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CDMA Spreading

1 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Release 99
Node B

Iub
RNC

Node B

Iu-CS

MSC/VLR

Node B

Iur
Node B

Gs

HLR

Node B

RNC

Uu
Node B

Iu-PS

SGSN

Gr

Gn
GGSN

UE

Iub Control AAL5 User AAL2 Control AAL5

Iur User AAL2 Control AAL5

Iu-CS User AAL2 Control AAL5

Iu-PS

User
AAL5

ATM Layer

ATM Layer Physical Layer

ATM Layer Physical Layer

ATM Layer Physical Layer


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Physical Layer
2

UMTS & GSM Network Planning


GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA):

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UMTS Air Interface technologies

FDD

TDD

5MHz

5MHz

5MHz

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UK Spectrum Allocations Example


D

D D

TDD

Hutchison TMobile

Vodafone mmO2

Orange

20MHz

0.3MHz

14.6MHz

10MHz

14.8MHz

10MHz 10MHz

0.3MHz

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Carrier Spacing and Carrier Spacing Raster


5MHz
The nominal carrier spacing for UMTS is 5 MHz It is possible to move the

centre frequency of the carrier on a 200 kHz raster


We can have carrier spacings between 4.2MHz and 5.8MHz This may be set within the license conditions, or to the operators discretion

200kHz

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Visualising the Processing Gain w/o


W/Hz
Before Spreading

W/Hz
After Spreading

W/Hz
Ec
With Noise

Io f

f W/Hz W/Hz
Post Filtering Orthog = 0

f Eb dBW/Hz Eb f W/Hz
Post Filtering Orthog > 0

After Despreading/ Correlation

Eb/Io

Io

Io f
dBW/Hz Eb

Signal Intra-cell Noise Inter-cell Noise


Eb Eb/No No f

No

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P-CPICH as Measurement Reference


CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/No Received Signal Code Power (in dBm). Power measurement of the Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band (in dB) UTRA carrier received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the RSSI receiver

CPICH

CPICH Ec/No = RSCP

CPICH RSCP UTRA carrier RSSI

The UE measures the RSCP on the Primary-CPICH. The reference point for the measurement is the antenna connector of the UE. The received code power may be high, but it does not necessarily indicate the quality of the received signal

RSSI
On the overall noise level. The UE measures the received wide band power, which includes thermal noise and receiver generated noise. The reference point for the measurements is the antenna connector of the UE.

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Spreading
If the Bit Rate is Rb, the Chip Rate is Rc, the energy per bit Eb and the
energy per chip Ec then

Eb

Ec

Rc Rb
PG dB 3840 10 log10 ( ) Rkbps

We say the Processing Gain Gp is equal to:

Commonly the processing gain is referred to as the Spreading Factor

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Assessing interference

Eb/No =SNR +PG

W/Hz Ec
With Noise

Io f

If the Eb/No for voice is 9dB what is the SNR? 9 = SNR + 25 9 25 = -16

f Eb

No

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Ratio of energy per bit over noise (plus interference) spectral density Value required to reach target quality (BLER) for related service

Eb/N0

Eb N0

PG dB
dB

Ec N0

dB

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Processing Gain and Required Eb/N0


Required Signal Power
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Eb/No= + 4 dB

Eb/No= + 2 dB Eb/No= + 1 dB Noise level (ex. -105 dBm) -9 dB - 16 dB NRT 384 kbps RT 64 kbps Voice 12.2 kbps

Processing Gain

+10 dB +18 dB +25 dB

- 21 dB

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CDMA Spreading
Essentially Spreading involves changing the symbol rate on the air interface

Spreading
P

Despreading
Channel

P f

Tx Bit Stream

P f

f Air Interface Chip Stream

P f

Rx Bit Stream

Identica
Code Chip Stream

l codes

Code Chip Stream

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Spreading and Despreading


1

Tx Bit Stream

Spreading

-1

Code Chip Stream Air Interface Chip Stream

Despreading

Code Chip Stream Rx Bit Stream

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Channelisation Codes
Channelisation codes are orthogonal and hence provide
channel separation.

Number of codes available is dependent on length of code. Channelisation codes require an equal number of 1s and 1s to be orthogonal.

This is because we use integration to


demodulate the signal

Channelisation codes are used to spread the signal.

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OVSF codes
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes can
be defined by a code tree:
Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

SF = Spreading Factor of code (maximum 512


for UMTS)
17 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Channelisation Code Generation


Channelisation codes can be generated from a
x Hadamard matrix A Hadamard matrix is:x x x

Where x is a Hadamard matrix of the previous


level

For example 4 chip codes are: Note: These two codes correlate 1,1,1,1 1,-1,1,-1 if they are time shifted 1,1,-1,-1 1,-1,-1,1
18 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

UMTS Frame Structure



Frame Period Tf = 10ms Frames are used for channel format control 15 slots, #0#14 Slots are used for power control, & synchronisation
Tslot = 666.7 s = 2560 chips
#0 #1 #2 #i #14

Tf = 10ms = 38400 chips

In one second =38400 x100 = 3840000=3.84Mbps


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Factors Limiting Capacity: Orthogonality

Capacity Limiting Factors

Example: Eb/No = 4 dB, i = 0.6, 12200bps


Orthogonality Pole Capacity 0 963 0.2 1100 0.4 1280 0.6 1534 0.8 1914 1.0 2548

Pole Capacity (kbps)


2000

1000

0.5

Orthogonali ty
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Noise Rise OR Loading factor


The effective noise floor of the receiver increases as the

number of active mobile terminals increases. This rise in the noise level appears in the link budget and limits maximum path loss and coverage range.

Three Users

Two Users One User Background Noise

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Interference Margin
IMargin [dB] 20

10
6 3 1.25 25% 50% 75% 99% Load factor

IMargin= 10 Log10 1
22

dB
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Capacity Limiting Factors

Factors Limiting Capacity: NR limit


However, if NR is allowed to reach very high values
(e.g.> 7 dB) there is concern that the network could become unstable. Initially, it is expected that NR will be limited to a maximum of, say, 6 dB until confidence in this Noise Rise vs. Throughput approach is gained.
20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Throughput (x100kbps)

Steep slope - unstable Shallow slope stable


Series1

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Noise Rise

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Cell Breathing
An increase in traffic results in an increase in interference Mobiles at the extremities of cells may be pushed out of the cells effective

coverage area due to decreased Eb/No This effect may occur over the course of 24 hours due to changes in traffic demand over peak hours

6am

Noon

9pm

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Code Usage Efficiency


Any codes further down the trunk of a

branch in use cannot be used Any codes further out from the branch in use cannot be reused

By filling up branches of the code tree


before starting new branches a greater capacity can be achieved Multiple code trees can be used from a cell but at an increased level of interference between channels

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

IN USE
Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,1,0 = (1)

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)

IN USE IN USE

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 4 SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

IN USE

Cch,2,1 = (1,1)

Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

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Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

WCDMA Codes Channelisation & Scrambling


In WCDMA two separate codes are used in the spreading
operation Channelisation code Scrambling code

Channelisation code DL: separates physical channels of different users and


common channels, defines physical channel bit rate UL: separates physical channels of one user, defines physical channel bit rate

Scrambling code DL: separates cells in same carrier frequency UL: separates users
26 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Types of Code
Summarising:
Channelisation Codes Scrambling Codes
Are used to separate channels from
a single cell or terminal

S2 C1 C2 C3

Are used to separate cells and


terminals from each other rather than purely channels

Different base stations will use the


same spreading codes with separation being provided by the use of different scrambling codes. Note: on the uplink, each mobile will use a separate scrambling code that makes it appear like a noise sources to other users.

S1 C1 C2 C3

S3 C1 C2 C3

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Spreading Code Allocation


C 3 (0)=() C 3 (1)=() C 3 (2)=() C 3 (3)=() C 3 (4)=() C 3 (5)=() C 3 (6)=() C 3 (7)=()

C 2 (0)=(1,1,1,1) C1 (0)=(1,1) C 2 (1)=(1,1,-1,-1) C 0 (0)=(1) C 2 (2)=(1,-1,1,-1)

C1 (1)=(1,-1)
C 2 (3)=(1,-1,-1,1)

Code Code Order Code Code Order 1 2 (SF 4) Order 0 Order 3 (SF 2) (SF 1) (SF 8) The codes are layered from 0 to 11 according to the Spreading Factor (SF) In DL code order 2 to 8 (SF 4 to 512) are available (Nokia RAN does not support SF = 512) In UL code order 2 to 7 (SF 4 to 256) are available

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BLER
The measurement is an estimation of the transport-channel block error rate.
The BLER estimation is based on evaluating the CRC on each transport block. It can only be required on transport channels containing CRC. RNC FOR Down Link
RNC sets BLER target for service

The target quality is sent to the UE by the RNC as a BLER target.


Then it is up to the manufacturer to decide if this BLER is UpLink converted into a SIR value or not (this is not The RNC sets the mandatory inlevel the 3GPP target BLER specifications) according to service. From this BLER, it derives a SIR which is sent to the nodeB.
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UE sends power control bits UE can report BLER measurements

SERVICE REL 99 AMR(12.2Kbps) PS (64Kbps) PS (384 Kbps)

Target BLER

Max DCH Power dBm

1% 5% 5%

31.5 36.5 37

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CRC

Transport Block

RNC
Inner Loop Power Control
RAKE

SIRest

Transmit signal to UE TPC=0/1

SIR Target Outer Loop Control Iub/Iur

Up link Power Control on dedicated channels

NodeB

EbNo Mapping

Admission Control

Admission Control sets: Minimum SIR Maximum SIR

Target BLER

Set BLER target for service


31 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Admission Control BLER Targets


The calculated BLER targets are then input into another look-up table, together together with channel coding method, to produce UL/DL target Eb/No values. AC uses the calculated RB attributes (e.g. BLER targets, Eb/No, SIRs) to estimate the power increase for UL & DL from admitting the new RAB Based on the power increase estimates, AC decides whether or not to admit the new RAB

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Planned Eb/No

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PILOT

TFCI

FBI

TPC Transmit powerControl bits.

3,4,5,6,7 or 8 bits per slot

Transport Format Combination Indicator

Feedback information FBI

SIR Definition The signal to interference ratio is measured on a DEDICATED PHYSICAL CONTROL CHANNEL (DPCCH). SIR is defined as SF x (RSCP/ISCP) SF is the spreading factor used on the DPCCH (256) RSCP is the received Signal Code Power( measured on the pilot bits after dispreading) ISCP is the interference Signal Code Power ( power of the nonorthogonal part of the interference) The SIR target is use by NodeB for inner loop power control, but the SIR target values under control of the RNC

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UL Closed loop power control


MS BS UL DPCCH

UL fast closed loop PC shall


be active as soon as the frame synchronization has been established in the dedicated physical channels. PC frequency 1500 Hz PC step 1dB

Measure received SIR on UL DPCCH Pilot

Compare measured SIR with SIR target value received from UL outer loop PC

Measured SIR < SIR target --> TPC bit = '1' Measured SIR => SIR target --> TPC bit = '0'

Send TPC bit on DL DPCCH MS sets the power on UL DPCCH and UL DPDCH on following way: TPC = '1' --> increase power by 1 dB TPC = '0' --> decrease power by 1 dB Changed power on UL DPCCH

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Drop Call Link Balance


UL & DL Power Control commands can help indicating problems in link balance. PC frequency is 1500 Hz, thus ideally the sum of PC commands to increase or decrease power is 1500 E.g. if the sum of UL PC commands is < 1500, this would indicate UE is starting to loose synchronization in Compressed Mode there is less PC commands, UE spends time on 2G
UE RX power control message: DL reception weak -> UE is ordering WBTS to increase power.

Sum of UL PC commands < 1500, UE not receiving all the PC commands.

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Rates offered for Mobile technologies


Technology Downlink Peak Data Rate (Typical Deployment)
9.6 kbps (CS) 40 kbps 120 kbps 384 kbps

Downlink Peak Data Rate (Typical Maximum)


9.6 kbps (CS) 171 kbps 473 kbps 2.0 Mbps

GSM GPRS EDGE WCDMA Release 99

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Introduction to 3G

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Where are we?

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Roadmap
2G
2.5G

3G phase 1

Evolved 3G

LTE HSUPA* HSDPA WCDMA EDGE GPRS GSM 2003/2004 2005 2007 2010

2000/2001
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Release 99
Node B

Iub

Node B

RNC

Iu-CS

MSC/VLR

Node B

Iur
Node B

Gs

HLR

Node B

RNC

Uu
Node B

Iu-PS

SGSN

Gr

Gn

GGSN UE

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3G Services and QoS Classes Each application RT is different in Nature. Some are highly delay
Telephony Video Telephony Radio Tuner Streaming Video Web Browsing Location ServicesComputer Games

E-mail

Server Backups

NRT Casual INTEGRITY


Telephony UMTS

Critical

Videotelephony

Streaming video

Streaming music

File downloading

Web browsing

Calendar synchronisation

Teleshopping

Mail downloading
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Teleworking Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

3G Services and QoS Classes

In UMTS, four QoS classes have been defined: Conversational class is the QoS class for delay sensitive real time services such as speech
telephony. Streaming class is also regarded as real-time QoS class. It is also sensitive to delays; it carries traffic, which looks real time to a human user. An application for streaming class QoS is audio streaming, where music files are downloaded to the receiver. There may be an interruption in the transmission, which is not relevant for the user of the application, as long as there is still enough data left in the buffer of the receiving equipment for seamless application provision Interactive class is a non-real time QoS class, i.e. it is used for applications with limited delay sensitivity (so-called interactive applications). But many applications in the internet still have timing constraints, such as http, ftp, telnet, and smtp. A response to a request is expected within a specific period of time. This is the QoS offered by the interactive class. Background class is a non-real time QoS class for background applications, which are not delay sensitive. Example applications are email and file downloading.

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QoS
Traffic class
Maximum bit rate Delivery order

Conversational Streaming class class

Interactive class

Background class

Maximum SDU size


SDU format information SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs Transfer delay Guaranteed bit rate Traffic handling priority Allocation/Retention priority
46 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Services/applications
Traffic class
Speech Video call

Conversational Streaming class class

Interactive class

Background class

Streaming video Streaming audio


Web browsing Email Email (background) VoIP Gaming Presence

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Radio Resource Management


Radio Resource Management (RRM) is responsible for optimal utilisation of the air interface resources

Target for RRM is to ensure the RAN offers:

The planned coverage for each targeted service High capacity i.e. low blocking (new calls, handovers) The required Quality of Service (QoS) Optimize the use of available capacity (priorities)

By continuously monitoring/adjusting how the available resources are used in accordance with user requests

Link Quality

Cell Capacity
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RRM

Cell Coverage
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RRM Tasks
RRM must be able to: Predict the impact on interference (power) of
the admitting a new user for UL & DL Perform appropriate actions (e.g. new call admissions, bitrate increase/decrease etc.) in accordance with prevailing load conditions Provide different quality of service for real time (RT) and non-real time (NRT) users Take appropriate corrective action when the different cell load thresholds are exceeded in order to maintain cell stability
Overload Load Target Overload Margin

Power

Time
Estimated capacity for NRT traffic Measured load caused by non-controllable load (RT)

(i.e. load

control)

RT services must have higher quality assurance than NRT


49 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

RRM Functional Split


RRM is made up of a number of closely interdependent functions (i.e.
algorithms) These functions can be divided into;

Cell Based LC PS Load control (LC) RM Admission control (AC) AC Packet scheduling (PS) Cell based functions High Speed Downlink Packet Access Resource manager (RM) PC Connection Based Handover control (HC) Power control (PC)
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HC
Connection based functions
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Load control States


The load control function within RRM can be divided into: Preventative load control (e.g. congestion) Overload control (e.g. dropping of calls in worst case) Preventative actions are performed before the cell is overloaded (threshold y) Overload actions are performed after cell is overloaded (threshold x) RNP parameters define the thresholds for the RRM functionalities The thresholds define a stable functionality within a cell and with surrounding cells

Overload threshold x Load Target threshold y Power

Overload Control Preventative Load Control

Estimated capacity for NRT traffic.

Measured load caused by non-controllable load (RT)


Time
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Load Control
Load change info Admission Control (AC) Load status

Packet Scheduler (PS) NRT load

LC

LC performs the function of load control in association with AC & PS Updates load status using measurements & estimations provided by AC and PS Continuously feeds cell load information to PS and AC;
Interference levels BTS power levels

Non-controllable load
52 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Admission Control
Responsible for maximising capacity (throughput) whilst providing the
required quality of service for RT traffic. Checks that admitting a new user will not sacrifice planned coverage or quality of existing connections Determines whether RABs can be admitted to the RAN

Handles RT RABs alone by estimating the increase in non-controllable load With PS decides whether to allocate resources to NRT RABs In the decision UL interference & DL power measurements by BTS are used

Provides RLC parameters to PS for NRT users, for example


Bearer class Transport Formats

AC sets quality and power parameters for the radio link, for example
UL/DL BLER, Eb/No targets, SIR target Initial DL transmission power

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Admission Control
In uplink the total received wideband interference power measured indicates
the traffic load of the radio resources .
UL interference power

PrxTotal
Prx_target_BS
Marginal load area

RNP decision thresholds

Prx_target

Planned load area

Load

For downlink the power change caused by new RT service is obtained from the maximum allowed DL transmission power for the service.

In the admission decision procedure new call (or modified existing call) is admitted if both UL and DL admission decisions are passed
54 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Packet Scheduler in RNC


Responsible for scheduling radio resources for both UL and DL NRT RABs Scheduling period defined by RNP parameters PS relies on up-to-date information from AC and LC
Total Load controllable load non-controllable load power Overload threshold Target threshold


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time Capacity allocated on a needs basis using best effort approach PS allocation times need to be fast to accommodate changing conditions & accurate (up-to-date load info)

Capacity requests sent via traffic volume measurement reports (governed by RNP parameters) PS comprises two parts: UE specific & Cell specific
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Handover Control (HC)


HC is responsible for
Managing the mobility aspects of an RRC connection as UE move around network Maintaining high capacity by ensuring UE is always served by strongest cell

Soft(er) Handover Intra-System

Intra-frequency

Intra-layer Inter-layer Intra-layer Inter-layer Intra-layer Inter-layer

WCDMA to WCDMA
Hard Handover

Inter-frequency Intra-frequency

Inter-System (Inter-RAT)

Requires Compressed Mode or Dual Receiver UE


Inter-frequency Intra-layer Inter-layer

WCDMA to GSM WCDMA to GPRS GSM to WCDMA GPRS to WCDMA

Hard Handover

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Resource Manager (RM)


Responsible for managing the logical radio resources of the RNC in co
operation with AC and PS On request for resources, from either AC(RT) or PS(NRT), RM allocates;
DL spreading code UL scrambling code
Code Type Scrambling codes Uplink User separation Downlink Cell separation Users within one cell

Spreading codes Data & control channels from same UE

Also looks after code tree management (to maintain orthogonality);


Initial code selection codes concentrated to same branch Code re-fragmentation dynamic reallocation of codes as users enter/leave system

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Protocols Overview

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Dual Iub : Traffic Mapping


Rel99 RT, NRT, Control plane and O&M is carried over ATM Iub over E1s /
STM1s

HSPA is carried over IP Iub over Ethernet.

n x T1
RT NRT Control Plane
& O&M

TDM Network
VPC

ATM Switch STM1


VPC
CBR VCCs UBR+ VCCs CBR VCCs

RT NRT Control Plane& O&M

Ethernet Network Tunnel


HSPA HSPA

Node B

RNC

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V0.3 / Dec.16th,08

IP Based Iu-CS

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

IP and Ethernet transport according to 3GPP Rel-5 and Rel-6 at the Iu-CS interface for the RNC

User Plane
Iu User Plane Protocol

RANAP

Control Plane

SCCP
RTP

M3UA
OSPFv2 ICMPv4

UDP

SCTP

OSPF v2

ICMP v4

InATMARP
IPv4 ARP

IPv4 ARP

LLC/SNAP AAL5

Ethernet-MAC

Ethernet-MAC

ATM
Ethernet-Phy

SDH/SONET

Ethernet-Phy -

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V0.3 / Dec.16th,08

IP Based Iu-PS

A connection to a single SGSN can be either ATM or IP based.

IP and Ethernet transport according to 3GPP Rel-5 and Rel-6 at the Iu-PS interface for the RNC

User Plane
Iu User Plane Protocol

RANAP

Control Plane

SCCP
GTP-U
UDP InATMARP IPv4 OSPF v2 ICMP 4 v4

M3UA SCTP

OSPF v2

ICMP v4

InATMARP
ARP

IPv4 ARP

LLC/SNAP
AAL5 Ethernet-MAC ATM

LLC/SNAP AAL5

Ethernet-MAC

ATM
Ethernet-Phy

SDH/SONET

SDH/SONET

Ethernet-Phy -

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V0.3 / Dec.16th,08

Transport Layer Protocols

Application multiplexing - Port


numbers User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Best effort delivery (unreliable)


upper layers must add reliability Connectionless Fast - low protocol overhead

Transmission Control Protocol


(TCP)

Reliable delivery- assumes network


is error prone Connection oriented - virtual circuits Full duplex Slow - high protocol overhead
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CC / MM

Application layer Services

RRC

TCP

UDP

RLC

IP

MAC

L1 CRC

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Transport Block Size

CC / MM Transport Block

RRC

Transport Block
Transport Block

RLC Transmission Time Interval The TTI does not tell you anything about the amount of data to be sent, but how often the MAC layer sends data to the physical layer. L1 CRC The size of the individual data chunk is determined by the transport block size parameters. The TTI is defined as the inter-arrival time of transport block sets. This is always a multiple of L1 radio frame duration 10, 20, 40 or 80ms.

MAC

Transmission Time Interval (TTI) TTI indicates how often the transport the transport channel can be modified. With 10ms TTI, the rate can be changed every 10ms. With an 80ms TTI modification can be done every 80ms.

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The transport format defines the data in the transport block set. The radio interface is the weakest link in UMTS. To ensure a given QOS, the transport format defines the charactertics of the transport channel.

The UTRAN can choose at any moment the most suitable format to transmit data over the radio interface. Each Transport format is made of 2 parts: Static part common to all: TTI Duration of transport block Type of error protection Size of CRC Dynamic part can be different for every transport format: Transport block size Transport block set size

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Transport Format identifier (TFI) Each transport format within a transport format set has a unique identifier called Transport Format identifier (TFI). It is used in the interlayer communication between the MAC layer and the physical layer to indicate transport format. A TFI may look like the following: DCH1: Static TTI= 10ms, turbo coding Dynamic Transport Block size = 320 bits Transport Block set size =1,280 bits

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Transport Format Combination Identifier (TFCI)


A set of Transport Format Combinations
Transport Block Size
Transport Block

is called a Transport Format Combination set


TFI
Transport Block TFI

Transport Block

Transport block Set size

Transport Block

Transport Channel 2

Transport Channel 1

Transport Format Combination Indicator TFCI

Transmit Power Control TPC

Feedback Information FBI

PIL0T

Coding, Multiplexing etc

DPDCH DPCCH

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DL Fast Closed Loop PC


The initial, minimum and maximum transmission power for DL

DPCH is determined by AC functionality. DL fast closed loop PC is responsible for controlling the transmitter power of the BTS on the dedicated channel. Power setting on DL DPCH can be seen as follows:
Slot (0.667 ms)

PO2

PO1

DL DPCH
Data1 TPC TFCI DPDCH DPCCH Data2 DPDCH

Pilot Not used

no DPCCH

Tx power of DPCCH and DPDCHs, increase or decrease with the

same amount but with offsets set by RNC. PO1 and PO2 are power offsets of DPCCH pilot, TPC, and TFCI respectively (RNC internal constants)
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

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Release 99

Node-B

RNC

Server

UE
RLC retransmissions TCP retransmissions

BLER
RLC
MAC-d

RLC

DCH DPCH
DCH FP PHY TNL

MAC-d DCH FP TNL Iub RNC


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PHY

UE
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Uu

NodeB

Node-B MAC-hs retransmissions

Release 5

RNC

Server

UE TCP retransmissions RLC retransmissions


RLC R5 MAC-d MAC-hs HS-DSCH MAC-hs HS-DSCH FP MAC-d flow RLC MAC-d HS-DSCH FP

PHY UE
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HS-PDSCH

PHY NodeB

TNL Iub

TNL RNC
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Uu

Radio Interface Protocol Architecture (in UE)- RRC


RRC covers (I):
RRC
Radio bearers

Broadcast of system information


Cell selection/reselection Paging Transfer of core network messages Security procedures (authentication, integrity,
ciphering)

RLC
Logical channels

MAC
Transport channels

Radio bearer control

Physical
Physical channels

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Radio Interface Protocol Architecture (in UE)- RLC


RLC (radio link control) offers services (radio bearers) The RBs can be transparent, unacknowledged,
acknowledged. RLC itself uses the logical channels offered by MAC.

RRC
Radio bearers

IP

RLC
Logical channels

RLC performs (I):


Segmentation, reassembly, concatenation, padding. Transfer of user data. Error correction, duplicate detection.

MAC
Transport channels

In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs.


Flow control.
73

Physical
Physical channels

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Control

User Plane
RB5 RB6

RRC Layer

SRB1-4

control control

PDCP PDCP PDCP

RLC Layer RLC

RLC RLC

RLC RLC RLC

BO1-4 MAC Layer TrCH1 PHY Layer

BO5-6

TrCH2

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RLC Modes
Transparent Mode No segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs No RLC headers are added No delivery guarantees Suitable for carrying voice Unacknowledged Mode Segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs RLC Headers are added No delivery guarantees Suitable for carrying streaming Traffic Acknowledged Mode Segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs RLC Headers are added Reliable in sequence delivery service Suitable for carrying TCP traffic

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RLC Modes QoS


eNodeB Transparent Mode No segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs No RLC headers are added No delivery guarantees Suitable for carrying voice UE
Signaling Radio Bearers C-Plane MAC Scheduler

RLC
Data Radio Bearers Policy based QoS handling and IP packet mux and demux above bearer level
QoS Flow 1

RLC
Prio 1-Q

Prio 2-Q QoS Flow 2

Uu
Prio 3-Q

QoS Flow 3

Aggregated IP Flows

MAC Mux

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RLC Modes QoS


eNodeB Unacknowledged Mode Segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs RLC Headers are added No delivery guarantees Suitable for carrying streaming Traffic UE
Signaling Radio Bearers C-Plane MAC Scheduler

RLC
Data Radio Bearers Policy based QoS handling and IP packet mux and demux above bearer level
QoS Flow 1

RLC
Prio 1-Q

Prio 2-Q QoS Flow 2

Uu
Prio 3-Q

QoS Flow 3

Aggregated IP Flows

MAC Mux

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Signalling Radio Bearers


RRC Connection Setup ( ) UE
RRC layer NAS Signalling

eNodeB

SRBs

RB0 RLC UL: TrM DL: UM

RB1 RLC UL & DL: UM DCCH

RB2 RLC UL & DL AM DCCH MAC

RB3 RLC UL & DL AM DCCH

RB4 RLC UL & DL AM DCCH

Radio Bearer

CCCH

LogCH

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Logical Channels, Transport Channels and Physical Channels

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3G Services and QoS Classes Each application RT is different in Nature. Some are highly delay
Telephony Video Telephony Radio Tuner Streaming Video Web Browsing Location ServicesComputer Games

E-mail

Server Backups

NRT Casual INTEGRITY


Telephony UMTS

Critical

Videotelephony

Streaming video

Streaming music

File downloading

Web browsing

Calendar synchronisation

Teleshopping

Mail downloading
80

Teleworking Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Release 99
Node B

Iub

Node B

RNC

Iu-CS

MSC/VLR

Node B

Iur
Node B

Gs

HLR

Node B

RNC

Uu
Node B

Iu-PS

SGSN

Gr

Gn

GGSN UE

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Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels
Physical Channels P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH AICH P/S-SCH E-HICH E-AGCH/E-RGCH HSDSCH DCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

CCCH
FACH CTCH DCCH DTCH

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Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels
Physical Channels

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

DCCH E-DPDCH

E-DPCCH
E-DCH DTCH DCH HS-DPCCH

DPDCH
DPCCH

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Example Channel configuration during call Logical Data Transport Physical


Channels

Channels

Channels

RRC signalling

DCCH1-4

DCH1

DPDCH
Speech data DTCH1 DCH2-4 DPCCH

NRT data

DTCH2

DCH5

AMR speech + NRT data

AMR speech connection utilises multiple transport channels RRC connection utilises multiple logical channels, signalling radio bearers
84 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

DL Common Control Channel


DL Common control channels must be heard over the whole cell, thus their
power setting is designed for cell edge. DL Common Channels do not have a power control. The power of the common physical channels are set relative to the CPICH
Parameters Default (Relative) Default (Absolute)

PtxPrimaryCPICH PtxPrimarySCH PtxSecSCH PtxPrimaryCCPCH PtxSCCPCH 1 (SF=64) PtxSCCPCH 2 (SF=256) PtxSCCPCH 3 (SF=128) PtxPICH PtxAICH PtxOffsetEAGCH PtxOffsetERGCH

33 dBm -3 dB -3 dB -5 dB 0 dB -5 dB -2 dB -8 dB -8 dB -5 dB -11 dB

33 dBm 30 dBm 30 dBm 28 dBm 33 dBm 28 dBm 31 dBm 25 dBm 25 dBm 28 dBm 22 dBm

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DL Common Control Channel


Different quality requirement for the common channels
make power planning a non-trivial task Different content and usage Different C/I requirement

P-CCPCH coverage

Pilot coverage
In this example the mobile "sees" the cell but cannot access it as it cannot decode the BCH

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Secondary CCPCH Power Setting II


DL common Channel configuration in case of three SCCPCH

For SAB Logical channel DTC H DCC H CCC H BCC H CTC H PCC H

Transport channel

FACH- FACHu c

FACH- FACHc s

PCH

Physical channel

SCCPCH connect ed SF 64

SCCPCH idle
SF 128

SCCPCH page
SF 256

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WCDMA R99 channels for downlink packet data transmission


Dedicated Channel (DCH) Cell DCH
Variable SF, HO, Power Control

Forward Access Channel (FACH)- Cell Fach


Shared Fixed SF=256, No Power Control, No HO

Shared FACH DTCH S-CCPCH

DCH

DPDCH DPCCH Dedicated

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Transport Block Size

CC / MM Transport Block

RRC

Transport Block
Transport Block

RLC Transmission Time Interval The TTI does not tell you anything about the amount of data to be sent, but how often the MAC layer sends data to the physical layer. L1 CRC The size of the individual data chunk is determined by the transport block size parameters. The TTI is defined as the inter-arrival time of transport block sets. This is always a multiple of L1 radio frame duration 10, 20, 40 or 80ms.

MAC

Transmission Time Interval (TTI) TTI indicates how often the transport the transport channel can be modified. With 10ms TTI, the rate can be changed every 10ms. With an 80ms TTI modification can be done every 80ms.

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The transport format defines the data in the transport block set. The radio interface is the weakest link in UMTS. To ensure a given QOS, the transport format defines the charactertics of the transport channel.

The UTRAN can choose at any moment the most suitable format to transmit data over the radio interface. Each Transport format is made of 2 parts: Static part common to all: TTI Duration of transport block Type of error protection Size of CRC Dynamic part can be different for every transport format: Transport block size Transport block set size

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Transport Format identifier (TFI) Each transport format within a transport format set has a unique identifier called Transport Format identifier (TFI). It is used in the interlayer communication between the MAC layer and the physical layer to indicate transport format. A TFI may look like the following: DCH1: Static TTI= 10ms, turbo coding Dynamic Transport Block size = 320 bits Transport Block set size =1,280 bits

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Transport Format Combination Identifier (TFCI)


A set of Transport Format Combinations
Transport Block Size
Transport Block

is called a Transport Format Combination set


TFI
Transport Block TFI

Transport Block

Transport block Set size

Transport Block

Transport Channel 2

Transport Channel 1

Transport Format Combination Indicator TFCI

Transmit Power Control TPC

Feedback Information FBI

PIL0T

Coding, Multiplexing etc

DPDCH DPCCH

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DL Fast Closed Loop PC


The initial, minimum and maximum transmission power for DL

DPCH is determined by AC functionality. DL fast closed loop PC is responsible for controlling the transmitter power of the BTS on the dedicated channel. Power setting on DL DPCH can be seen as follows:
Slot (0.667 ms)

PO2

PO1

DL DPCH
Data1 TPC TFCI DPDCH DPCCH Data2 DPDCH

Pilot Not used

no DPCCH

Tx power of DPCCH and DPDCHs, increase or decrease with the

same amount but with offsets set by RNC. PO1 and PO2 are power offsets of DPCCH pilot, TPC, and TFCI respectively (RNC internal constants)
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

93

Rel 99-CELL- FACH


1.10.1.5
Network 2 UTRAN

MTU = 620

SGSN

GGSN

Ping t 1.10.1.5 Reply from 1.10.15 time =290ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =350ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =220ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =290ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =290ms TTL = 239 A.Reply from 1.10.15 time =1198ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =300ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =290ms TTL = 239 B.Reply from 1.10.15 time =1056ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =250ms TTL = 239

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Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Rel 99-CELL- DCH


1.10.1.5
Network 2 UTRAN

MTU = 620

SGSN

GGSN

Ping t 1.10.1.5 A.Reply from 1.10.15 time =1121ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =220ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =220ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =190ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =180ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =200ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =200ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =210ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =200ms TTL = 239 Reply from 1.10.15 time =190ms TTL = 239

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Release 99

Node-B

RNC

Server

UE
RLC retransmissions TCP retransmissions

BLER
RLC
MAC-d

RLC

DCH DPCH
DCH FP PHY TNL

MAC-d DCH FP TNL Iub RNC


Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

PHY

UE
96

Uu

NodeB

UMTS Technology Release 5


Essential concepts and Elements

97

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Node-B MAC-hs retransmissions

Release 5

RNC

Server

UE TCP retransmissions RLC retransmissions


RLC R5 MAC-d MAC-hs HS-DSCH MAC-hs HS-DSCH FP MAC-d flow RLC MAC-d HS-DSCH FP

PHY UE
98

HS-PDSCH

PHY NodeB

TNL Iub

TNL RNC
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Uu

Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels
Physical Channels P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH AICH P/S-SCH E-HICH E-AGCH/E-RGCH HSDSCH DCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

CCCH
FACH CTCH DCCH DTCH

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Air Interface for HSDPA- HS-PDSCH


Max number of codes 15. Each code SF 16 Max Speed 14.4Mb/s

2mS

2mS

2mS

2mS

UE 1

UE 2

UE 3

UE 3

ONE PER CELL

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH, Downlink Data Channel)
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Downlink Code Allocation


HSDPA with 5 codes allocated at cell MAC-hs start-up when HSDPA is enabled Code allocation is dynamic when more than 5 codes are allocated
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 32 SF = 64 SF = 128 SF = 256

Codes for 5 HS-PDSCH's Code for one HS-SCCH Codes for the cell common channels

166 codes @ SF=256 available for the associated DCHs and non-HSDPA uses

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HS-SCCH: High Speed Shared Control Channel (DL) When HSDPA is operated using Time multiplexing, then only one HSSCCH can be configured. ONLY one user receives data at a time.
10ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 4

HSSCCH HS-DSCH

Demodul ation info USE R1

Demodul ation info USE R2

Demodul ation info USE R3

The HS-SCCH has a two slots offset compared with HS-DSCH.

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Code Multiplexing
The higher the data rates and terminal capabilities the smaller

the need for code multiplexing. Use of code multiplexing is not necessarily where carrier shared with DCH traffic. OR When there is a desire to have HSDPA data users operating with reasonable data rates 384Kbps and more

Up to 15 codes reserved for HSPDSCH

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Pilot (P-CPICH) and BCCH (P-CCPCH) need a fixed code allocation

Downlink Code Allocation Common Channels SF = 1


P-CPICH: CH256,0 P-CCPCH: CH256,1 AICH: CH256,2 PICH: CH256,3

SF = 2

AICH and PICH codes SF = 4


SF = 8 S-CCPCH code allocation depends on number of active S-CCPCH in Nokia RAN
With 1 S-CCPCH: CH64,1 SF = 16

SF = 32 SF = 64 SF = 128 SF = 256
P-CCPCH P-CPICH AICH PICH S-CCPCH

X X
X

Code f HS-S
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Codes for the cell common channels


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Air Interface for HSDPA- HS-PDSCH


High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH, Downlink Data Channel)
2mS 2mS 2mS 2mS

UE 1

UE 2

UE 3

UE 4

ONE PER CELL

HS-PDSCH,
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3 UE 4

HS-SCCH

High Speed Shared Control Channel Informs the UE how and when to receive the HS-PDSCH MT - Modulation Type QPSK or 16QAM
TBS - Transport Block Size HAP - Hybrid-ARQ Parameters CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check

105

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Air Interface for HSDPA


PER CELL
HS-PDSCH, HS-SCCH

HS-DPCCH

ONE PER USER

High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH, Uplink Control Channel)

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Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)


High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH, Downlink Data Channel)

HS-PDSCH
P2 P1 UE Ack P2 CQI Ack P4 CQI P3

P2

P4

P5 Ack P1 CQI Node B


High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH)

Ack P5 CQI

Ack P3 CQ

Nack P2 CQI

CQI - Channel Quality Indications

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Fast Link Adaptation in HSDPA


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2

Instantaneous EsNo [dB]

C/I received by UE

C/I varies with fading

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

16QAM3/4 16QAM2/4 QPSK3/4 QPSK2/4 QPSK1/4


108

Time [number of TTIs]


Link adaptation mode BTS adjusts link adaptation mode with a few ms delay based on channel quality reports from the UE

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

HSDPA Modulation (REL5)


Q Q 1011 1001 0001 0011 10 00 I 1010 1000 0000 0010 I

1110 1100 0100 0110


1111 1101 0101 0111

11

01

QPSK

16QAM

2 bits / symbol = 4 bits / symbol = 480 kbit/s/HS-PDSCH = 960 kbit/s/HS-PDSCH = max. 5.4 Mbit/s for Channel Coding max. 14.4 Mbit/s for channel coding 4/4 SF used = 16
109 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

The link adaptation functionality of the Node B is in charge of adapting the

Adaptive Modulation Coding

modulation, the coding format, and the number of multi-codes to the instantaneous radio conditions Table below shows an example set of Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)

MCS 1 2 3 4 5

Modulation

Eff. Coding Rate

Bits per TTI 240 480 720 960 1440

Peak Rate (1 code) 120kbps 240kbps 360kbps 480kbps 720kbps

QPSK

QPSK 16QAM

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CQI Reporting from UE


UE measures channel quality of CPICH Table to the right defines CQI for UE categories 1 to 6. Based on 10% BLER. .

CQI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

TBS 137 173 233 317 377 461 650 792 931 1262 1483 1742 2279 2583 3319 3565 4189 4664 5287 5887 6554 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168

Codes 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM

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Purpose of a scheduler

Purpose of a scheduler
Determining the timing and quantity of data to be transmitted to each HSDPA user is performed by the scheduler while acting as the resource allocation manager. The scheduling algorithm resides in the Node B and is responsible for scheduling data for each cell. Locating the scheduler in the Node B allows this function to quickly react to changing environmental conditions.
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112

Scheduling algorithms
Scheduling algorithms can be designed to maximise
the cell capacity, or they can try to give each user fair access to the downlink capacity.

An optimized algorithm may attempt to meet both of


these objectives. An efficient scheduling algorithm will need to consider a large number of different parameters.

These may include information about the channel

113

quality and its variations such as the CQI, power control, and reported packet error rate. Also to be considered are UE capabilities, which determine how much data a UE can process in one time slot, and QoS parameters associated with the

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Release 5 - HSDPA
Proportional Fair or Round Robin Packet scheduling Node-B MAC-hs retransmissions RNC Server

Iub

UE TCP retransmissions RLC retransmissions

114

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HSDPA UE categories
Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
115

Max. number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5

Modulation QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK only QPSK only

Max. data rate [Mbit/s] 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.8 3.6 3.6 7.3 7.3 10.2 14.4 0.9 1.8
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

New NodeB HSDPA Functionality


RNC Node B

Packets Flow Control

Scheduler & Buffer

HARQ & Coding

Terminals
ACK/NACK & Feedback Decoding

Scheduler & Buffer: Buffering of data, Terminal scheduling, Coding & Modulation selection QPSK is still used and a new modulation type 16QAM introduced ARQ, Retransmission Handling and coding

Uplink Feedback Decoding


Flow Control towards the SRNC
116 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Round Robin Scheduler


UE 1 Data Request UE 2 Data Request UE 3 data Request UE 4 Data Request UE 5 Data Request UE 6 Data Request NodeB Buffers NodeB Packet Scheduler UE 6 UE 1 Data sent UE 2 Data sent UE 3 Data sent UE 4 Data sent UE 5 Data sent UE 6 Data sent

Simplest form of scheduler First in First out principle Advantages: Easy to implement Minimises waiting time Disadvantage: Throughput not optimised therefore throughput is less than maximum possible throughput

UE 5

UE 4

UE3

UE 2

UE 1

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Example 2 connections with very different CQI Served alternately with altogether 16 sub-frames RNTI 3 16 = 311 K 1 16 = 860 K

Round Robin Scheduler


average TBS instantaneous data rate 1242 bit 621 K 3440 bit 1720 K sub-frames 8 8 average data rate 621 K * 8 / 1720 K *8 /

Total cell throughput = 311 K + 860 K = 1171 K (far below best instantaneous data rate)

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Proportional Fair
Channel quality (CQI, Ack/Nack,

) Data
Users are scheduled on top of their fades

UE1

TTI 1

TTI 2

TTI 3

TTI 4 Scheduled user

Benefits over Round-robin Cell capacity gain 30-70%. Higher average throughput
USER 2 Es/N0 USER 1 Es/N0

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QoS Aware Scheduling


Shortcomings of standard PF (Proportional fair )

PF metric does not distinguish between traffic classes No bit rate guarantee, i.e. no streaming services supported Interactive service not prioritised against background one

Idea of QoS aware HSPA scheduling


Streaming services

Guaranteed bit rate set by RNC


Interactive and background services

Operator can set nominal bit rate (target minimum bit rate) If not defined, service treated as best effort one Operator can set service priorities, so that interactive services are scheduled more often than background ones Services belonging to same traffic class again scheduled according PF
120 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Now Supports- + QoS Aware HSPA Scheduling Older Releases of HSDPA Characteristic New Releases of HSDPA
HSDPA users per cell
HS-PDSCH codes per cell HS-PDSCH codes per UE Data rate per UE Traffic Classes 16QAM Packet Scheduler HSDPA mobility

48
15 5/10/15 10.8 M Interactive + Background Yes Proportional Fair Inter RNC Serving Cell Change without user data over Iur

64
15 15

14.4 M + Streaming
Yes

+ QoS Aware HSPA Scheduling


+ Inter-RNC Serving Cell Change with user data over Iur + Inter-Frequency HO
multiple RAB HSDPA + AMR

HSDPA Multi-RAB Code Multiplexing Scheduled users per TTI Power Allocation UL associated DCH
121

1 x HSDPA + AMR Yes 3 Dynamic Resource Allocation 16 / 64 / 128 / 384 K

Yes 3 Dynamic Resource Allocation 16 / 64 / 128 / 384 K


Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Typical HSDPA Node B Configuration Options


8 users 4 users
Example 1: 16 users per BTS

4 users

1.

Minimum baseband QPSK/16 QAM Max 5 codes per cell 16 Users per Node B Up to 3.6 Mbps per Node B 1 scheduler with 1-3 cells per BTS Cells can be on different frequencies (

Example 1: 16 users per BTS 1*32 CE

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Typical HSDPA Node B Configuration Options


10 users 22 users 16 users

Peak rate of 10.8 Mbps is shared dynamically between sectors Efficient utilization of resources since the peak rate of 10.8 Mbps is only seldom available in macro cells due to interference

Example 3: Shared HSDPA Scheduler for BB Efficiency 1*80 CE

Up to 10.8 Mbps per scheduler Max 15 codes per cell, 45 codes for BTS Max 48 Users per scheduler 1 scheduler per group of 1-3 cells Max 4 schedulers per BTS (4*80=320CE)

123

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Increasing HSDPA Node B Configuration Efficiency Throughput shared


Throughput shared equally between all sectors 3.6 Mbps
Efficient utilization of resources since the peak rate of 10.8 Mbps is only seldom available in macro cells due to interference

between two sectors 7.2 Mbps 0 Mbps (no HSDPA mobiles)

3.6 Mbps

3.6 Mbps HSDPA mobiles only in single sector 0 Mbps (no HSDPA mobiles) 0 Mbps (no HSDPA mobiles)

3.6 Mbps

10.8 Mbps
124 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Typical HSDPA Node B Configuration Options


48 users

48 users

48 users

Example 4: 48 Users per cell 3*80CE

48 Users per Cell Up to 14.4 Mbps per cell (with code



multiplexing) Max 15 codes per cell Max 5 schedulers per BTS (5*80=400CE)

125

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Typical HSDPA Node B Configuration Options


16 users 16 users 16 users 16 Users per cell Up to 3.6 Mbps per cell Max 5 codes per cell Max 6 HSDPA schedulers per BTS

Example 2: 16 users per cell 3*32 CE

126

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HSDPA Mobility

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Mobility
1. 2. 3. Intra Node-B serving HS-DSCH cell change Inter Node-B serving HS-DSCH cell change HS-DSCH to DCH switch (needed if the UE is moving to a cell without HSDPA support)

HSDPA capable cell HSDPA not supported

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Serving Cell Change


EC/I
0

Serving cell change window Addition window

CPICH 1 CPICH 2

Serving cell change EC/I0 threshold

New cell Periodic detected reports

Still periodic reports as long process is running Serving cell change triggered

time

129

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Air interface - HSUPA

130

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Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels
Physical Channels P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH AICH P/S-SCH E-HICH E-AGCH/E-RGCH HSDSCH DCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

CCCH
FACH CTCH DCCH DTCH

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Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels
Physical Channels

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

DCCH E-DPDCH

E-DPCCH
E-DCH DTCH DCH HS-DPCCH

DPDCH
DPCCH

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HSUPA
TS 25.309 HSUPA technical requirements Node B controlled scheduling Hybrid ARQ HSUPA supports TTI (2 ms (5.76 Mbps) / 10 ms (2Mbps)) HSUPA requires HSDPA HSUPA supports SHO Requires Cell DCH

RNC

Node B
Iub

Uu
/

UEs
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133

Air Interface - HSUPA


Enhanced dedicated channel E-DCH

E-DPDCH
User data and CRC

ONE PER USER

E-DPCCH
(E-TFCI, re-transmission sequence number, happy bit)

E-HICH
(ACK/NACK)

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Air Interface - HSUPA


Enhanced dedicated channel E-DCH

E-DPDCH
User data and CRC

ONE PER USER

E-DPDCH Carries UL packet data + CRC Up to 4 E-DPDCHs for 1 radio link Maximum configuration according 3GPP: 2 * SF2 + 2 * SF4 TTI = 2 / 10 ms (at cell edge 10 ms
required for sufficient performance) Soft / softer handover support

135

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Air Interface - HSUPA


Enhanced dedicated channel E-DCH

E-DPDCH
User data and CRC

ONE PER USER

Up to 4 E-DPDCHs for 1 radio link Maximum configuration according 3GPP: 2 * SF2 + 2 * SF4

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Air Interface - HSUPA


Enhanced dedicated channel E-DCH

E-DPDCH
User data and CRC

ONE PER USER

# of codes 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 + 2 x SF4

TTI 2 ms 10 ms 10 ms 2 ms 2 ms

Max data rate 1.46 Mbps 2.0 Mbps 2.9 Mbps 5.76 Mbps

137

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UMTS Technology Release 7


Essential concepts and Elements

138

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3GPP Release 7
HSPA+, also known as Evolved High-Speed Packet Access is a wireless broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7

HSPA+ provides HSPA data rates up to 56 Mbit/s on the downlink and 22 Mbit/s on the uplink with MIMO technologies and higher order modulation (64QAM). The 56Mbit/s and 22Mbit/s represent theoretical peak sector speeds.
56 Mbit/s
IP HSPA+ also introduces an optional all-IP architecture for the network where base stations are directly connected to IP based backhaul

22 Mbit/s

HSPA+ should not be confused with LTE, which uses a new air interface.
139 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Release 7
3GPP R7
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. For example, a 2x2 MIMO BTS configuration is 2 antennas to transmit signals (from base station) and 2 antennas to receive signals (mobile terminal). MIMO uses transmission of multiple parallel data streams to a single terminal. A high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. MIMO uses multiple transmit and receive channels and antennas to improve performance and throughput for radio signals to double downlink data speeds up to 22 Mbps.

Multiple-input and single-output (MISO). Single-input and multiple-output (SIMO). single-input single-output (SISO)
140 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Release 7- VoIP Requirements


VoIP CODEC RTP TCP IP PDCP RLC MAC UDP

Phy Layer

The delay should be below 200mS The Radio network must offer QoS IP header is mandatory in the UE and eNodeB/NodeB Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient always-on

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Release 7- Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC)


Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) for Data Users The objectives with CPC are to significantly increase the number of HSPA users that can be kept efficiently in CELL_DCH state and reduce latency for restart after temporary inactivity.

URA_PCH

Cell Selection NOT HO

CELL_ DCH

CELL_ FACH

CELL_ PCH

Idle Mode

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QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)


QPSK is more tolerant of link degradation than 8PSK, but does not provide as much data capacity.
8PSK (3 bits mapped per symbol)

QPSK (2 bits mapped per symbol)

(0,1,0)
(0,0,0)

Q
(0,1,1)

EDGE

10
(1,1,1)

00 3G-Rel99 I

8PSK refers to 8 states


(0,0,1)

11
(1,0,1) (1,0,0) (1,1,0)

01

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HSDPA Modulation (REL5)


Q Q 1011 1001 0001 0011 10 00 I 1010 1000 0000 0010 I

1110 1100 0100 0110


1111 1101 0101 0111

11

01

QPSK

16QAM

2 bits / symbol = 4 bits / symbol = 480 kbit/s/HS-PDSCH = 960 kbit/s/HS-PDSCH = max. 5.4 Mbit/s for Channel Coding max. 14.4 Mbit/s for channel coding 4/4 SF used = 16
144 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

8PSK (3 bits mapped per symbol)

(0,1,0)

GSM

(0,0,0)

(0,1,1)

EDGE
(0,0,1) (1,0,1) (1,0,0)

(1,1,1)

3G-Rel99

(1,1,0)

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HSDPA UE categories
Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
146

Max. number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5

Modulation QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK only QPSK only

Max. data rate [Mbit/s] 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.8 3.6 3.6 7.3 7.3 10.2 14.4 0.9 1.8
Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

3GPP Release 7
HSPA+, also known as Evolved High-Speed Packet Access is a wireless broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7

HSPA+ provides HSPA data rates up to 56 Mbit/s on the downlink and 22 Mbit/s on the uplink with MIMO technologies and higher order modulation (64QAM). The 56Mbit/s and 22Mbit/s represent theoretical peak sector speeds.
56 Mbit/s
IP

22 Mbit/s

HSPA+ should not be confused with LTE, which uses a new air interface.
147 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

HSPA+
64QAM

16 QAM

QPSK

Channel Quality Report

Channel Quality Report

Channel Quality Report

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Handovers

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Handover Control (HC)


HC is responsible for
Managing the mobility aspects of an RRC connection as UE move around network Maintaining high capacity by ensuring UE is always served by strongest cell

Soft(er) Handover Intra-System

Intra-frequency

Intra-layer Inter-layer Intra-layer Inter-layer Intra-layer Inter-layer

WCDMA to WCDMA
Hard Handover

Inter-frequency Intra-frequency

Inter-System (Inter-RAT)

Requires Compressed Mode or Dual Receiver UE


Inter-frequency Intra-layer Inter-layer

WCDMA to GSM WCDMA to GPRS GSM to WCDMA GPRS to WCDMA

Hard Handover

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Hard Handover (e.g.GSM)


Direction of Travel RX_Level

Cell A

Cell B

Handover Hysteresis
In hard handover the mobile is only ever instantaneously connected to a single cell

Margin

Distance

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3G-Soft Handover

RNC

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softer handover
Iu
If an active set consists of two
connections to cells parented to the same Node B

RNC Node B
Cell Cell Cell Cell

Iur

combining of the two channels


occurs at the Node B

This is known as a softer

handover This has no transmission implication But does have capacity implications, if cells are collocated.

Node B
Cell Cell

Uu

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soft handover
Iu
If an active set consists of two
connections to cells parented to different Node Bs then the combining of the two channels occurs at the RNC handover

RNC Node B
Cell Cell Cell Cell

Iur

This is known as a soft This doubles the transmission


cost of the call

Node B
Cell Cell

Uu

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Soft Handover Decisions in UMTS


Active set = 1 Cell A Pilot Ec/Io Window_ADD A Active B Active C Active =2 Cell A and Cell B =2 Cell A and Cell C

Window_DROP

Window_REPLACE Direction of Travel

Add Time Delay

Replace Time DelayDrop Time Delay

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Handover Types
Intra-Frequency Handovers
Softer Handover Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Soft Handover MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Node Bs) Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed (compared to non-SHO) Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) Hard Handover Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion) Causes temporary disconnection of the (RT) user Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO) Decision algorithm located in RNC

Inter-Frequency Handover
Inter-RAT Handover
Handovers between GSM and WCDMA

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Inter-RNC Soft HO
Inter-RNC soft Handovers are

performed if: Intra-Frequency Handovers


Hard Handover Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible
(Iur not supported or Iur congestion)

RNC Iur

RNC

cell1 cell4 cell3

cell5

cell2 cell6 EnableInterRNCsho EnableInterRNCsho

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Call Drop Failure Analysis Process


Start SHO Failure Analysis
Yes

SHO Failed
No Yes

ISHO Failure Analysis

ISHO Failed
No

Best servers RSCP > -102dBm Yes

Coverage Optimisation

Best servers Ec/No > -12dB


No Yes

Missing Neighbour
Yes

Dominance Optimisation

Investigate possible Node B or RNC problem


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Neighbour list Optimisation

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

RRC: Measurement Control


Once the call has been established the RNC sends an RRC: Measurement Control message Prior to receiving this message, the UE uses the measurement control information from the SIBs This message is used to specify; The neighbour list to be used by the UE Intra-frequency neighbour with cell ID 0 is always the serving cell Intra-frequency neighbours with cell IDs other than 0 are then specified. The UE uses the cell ID as a pointer to the location within its neighbour register where the information is stored i.e. if two neighbours are assigned the same cell ID then one will overwrite the other Specifies which cells UE should report on Active + Monitored

Criteria for reporting events 1a, 1b and 1c are specified


Specifies whether measurement reports should be event or periodically triggered

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SHO: Measurement Control

Measurement Control [ ]

UE

Node B

RNC

Thresholds for when to report Measurement Type: Intra-frequency measurements Reporting events: 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range - ADD 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range- DROP 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH - REPLACE .

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Branch Addition / Active Set update


UE Node B1
RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH) Admission Control NBAP: RL SET-UP REQUEST ALCAP: ERQ

Node B2

RNC

NBAP: RL SET-UP RESPONSE

ALCAP : ECF
FP: Downlink Sync Must build a circuit across the Iub FP: Uplink Sync RRC: ACTIVE SET UPDATE (DCCH) L1 SYNC NBAP: SYNCH INDICATION RRC: ACTIVE SET UPDATE COMPLETE (DCCH) RRC: MEASUREMENT CONTROL

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SHO
Branch addition
RRC: Measurement Report (e1a) RRC: Active Set Update RRC: Active Set Update RRC: Active Set Update Complete RRC: Active Set Update Complete

Branch deletion
RRC: Measurement Report (e1b)

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RRC: Measurement Report (Event 1a)


Once the UE determines that an event 1a has occurred it sends a measurement report to the RNC. This is done using the RRC: Measurement Report message The UE reports all active set cells plus up to N monitored set cells within the measurement report. (As specified in the RRC: Measurement Control message) The measurement identity reflects that provided within the measurement control message Active set cell measurements are provided as specified within the measurement control message i.e. synchronisation information and CPICH Ec/Io. The scrambling code is used to identify the active set cells Monitored set cell measurements are provided as specified within the measurement control message i.e. synchronisation information and CPICH Ec/Io.
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The event 1a is specified to have been triggered by a monitored setCopyright cell 2010 AIRCOM International

1B: A Primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range


Ec/Io

Strongest CPICH in AS P CPICH 1


DropWindow

P CPICH 2

P CPICH 3

time TTR Measurement Report


164

Remove the reported cell from the AS


Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH


Ec/Io AS has 3 cells P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH 4 ReplacementWindow weakest CPICH3 in AS P CPICH 3

time

TTR

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Call Drop Failure Analysis Process


Start SHO Failure Analysis
Yes

SHO Failed
No Yes

ISHO Failure Analysis

ISHO Failed
No

Best servers RSCP > -102dBm Yes

Coverage Optimisation

Best servers Ec/No > -12dB


No Yes

Missing Neighbour
Yes

Dominance Optimisation

Investigate possible Node B or RNC problem


166

Neighbour list Optimisation

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

IFHO/ISHO Process Overview


HO Triggering Thresholds set in RNC Event Triggered Coverage/Capacity based HO fulfilled in RNC RNC commands selected UE(s) to start IF/IS measurements

Measurements are done in Compressed Mode (CM)


UE reports GSM cells with strongest RSSI signals to RNC RSSI measurements and BSIC verification for GSM cells RNC makes HO decision and commands UE to target cell
167 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Procedure


RAN Internal measurements UL Quality deterioration Configured UE measurements

Downlink DPCH power

UE Tx power

CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/I0

Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM RSSI measurements GSM cell meets HO condition ? Yes No Is BSCI verification required for PS call ? Yes Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM BSIC measurements Initiate Handover
168 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

No

Measurement Gap
Single-frame method

Length of gap: 3, 4, 5, 7 timeslots

TGL

radio frame

radio frame

Double-frame method

Length of gap: 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, or 14 timeslots


TG L radio frame radio frame

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Compressed mode methods


Halving Spreading Factor, SF/2 for RT and NRT services
(UL and DL) Doubles temporarily the physical channel data rate, possible for all services Needs 3 dB more UE power due to halved spreading ratio If new channelization code is available from code tree in DL

Higher Layer Scheduling, HLS (UL and DL) Only possible for PS services (RT or NRT) Does not cause extra load to the cell but reduces DCH
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user data HLS data rate or HLS data rate possible

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ISHO 3G -> 2G - AMR Signalling Flow


U E
RRC: Measurement Report

Node B

RNC
RRC: Measurement Control ISHO triggering (5 reasons are possible)

CN

NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Commit RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement RRC: Measurement Report Control

Initial Compressed Mode Configuration

RRC: Measurement Report

GSM RSSI Measurem ent

RRC: Handover from UTRAN Command

GSM BSIC Identification RANAP: Relocation Required RANAP: Relocation Command RANAP: IU Release Command
RANAP: IU Release Complete

BSIC verification always performed for AMR calls no


171

interrupt in voice call

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Impact of 2G Neighbour List Length


UE measures all GSM carriers indicated in the Measurement Control message prior to sending Measurement Report to RNC If UE is not able to measure all GSM carriers within the measurement period it sends an empty Measurement Report Once UE has measured all 2G carriers (L1) it reports these measurements to L3 which reports the top 6 strongest to RNC in Measurement Report In general GSM RSSI measurement delay increases as the length of the 2G neighbour list increases. There is however quite a large scatter
35
Number of GSM Neighbours

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Delay to the first GSM RSSI Measurement (seconds)

Tests made with Nokia 7600 UE The general trend is that the GSM RSSI measurement delay increases as the length of the 2G neighbour list increases. There is however quite a large scatter

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ISHO AMR Call NODE UE

CN B RCC: Measurement Control NUMBER OF FAILED NBAP RADIO-LINK RCC: Measurement Report RECONFIGURATION NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare PREPARATIONS Reporting NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready Event A. This measurement Triggered NBAP: RL Reconfigure Commit provides the number of radio RCC: Physical Channel links failed in reconfiguration Reconfiguration RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration preparation. Complete NBAP: Compressed Mode - Receipt of a NBAP RADIO Command RCC: Measurement Control LINK RECONFIGURATION RCC: Measurement Report FAILURE message sent by (GSM RSSI) NBAP: Compressed Mode Node B to the Controlling Command RCC: Measurement Control RNC in response to a RCC: Measurement Report (BSIC RADIO LINK RANAP: Relocation Required verified) Problems could be: RANAP: Relocation Command RECONFIGURATION - No reception of RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION RCC: Handover From UTRAN PREPARE message. Iu Release Command Command RANAP: READY message before a time-out
- RRM refusal (e.g. no power allocation, no Link code NBAP: Radio Deletion Request allocation) NBAP: Radio Link Deletion - RNC I-Node refusal (e.g.Response no CID allocation)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete

RNC

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ISHO AMR Call NODE UE


B
RCC: Measurement Report Reporting Event Triggered

RNC
RCC: Measurement Control

NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready NBAP: RL Reconfigure Commit RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete

RCC: Measurement Report (GSM RSSI)

NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Measurement Report (BSIC verified) RCC: Handover From UTRAN Command NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response

174

CN COMPRESSED MODE CONFIGURATION SUCCESS A. This measurement provides the number of successful Compressed Mode configuration (CM is configured by NBAP RL Setup/Reconfiguration for the BTS and RRC RBSetup/Reconfiguration for the UE. It may then be activated latter if the UE needs to perform RANAP: Relocation Required RANAP: Relocation Command radio measurements on another UMTS frequency or RANAP: Iu Release Command Iuaccording Release Complete onRANAP: GSM, a radio alarm criteria). C. Successful Compressed Mode configuration (Success Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International on both NBAP RL

ISHO AMR Call NODE UE


B
RCC: Measurement Report Reporting Event Triggered

RNC
RCC: Measurement Control

NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready NBAP: RL Reconfigure Commit RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete

RCC: Measurement Report (GSM RSSI)

NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Measurement Report (BSIC verified)

RCC: Handover From UTRAN Command RANAP: Iu Release Command RANAP: Iu Release Complete NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response

CN NUMBER OF INTER-RAT HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMANDS PER CELL A. This measurement provides the number of RRC HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND messages (3G to 2G handover for CS or CS+PS) emitted by an RNC, acting as serving RNC, for each cell controlled by this RNC. The reference cell of the involved UE has to be RANAP: Relocation Required RANAP: Relocation Command under thecontrol of this RNC.

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Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

ISHO AMR Call NODE UE


B
RCC: Measurement Report Reporting Event Triggered

RNC
RCC: Measurement Control

CN

NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready NBAP: RL Reconfigure Commit RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete

RCC: Measurement Report (GSM RSSI)

NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Measurement Report (BSIC verified) RCC: Handover From UTRAN Command NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response

176

NUMBER OF INTER-RAT HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURES PER CELL A. This measurement provides the number of RRC HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE messages (3G to 2G handover for CS or CS+PS) received by an RNC, acting as serving RNC, for each cell controlled by this RNC. The reference RANAP: Relocation Required cell of the involved UE has to RANAP: Relocation Command be RANAP: Iu Release Command under the control of this RANAP: Iu Release Complete RNC. C. Reception of a RRC HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message by a Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International RRC from a UE

ISHO AMR Call NODE UE


B
RCC: Measurement Report Reporting Event Triggered

RNC
RCC: Measurement Control

CN

NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready NBAP: RL Reconfigure Commit RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete

RCC: Measurement Report (GSM RSSI)

NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RCC: Measurement Control

RCC: Measurement Report (BSIC verified) RCC: Handover From UTRAN Command NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response

NUMBER OF 3G TO 2G HANDOVER REQUESTS PER CELL A. This measurement provides the number of RRM decisions for a 3G TO 2G handover performed by a RNC, screened by reference cell from which the UEs have left the 3G Network, when these cells are controlled by the RANAP: Relocation Required considered RNC. RANAP: Relocation Command This measurement considers RANAP: Iu Release Command both CS Iu and PSComplete handovers.. RANAP: Release

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Call Set up & KPIs

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RRC Connection
Physical Channel Logical Channel Message RLC Mode

Protocol
RACH CCCH RRC CONNECTION REQUEST <TM> RRC RRC

1. RRC Connection Request

RACH

PRACH SCCPCH DPCH

RACH

2. RRC Connectio n set up

FACH

FACH

RNC

DCH

DCH

179

3. RRC Connection Complete

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

RRC Connection Request


UE initiates the RRC establishment process by sending the RRC Connection Request message to the RNC (either in response to a paging request from the network or initiated by high layer request in the UE) RRC Connection Request message is sent using unacknowledged mode RLC on the RACH (RACH ) Contains info such as establishment cause (e.g. OriginatingConversationalCall), CPICH Ec/Io of current cell and mobile identity (in terms of PTMSI, TMSI, IMSI, RAI, LAI) RRC Connection Request message is sent from the Node B across the Iub using Frame Protocol to encapsulate the transport UE identity here given by TMSI and LAI blocks and send them via AAL2 based ATM (transparent mode)
Establishment Cause

The Node B measures the one way propagation delay in chips (resolution is 3 chips) and inserts into message

CPICH Ec/Io of measured cell

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Call Establishment
UE Node B RNC MSC / VLR MGW

1. RACH: CCCH: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST <TM>


RRC RRC

2. RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST


NBAP NBAP

Start RX

3. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE


NBAP NBAP

The RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST message commands the Node B to reserve necessary resources and informs the Node B about which Radio Link configuration parameters are to be used. The RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE message carries the Binding ID and the Transport Layer Address used in setting up the ALCAP AAL2 connection between the Node B and RNC for the DCH Frame Protocol.
181 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

NBAP Radio Link Setup


Once the RNC has received the RRC Connection Request message it sends a Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request to the Node B The Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request includes uplink and downlink configuration data for the radio link that the Node B is being requested to support (see next slide)

The radio link refers only to the communication link between the Node B and UE. It does not include Iub communication The Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request is sent using AAL5 based ATM within the radio network control plane belonging to the Iub protocol stack The Node B acknowledges the Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request message with a Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response message The Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response is sent using AAL5 based ATM within the radio network Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International control plane belonging to the Iub

Example NetHawk Iub Log


182

NBAP Radio Link Setup


The Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request includes uplink and downlink configuration data for the radio link that the Node B is being requested to support including; Uplink scrambling code is specified (also sent to UE in the RRC Connection Setup message) Uplink channelisation code, and SIR target Downlink DPCCH power offsets

Inner loop power control step size


DCH transport channel ID Uplink and downlink transport format set (TFC) and TTI Radio link ID and Cell ID The initial, max and min transmit powers Time-of-arrival (TOA) thresholds for DL data frames used for Iub synchronisation
183 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

NBAP Radio Link Setup


The Iub time of arrival window startpoint (toAWS) is 15 ms. Downlink data frames are expected to arrive after this time. The downlink Iub time of arrival window endpoint (toAWE) is 5 ms prior to the LTOA. Downlink frames are expected to arrive before this time. The downlink transport format set is defined by being able to transmit 0 or 1 transport blocks of size 148 bits The downlink TTI is 40 ms and rate 1/3 convolutional coding is used with a rate matching attribute of 1 and a 16 CRC The uplink transport format set is defined by being able to transmit 0 or 1 transport blocks of size 148 bits The uplink TTI is 40 ms and rate 1/3 convolutional coding is used with a rate matching attribute of 1 and a 16 CRC The cell ID is specified to be ID = 60791 This radio link is the first radio link to be configured for this UE The propagation delay from the UE to the Node B is specified to be 6 chips (actual value = IE*3). This is equal to the value that the Node B measured from reception of the PRACH RRC Connection Request message

The initial downlink transmit power is 18.0 dBm (actual value = IE/10)
The maximum downlink transmit power is 7.1 dBm (actual value = IE/10)

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Call Establishment
UE Node B RNC MSC / VLR MGW

1. RACH: CCCH: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST <TM>


RRC RRC

2. RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST


NBAP NBAP

Start RX

3. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE


NBAP NBAP

4. ESTABLISH REQUEST (AAL2)


ALCAP ALCAP

5. ESTABLISH CONFIRM (AAL2)


ALCAP ALCAP

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ALCAP Establishment

On receiving the Common NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response message indicating that the Node B has accepted the request for a radio link, RNC sends an ALCAP: Establish Request message to request Iub resources.

The ALCAP: Establish Request is sent using AAL5 based ATM within the radio network control plane belonging to the Iub protocol stack
Message contains;
AAL type 2 Link Characteristics (ALC) (fixed length 12 octet data field) which specifies the maximum and average bit rates and SDU size to be used Destination and Originating Signalling Association Identifiers (DSAID) and (OSAID) are defined. These are used for routing across ATM switches The Connection Element Identifier (CEID) (5 octets, fixed length) which includes: Channel ID (CID) being established and path identifier as 107001 The Network Service Access Point (NSAP) address is specified using a fixed length 20 octets
186

Once the Node B has received the ALCAP: Establish Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Access link control Protocol (ALCAP)


ALCAP Establishment request-Path id, Channel id

RNC The path id in the ERQ message is not identical with the VPI. IT IS A PONTER TO AN RNC CONFIGURATION TABLE. But the Channel Id is used as value for AAL2 CID.

Configuration table Path Id Example Example Example 52 76 24 Channel Id 8 10 24 VPI/VCI 1/5 10/15 67/38 CID 8 10 24

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AAL2 Format

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Call Establishment
UE Node B RNC MSC / VLR MGW

1. RACH: CCCH: RRC CONNECTION REQUEST <TM>


RRC RRC

2. RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST


NBAP NBAP

Start RX

3. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE


NBAP NBAP

4. ESTABLISH REQUEST (AAL2)


ALCAP ALCAP

5. ESTABLISH CONFIRM (AAL2)


ALCAP ALCAP DCH-FP

6. DOWNLINK SYNCHRONISATION DCH-FP 7. UPLINK SYNCHRONISATION DCH-FP

DCH-FP

Start TX

8. FACH: CCCH: RRC CONNECTION SETUP <UM>


RRC RRC

L1

9. INSYNCH IND

L1

10. RADIO LINK RESTORE INDICATION


NBAP NBAP

11. DCCH: RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE <AM>


RRC RRC

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DCH Synchronisation on Iub


Used to achieve or restore the synchronisation of the DCH data stream in the downlink direction as well as a keep alive procedure in order to maintain activity on the Iub transport bearer The procedure is initiated by the SRNC by sending a DL SYNCHRONISATION frame protocol control frame towards Node B. This is done over the newly created ATM (AAL2) connection The DL SYNCHRONISATION frame protocol control frame indicates the target CFN Upon reception of the DL SYNCHRONISATION control frame, the Node B immediately responds with an uplink SYNCHRONISATION control frame indicating the ToA for the DL SYNCHRONISATION control frame as well as the CFN indicated in that control frame Depending on the received value of ToA, the RNC corrects itself to ensure subsequent TOAs are within the window defined by the NBAP: Radio Link RNC message Setup
DL SYNCHRONISATION

DL SYNCHRONISATION Arrived
190 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

RRC Connection Setup

RNC replies to the UEs original RRC Connection Request message with an RRC Connection Setup message Sent via the Node B using FP to encapsulate the transport blocks across the Iub via AAL2 based ATM The RRC Connection Setup message is sent to UE on FACH (S-CCPCH) using unacknowledged mode RLC This message echos the UE identity in terms of the (P)TMSI and the RAI/LAI (The UE is assigned a new U-RNTI which is used by UTRAN to address the UE)

Message contains information such as;


Signalling Radio Bearers (SRBs) configuration to be used Configuration information on uplink and downlink transport channels TTI used, SRB TBS size, RLC PDU size Convolutional coding rate to be used and CRC size DPCCH power offset used for the uplink open loop power control Downlink BLER target for outer loop power control Power control algorithm and step size to be used Downlink primary CPICH scrambling code
191 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Layer 1 Synchronisation
Once the Node B has relayed the RRC Connection Setup message it starts to transmit the downlink DPCCH on the radio link which has been configured by the NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request message Transmit power has been computed by AC and sent in the NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request message The UE uses the information within the RRC Connection Setup message to determine which scrambling and channelisation codes to search for. The RRC Connection Setup message also provides timing information so the UE has some knowledge of when to expect the start of the downlink frame and slot structure Once UE has identified the precise timing of the downlink DPCCH it evaluates the quality over the first 40 ms. If the UE judges the quality to be greater than Qin it sends an CPHY-Sync-IND primitive to higher layers After the first 40 ms have been judged the UE evaluates the DPCCH quality every 10 ms but based upon the previous 40 ms of DPCCH frames (sliding window)

Layer 3 of the UE uses timer T312 (6s) and counter threshold N312 (1) to determine whether or not the L1 synchronisation has succeeded. Both T312 192 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International and N312 were broadcast to the UE in SIB 1

Layer 1 Synchronisation
Assuming that N312 CPHY-Sync-IND primitives are received prior to T312 expiring then the UE starts to transmit its uplink DPCCH. Layer 1 of the UE continues to compare the downlink DPCCH quality against Qin for 160 ms after achieving the DPCH establishment. After the 160 ms period L1 of the UE is able to report both CPHY-Sync-IND and CPHY-Out-of-Sync-IND primitives based upon Qin and Qout respectively. During this phase the DPCCH quality is evaluated every 10 ms but over the previous 160 ms rather than the previous 40 ms. CRC indications are also used throughout this phase The initial transmit power for the UE is calculated from the offset provided in the RRC Connection Setup message. The transmit power is then given by (Offset CPICH RSCP) as measured by the UE The UE transmits pc-Preamble DPCCH radio frames followed by a further SRB-delay DPCCH radio frames. Both these parameters are specified within the RRC Connection Setup message While the UE has been transmitting these DPCCH radio frames the Node B has been attempting to achieve uplink synchronisation
193

L1 of the Node B generates in-sync primitives whenever it judges itself to have Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International successfully received a DPCCH frame. If the Node B receives NInSynchInd

Call Establishment
UE Node B
12. DCCH: INITIAL DT CM [ SERVICE REQUEST ] <AM> RRC RRC 13. SCCP CONNECTION RQ [ INITIAL UE MESSAGE [ CM SERVICE REQUEST ]] SCCP 14. SCCP CONNECTION CONFIRM

RNC

MSC / VLR

MGW

SCCP

12/13

SCCP

SCCP

The first message between the UE and the MSC is the CM SERVICE REQUEST message and is passed through whilst the SCCP connection is being set-up.
17. DCCH: SECURITY MODE COMMAND <AM> RRC 18. DCCH: SECURITY MODE COMPLETE <AM> RRC

RANAP

15. COMMON ID

RANAP

16. SECURITY MODE COMMAND RANAP RRC RANAP

RRC 19. SECURITY MODE COMPLETE RANAP 20. DT [IDENTITY REQUEST ] (IMEI) RANAP RANAP RANAP

The CM SERVICE REQUEST message contains a request by the UE for a particular service type from its peer entity in the network and also contains UE capabilities required by the core network to allocate encryption and integrity algorithms.
21. DCCH: DLDT IDENTITY [ REQUEST ] <AM> (IMEI) RRC 22. DCCH: ULDT IDENTITY [ RESPONSE ] <AM> (IMEI) RRC 24. DCCH: ULDT SETUP [ ] <AM> RRC 28. DCCH: DLDT CALL [ PROCEEDING ] <AM> RRC

RRC

RRC 23. DT [IDENTITY RESPONSE ] (IMEI) RANAP RANAP

RRC 25. DT [SETUP] RANAP RANAP 26. INITIAL DP 27. DT [ CALL PROCEEDING ] RANAP RANAP

RRC

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UE
INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER (CM Service Request)

RNC
SCCP: Connection Request

CN

SCCP: Connection Confirm Location reporting Control RANAP: COMMON ID Security Mode Command
1

Security Mode Complete CM Service Accept UPLINK DIRECT TRANSFER (Setup, mobile originated side) DIRECT TRANSFER (Call Proceeding)

OR
2

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Setup
3
UE sends a NAS Setup message to the CS core which includes the number being dialled by the UE The NAS message is sent to the RNC using an RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer message and forwarded to the CS Core using a RANAP: Direct Transfer message The structure of the NAS message is specified by 24.008 (see below)

03 45 04 03 20 02 80 5E 03 81 06 F2 15 02 03 01
Call Control Capabilities 4 Octets (3 + IEI) 1 bearer supported PCP support DTMF support 1 speech bearer supported Called Party BCD Number 5 Octets Unknown type of number Telephone numbering plan Number: 602 Bearer Capability 5 Octets GSM full rate speech versions 1 and 2 GSM standardised coding is used Transfer mode is circuit switched Information transfer capability is speech

Message Type 1 Octet 0100 0101 => Setup Message


Protocol discriminator Octet 0011 => Call Control Message Transaction Identifier Octet 0000 => message flow 0

Example structure of NAS set-up message

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Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Set-up


UE WBT S RNC CN
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request Admission Control NBAP: RL Reconfigure Prepare NBAP: RL Reconfigure Ready ALCAP: Establish Request (ERQ) ALCAP : Establish Confirm (ECF) FP Downlink Sync FP Uplink Sync ALCAP : Establish Request (ERQ) NBAP: RL Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Radio Bearer Set-up RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete ALCAP : Establish Confirm (ECF)

RANAP: RAB Assignment Response

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Radio Access Bearer Service Request


RAB service attribute Traffic Class Maximum bit rate Guaranteed bit rate Delivery Order Maximum SDU size Traffic Handling Priority Source statistics descriptor RAB service attribute value Conversational 12.2 / 10.2 / 7.95 / 7.4 / 6.7 / 5.9 / 5.15 / 4.75 kbit/s 12.2 / 10.2 / 7.95 / 7.4 / 6.7 / 5.9 / 5.15 / 4.75 kbit/s Yes 244 / 204 / 159 / 148 / 134 / 118 / 103 /95 bits Not applicable Speech

UE

RNC
Setup

MSC

HLR

Call Proceeding

RAB Assignment Requ


RAB sub-flow 2 (Class B bits) 10-3 -

SDU Parameters
> > SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs SDU format information 1-9 Sub flow SDU size 1-9 Sub flow SDU size parameters 10 Sub flow SDU size 10

RAB sub-flow 1 (Class A bits) 7 * 10-3


10-6 7) yes

RAB sub-flow 3 (Class C bits) 5 * 10-3 -

RAB Assignment Response Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge

RAB Assignment request The RAB Assignment Request message contains all the RAB attributes that define the required RAB. (e.g. SDU error ratio, traffic class, maximum bit rate, subscriber specific priorities) The table shown is the RAB attributes table
198 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

UE

RNC

CN

DIRECT TRANSFER (Alerting)

DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect) DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect Acknowledge)

Connection Established
Location Report RRC: Measurement Control

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Release of AMR Speech Call


UE
Direct Transfer (Disconnect) Direct Transfer (Release)

Node B
Call Established

RNC

MGW

Direct Transfer (Release Complete)


Iu Release Command Iu Release Complete RRC Connection Release RRC Connection Release Complete RRC Connection Release Complete RRC Connection Release Complete Radio Link Deletion Request Radio Link Deletion Response ALCAP: Release Request ALCAP: Release Response ALCAP: Release Request ALCAP: Release Response Call Released

In this example the UE initiates the call release by sending the Disconnect message to the CS core The network acknowledges the Disconnect message with a Release message

The core network initiates the release of the Iu resources using the Iu Release Command message 200 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

UMTS Access NBAP Counters List


NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL NBAP RADIO-LINK SETUPS NUMBER OF FAILED NBAP RADIO-LINK SETUPS NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL NBAP RADIO-LINK ADDITIONS NUMBER OF FAILED NBAP RADIO-LINK ADDITIONS NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL NBAP RADIO-LINK DELETIONS NUMBER OF FAILED NBAP RADIO-LINK DELETIONS NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL NBAP RADIO-LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARATIONS35 NUMBER OF FAILED NBAP RADIO-LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARATIONS NUMBER OF NBAP RADIO-LINK RECONFIGURATION CANCELS NUMBER OF NBAP RADIO-LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMITS NUMBER OF NBAP RADIO-LINKS

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UMTS Access SHO Counters List


RRC RADIO-LINK MANAGEMENT NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATES PER CELL NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATES PER RNC NUMBER OF FAILED RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATES PER CELL NUMBER OF FAILED RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATES PER RNC NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATE PROCEDURES PER CELL ACTIVE SET SIZE NUMBER OF RRC STATE TRANSITIONS FROM CELL_FACH TO CELL_DCH NUMBER OF RRC STATE TRANSITIONS FROM CELL_DCH TO CELL_FACH NUMBER OF CALLS IN CELL FACH STATE

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UMTS Access Counters List


RRC CONNECTION NUMBER OF RRC CONNECTION REQUESTS NUMBER OF RRC CONNECTION SETUP NUMBER OF FIRST RRC CONNECTION REQUESTS NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RRC CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENTS NUMBER OF RRC CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT FAILURES NUMBER OF RRC CONNECTION RELEASES PER CELL NUMBER OF RRC CONNECTION RELEASES PER RNC

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UMTS Access Counters List


RAB AND RB MANAGEMENT NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER ESTABLISHMENTS PER CELL NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER ESTABLISHMENTS PER RNC NUMBER OF REFUSED RADIO-BEARER ESTABLISHMENTS PER RNC UMT/SYS/DD/000075 04.11/EN Standard 21/Sep/2004 Page 7/349 NUMBER OF FAILED RADIO-BEARER ESTABLISHMENTS PER CELL NUMBER OF FAILED RADIO-BEARER ESTABLISHMENTS PER RNC NUMBER OF RAB ESTABLISHMENTS REQUESTS PER RAB TYPE NUMBER OF RAB ESTABLISHMENTS SUCCESS PER REQUESTED RAB TYPE NUMBER OF RAB ESTABLISHMENTS SUCCESS PER GRANTED RAB TYPE NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER RELEASES PER CELL NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER RELEASES PER RNC NUMBER OF FAILED RADIO-BEARER RELEASES PER CELL NUMBER OF FAILED RADIO-BEARER RELEASES PER RNC NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER RECONFIGURATIONS PER CELL NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL RADIO-BEARER RECONFIGURATIONS PER RNC NUMBER OF FAILED RADIO-BEARER RECONFIGURATIONS PER CELL

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Need to Define the KPI measurement

Call Setup Success (voice, circuit switched data) Successful call setup means that DL/UL Direct Transfer

205

(CC: Alerting) message is received by UE. Session Setup Success (packet switched) This is related to PDP context activation. Successfully activated PDP context means that activate PDP context accept message has been sent from RNC to UE (RRC:downlink direct transfer (SM:activate PDP context Accept)). Call Setup Time (voice, circuit switched) Call setup delay is measured from L3 messages, starting from RRC Connection Setup message to DL Direct Transfer (CC: Alerting) message. Session Setup Time (packet switched) The session setup time is the delay between the time the UE sends the data session activation request until GPRS

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Definition of Call Set-Up Success Rate (CSSR)


UE
RRC: Connection Request RRC Connection Setup phase
Resource Reservation in RNC, BTS, Transmission

BTS

RNC

CN

RRC: RRC Connection Request Setup RRC Connection Access phase


RNC waits reply from UE

RRC: RRC Connection Completed RRC: Initial Direct Transfer cm service request DIRECT TRANSFER (Call Proceeding) RAB Connection Setup phase RRC: Radio Bearer Set-up RAB Connection Access phase
RNC waits reply from UE

RANAP: Initial UE Message RANAP: RAB Assignment Request Call Setup Success Rate Call Setup Time

Resource Reservation in RNC, BTS, Transmission

RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete DIRECT TRANSFER (Alerting) DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect) DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect Acknowledge)

RANAP: RAB Assignment Response

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Definition of the Call Completion Rate (CCR)


UE Node B RNC MGW

DIRECT TRANSFER (Alerting) DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect) DIRECT TRANSFER (Connect Acknowledge)
Call Established Direct Transfer (Disconnect) Direct Transfer (Release) Direct Transfer (Release Complete) Iu Release Command Iu Release Complete RRC Connection Release RRC Connection Release Complete RRC Connection Release Complete RRC Connection Release Complete Radio Link Deletion Request Radio Link Deletion Response ALCAP: Release Request ALCAP: Release Response ALCAP: Release Request ALCAP: Release Response Call Released

Call Drop Rate Call Duration

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Definition of Session Setup Time


UE WBTS
UE already has an RRC connection INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER (Attach Request)

RNC

CN
INITIAL UE MESSAGE (GPRS Attach) SCCP: Connection Request SCCP: Connection Confirm

Downlink Direct Transfer (Authentication & Ciphering Request)RANAP: Authentication & Ciphering Request Uplink Direct Transfer (Authentication & Ciphering Response) Security Mode Command Security Mode Command RANAP: Authentication & Ciphering Response RANAP: Security Mode Command RANAP: Security Mode Command RANAP: Common ID Downlink Direct Transfer: Identity Request Uplink Direct Transfer: Identity Response RANAP: Identity Request RANAP: Identity Response Direct Transfer: Attach AcceptSession Set-up Direct Transfer: Attach Complete Time

Downlink Direct Transfer: Attach Accept Uplink Direct Transfer: Attach Complete INITIAL DIRECT TRANSFER (Active PDP Context Request) RRC: Radio Bearer Set-up RRC: Measurement Control DIRECT TRANSFER (Active PDP context Accept)

DIRECT TRANSFER (Active PDP Context Request) RANAP: RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST RANAP: RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

RC: Radio Bearer Set-up Complete

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Cell Selection

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Frequency bands - UTRA/FDD is designed to operate in


either of the following paired bands: Operating UL Frequencies Band UE transmit, Node B receive I 1920 1980 MHz II 1850 1910 MHz III 1710 -1785 MHz IV 1710 -1755MHz V 824 - 849MHz VI 830 - 840 MHz VII 2500 - 2570 MHz VIII 880 915 MHz IX 1749.9 - 1784.9 MHz X 1710 1770 MHz XI 1427.9 - 1452.9 MHz DL frequencies UE receive, Node B transmit 2110 2170 MHz 1930 1990 MHz 1805 - 1880 MHz 2110 - 2155MHz 869 - 894MHz 875 - 885 MHz 2620 - 2690 MHz 925 960 MHz 1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz 2110 2170 MHz 1475.9 - 1500.9 MHz

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Cell Selection
Automatic/Man uel Indication to user

PLMN Selection PLMN Selected Cell Selection

PLMN available

Cell and Registration


NetNetworktwork

LR responses

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Cell Selection
1. Slot Synchronisation

Cell Search

2.P-SC group identification 3. Scrambling Code Identification

4. PLMN selection/reselection
5. Cell selection/reselection 6. Location Registration
212 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

UMTS(FDD) UMTS Parameters and signalling


10 ms Frame

Primary SCH Secondary SCH Common Pilot Channel


CPICH (Common Pilot Channel)

SCH (PSC+SSC) P-CCPCH S-CCPCH


UE

P-CCPCH,

P-CCPCH,

Primary CCPCH (Broadcast Data)

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UMTS(FDD) UMTS Parameters and signalling


Scrambling Code Group Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

slot number
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15

1 1 1

1 1 2

2 5 1

8 16 15

9 7 5

10 15 3 5

10 16 3 6 10 11

2 5 2

15

16

14 16 12 16

12 14 12 10 16 11 15 12

SSC
1

SSC15
9 16 12 14 13 16 14 11

Group 62 Group 63 Group 64

9 9 9

10 13 10 11 15 15 11 12 15 12 9

13 13 11 14 10 16 15 14 16 9 14 15 11 11 13 12 16 10

12 10 15 13 14

10

11

12

13

14

15

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Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View) Physical Logical Transport


Channels Channels Channels P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH

CCCH
FACH CTCH DCCH DTCH HSDSCH DCH

AICH

P-SCH
S-SCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

Secondary Common Control Physical Channels (DL)


215 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View) Physical Logical Transport


Channels Channels Channels

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

DCCH

HS-DPCCH DTCH DCH

DPDCH
DPCCH

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UMTS(FDD) UMTS Parameters and signalling


UE UTRAN

IDLE BCCH/BCH System information (SIB 11)

Cell_FACH CELL_PCH URA_PCH

SIB11- contains measurement control information

BCCH/BCH System information (SIB 12)

CELL_DCH

SIB12- contains measurement control information Connection mode only

DCCH/DCH Measurement Control

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Cell Selection
Cell Reselection is performed in idle mode

UE camped on to best cell


UE has to monitor paging information and system Information System Information block (SIB3)- quality parameter

System Information block (SIB11) Neighbour list

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Cell Reservations and Cell Restrictions

SIB 3
cellAccessRestriction cellBarred notBarred :,
cellReservedForOperatorUse notReserved,

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Cell Reservations and Cell Restrictions


If the operator wants to restrict access to a cell or to set cell reservations, two methods can be identified: Cell status and special reservations: This method is applied to control the cell selection and reselection process. It informs the UE, if a cell is suitable for cell selection and re-selection. Access control: In this method, a cell can be selected in the cell selection and re-selection process. But a mobile phone is not allowed to send an initial access message to the access network. This method is normally applied for load control reasons. The subscribers access class(es) are determined on cell basis from the IMSI and parameters, broadcast on the BCCH. The subscribers access class(es) is (are) stored on the USIM. At subscription, one or more Access Classes are allocated to the subscriber and stored in the USIM

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Access Control
Access Control is normally used for load reasons. It limits the accesses on the common control channels. Access class restrictions are broadcasted via the BCCH In the cell selection and re-selection process, the UE ignores cell access restrictions.

If the mobile phone is in the RRC idle state, it checks access class restrictions before it sends an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message.
If the mobile phone is already in the RRC connected state, there are no access class restrictions valid for the UE.

Access class restrictions also do not apply, if the UE must enter the RRC connected mode after an Inter-RAT cell re-selection to UTRAN.

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Cell Reservations and Cell Restrictions


SIB 3

Cell status and special reservations


Suitable cell is a cell, where the full service set can be offered to the subscriber. This cell must fulfil a set of requirements It is a part of the selected PLMN. It must also fulfil the cell selection criterion The cell is not barred The cell is not part of the list of forbidden LAs for roaming Acceptable cell is a cell, which offers limited services (i.e. the origination of an emergency call) to the subscriber. The cell is not barred The cell selection criteria are fulfilled (covered later in this chapter) Barred cell is a cell, where the mobile phone is not allowed to camp on as indicated in system information 3 Reserved cell is a cell, where ordinary mobile phones are not allowed to camp on

cellAccessRestriction cellBarred notBarred :, cellReservedForOperatorUse notReserved,

accessClassBarredList {
notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred, notBarred

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Access Control
Access Class irrelevant for access suitable cell

UE RRC connected

suitable cell I ignore all Access Class related cell access restrictions when selecting a cell to camp on

UE RRC idle

Access Class only relevant for access

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Cell reselection
Neighbor list from BCCH
Measurement criteria

Measured neighbours
S criteria

Suitable neighbours
R criteria

Best ranked cell Re-selection if not serving cell

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Cell Selection Criterion S


Cell selection criterion S determines which cells are suitable for (initial) cell selection and reselection, for UE to can camp on. S Criteria

Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 Srxlev > 0

in the FDD mode, and in the TDD mode.

Squal delivers the cell Selection quality value (dB). The UE determines it according to this formula: Squal = Qqualmeas Qqualmin The UE measures the received signal quality Qqualmeas of the cell. It is based on CPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for FDD cells. (CPICH Ec/N0 is averaged.) The operator determines for each cell the minimum required received level Qqualmin (dB) at the UE. This value is the broadcasted. Its integer value can range between 24 and 0 dB. A cell is not suitable for cell selection and re-selection, if the measured received signal quality level is below Qqualmin.

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Cell Selection Criterion S


S Criteria Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 Srxlev > 0 in the FDD mode, and in the TDD mode.

Srxlev stands for the cell selection receive level value (dB)
The UE determines it this way: Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin Pcompensation Qrxlevmeas is the cell RX level measured by the UE, based on the CPICH RSCP for FDD cells (dBm), and the averaged received signal level for GSM cells (dBm). (All values get averaged) The operator sets the value Qrxlevmin as minimum required RX level in the cell (dBm), which is sent to the UE via the BCCH. Its integer value can range between 115 dBm and 25 dBm (2 dB step size). But the UEs own output power capability has to be taken under consideration. This is done with Pcompensation = max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) (dB) Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

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EXAMPLES

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Cell Selection
Cell size defining parameters: QrxlevMin (-115 -25) QqualMin (-24 0)

Squal = Qqualmeas QqualMin > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - QrxlevMin Pcompensation > 0


Squal = Qqualmeas QqualMin > 0 Squal = -10 (-15) = +5

Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - QrxlevMin Pcompensation > 0 Srxlev =-90 (-110) =+20

I am receiving -10 dBm

I am receiving -90 dBm

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Cell Selection -Pcompensation


Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - QrxlevMin Pcompensation > 0 -50 .. 33 Pcompensation dBm = max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) Pcompensation = max(SibmaxAllowedTxPowerOnRach pMAX

Pcompensation = +33 (+33) = 0 Pcompensation = +33 (+21) = +12

Power Class 1 2 3 4 5

Maximum Output TDD +33dbm +27dBm +24dBm +21dBm +10dBm

Maximum OutputFDD +33dBm +27dBm +24dBm +21dBm

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Cell Selection -Pcompensation


Pcompensation = +33 (+33) = 0
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - QrxlevMin Pcompensation > 0 Srxlev = -89 (-90)- (0) =1

Tx33dB m

Both UE RX -89

Tx21dB m
Pcompensation = +33 (+21) = +12 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - QrxlevMin Pcompensation > 0

Srxlev = -89 (-90)- (12) = -11

Cell size defining parameters: QrxlevMin (-115 -25)

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The operator determines the maximum cell radius by limiting the maximum TX power level, a UE can use on the PRACH
Pcompensation = max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0)

UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH can range according to the specifications - between 50 dBm and 33 dBm.

On the other hand, there is the UEs maximum RF output power, given by P_MAX (dBm).

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If the cell does not fulfill the suitable cell criteria (i.e. S-criteria) the UE cannot access the cell and therefore the UE is out of the coverage After a UE has switched on and a PLMN has been selected, the Cell selection process takes place. This process allows the UE to select a suitable cell where to camp on.The UE can use stored information (Stored information cell selection) or not (Initial cell selection) Squal= Cell Selection quality value. Not applicable for GSM or TDD cells. Srxlev= Cell Selection Rx level value. Pcompensation= max(UEtxPowerMaxPRACH P_MAX,0) Qqualmeas=Measured cell quality value, it is expressed in CPICH Ec/No. Not applicable for GSM or TDD cellls.

Qrxlevmeas=Measured cell Rx level. For FDD cells it CPICH RSCP, for GSM cells RxLEV and for TDD cell P-CCPCH RSCP
QqualMin=The minimum required quality level in the cell (Ec/N0). It should be set low enough such that the UE can easily, hence quickly, camp on a suitable cell during cell selection process. Part of SIB 3

QrxlevMin=The minimum required RX level in the cell (RSCP). It should be set low enough such that the UE can easily, hence quickly, camp on a suitable cell during cell selection process. Part of SIB 3
233 Copyright 2010 a AIRCOM International UEtxPowerMaxPRACH=Defines the maximum transmission power level UE

Cell Selection Criterion S (in the FDD mode)


Squal > 0
Qqualmeas (dB) (CPICH Ec/N0)

S-Criterion fulfilled
Squal >0 AND Srxlev > 0

Qqualmin (24...0)

Qrxlevmin (115...25) Pcompensation suitabl e cell?


234

Qrxlevmeas (dBm) CPICH RSCP

Srxlev > 0

Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Cell Reselection: R-Criterion


Qhysts gives a hysteresis value to make the serving cell more attractive and thus delay the cell re-selection. Measurement criteria

Neighbor list from BCCH Measured neighbours

S criteria

Suitable neighbours
R criteria neighboring cell was ranked with the highest value R Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts (for the serving SIB3 cell) SIB 11 Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n
for candidate neighbouring cells for cell reselection 235
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Best ranked cell Re-selection if not serving cell

Cell Reselection: R-Criterion


Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts (for the serving cell) Qmeas Rn > Rs =>cell reselection

Qmeas,n

Qmeas,s
Qhysts Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n
for candidate neighbouring cells for cell reselection

Rs

Qoffsets,n
Treselection the time interval value Treselection, whose value ranges between 0 and 31 seconds
238 Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Cell Reselection: Measurement Rules


SsearchRAT m
Measurement Required Measurement Required

Sintersearch Sintrasearch
Measurement Required

Sx=Squal (in FDD mode)

Intrafrequency Interfreqency Inter-RAT

Intra-frequency Inter-frequency

No need to Intra- measure frequency neighbour cells

EC/N0 =

-14 dB=-18 +4

-10 dB=-18+10 -8 =-18+10 dB

Example: Nokia Qqualmin = -18 dB, Sintrasearch = 10dB, Sintersearch = 8dB, Ssearch_RAT = 4dB
240

When to perform measurements serving cell


Copyright 2010 AIRCOM International

Parameters for Cell Selection


QrxlevMin The minimum required RX level in the cell. This parameter is part of SIB 3. [-115 ... 25] dBm, step 2 dBm; default: -115 dBm. QqualMin The minimum required quality level in the cell (Ec/No). This parameter is part of SIB 3. [-24 ... 0] dB, step 1 dB, default: -18 dB.

UEtxPowerMaxPRACH This parameter defines the maximum transmission power level a UE can use on PRACH.
[..]

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Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G


GSM MS starts WCDMA measurements in case running average signal (RLA_C) level is below or above certain threshold:

RLA_C

Qsearch _I

There are 16 levels of (0-15)


Qsearch _I (0-15) Valu e dBm 0 -98 1 -94 6 -74 7
Alway s

10

14 -54

15 Neve r

-78 -74 -70

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Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G


Valu e
dBm

0
-98

1
-94

6
-74

7
Alway s

10

14
-54

15
Neve r

-78 -74 -70

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