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ONE-LINE DIAGRAMS

The one-line diagram is the blueprint for electrical system analysis. It is the first step in preparing a critical response plan, allowing you to become thoroughly familiar with the electrical distribution system layout and design in your facility.

Whether you have a new or existing facility, the one-line diagram is the vital roadmap for all future testing, service and maintenance actions. As such, the one-line diagram is like a balance sheet for your facility and provides a snapshot of your facility at a moment in time. It needs to be modified as your facility changes to ensure that your systems are adequately protected. An effective one-line diagram will clearly show how the main components of the electrical system are connected, including redundant equipment and available spares. It shows a correct power distribution path from the incoming power source to each downstream load including the ratings and sizes of each piece of electrical equipment, their circuit conductors, and their protective devices. In many process facilities, loads are continually added or removed in small increments. The net effect is not always seen until some part of the system becomes overloaded or exhibits other problems. Many times circuits are added without appropriate modifications of the standard settings on the associated upstream circuit breakers. Regardless of which protective devices you use, they must be coordinated with regard to their time/current curves and with each other. The one-line diagram provides the roadmap to enable proper design of equipment, redundancy, and protection. NFPA-70E requirements mandate accurate, up-to-date one-line diagrams. To meet these needs, Arc Flash Advisors can conduct a comprehensive site survey to develop one-line diagrams for your facility or to update existing diagrams. Including: Verify process is in place that ensures the as-built drawings are maintained in a current condition Confirm loads connected to emergency / standby feeders Inventory of equipment Evaluate design redundancy of critical systems (N, N+1, N+2...) and whether all critical equipment can be maintained without a shutdown Verify existence of as-built drawings and that they are adequately available Verify potential single points of failure Report that outlines the findings by site along with recommended actions Update customer-provided one-line drawings down to the 480V Distribution Switchboards Provide a copy of one-line electrical diagram in AutoCAD format Post as-built drawings at each facility An up-to-date one line diagram is vital for a variety of service activities including: Short circuit calculations

Coordination studies Load flow studies Safety evaluation studies All other engineering studies Electrical safety procedures Efficient maintenance Features & Benefits Helps identify fault locations and simplifies troubleshooting Ensure safety of personnel Stay compliant with NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 requirements Ensure safe, reliable operation of facility Scope of a one line diagram One line diagram information normally includes: Incoming lines (voltage and size capacity and rating) Incoming main fuses, potheads, cut-outs, switches and main and tie breakers Power transformers (rating, winding connection and grounding means) Feeder breakers and fused switches Relays (function, use and type) Current/potential transformers (size, type and ratio) Control transformers All main cable and wire runs with their associated isolating switches and potheads (size and length of run) All substations, including integral relays and main panels and the exact nature of the load in each feeder and on each substation Critical equipment voltage and size (UPS, battery, generator, power distribution, transfer switch, computer room air conditioning)

Work Instructions for preparation of Single line Diagram

The One line Diagram Indicates the flow of electrical system from the source to the loads. Different type of one lines are prepared for different applications This work instruction details the requirements for the preparation of Single line diagram for continuous process industry. Documents required for preparation of SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM 1. Load List This document contains the various loads present in the plant and indicates the capacity of the load with the voltage level. 2. Design Basis This document details the type of electrical connection to be used for the various loads and the protection requirements as per the relevant standards. 3. The ratings of the various components like the transformer, breakers, cables, busbars, Current transformers, motors, Package electrical systems like the UPS, DC system, are indicated in the Single line diagram. DETAILS OF COMPONENTS 1) Transmission line: TL connecting to the switchyard/substation at the plant end from the grid shall be shown. Rating of the same shall be mentioned in kV and and length of the line. 2) Grid : Grid data like MVAsc and X/R ratio shall be shown. 3) Transformer MVA rating, transformer voltage ratio, Impedance, winding type, frequency shall be indicated. 4) Breaker Ampere frame/Ampere trip rating, voltage rating, 3 or 3P+N or 4 P type, with/without releases, Local/remote operability, will need to be indicated. 5) Current transformers and potential transformers: They shall be used as per the protection and measuring requirements. 6) Busbars : Bus bar is the common point at which the incomer and outgoing feeders are connected. Rating of the bus bars mentioned based on the continuous ampere rating of the total connected load (MD) and short circuit value. Usually two bus bars are used in series and are connected with bus coupler. It is required to ensure loads on both the buses should be balanced. 7) MV switchgear: MV switchgear shall shown in block with starter / feeder type for the loads check for the design basis for the loads to

consider in MV rating switchgear and ensure for proper spare feeders 8) LV switchgear: LV switchgear / MCC/PMCC/PCC shall be shown in block with starter / feeder type for the loads. Check for the design basis for the loads to consider in LV switchgear and ensure for proper spare feeders. 9) Capacitor bank: capacitor banks are used in order to compensate for the lagging power factor. Ratings are mentioned in kVAr. 10) Cables: There may be HV/LV cable shall be used as per the feeder rating of rating of the load and short circuit value. Cables shall be sized based on the design criteria. 11) Motor: Motors are the major part of the load in any industrial plant. Motor ratings are mentioned as per their kW and Voltage rating. 12) DG set: DG sets are connected to the essential loads/critical loads and ratings are mentioned in MVA, Volts, pf and % X (impedance) value. 13) DC system: DC systems used shall be shown as per the requirement. DC sizing shall be done as per the plant requirement. Ratings of the DC battery is Vdc and Ah. Redundancy shall be provided as per the design basis. 14) UPS: UPS system required shall be shown in SLD.

15) Lighting DB: feeders for lighting DB shall be shown in terms of Amps 16) Welding receptacle DB: Feeder for welding receptacle board shall be shown in terms of Amps. 17) Scopes for the vendor package and customer/clients shall be clearly shown. 18) Legends and symbols shall be properly followed as per the international standards (IEC). And shall be shown in SLD. 19) All the measuring and protection functions and their interlocks shall be shown in protection SLD as per the standard protection required as per the international standards. 20) Auto/manual transfer scheme for the tie buses shall be verified for proper logic.