Tho name uf the P~rc aux Bufs,"prubttbtythe tmtMJatMn of <t native Indxtt) name,wnsgiven to an cxtittct aoimat who.~0 huge !jonM wcre~))nt) on tho t~uk. of the Ohio.' Th Intliaux of New Ftfmcc,Father Pnn! ic Jeune rottes in 1C3. tiaybcsides,that ail the Mumfd'i of ench spccieshM'can ctder hrother, who is M the hcgiuningand origin ofatt th rncu. and this <')dorhrothpr is nmrve))ou!ity g~'itt imd powo-fn). Th ctdf')' hfothcr of tho hc{tv(:r!<, thcy totd )ne, i!t perhapsas bi~ ni!our itnt."S Therc arc cnrMut&mo))g t))c IrmjUui~, of' a bufsnys Morgan.<<()))cs fidoofsuch huge dhneosioMas to thrcsh down t!tc furcst itt )ns tnarch.~ Aud hMt}y, in onc of thc Not'th American titteJ! of thc SttM-cntchcr, we <htda erpaturc to which th namn of Moth<rof Mico" nMywc)tbctung. When the sun was to hc set frec fromthf snar~ the animals dfLatcd who shoutd go up and Rverthe cord, nnd the donnons wcnt, fur at thi:! thne the dornMusuwas the targcst aninat i)) the worid; wttcu it stood up it )ookcdlike a mnuntaiu." T))o whole story, which goes on to tell i)owit has comc to pas'; that i!te dormice arc but smaltcrcatures now,i:!givenhre in the next chapter. Thc native trihu!!of thc towcr end of South America ex. phdncd the rcason why they, otdikc the Spnniart! had uo hertisof cattte in their country,hy an intcrcsting story, which has tho air of a myth of ohscrvation foundcd ttpon tho examinntionof caves contMuingfossithones. T)icy had )t muttipticity of inferiurdeiticsbutowthe two grMt powcrsof Guod and Evi), who, therc as eiscwhereon the Americancontinent, arc aboveaU. Eacti of the towcrdL'!ti("i prcsidus ovcr onc parti1 t!n<T<.t), Hitit. Xat. vu), (e<). ifxt'ii!. l, ~muini', p. 2(i). MobtitXM toL ~U. le jMm-, (t<).)4), f. Mot~t), tUU.





eutar caste or <ami)yof Indians,of whiehhc is to hve oupposed twen the creator. "S<jmcmakethemsetvcs of the casto of th tiger, someof ttte )ion,someof the guanaco, and others of th oittrich,etc. They imagine that thse deitic~have cach their Mpamtc habitations, in va~t caYM-ux under thc carth, boncath sonm lake, hiH,etc. and that when an Indian di~, hi)) sont goes to th'e with tho dcity who presidesover tux particutar imnity,there to cujoythe happinefi!) of bcing eten~Uy druuk. Thcy believethat their good deitiesmade the world, and that thcy first crcatcd the Indians in their caves, gave thcm the tance, the bow and arrows, and thf stone-howls, to iBghtand hunt with, and t))L-n turncd thcnt out to shift for thent~ves. They Imaginethut th deities uf the Spaniard.s did the Munc by thetn; but that instcad of tancps, bow)!, etc., they gave thcm guns and .swords. Thcy supposethat when the bcasts, birds, and lesseranimak wcre ereatcd,thoseof th more nimbtc Mnd came i)nmcdiate)yout of thcir cavca but that the butis and cowti being th last, the Indians wcre so Mght~ned at the sight of their homs, that they stoppedup thc entrance of their ea.vM with grcat stonc. Thisis th rcasun they give whyt)tcy had M biack eattte in their countrytill thc Spaniants brougbt thon over, who morewiselyhad let thcm out of the 1 cave!)." The possihitity that th Britzilianbelief in th caypor,or wild ape-like bcing of the woods, may bu derivcd frutn a recollectionof a grcat extinct apc, hns bt-cn aitcady mentianed, but there is a cireumstanccwhicb rather faveur!) the Idea of its being a myth, fbundfd on the cxamination of <ossU boncs. tho Like mamnMth,and the mastodon, and the crMttotsof th beasts nnd bird<, lie is thoughtto live underground. "They bu)ic\-e hc ha<!subtenttnean camposand huuting grounds in the forest, wc)!8toc!fcd with paca.s and d'-w." It is possibtc, too, thut th notion of subterraneananimats,who die if tb<'y sec thc daytight, like the mammoths of Siberia, may be traccd in various sturics. TJms,thc t'ijians tell a tale of two rocks, mtdcand fcmatc Lado, whieharc twu deitieswho wcreturned Thof.. At~m~ium F..)kncr, u[r~te.)). ttc. Ihtthfd,l?n, t.. 1H. Tt. ii.p. ~ut. Htttfi, l,


andin tho West Indies by tho sight of duylight into stone there were men who dwelt in Cimmeriandarkncss in their caves,and comingout were turned into stones and treM by tho sight of thc Mm.' Tales of gianti and monstera,which stand in direct connexion with the finding of great fossil boues, arc scattcred broadcnst over tho tuytho)og'y of tho wor)'). Huge bones, foundat Puuto Santa Eicna, in tire corth of Guttyaqui!,have servedns a ibundationfor tho atory of a colonyof giants who dtvett theM.* Thc whotoaronof tho PampiM is a great sopulchre of enonnousextinct animuts; no wonder that one grt plain shoujdbe calledthc Fictdof th giants," and that sueh namcsaa thhiUof thc giant," thc stream of the Mimai," should bo guides to the geologist in his search for fbssU Lonc~* In North Ameriea it is the same. Thc fossil bones of Mexicoaro rc~rred to th giants who dwe)t in th Jand in citrtytltes, and werefound iiving in tho plains of Tlascala by th Ohneo),whocame there bcfure the Tultees. At the time of th conqucst,Btinud Diaz was told of their hugo stature aud their crime!);and, to show hhn how big they were, the peoplebrougttthima bonoof one of thetn, whiehhe measurcd hirn.setf agniust,and it was M tatta.'i hc, whowasa nian of rcasonahto stature. He and his cuntpanionawere astonished to sec thosc booM,and bc)d it fur certain that therc had been giants in that )aud.~ Th Indianf)of North America teH hcw thoir mythic hero, Manaboxho,"killed the ancicut monsters whosoboues we now soc uador thc carth." They use pieccs of the boncsof thuse munstcM as chartni!,and most likely the piecesof hono drawnin their picturcsa-!instruments of magie poweraro such. They tell of giants who could stridc uver th targestrivers,and the taDestpinc-trecs. 'l'ho Winnebagossay their monstrousmedicine auitnat stitt exists, and they hve
Tt.v. p. 9S$. Onedo,ia FurchM, SamM)), Yiti,' p. 60. desCord., p). 20. CieNde LMn,p. IS9. Bi'-omand 'Mmdi, IhmboMt, VttM <DMwm,tnKtm,vo).iii.)).lM. Ant.Per.p.H. Bermt Mai, Conq.do h KaeM &iaat: M~rM, t79~ vo). i. p. 3CO. ft'br, M~icu.' p. i!u't. OMi~M, vol.i. p. IN. HnotboMt,VM!'des Cr<)., r<).). t.). M. Y



pteccs of tho boiteswhich betong to them, which thcy use as charnM. ThoDaeotasustif!ucitbuncsfur"mcdtcnte,"tH(dt!ay they betong to th grt horncd water-bcast,tho Uuk.a-ta.hc. Hiawatha hetpcdth Indians to suMuetite grcat u)o)tstct-i! that overran thc country. Tho TomThmnb of thc ChtppcwM hittcj the giantf)aud hackcd thcm into littte pices. Baying, Hcncdbrth tut no man bc iurgo' than you tu'e uow," <M(d so men be~nw of thcir presott sixc.' Titere are plenty more auch tom-s. Cuo tuenttoncd by Dr. Witson hu8 the intercsting featurc that monsters and riants bottt perishcd by tho thunderbotts of the Groat Spirit, and m auotitpr ail tho HM))stert) werc thus staiu exccpt thu Big ]h))),wtiowent ott' to tho Grcat Lakcs~ It must be bontin mind, howcYo-, that in spccuttHiugou the ori~ti of tales such M thcso, pf.:Mib)o rGeoHcctio)):!of contestsof )nen with huge animai))now cxtiuct must bc takot into consideration,as wctt a:! inft-n-ncesfront t)M' finding of hu~e boucs, a~d fiomctitUM (ivon both causes MtMy !)ave woj-ttcd together. In tho 0)d Wortd,toyth.s but))oM att't new conncctct)with hu~c hom'.t, fussit or ~ccnt, arc cmutnuttcnou~h~ x Marcns St;HU)-u.sbrouH'httoRotw-,ft-(jmJt)p))a,tht'b<)n(..sufthc))]ouster wha was t'~ h!H\- (K'vourcd w))i)c t)tc voiti~s AudrunK'da, of t)tc ehain.swttk-!) bouud hut-wcrcto bt- KCf.-n tht't-u on the rock and thc scpolchni of Anta'us, containiu~ his skcteton, 60 cubits )ou~,wast'oundin Mau)'it:utia.' Don Quixotpwas bcforcbandwith Dr. Faicoxerin rcasoniog on the huge fussi)boncs so connnonin Sicity as rentains ut' ancu-nt inhabitants,as appfars frumhis au.swcr tu thu bartjcr's question, how big hu thought thc ginnt Mor~aotcmight havo been 1 Morcovcr,in th istand of Sicity thcre havo Leen fonnd tong-bonesand fhoutdcr-bonM so iMgc, titat their size manKfstst)tuir nwnt-rs to havo Leen giants, nnd as hig as great towcM, for this truth geometry sets hcyond doubt." boncsso ptentifutiystrcwcd owr tbc Sewatik, Agiun, thu <bssi[ i. pp.SUt, SthMtcrnft, M. part SM )Mtt pp.t?S,224 part iii.p, 232,3):, L, 'rn)).hb)rie Y t.). i. Jttiu. p. nz. lit r.jtjmetm, XM vol. W'!<on. i.p. SU. MamMf, 'I'))M.<;T.H. 8. 'Stntb<tii.3,S.


or lowest rangcx of th Hhnatayas,betongcd to tho stain Rauf the IndiaM mythuiugy. Tho kM,~tho gtgatttio Eakshit.s:). of tho Don C'owthut Cuy Eart of Warwick stew are MMiains or wcre to bo Mot in Engtand, in th shape of a whnte'srib aud t.o)ucgrt fossitboue in tho churehof St. Mary Hudc)i(!< kcpt, 1 bctteve, in WarwickCastic. "T))c giitnt sixteen feet were t'uundm t;)77 nfM Rcyd~t under au high, wimsctMtxM at)d cetcbratcd in song by Fciix upruoted wk, aud t.'Xtuniued haa b<'t-nlong ago Ptater, tho rcnowMed pttysician of BtUitu, iuto a very distant dcpartmcnt of btmishcdhy tater n:ttumti.st!' xuotogy but th giant ha~ from that time fut'th got a. in'm standing ground bosidcth anns uf Luccmc, and will kp it, a)t critic!)to thc contrarynotwtthstanding."s It would hc tedious tu euuntcrate tnon.' tn.sttmcmin which traditions ofgiantsnud hug(i bea-stshve bL'utifuDncdbuthin nnciont an(t )m)dt:rnttm';s frutn t)n; nnding of grt fossit Lunes. But t)tu n'mark.s of 8t. Au~'Mtinuon (t grMatfos.sit tooth he t-aware worthy of attcntioo, as thruwing Mne ti~ht on.thc cuutx'xion uf suc)) bones witit thc ))<)fcfthat man was onco hoth t'nornMnsty tnrgcr und longer.tived than he is nnw, and ttmt his statun; has ditninishcdin thc cuurse of gesto it3 prfscnt dimcusiu))8as it is hfM by th Mostons that Adam wn!! "ixty t~ct hij;h, of thc tacasurc uf a ta)) pahn-tref, and t))at th truc bchfvorswit))jc t'estoredin Pamdise tu t)n<uri. ginat stature uf thc hmnan mec, and that th houns whowill attend thum wi)the of proportiunattiditncnsiuns. It suons as if Linna'usmay hvehftd sueh au opinion, at teitst ))is editor in thc notesuf as his rfading uf a pM-suge gives the <ut)owing tttu ori~inat in ohiicurf. hi.suorthcru tour, whure unfo)'tunatc)y 1 hvenotion that Adatn M)d Kve wc;rc giatits, aud t)tat and mankind, fromonogcnontion to anuthcr, owing tu pnvm-ty th <)iother causes,hve diminished in sixu. Huncu p(;rhap.< tninutivc stature of th<!Laptanders. St. Augustinc's ohscrvationsaru contaiucd in !ns chaptcr "Concerniug thu long Hfoof mcn befuru th iiood, and th greatcr size of their bodies." Hu nmkcs thse remarks, hc D.M., Orimm, )). 6:!2. OtfeM, p.3. SeoKho p. 87. Tun~nf, !<n)~ etc., i.t.. 28. LiMN-af, *T<mr,'t"L n




says,in case any infidet shouh)mise a doubt ahout men having lived to so grt ait a~o. Mme indceddo not bchevo that men'a budies were formerty mue)) greatcr than now." Virgit, he continues, expresses thc hugo xixeof tho tnen of former thnes, bow mueh more then in the younger periods of tite wortd, before the cckbrated (tctugc. "But concerning the magnitude of their bodics,the graves laid hare by age or tho force of rivera and various accMcnts especiattycouviet the incredubus. whcro they havo corne to tight, or whefo bones of tho dead of incredibte magnitude havu faUcn. 1 have seen, and not 1 alune, on thc shore by Utica, so Ituge a notar tooth of a man, that were it eut up into smatt tuudcts of teeth liko ours, it would sec)))enongh to maku a hutxtred of thon. But thM I shouMthink had b~-ton~ed to some giattt, for besidc that tho bodies of att met) were tben mueh larger thaa ours, the giaut!)a~dttfin- cxceedod tho rest." 1 Among the tnKtiticns preserved from remote ges hy tho hunmn race, thcrc are perhaps none mot-o important to the ethnotogist than tho.so H'hichrcJate, ttt overygrt district of the wor!d, and with fio much uuity combinedwith M much variety, th occurrence of a grcat Dcjuge in long past timo. Msmdyiog thse Diluvittl Traditions it is of the highest con. sentence ttiat he sitouid he ab)e to separate thc resu)tH of the of reat events front thoso of observationof naturat memory phcnootena and of purely mythotogica!devotopment. Hum. boidt in part Mtatcsthe prublem in hia remarks on tho four dvastations of th carth, hy famine, nre, hurricane, and de. as luge, rept-escntedin tho Mexieati picture-writing. What. over may be their true origin, it does not appear less certain thut they are nctiotM of ustronomica! M)odMk-d either by a dim remembraMeeof soute mytho)o~ grt rcvo)utioHwhich our ptanct bas under~nc, or in accordancewith the physicat and geotogicat hypothses to which the of tnarino appL.arance nnd fussit petrifactions bones givesrise, even among pcopiMat th greatest distance from civitization."9 That the obscr~-atioMofshetts and coratf!in places above thc level ofthe sca, and cvcn on t.igh Mtouutains.shoutd hve giveu Aut! 'DeCivitatc tM,- }. YuMj<< HumMJt, C.n)., ,,).20.


rise to tcgends of grt noodawhich dfposited them thero, is with th growth of tnyths tMtttM! ouough,and quite con.si.stent of tnonsters and giants frum th observation of foasil boncs. Marine productionsheing found at hcights of many hundrett feet abovo tho sea, the question would cvidentty occur to tho men who specuhtted M ingeniousty about tho fossilboucs, how did thse productions of the Ma get upt'Mthe ntoutttiuns? As to <bssilerustaccftns, tho AmhitUt~uo~mpi~r Abu-Zoyd explains their appeannicc in Ceylon hy Mtting them down as spa-animatftlike cntw-tish,whieh, whfH they corneout of tho aro convertet) into fitonc,'but the appeanutca of sca-sheua Mea, on mountain!!couldhurd)ybe so accouutedfor. Two alternatives ituggustthetMt'tvfsto exptain the occurrence of shetts in such situations either thc sea may havo been up to tho mountain, or the mountain tnay have been down in the sea. Modcrn~'utu~i.sti) hve in )nostcasesto adopt tlie latter alternative, but tilt rfeent titttM the former was ottener than not !n')dtu bc the n)we pmbabtc. ~'ater is the type of all titat is whitu thc nrn] pnrth ia itnmovntovable,Ouctuating, t))tijta)))c, abjo, pormatjunt, solid,an') it is not to the pm'pose to argue that mottern knowted~c bas revcrscd this otdcr view, with so many oth<r doctrineswhichKwmcdto rest on tho phtin evidunccof the sen~f),and whichoniy faited, as ntany of our own thories hve no doubt to fuil, frotu tttc narrowness of their range of observatiou. Th fossilsimbeddedin high ground hve been appealed to, both in aucient and modcru tintes, both by savngusnnd civiHzcdMcn,as videncein support of their traditionsof a flood, and morcover the argument,apparcntty unconncetedwith any tradition, is tu bc found, that beeause thcre arc marine fossils in p)ae<iaway fromthe sea, therftbrc th sea must once ))ave becn thero. In tho SocietyIslands, tradition tells !)owa flood that rose over the tops of the mountains, was raised hy the Ruahatu. A ti~hennancaught his )iooksin the hair of s~'a-god the god as he laysleepingamong his cont) groves, and woke to fiay,thottgh in liis anger ho drowncdtho hi)n, but Htmngo rust of tho inbabitants of tho Jand in thc detuge, he attowcd TotMttt, '<!}-)<.,' v)).i. p. H.




the nshcrman himscif to dnd saforefuge with his wifeand cht)d on !t srnat), tow, coral isiand cto-ie to Raiatca, and they repcoptc't th carth. How thc tittio Mand was prescrvedthey give no account, but thcy ap~at to the /M<wo, eora!,and nhet~ found at tttc tops of th highest tnountains, as proof of tho inondation.' In Samoa it is thc univcrsat bcncf that of otd the nsh swatn where the land now is, and tnn)itionadda that whenthe wators nhated,many of tho ns!t of the Hcawcre left on th tand, and aftorwardswo-c ehnnged intu stonca. Hence, there are stones in they say, abondancein tho bt)sh aud among tho mouotains, which wero once charks, and other inhahitants of thc deep.~ ln thc Not-th the Moraviun mi~ionary Cranz rocords that, Thc fh-st ntissx-.narie'! ~tnx) among tho Grc<'n)ando-!) a t")era)))y distinct tradition of thc Deluge, of which ahnost nll h<ath(.-n nations stitt know something, namely, that th wortdwas once tilted over (um~'kantcrt) and atl men wpt-cdrowtK-d,t'ut fKjmchccamo nre-.spirits. Thc ouly man whot-onained ative, smote aftcrwarttswith his stick upon the and there came ont a woman,with whom lie ground, peopl~ thc carth again. Thc-ytell more-.v~r that ~r up in the conn. try, w)t..rc m<n f)()d nc~.r havu <)wt')t,thcro arc found nll sct-tsufrcmaittsof nshfs, nnd cven honps of whnteson a high motuttain witc'rcfr.xn make it picar thnt thc parth wa. thcy once uodod. R It. is intcn-sti)~ to c<.)nparethiif arpnnpnt with th Mp)anati<in thc Kan)chada)s ~i\'c of the honcs of which i)) whn)es, ttx-ir coontry at.so are fbund on high tnountains. Thcy fcar a)) hi~h munntain.s,mys Stctfcr, cspec!a)iy votcanos,and also but sprin~, and b.-tievothat sutne mountains arc the nbodM of spirits. "Wi.cn onc asks thon what thc dovHs do up there, they rcpty, 'thcy eook whidcs.' 1 askcd, whcrc th<-y ?1 Tttc answcr was,thcy go down ~tt ihe-tn to the sot lit ni~ht and catch M mnny, that onc brings home live to ton of them, one itanK:)~to each nn~er. Whcn1 asked howdo you know this thoy mi(t thnir ~)-M-<. or olti people had ntways said M and Lc.ticved:t thcmscivc! Withat thcy Hti.s. Myn.Rc! M). li.M. .r~er, 'MyMh,'p <'t9 Cnu.z, p. M2. A~inn~t.Uy,C. r. thU, -Uf. withthe KmuitmM-' L<.nd<<tt,]SOt,t<.f.ii.),.xtS.

HtSTOMCAt. TRAMTKMfS A~))MYTHS 0F 0)!t:!(VA't'tt)!f.327 that thcro wero nMny honos of appcatcd to thc obscrvatfot). whtde!! found onait burning ntountains. 1 askcd wheoeocorne the fimes thero xomethnes,and they answcred, when th a.twodo our ~M)' they spints hve heatedttp their nmuntains ttin~ the rcttt of thc hmnds out up the chimncy, so as to bo abte to fthnt up. They said morcovM, Cad in hcavcn sometimc!)docsso too nt th time when it is our summcr and h!s winter, and ho warms up lus ym't whereby they cxpiain th t vnrationofthc tig))t)m)H." In tho g'cftto~catthcorics of c]n'i<'a! times, tho infprcnco fromfosstishett.tfoond i)t)and,high or luwttbovoth Ma lovel, w<ttco)nn)0t)]y thnt th sca had once been. thcro. Herodotua argnes frum th sheits on th mouutaitMin Egypt,* and Xanthux frotn tho fussit !ihe))s,)ike cocktcs and MaUups, which ho had seen far from th sc'a, that there had becu sca in u)d titncs wttei'c tho tand had since bcen !cft dry. Ht'atosthcnfs nottCMthe cxi-itt'nceuf <)uantit)c<! of oystcrt<)n'H)} andbits of wrcck of s<'u;;uing near thc temple of tfhip!! tho opinion Ammou,far iniandin Lybia, whitcStra)"~ cxpn.'s.~es thnt thi.'it<n)p]fwa. M)eo c)".sc to th sL'a, thou~h Kincethrown itttaad by t))c n'tit'in~ of thc watcr~ Dcscnbing the rfgioti of Numidia farthcr wpst, Ponponius M<;)aretatox that, "In<!H)d and far cnou~h frum thc const (if thc thing bc crcdibte) they tell thnt in a wundt'ou.t waythe spincsof fish, and fra~nu'nts oftuurcx andoyster-shd)' stoncsworn in ttte ordinat'y mannur hy ttn.'wav'-sand nut dincrin~ fM))tthnitcof thc e~, anchomfixcdin thc rocks,and othcr ifnihtrMjpt.s nnd ycsti~t's of the sea that once sprcad to thosc ptoces,cxi.stand ara found on titc bnrrcn ptain. So Ovidsays in his r~narkabie state)))entof thc Pytha~orcandoctrines, matina) Et proca! a petagn eftMhfe jnenfre Htvetuo tiitinnmntibM Mtchom inventa immmia." and argues thcncc that K-nha.tbccn convcrtfdinto !and. from which 1 hve n!rcady In thc C'hittMc H))cye!o})a.)ia an acconnt is to be tbuud ({uoted two ronnrkabic pa.s.'Ktgt.s, SKikr, p. 47. i. c. Meh, i. 3. <. Kt~ho, )kn. ii.t3. Cr.Net., xv.2C4.

32S t!!RTOR[CAT. TBACtTtONS ANDMYTHS O? OB8ERVATMN. ~~erK ~Wayy.n trabearing on the proM'ntsubjeet. velling from the shore of tho Eastcrn Sea toward Che-h), ncither brooksnor ponds aro met with in the country,although it is intcrsectcdby mountainsand vatteys. Neverthelessthere arc fonndin the Mmdvery fur away from th tica~ oystcr-aheth and the shicld" of crabx. Th tradition of th Mongolswho inhabitthe country is, that it bas been said fromtimeimmemo. rial thnt in remote antt()uity the watcm of the detuge Hoodo! tho district,and when they retired. the ptaccs whcrc they hatl bcen madetticir appfaraxct.'eovcrpd with aand. Howcver it may havehuppcned, to followth great geogntpherTi-chi,a part of this country is in grcat pt:uns, where spvcra)hundred arc found to bave bcen covcredby the watersand since tengttes aK:caUt.-d the SandySea, abandoned this is wby tttesotk-scytit wbichindicatcsthat they were uot origiiiallycuvcr~d with mnd 1 aud grave! Again, thc presence of foMi)shells on high motmtainshas iong been adduccd as evideoce of the Noachic flood, Titus TcrtaHMn cu~m'ct.s the scit-sheths on )no))ntoi))s with thc K'apand the a)T(tpfaraneu of tbe carth from betow thc waturs,~ mcnt maybe foHowed np ttoough iatcr titncs, and was eun'cnt in Englandtitt 'tuitc tt~'ntty. lit th' ninth c()itionofHornc' 'Introduction to thf Scripturcs,' pub)is))~din 1H4H, thc evidcucoof fussilsis connduuttybftd to provc thc univcntidity of th Dehtgc but thc argument disappears from tt)c next dition,puUiiihedten years later. To th~ statcmcnts of c]:Msicat writers as to anchors and pieccsof wreck being fuund intand, some more modem ac. munts must bc added. Front tinni tu titnc, whethcr from upheavatof the eartb's surface of other g<o)ugical changes,ships and tbingsbdonging to them have becn fbund nu- intand, in ptacesfur ges out of rcachof navigable watcrs. Bunonspeak:! of fragment!! of vcssctsbeing found in a mountain iake in Portugnt, far from thc sen, aud mentionsa fitatcmentof Sabinus, iti bjs commcutaryon tbe liues just quotcd from Ovid,that in thu ycar 1-tGO a vcssctwasfouttdwith its anchors,in a minein Yo). M4m. mot. lesCMnoM, iv.;).<H. K)tmm, C.Q.,vo). vi.p.467. il. H.P. 'Do Dir Tt, MUo,' Link, Cr.ott,' ett.j i)tr)iM, t~], p. <.



the A)pi! This M, no doubt, tho Ntmo story that Antonio Uatvanorefers to, when hc myit, Thus thcy tell of nnding of Switzertand huthofohip. and ironanchorsin the mountain!< veryfar intand, whereit appeamthat thero was never sea Dor M)twater."S T))ehearingof such phenomenaon t!)c formation of diluvial traditions M c)car)y shown by Utfir havi))g hccn repcatedty a'!pvidMico of tbo fermer prMcnco daimcti,like the t'ossi) sh(:)ts, of the sea, and evenof the BibUcat <Jduge. It is not,howcvcr, fromthis point of view,that tho accounts in quesuecMiffary, tion shou!dnH bc truc; it is enough thnt thpy houM be MiovM)M)d rcnsuM'd upon. In the spvftttccnth century, Fnty Ptftro Simon relates that sume miner: ntnuing un adit into hit! near CaUao,"met with a ship whic!<had on top uf it the grc'at tna~ of the hill, and did not ngrc in its makc a))<] appt'ntituce with our ships," whence people judgcd that it had bccn left thcrc hy the !)<)(), axd th fnct is cited in uf thc conntry in antedituviao timex.* pt'uofof the ))Hbitat!u)t as hix opitfiuHthat tho Writin~in !7K(), StmtdctttK')~ git'c.'<it mammothbouMin Sibo'ia a)t: r<)ics of thu Detu~f, and goes on to add a like exnmple, that some thirty yeaM carlier the wttoictowcrhuHof tt ship wit)ta kcet wns found in Barabinsk there is )to occan.' Lastty, in Tartary, whero ncvet't))(;!fS! Mcottaod it is quite a eutnnMnthing for ancient canos hottuwcdfront a sin~te trec to bc found buried in piaccs remutc from navigable channe)! whitc th skoletoxisof wtttucs are foundin simitar tiituttiuns. Sir JohnCIcrkth)!s remarks upon ftennoefound near Edinbur);hin 1726. Thwashingsof thc riverCarrundiscovercda boat,13 or H- feet underground it is 30 fcet In h.'ngth,and 4-~in brcadth,at! of une pice of oak. There wo'e scvcrat strata above it, such as ioarn, e)oy, she)!s, MOiN, mnd, and gravot thse strata demonstrate it to have Leen an antedituvianboat." 'Thfunt deh Terre,' o).iii.)).!]! Ga~n'), p. M. ))<ff)Nn, 'KuticM!' lti't<'rh)'N,' etc. j Cm-nm, ]'!2y, p.31. Sim'm, <Stmhh-ntwf);, 't')K'U run Xn) Ht) 0-tU''ht undA<ie<t,' 'Dm HnM)t Stnek4~ C. !)! n!))t)ihon Stnith, p. ho)m, U!i",p. 'L UiU. p.< p. 2~. Wjkcn,'Atd)a:oTt" H"t. L""<hn, et< of&t,thtt~ 3X. t'tiy,



AX!) MYT)tS f)F otMKRVATt'M.

Bot!)ht Seot!andand in South America,uphcavatof land in moreor less modem timMis a recognized fact,nnd the nnding a -) oft)oat.s, ofvariou.<t otttcr productions of hnman art, in ptacex where they could hantty have becn ptaccd by man, is rendity accomtett for hctwccnthis ttphcava) und the ctfect!) of ordinary accumulationand dgradation. Oeotogicatevidence hcaring on traditions of a Dehtgo M Rpnrce. Sir Charles LyellsccnMdisposcdto adopt tLo viewof old writersthat some of tho South Amencan dotugotmttitionft arc conneetcdwith the monory of local ftoodft, such as are knownto happcu there. J)r. Sxabsays that tho Hungarians ~ti)t prserve traditions of thcir ptaias having been once covcrctt by a i'n.'shwatcrsea, the watc-rsof which aftcrwarfts thc !Mrnwsof the Iron Qatc. ThettraininKof escapedtto-ou~)) the countryia this ntanm-ris eousidured Dr. S);aL6 as havby ing reaOy happeocd, so that this may bc a case of tradition hftttdingdownthc memoryof a gcotogicat change from a very rcmote period.' It would rpfjuirea large budy of wientiric videnceof this eharactor to tnake possiMca thnrough investigation ofthe Diiuviat traditiottsof thu wortd, arxt any attt'mpt to dmwa distincttitu' hptwccnth ctaims of and Ilistory Mymust in the nK'anthm' b e thotugy pt-pmnture. It fortunatcty happons t))at th in thc <)iHict))ty Diluvial traditionitinto their historicnl and anatysing ele. tnvtttotogicai ment!! is ohuwhichonly partiai!ynrH-ets their use to Ethnuiogy. Werethcy tncn.tystoric.scurrcnt in varions parts of thc world, Kaying)itt)c inorc thnn that titcrc wa-s~tcc a great flood,or giving dftaib ouly harmonixingwithin Hmited districts, thcy might bc Mptaincdas indpendantMyt)..s of Observation. But tho gnera) state of thiuss found over the wortd M widoty diHercntfrom tins. Th notion of men cxistcd befom having the flood,and having been a)t (icstrovcdexcept a few who and escapett n-p~picd t).e carth, docsnot OowM immediatety fromthe o).s(Tvatiun of natum) p).enomenatimt wc can easity it suppose to hve originatcd 8evcmttime.s indcpendcnttyin such a way,ynt this is a fcmtnrc connnonto thc grcat ma!!f! of floodtraditions. Sti)i more ttot.s this argtnncnt appjy strong)y UM)). Ft! )M3. Joxmit!,


to th occurrenceof somcform of raft, ark, or canoc, in which tite snrvivorf) a.re usua!)y savcd, untcsx, as in Mtno cafies,thcy tako refuge dirccdy on the top of somemountain whiehttte watGM never cov<'r. Thc idea M indccd conccivaUe, if tioncwhat (ar-fctchcd, t)<atfrom the si~ht of tt boat fomttt high on {t mountaint))fm might gww tt story of the itoodwhiekcarripdit th<rc, whitethe peoph;m it cscapfd to fuuu(ttt newrace. But it ticsoutsideni reasonitt'teprubithitityto supposeMtchcircuntstaneM to hve pmdnccd tho sanM story in scvemtdif!crent of a ptaccit,nor is it vcry likely thnt the dim ttitnottbntnccs Mumhet' of localficodss))ou)daccordin thi.s'ith tho atnount of that M fuunf!amoHgthc Of~dtraditionsof rcmote consifftcncy of thc wortd. Th oecun'cncc of an ark in the traditions rt'giotM nf a duhty, found in so many distant ti<nt;sand ptacea,favottr!) th opinion of their bcing dcrivcd front a sin~tc source, nnd t'r"m art, eustom, thusfonning part uf thu tnas. of pvidcncti nnd bc)icf, whieh Mip~forts ttie thcory nf n decp tying historicat connexion uf th nu'ntat deveiupmcntuf th w)to!c hmnan n~c. As to )!yth~ of Of~crt'ation in gox'rai, tho line of dcma! c:ttinM'hich ~paratL")thc)))on the une hand fromtraditions of rcat cvt'nt. an(} on tho uthcr front more purciymythic talc)!, i.s cquatty hard to dnnv. Even tite storicswhich h<n'cthcir ori~inin a mct'f rcatixed tm'taphor,or a pcrsonincationof the phcnotncnanf nature, wHi attact) thcmsctvfsto rcat persons, or ohjccts,as strottgtyas though thcy actuaitybetongot ptacf.-s, to thcnt. To th suhj'ctivc !nin<tuf th myth mnker, evcry hit) and\'at)py,cvcry stonc at)d ttfc, that strikcs ])))! attention, hcconcsth p)acc whcre some mythic occun-onee to happcMCtl of hprocs,or f:ur wornon, or monstcrs, or etitcren)beings. Kf'ds, Wh''))oncethc tatc Mmadc,t))c rockor troptx'comci! cvidpncu ofitstruthto future gcncmtitms:"thc bricks arc a)ivc at this day tu tcstity !t thcrcforc,duny it nut."



QEOQUAPHICAL DtSTMBUTMN 0F MYTH9. T)!E student of th eady Histm-yof Mankind <!ndsin Comth satne use aud th same difHeuttywttich parative Mythology of his subject. He tio beforehim in so mauy other LnutHttus can somctime!)show, m tho H)yt)uctdtatcs currcnt nmong Mverat peopte~ CMueHenecs so quaint, su nthtute, or so ccmptox, that they coutd hardty hve tmscu imjcpcodentty iu two ho ctnim!! ns prunCi; of historiod p)acM,und thse cohn.'tdenees connL'xionbetween Utc tribcs or nations tttnuog whottt thcy is huwto be oure that ))? M'cfuu)iJ. Bttt his great <iiHicu)ty Muut intcrprctingas historica! videncetuudugifs which ntay Le uothing moro thfu) th r~sutts of thc tikc wurking of tho hutnau Mnndund~'rtike conditions. His cvcr-rceurring proHc)Mis to ctM~ity thc erowd of rcspndjianccswttich arc eontioufdfy t)m)sting thutnscivcs upou hun, so as tu kct;p thuse sitoHar Hpart frumthosc which, haviog thingi)whichare tML't'eiy at, sume spot of thu earth's surface thcir cutntnon source anJ arc rcatty aud histuricidiyunitcd. cuotrc ofdiit'usion, No attumjtt is tninte in th ])rcsL'nt chapter to )ay duwn defioite ru)t.'8fur thc sotution of tins impurtant probicn), but a fow itiustmtions are givcuof thc more gcncrat ana)ogics running through the t'utk-turc of th wortd,wjtich Kthttxiogy,for thc prci.cutat Icast, bas to set a~ide and then a fcwfactii are stated, bcaring on the din'usiunof ~tyths by rccug)u~cJehanof' inturcoursc,with tho viuw of iutroduciug a group of Mt:)s shnitar cpisodcs,whteh it is for thu rcadc'rto rejuct as causcd or to accuptas growth ur tnodcnt tmnfinuiision, t'y indupGudf'nt a contributionto thc carly History of th New Wortd. Firfitty,t)n!n, thero are found among savnge tribes myttts

like in their charaetcr,and thereforc no dnuht in their origin, to thosc of th grcat Aryan race which iiavc in ur owntimea beeo so BuccM)jfut!y traccd to tho verypoint whcro they aroso out of th contonphttion of Nature. No one has yct doncfor tho myths of thc towcst tribeswhat t<asbccn done for thoso of our more inghty dcvctopcd race by Ktthn <t)t<) aoJ MU))cr, their schoo!in Gemtany nnd Enghmd but St'hirrt.'n,by his trc~tmentof tho Rodsaud mythie aueustorsof thc South Sea s)ander as peMonifications of tho phcuotucnaof tiature, hns madean im{)ortnttt mfthod step towaK)cxtonding th mMteya of intorprctotiM) to the Mythotogyof th WorhD Stit), a very stight acnuaintancc with the puputar tales of America,Potyuesia, evcn AuiitntHaand Van Diomen'sLand, will show that they afo thc same in their nature an') oftp))in thc'ir iucidentit, by virtuc cftho like nature ofthe tnindswhichconwivedthon. Af) Zcus, thc pcrsonincd Hca\'cn uf our own race, dropt team ou cart))which tnurtu~ eaU min, so dm") th heavcn-god of Tahiti Mb thHntUt minontttnftccofth Ma. Thiukty an: netdropa o of f ruiu, but L utthey tm: arc tt'ataof ~1U1I otOro,"j Oto. ThpyM<! 1'bo)' not ruJ)8 r<m), the)' In the (tark patt:hc.s on thc <Ucc of thc Mtuon, thc Singhatc.sc secs th piuos harf thnt oHcrcditscif to Buddha to bc cookpd and catcn,when hc wus wamk'ri))~huxgry ih thc forcst. Tito Northman saw tht'rc t)n.'two chHdrcnwhom ~ani thc Moon cau};))t up, as thcy wcrc taking t!ic watcrfrum thc wct) J3yr~ir, at)d whoarc carryi!)~ tho bucket "n thu pute between thcm tu this day. Etsuwhcrc in Europe, Isaac hax been secn carryin~ thc bundteof woodup Mount Muriahfor hisownsacrineo, and Caiu bringing frutn his nc)da toaduf (horoi! as his ofR'ring to Jehovith. Our own "AJan in the Moon"wa:i set up thcre for picking sticks on a Sunday, aud hc, too, carries his ttmrnbush, as CaHhanhad set-n, 1 hvefiecnthcc in hcr, and 1 do adurc t))w my tnistross showfd tnc thce, and thy (!ogand thy butih." Th Sc)i.shIndians uf Nurth-t A)ncricahave devised their storyof tho "T"ad in the M<jon," th tittle wolfwasin love JcrNea~Nader undderMawimythm Me WiMtJcMtgea Schin~f, Rijjt, mt. N)i! Myn. R. *t!. p. 63t.



with thc toad, and pursued hcr onc bright mooniight uight, shu made a dc~M.'mte till, fur a tast cfootcuuf cMcapf, spring on to the face of tho moon, and therc sho Mstill. lu the Samoan Mands ht the (A-ntra! Pacifie, the dwellcr in the moon M ? woman. Her Namowas Sina, and she was heating out paper-ciothwitha nudtct. Th mouowas just rising, aud looktid tike a gt-catbreit't-ft'utt, au Sum asked her to comodown aud lut her c!)itdhave a bit of her. But tho moou wu very augry at tito idea of being eateu, and tuok up Sina, chiid, and tnatiotnnd ait, andthore they arc to be seento this day.' Thc hcaventybodiesure gods and itft'ucs, and tales of thc!r doeditiu love aud xrm!!are ibund amottg' tho Iuw<it' as anwng the hi~hM't'aecs. Aj~uJto and At'tctnM, HciiM and Scfene, aro brother and siott-r, and so in thc Puiar Rgions tito Sun ia a maideuan<tth Moon))cr broUtL-r.Th Kw~!irfmux talc tells how, when thc giri wai!ut Il ib.sth'c gathcnng,wmc oue decjan.'dhif)lovo furhut- by tihaking hcr hy t)K'sftoutde)-!), after the tnanner of th country. Sho could uut tell who it was in t)tc dark but, so shestncat'L'd hcr hand witf)suot,<thdwhpt)J~o t'anto buck, she btackcncditis face with hcr hand. When a ho- bn)th<r, nnd ficd, and ho tight w:tM hrou~ht,shu saw it Wifs t'U!i)n'd after tK'r. Shc cametu the end of thc c<n-th and aprang uut intu th~'sky, nxdhc foifuwcd1~'r. Thcn.' they hecamc thc Sun and Moon,aud this i.s why tho moonis ahvays chasing the sun thruu~h thu hcavcns and tho muonis Kouctimesdark as he turns itts biaekcned chcck towafdsthe carth.' Th natives of Van DiL'tncn' Lttnd, whuscdismat hiKtory is now ciosmg in total extinction, arc amon~th tow(.st tribes knowNtu Ethnoh~y. Yet tu thcM, as to higher races, the idcaIs fatnifiarthat thc stars are men, or bcin~!) of u hifhcr orderwho have appeartid as men on earth. Their myth of t)tc two heroeitwho are now th twin staM CaKtor and Pothtx, is thui!told by Miltigan, af! retatcd by a nativeof the Oyster J~ty Tribc: D.M.,M. OM-S3. 'Inditm Ctinm), Wi)Ma, Soc. Mh-B,' in Tr.Kth. vot. iv. tt 30<. Tumm,futyemift,' tLli.p. ]7. p. 247. See Hitriner, )~t JaurNey,' reMonx thyei), Aretio p. Si!). MtRKxt ia Cnuu,p. 29S Tr.Kth. Soc. wi.:v.p. )<?.

op Mvrns. f)EO(!RAPMK'At. nts'fttrnfn'tox


Myfather, tny gfandfather. ail of them lived ft long timo ngoall ovcr the couuM'y they i~d uu th'c. Two Mtck-feUows came,they stcpt at ttm fuotof a t'.iH,a. MU)B Utyowncountry. On t!te summitof a hiH thcy Wff~sceu by tny MhcM, mycountrymen,on the tup of t)t'; ))iiith~y wercseenstandittg they tiu'uw(iM likoa st:u', it t';)t amon~tt thc b)tt<'ktn<;n, my Hed <nwy,all uf couutrytncn. Ti~'y wor~ fri~)ftt')t('<),t)x.-y thfm after a white they t-cturoud, thoy tmstencdaud )nadun firc tust iu ourtftud. Tho <itf,a iiro witb wuod no nnjMwtt!< aM ht th<jctoud;! in th clear ttight you soo two Dack-fetjuw!) tht')n like two stars.' Tttese aru they who brou~ht fut!to my t':tt)n')-s. Thc two Uack)nf)i staycd awhito!u th tand of my fitthcrs. Twu wonct) wero bathing; it waifm'ar a rocky ~hurc,where tnussetx woni piftitifu!. The wotncttwero Hutky,tht'y w.'ru wcrc fftithh-t, th<y had gont! with twu sad; thcit' hns))ati<)< ht tttc tl)ey w.'m swim)))i))g g!r)A Th'.i w~tt~'nH'cru]u<t<)y; water,they Wt't'u divine t'jr cray-tish. A ittit~-mytuycunceidtid in thch'dtuw ot'n ruck,a hu'}{ustiog-my! Thc sting-mywa.s hc htMla very )u))~spcar frum his hu!o hc spifd thu )iu'~c, wonx'o.hutiawthcnt divc: lte piercxdthcinwithhisspcar, )(u killed thon, h~' cart'k'd thcm away. Awhitc they weru hf eittucciust; to gnno ont of Mi~ttt.T)n- sting-my t'utunK't), thc iih'w, hc tav in stit watcr, m'a)'thc .s'imdv ht'ach; M'ith weru (tintwcrc the wutttcn, thfy u'ore fitst un )f).s K}ju:u',they th'ad The two bhcktm'u t'uught tho stin~-my they stew him wit)i thcir spcats they kith.'d hitn ;thu wuun'nwerc dcad Tltv two bhtckmcn tnadc a <iM',atire of wood. Ou cithcr side they laid a wotnan,ti)u fin.'was butwct.'u ttm wonen wercd<ad1 Thc Maekmcn sou~ht some auta, some large Mue ants; in. thoyp)aeed thcm on the bofotnsof thf ~omc~). Severc-ly, tt'nscty wcM they bittct). Th wotnetircvived~thcylived oncemore. Suon thcrc camea fug, a fug dark a!) night. The two blackmenwent away,the wornendi~ppeared they passudthNugh fn.) t'oM'm. C.ntof



th fog, the thick dark fog! 1 Thuir place ia in tho cbuds. Twostars you sec in th clear cold night thc two btaekmen are thcre,tho wotuenare with thon) thoyare stars above."r It is not ncedfutto aecumutato gront masses of such tates aa thse, in ordertu showthnt t))o tnyth-making faeutty belongs to niankindin gcncnt),and manifests iti<ctfin tho moat distant regiuus,where its unity of principte dc~topes itscif m MiJtesa historicatconvariety of <orm. There may tudeed hu a MUMte nexionat the root of someof th nnatogiMin myths from far distant rgions, which bave just been menttoned but when resemUancMin Mytitotogy ure brought forwardas proofa of such historical conuexion, they must be ctuserand deeper than thuse. Mythofu~icat to b<3 used for such a purpose, ovid<;ucu, requirM a sy-ftonatica~rccmuut in the pnttiug tgcther of a number of evcntsor ideas,which agr~-tucnt must be so close as to ntake it io a high degrc<i improbable that two such combinations:jhou)dhavu occurrudst.-pamtcty, or at tcast thc tales or idcat founda)ikein distant rgions must be of so ~uaint and fantastic a eharactcr as to maku it, ou thc very face of tho mnttcr, uttlikely that ti't'y should havo been itn'cntcd twice. But it is both ensier and safur to nppcat to thc eHccts of known into'coursc bctwcMn diHurcut pcopks iu ifprcadhigb' licfsund }M))u)ar tit! a.s videnceuf thc wayin which histo. rical conncxiunn'aUyducs record itself in Aythotogy, than to of swh coMncxiou !ay downd yW~'t ruiesa.sto what thc cH'cets oxght to hc. WheM woeonsider howshort the thno is sincethe Indians of Nurth America hve bccn acquaiutcd with guus, the fact that there has bccn rccordud, as onc of tttch' native bc)ief! the notion that thurcare men who hve cliarmed lives,aud can ouly bc killed with a silver bu))et,tnay prpare us for tho way iu. which savages eau takc up forcign mytbotngyinto their own. Again, it might lie natOMHy cxpcctcd thut Biblestories tearnt frutn missionariM, sctttcrs,and travcMcrs,shouldpass in ? more or lessaitcred shape into the folk-toreof savageraces. Moffitt gives a good instance whieh happened to himscK Ho had never succoededin findinga delu6,e-tmditionin South Africa, of)(.Soc. MiMitan, P<tp<-n<, etc., vol. iii.put. i).1SC9, efT~.Mnia, p. 274.



but makinginquiries in a Namaquavillage, ho came upon a mmewhat intelligent nativewho had one to tell, M ho bcgan withgreat satisfaction to takeit downin writing, By the timo it was nttished,howevcr,he hegan to suspect,for it b[)ro the of the Bible,though thoHottentot declaredthat he had impress rcecivedit from his fore&thers, and lind noverscen or hean! of a mimionary. Mr. Moffatwas puzzted, and suspendedhis judgmcnt ti)), a little whiJeaftt'rward~,the myotery was unravpttedby the appearance of the very misiiontuyfrom whom tho native otory.tcttcrhad receivedhis teaching.' Af!anottter caseof the same kind, mitytx* quoted thu follwvingservito versionof th story of Joseph and hic brethren,found in Hawaiias the story of Waikctonuiaiku. Mis father had ten sons )mdone daoghtcr ho was betovedby his father, and hatcd by his hrethr'!n, and tt~y thKWhim into a pit, but his eMc'st for hitH tbau the rest. Hc citbrother fftt more compttiNion out of thc pit, into thccountt'y of King Ka'nohoati),and mpG(t thcn! ho was connnfd iu a dungeon with the prisoners. Ht: hadohis companions of four dream,aud intcrprftcd t)i'i drcanM of them. Onchad sccn a ripebanana, and his spirit ate It, th ncxtdreamt of a banana,and tho next of a hog,in th samo way,but the fourth drcatntthat ho saw a~Kt,tlmt i)e prciiscd out tbc juice, and his spirit drank it. Thc threc first dreams t!te foreignerintprprutM) for evil, and the drcatncrs werc put to dcath iu courseof timc, but to the fuurth lie prophcsioddefivcmneeond )iic, andhe was savcd, and to)d thc King, who sot WaikeiMUtiaiku at liberty,and madc him a priuciptdchiff 9 in tho kingdom.~ Thcro is sontetimcsa. crudcnessabout thcso tatcs attoptcd t'romforcign sources,whichgives us th means of positivcty them. But th power which myths hve of taking condctnning root the moment thoy are tmnsptantt'd iuto a. new couHtr)', <otell whcthfr thcy are of old dato uftcutnakc!)it impossible ami hi~toripa)vatue, or mre mcd''rn intmdors. Thcre is reaMnto hciicvcthat a, stor)' carricd into a ttistant ptaco by civilizedmcn may sprend and acconxnodatcitsc-tfto thc cire' i" Afrim Lomton, M)CM)~ )$t~,p.):M. MutT-tt, 'MminMty IM~, p. C7. H.~iM. ttM.ni,' Luxdutt,



cunMttmcGs of the country,M that in a very few yeam* time it as &gonuine tttivotato, cven may bc quite ItonesttycoHectt'd th fhrmor's by th vcry pcoptowhoonginaHyintroducodit, Uke hack that he sold in the moming,and bought hack m the afiernoonwith a freshmanc and tait, as a ncwhurso. Of course this Is th ftamokind of difTusiun of myths which Las bfett going on from remutc ngen omougmankiud, one of tho very to Ethnotogyaidf)of such high proeesseswhieh havo prei'crved of earty history, It is only importance for tho reconstruction uafortunate that its rusuttitin modem titnes, by confbunding th vidence of early and )ato intereoursc betwcen diS~ront peoples,havo donc ao mueh to itnpairits hifttcrieaivalua Among th storiesfoundin circulation anMng outtyingraces, there arc many, besidethoseretatingto a I)c)ugo, whichappear to be reatty unjtcd by aneicut and doep-Iyingbonds of connexion with BiMieaI pisodes,and the extrme difncntty, or of separatinga grcat part of thse ancient storios impossibitity, from thoM whieh havo grown up in mottem times under Christian innuenccs,is a very serious loss to earty history, StiU it is better to submit to this, than to base Ethno!ogica) arguments on videncethat will not bear thc test of criticism. It is not ouly to Scriptuml storics that this objection lies. and other European sources may bo Episodesfrom the chuisics carried into dif!tanttands by colonist-s and missionaries, and it nmy be laid downas a gnera)n))e,that storics which nmy hve been transplanted in this wayin modemtimes,must bo rejected as independent evidenecof remote intereourscbetween distant races among whom they arc found. It is whcn a connexion betwcen two peoples bas been aireadymado probable by vidence not )iab)e to bo thus impeached, that thcso stories can be taken into considrationaq secondaryvidence,which,once proved to bo satc, maybe of extraordintuyinterest and value. Before proccedingto the comparison of a number ofAmerican ;mytbswith their analoguesin tho Old Worid,it is to be promised that th viewof a connexion butwecnthc inhabitants of America and Asia by no means rusts on one of those vague and ntisty theoriGs, whiehhve too often been aUfiWfd to pttM; curront as solid Ethuciogicalarguments. Th researches of






Alexandervon Humboldt brought into view,hatf a century ago, videncewhich goes with great force tu provo that tho civilizationof Mexicoand tliat of Asia have,in part at !east, a common origiM, and that thureforothe population of thctto rgions aro united,if not by the tic of eommondescentand direct or indirect, retationitinp by blood,&ttetMtby intercoursie, in ptMt times. Of this evideuee, tho simitMityof the chro. cn!endar)! is p~rhttpstho stron~Mt point. Not only nological itM fteriosof nMoeslike our signs of tho zodiac used to record periodsof time, but such series are combinedtogether,or with numbers,in both countries,in a complex,perverse,and manner, which,wj~tever its origin,can practieallypurpcsetes)} itardty by any fitretcttof probabiiitybe mppoiiedto havocomo in th minds of two diH'erentpeoples. Tho Hpindepet)dent)y thcory of th successivedfstructions and rettovatioMof th at the end of Jong cycles of ycaK,was pointed out by wor!d, Humhotdtas another bond of connexionbetween Mexicoaud tho OldWorid. If tbese agreetnents between North Amcnca and Asia are to be rcad as indicationsuf a dcep-rootedconnexion,this ought to bave left many othcr trace! Of CMtom!), th occurrenceof which in America oa well as in th Old WoridwouMba wcU cxptainodby such a view,somethingbas atready been said. Of the North or South American myths which c)of!cty rmembto tales current in Asia, Potynesia, and elsewherein the worid, eight are discu.sscdhcrc, th Worltltho Manswallowed by the Fish, the Sun-Cateher,tite Tortoiso, Asccnt to Hnaven by th Tr<'e,th Bridge of the Dead.the Fountain ofYouth, th Tait-Fisher,and th DiaMoBoiteux. lit th Old Worid,thc TortoificMyth befongsespeciatiy to India, and thc idea is devctopcdthere in a variety of fomM. Th TortoiM that uphohk tho eartli is catted in Sanskrit A<h'MM?//<, Kingof the Tortoises,"and th Hindoosbelievo to this day that tho wurld resta upon its back. Sometimesth snake Sesha bcaMthe wor)don its head, or an ctcphant can'ies it upon its back,and both snake aud eh;phant arc themselves supported by th grt tortoise. Th carth, rescuedfrom the delugewhichdestroys ntanMnd,is set up witb the snake tbat bears it restingon t)tc noatiog turtoise,and a d(.'iugu tu~ut~u~ is agam
x 2



to pour over the face of thc earth when the worM.tortoise, inking undor its load, goes down into th grcat waters. Wheu th Daityas and D&navas churned thc Sea of Miik to makethe th driuk of immormUty, (tnM't~u, they took th mouctfnnMandam for the churnng.xtick,and th serpent VjLsukiwast))c t))ongthat waawottndround it, and puMcdback Mtd forwarda to drive ttte chum. In the miilst ofthe milkyMa, VMhnuhim. self, in the form ofa tortcise,xervedas a pivot for tho mountain M it waawhh'M Muund~ Tho notion of thc earth heing itsetf a great tortoiso swimmiag in the midxtof thc ocan,JNthuf describedby Rcluaud; to VatAha-Htihira, thc Indianat'epn'sentcdto them"Acc'~rding setvesthe iuhabitcd part of thu wortdundcr th form of a tortoise Hwting up<m th water; it is in this SL-nso that they mtl the Wortd /'f(!tt)~M-cAA''<t, t)tat ift to xny, t))e whfet of thc tortoisc. And itMtty,tite ancient Vedie Books of India, whichso often supply the means of trncing th most a~nd devetopmfnts of mytholu~yback to mcre sitnpk child-likeviews of uatufe, prsent, as rcaUy cxistmg in very cariy titnM,th of myths of th original idca out of which th whole spricH WorM-Tortoiscseems to have grown. To man iu the towcr Itivctsofscience,th carth is a flat plain overwhich tho okyis ptacedlike a dme,as tho arched upper sheUof tho tortoisc stands U})on th flat p~te bctow,aud this is why the tortuiscis th symbot and reproscHtativeof th Wodd. Tite anatogyof othcr conceptionsof iK'avcnnnd Mtrth,as <or)ncdby thu two hah'ps of thc sheUof Bnthma's Egg, or by the two calabashes shut togethcr in thc mythoiogy of th yorubas of Africa,'is &B"t)t, <.< KmM. H<x.ht)in({'' <.r. KtnmtAjt. Wihon, Coleman, p. t!. Y)M))tK'-n).'<)y, 'Heieatthct. LMx)on, 2<a. HofweU, ]83],pp.MO, 'm<tonmt t. Lun.ton, Btent!),' UOO-7, t~rtiLp. }<?).~konm, inFrot. !bo). Roc., )M4, SirW.Joucs, ia A*.R<a. p. Sa. Sw! m),ii. p. 119, )M.h<-M, in Chnn:Mi)'<t vol. iii.p. S<8. Witmtt, Vi~tm VoM~), Fumtm Loadot., )8< ).. 76. W. f. !ht))M.)t to!.i. 2~)) withrefen-tMO to thK<));!) tKawi-Spr., p. myx th ttuto).;), tntkt)) t-huiM th~e tmmo thworht gtmt tt Mcmt te meMt nntiMy, t-cttf," thatt)mi<)M ~f a worH.bcM-ittH tietat th)ott)N etephtnt oft)m whate m~ [<if thc th:tt and t)mt t ho .bn);te m<titc, i~ mtanitt.! and o( )&mfknt nd~ t~a< tmttc hM <;o)if)Mh'o iuto th~Hr)hn)tght 'Mommn)mr lieinaud, t'ttKte!' a. rati",JS)! UO. a i'ott,'Anti-Kantea L<;X). !8<i3, p.?.

nEOOKAPtttCAt. RtSTmBtT!0!<



to !ead lis to th opinion thut this was the indeed 8tt<Beicttt but thc fottowingpasoriginalmeaningof the Wortd-Tortoisc, sagefrom Weberwillenableux to aubstitute faet for inference. "Th carth M conccivcdia tho atapatha Br&hmanaas the um)er shcH(adharamknpatam) of thc Tortoiite Krma, which tho Triple Wodd. T