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LOGIC GATE

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

Explanation EMFand Antenna

1- A
11 - B
21 - D

2- B
12 - D
22 - B

3 -C
13 - C

1B
11D

2A
12B

3A
13A

1- B
11 - A

2- C
12 - A

3 -C
13 - C

1 - D
11 - D

2 -B
12 - B

3-C
13 - C

Propagation in Lossless Medium

4- B
14 - C

5- D
15 - C

6- D
16 - A

4D
14A

5 C
15 B

4-B
14 - D

5 -A
15 - D

8 D
18 D

9D

10 D

7 -C

8- D

9- C

10 - B

7-C
17 - B

8 -A

9- B

10 - A

6-D
16 - A

and

 jt = x 7.54 cos 108 t 0.5 y


E ( y, t ) = Re Ee
Q.6

For f = 1GHz, r = 1, and r = 9

= 2 f = 2 109 rad/s ,

(3) = 2 / k = 2 / 0.5 = 12.6 m

k=

8 2

c
3 10
= 2.25
(4) r = =
8
2 10
up

r =

2 f
2 109
r =
9 = 20 rad/m,
c
3 108

E ( y, t ) = x 6cos 2 109 t 20 y + 0

) ( V/m )

At t = 0 and y = 2 cm, E = 4 V/m :

(5) E = k H ,

120 120
=
=
= 251.33 ( ) ,
=

1.5
r
k = y , and H = z30e j 0.5 y 10 3

) ( V/m )

Explanation :

108
= 2 108 m/s
0.5

7 B
17 A

4- A
5- C
6- B
14 - C

EM Power Density

(2) = 108 rad/s, k = 0.5 rad/m

10 A
20 - D

Propagation in a Lossy Medium

(1) Positive y-direction

9- A
19 A

6 B
16 B

Q.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Explanation :

8- B
18 - B

WavePolarization

Propagation in Lossless Medium

up =

7 -D
17 - B

( A/m )

Hence,

4 = 6 cos 20 2 102 + 0 = 6cos ( 0.4 + 0 )


Hence,
4

0 0.4 = cos 1 = 0.84 rad,


6
Which gives

E = 251.33 y z30e j 0.5 y 10 3 = x 7.54e j 0.5 y ( V/m )

0 = 2.1 rad = 120.19o

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and

E ( y, t ) = x 6 cos 2 109 t 20 y + 120.19o

) ( V/m )

H=

(7) From E = y10e j 0.2 z ( V/m ) , we deduce that

k = 0.2 rad/m. Hence

3
4
7
7
= z sin 10 t 0.2 x y cos 10 t 0.2 x

(A/m),

2 2
=
= 10 = 31.42 m
=
k
0.2

with

1.5 108
=
= 4.77 106 Hz = 4.77 MHz
(8) f =
31.42

up

0 120

= 20 = 62.83 ( )
6
r

(14) From = 0 / r ,

(9) From
1 c
, r =

r u p
r r
c

up =

1 3
= 1.67
=

2.4 1.5

2.4
 120
= 120
= 451.94 ( ) ,
(10) =

r
1.67
1
1
H = ( z ) E = ( z ) y10e j 2.0 z

Q. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 Explanation :


(15) = 2 f = 6 109 rad/s,
f = 3 109 Hz = 3GHz

( mA/m ) ,

(17) =

With = 2 f = 9.54 10 rad/s


Q.11, 12, 13, 14 Explanation :

(18) k =

(11) Since k = 0.2 ,


2
2
=
= 10 m
k
0.2

(19) =

(12)
7

(16) u p =

H ( z, t ) = x 22.13cos (t + 0.2 z )

10
= 5 107 m/s
up = =
k
0.2
c

c
r =
up

up
f

3 108
2.56

= 1.875 108 m/s

1.875 108

6 109

2
3.12 102

= 3.12 cm,

= 201.4 rad/m,

0
377
377
=
=
= 235.62
r
2.56 1.6

(20) H = x

= x
But u p =

0
60
= 20 = 9

r =

= x22.13e j 0.2 z ( mA/m ) ,

Hence,

+ z4cos 107 t 0.2 x

Q.7, 8, 9. 10 Explanation :

1
1
k E = x [ y 3sin 107 t 0.2 x

20

cos 6 109 t kz

20
cos 6 109 t 201.4 z
235.62

2
9
= x8.49 10 cos 6 10 t 201.4 z
2

3 108
=
7

5 10

= 36

(13)
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) ( A/m )

LOGIC GATE
Q.21

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

Explanation :
vP =

Frequency of wave remain unchanged in both the

3 108
2.56

= 1.875 108 m/s

mediums

v1
Wave length in free space 1 = f

v1 = c

phase velocity of wave is equal to velocity of light in


Q.1

= 134.04 rad/m

Explanation :

a=

& r = 1

relative to that of the x -component. We do this by

hand is along z (into the page ), the other


four fingers point in the direction shown (clockwise as

30
r = = 4
15

seen from above). Hence, we should reverse the sign of

Explanation :

the y -component :

Wave number is phase constant

= 2 f = 8 109 rad sec

E = x 2 cos (t + kz ) y 2 sin ( t + kz ) ( V/m )

with

f = 4 109 Hz = 4 GHz

k=

Phase velocity

= 2

wave is traveling along z when the thumb of the right

examining the locus of E versus t at z = 0 : Since the

Next, we need to check the sign of the y -component

1
=r
2

vp =

4.69 102

Modulus E = a 2 + a 2 = a 2 = 2 ( V/m ) .Hence,

nonmagnetic medium

cos (t + kz ) + ya
sin (t + kz )
E = xa

1
= r r
2

following :

1
c
=
c
2
r r

vp =

For an RHC wave traveling in z, let us try thew

1 c
=
2 v2

Q.22

Wave Polarization

free space
v2
wave length in medium 2 = f

vP 1.875 108
=
= 4.69 cm
f
4 109

o r o r

2
6 102

= 104.72 ( rad/m ) ,

and

= kc =

3 108 = 1010

( rad/s )

, r = 1, nonmagnetic medium

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Q.2, 3, 4, 5 Explanation :

o
(4) E ( z , t ) = x3cos (t kz ) + y 3cos t kz + 45

Polarization angles ( , )

y
4
3
2
1

0 = tan 1 ( a y / a x ) ,
tan 2 = ( tan 2 0 ) cos
sin 2 = ( sin 2 0 ) sin
Case
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

ax ay
3
3
3
3

4
4
3
4

0
o
180
o
45
o
-135

-4

53.13
o
53.13
o
45
o
53.13

Polarization State

Linear
53.13
o
Linear
-53.13
0
o
o
53.13 22.5 Left elliptical
o
o
-56.2 -21.37 Right elliptical

-2 -1
-2
-3
-4

Plots of the locus of E(0, t)

o
(5) E ( z, t ) = x 3cos (t kz ) + y 4cos t kz 135

(2) E ( z, t ) = x3cos (t kz ) + y 4cos (t kz )

1 2 3 4

-4

-2

-1
-2
-3
-4

Plot of the locus of E(0, t)

Plot of the locus of E(0, t)


(3) E ( z, t ) = x3cos (t kz ) y 4 cos (t kz )

Q.6, 7, 8 Explanation :
 jt
E ( z , t ) = Re Ee

y
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1-1
-2
-3
-4

4
3
2
1

y
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1-1
-2
-3
-4

= Re ( x + jy ) 20e j z / 6 e jt

1 2 3 4

j / 2 20e j z / 6 e jt
= Re x + ye

= x 20 cos (t z / 6 ) + y 20 cos (t z / 6 + / 2 )
= x 20 cos (t z / 6 ) y 20sin (t z / 6 ) ( V/m ) ,

Plot of the locus of E(0, t)

12

E = E x2 + E y2

= 20 ( V/m ) ,

direction of electric field intensity is


Ey
= (t z / 6 )
Ex

= tan 1

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LOGIC GATE

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

From,
f =

30
o
= 71.56 ,
10

0 = tan 1

kc / 6 3 108
=
= 2.5 107 Hz ,
2
2

tan 2 = ( tan 2 0 ) cos = 0.65 or = 73.5o ,

= 2 f = 5 107 rad/s

sin 2 = ( sin 2 0 ) sin = 0.40 or = 8.73o ,

At z = 0
at t = 0
0

7
o
= t = 5 10 t = 0.25 = 45 at t = 5 ns

o
at t =10 ns
0.5 = 90

Since < 0, the wave is right-hand elliptically polarized.


Q.14

Explanation :

E1 = x 2 cos (t kz ) + y 2sin (t kz )
= x 2 cos (t kz ) + y 2 cos (t kz / 2 )

Therefore, the wave is LHC polarized


Q.9, 10 Explanation :

E1 = x 2e jkz + y 2e jkz e j / 2

x e jkz ,
E = xa

ay
1
o
= tan 1 = 45 ,
ax

0 = tan 1

j / 2 e jkz
RHC wave : E R = aR x + ye

= / 2

= aR ( x jy ) e jkz

LHC wave : E L = aL x + ye

j / 2

)e

Hence, wave E1 is RHC


jkz

Q.15

Explanation :
E 2 = x 2e jkz + y 2e jkz e j / 2

= aL ( x + jy ) e jkz

Wave E2 has the same magnitude and phases as wave

E = E R + E L ,

E1 except that its direction is along z instead of + z .

x = aR ( x jy ) + aL ( x + jy )
xa

By equating real and imaginary parts, ax = aR + aL ,


0 = aR + aL , or aL = ax / 2, aR = ax / 2

t h e

l o c u s

o f

r o t a t i o n

o f

E will match the left hand

instead of the right hand. Thus, wave E2 is LHC


Q.16

Explanation :

E3 = x 2 cos (t kz ) y 2sin (t kz ) ,

Q.11, 12 13 Explanation :

E ( z, t ) = x10sin t kz 60o + y 30 cos (t kz )

e n c e ,

= x10 cos t kz + 30o + y 30 cos (t kz ) ( V/m )

Phasor form :
o

E = x10e j 30 + y 30 e jkz

Since is defined as the phase of E y relative to that

E 3 = x 2e jkz + y 2e jkz e j / 2

Wave E3 is LHC
Q.17

Explanation :
Eu = x 2 e jkz + y 2e jkz e j / 2

Reversal of direction of propagation (relative to wave E3


) makes wave E4 RHC

of Ex ,

= 30o ,

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LOGIC GATE
Q.18

ExPracticePaper

Explanation :

Q.2

Explanation :

E = x sin (t + kz ) + y 2 cos (t + kz )

E ( z ) = E0 e z = 10e z ,

Wave direction is z.At z = 0 ,

5 104 36
=
= 3.32 104 .
2 3 109 109 9

E = x sin t + y 2cos t

Hence, medium is a low-loss dielectric

Tip of E rotates in accordance with right hand ( with


thumb pointing along z ). Hence, wave state is RHE
y

t=/2

103 = 10e0.032 z , ln104 = 0.032 z ,

z = 287.82 m
Q.3

-1

120 5 104 120


= .
=
= 0.032 ( Np/m )
2 r
2 9

Explanation :
for a good conductor,

= , and for any material s =

t = 0

Hence,
-2

p =

Figure : Locus of E versus time

= 9.42 104 ( m/s )


Q.4

Propagation in a Lossy Medium


Q.1

2 f
=
= 2 f s = 2 5 109 3 106

Explanation :

Explanation :

Since the phase angle of c is 45o , the material is a good

The phase angle by which the magnetic field leads the

conductor. Hence,

electric field is where is the phase angle of c

c = (1 + j )

0.1 36
=
=2
2 108 109 9

or

Hence, quasi-conductor

"
c =
1 j
'
'

1/ 2

120

=
1 j

0 r
r

= 125.67 (1 j 2 )1/ 2 = 71.49 + j 44.18

Q.5

19.87

0.5
= 2.52 102 S/m
19.87

Explanation :
Since = for a good conductor, and = 0.5 , it

= 84.0431.72o

follows that = 0.5 .

Therefore = 31.72o

. In other words, H lags E by 31.72o.

= 28.1cos 45o = 19.87

Since =1/ s = 1/ 2 = 0.5 Np/m,

1/ 2

Since H = (1/ c ) k E , H leads E by , or by 31.72

= 28.1e j 45 = 28.1cos 45o + j 28.1sin 45o ,

Therefore,
o

2
= 4 = 12.57 m
0.5

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LOGIC GATE
Q.6

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

Explanation :

Q.8

A material is characterized as an imperfect dielectric if for

u p = f = 106 12.57 = 1.26 107 m/s

Q.7

a specific frequency 0,

Explanation :
From the given expression for E,

= 2 10

< 0.1

= 40 ( rad/m )
2 2 = 2 ' = 2 0 0 r' =

2 = 2 " =

2
c2

2
c2

r' ,

r" .

f>

10
2

f >

(10 ) . (10 )
Hz
( 2 )( 9 ) ( 8.854 1012 )

f > 200 Hz

Using the above values for , and , we obtain the

Q.9

Explanation :
E ( z , t ) = E xo e z cos ( t z ) a x v

following :

r' = 1.6

and = 3 rad m

r" = 5.47

"
c =
1 j
'
'
0
r'

<< 1 .

A medium is characterized as imperfect dielectric if

( rad/s ) ,

= 30 ( Np/m ) ,

Explanation :

1/ 2

1/ 2
"
j r
r'
o

= 157.9e j 36.85

Q.10

2
m
3

Explanation :
Propagation constant = + j

377
5.47
1 j

1.6
1.6

1/ 2

= attenuation constant

= phase constant
= + j3

()

and intrinsic impedance

E = z25e30 x e j 40 x ,
1
H = k E =

1
o

157.9e j 36.85

x z25e

30 x j 40 x

j 2 107 o

+ j 3
= o

= y0.16e 30 x e 40 x e j 36.85

 jt =
H = Re He

y0.16e30 x cos 2 109 t 40 x 36.85o

( A/m )

j 2 107

)( 4 10 )
7

+ j 3

= 0.8 ( 3 + j ) = ( 7.54 + 2.51 j )

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LOGIC GATE
Q.11

ExPracticePaper

Explanation :

EM Power Density

j ( + j )

j 2 100 10 4 10

Q.1
7

( 0.1 + j 2 100 10
Q.12

9 8.854 10 12

H = x50sin 2 107 t ky

106 = y

120
( 50 )2 106
2

( mV/m )

Explanation :

depth =

vP =

Explanation :
For low loss dielectric medium propagation constant

p = + j

0 ( 50 )

= y0.48 W/m 2
Q.2

= 6.28 10 4 m/s

p=

S av = ( z x )

, Hence phasre velocity

vP = 2 f = 2 5 109 2 106

Explanation :

0 120
=
= 40
9
r

()

The wave is traveling in the negative x-direction

32 + 22
= x 13 = x0.05 W/m 2
Sav = x
2
2 40

Q.3, 4, 5 Explanation :
(3) Since = = 0.2 , the medium is a good conductor
+ j

c = (1 + j )
=

2 o

120

r
r

1
1
5 104 120
=
=
2
r
2 16

= tan
= 2 850 106 8 854 1012 9 0 15
= 63 8 103 S m

( )

we have

E0

2 c

e2 z cos = z

0.4 z
= z125e

Explanation :
Loss tangent tan =

0.2
= (1 + j )
= (1 + j ) 0.05

= 0.0707e j 45

Sav = z

= 0 024 Np m
Q.14

) ( mA/m )

E = 0 y H = z0 50sin 2 107 t ky

For a good conductor = , and for any material skin

Q.13

Explanation :

25
e0.4 z cos 45o
2 0.0707

( W/m2 )

(4) A = 8.68 z = 8.68 0.2 z = 1.74 z ( dB)


(5) 40 dB is equivalent to 104 . Hence
104 = e2 z = e0.4 z ,

ln 104 = 0.4 z

or z = 23.03 m

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LOGIC GATE
Q.6

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

Explanation :

Q.10

0 120
=
= 60 = 188.5
4
r

Sav = x

H y20 + H x20 = x

= 2.36 mW/m 2

188.5
[9 + 16] 106
2

Explanation :
S av =

E0

&
2

, =

( 24.56 )2
2 2.4

E0

Pavg ( t , z ) =

1 Eo2 2 z
e
cos
2

Pavg ( t , 0 ) =

1 Eo2
cos
2

1 Eo2 2 (10 )
cos
& Pavg ( t ,10 ) = 2 e

P = S av A = 2.36 103 20 = 47.13 ( mW )

Q.7

Explanation :

2 S av

Pavg ( t ,10 )
Pavg ( t , 0 )

=125.67

0
377
=
,
r
r

377

= 0.115 m 1

r =
=9
125.67

Q.11

Explanation :
For good conductor,

3 10
= 1 108 m/s
3

Explanation :
E ( R)

20

= 0.115

= 54.6 m

1 mW/cm 2 = 103 W/cm 2 = 10 W/m 2

Q.12

Explanation :

3 103
1
1.2 104

=
10 =

R 2 120
R2

1/ 2

1.2 104
R=
10

Q.9

up =

S av =

2 (10 )

1
log e ( 0.1)
20

Hence,

Q.8

10
= e 20
100

But

n
j

f =

n
2 j

The real and imaginary parts of the intrinsic impedance


are equal hence the medium is a good conductor.

= j

= 34.64 m

Explanation :

f =

( 35 + j35)( 0.115 + j 0.115)


2 j 4 107

= o
f = 1.02 MHz
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LOGIC GATE
Q.13

ExPracticePaper

Explanation :

at z = d , pav ( t , d ) =

The conductivity of the medium is calculated with

0.115 (1 + j )

= Re = Re

35 (1 + j )

pav ( t , 0 )

pav ( t , d )

= 3.29 103 S m
Q.14

pav ( t , 0 )

pav ( t , d )

Explanation :

= 0.4
=

vP =

vP =

d=

o or r
r = 1

r r

Q.17

3 108

1
2 4 105

log e 2

Explanation :

& =

r
2

3 108
3 108
r =
=

5 107
P

Q.15

1
pav ( t , 0 )
2

d = 0 2758m

3 108

nonmagnetic material

vP =

= e2 d

1
log e 2 = d
2

2 d

2 = e 2 d

2 107
=
= 5 107 m/s

0.4

vP =

at z = d , pav ( t , d ) =

2
= 5m
0.4

1 Eo2 2 d
cos
e
2

= 36

4 105
2 =
0 0888577

Explanation :

= 2 107 S m

The electric field and magnetic field are 4 out of


phase, hence, the medium is a good conductor, thus

= = 4 105
2

and

Q.16

Explanation :

pav ( t , z ) =

= 5 106 m

4 10

1 Eo2 2 z
e
cos
2

at z = 0, pav ( t , 0 ) =

I C

1 Eo2
cos
2

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S t u d i e s , H

e a d

f f i c e

a i p u r

LOGIC GATE

ElectronicsAndCommunicationEngineering

I C

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S t u d i e s , H

e a d

f f i c e

a i p u r

LOGIC GATE

ExPracticePaper

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