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3

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Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium and Training Programme

2 5 - 2 9 O c t o b e r, 2 0 1 0 Coimbatore, India

ZOO OUTREACH ORGANISATION

Photo by Cyril Rufus

3 AsianLepidopteraConservation SymposiumandTrainingProgramme

3ALCS2010
2529October,2010 Coimbatore,India
DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore,India SouthAsianInvertebrateSpecialistGroup(SAsISG)IUCNSSC ZooOutreachOrganisation(ZOO) WildlifeInformationLiaisonDevelopment(WILD)

rd

Published by: Zoo Outreach Organisation PB 1683, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India Ph: 91 422 256 1087; Fax: 91 422 256 3269 Email: zooreach@zooreach.org Web: www.zooreach.org Copyright: Zoo Outreach Organisation, 2010

SPONSORS
DepartmentofBiotechnology(DBT) DepartmentofScienceandTechnology(DST) CouncilofScienceandIndustrialResearch(CSIR) Catalysed&supportedbyTamilNaduStateCouncilforScienceandTechnology, GovernmentofTamilNadu(TNSCST) DefenceResearchandDevelopmentOrganization(DRDO) KadoorieFarm&BotanicGarden(KFBG),HongKong ConservationBreedingSpecialistGroup(CBSG),USA ChesterZoo,UK ZoologicalSocietyofLondon(ZSL),UK TheWoodwardFamily,HongKong AndrewHardacre,HongKong MarkSterling,HongKong

Ms. Sall ly Walker Founder r / Hon. Dir rector Zoo Outreach Orga anisation Peelame edu Coimbat tore 641 00 04 Tamil Nadu, N India a

M MESSAG E
e to know that the Inver rtebrate Spe ecialist Group, South A Asia, Chaire ed by Dr. It is my great pleasure l is hosting the 3rd Asia an Lepidoptera Conservation Sym mposium an nd Training at a B.A. Daniel Bharathiar University in Coimbato ore India this week in our o city of Coimbatore. It is wonde erful that sium attract ted so many y participan nts from so many countries and so o many colla aborators, the Sympos including se everal from our office itself.

s that previo ous commit tments and family resp ponsibilities have preve ented me fro om It is my loss attending, but b all partic cipants and all butterflies (!) are in n my though hts today. It t is a very proud p day when Zoo Outreach O O Organisation n can be par rt of an international invertebrate s symposium and I hope e this is first of o many.

m best love e and strong gest encour ragement fo or this symp posium and your resea arch and all You have my the good th hings that will w undoubte ed follow fro om this uniq que event in n Coimbator re.

Coimbator re Date: 21-10 0-2010

Dr. P. Thirumalvalavan Registrar Bharathiar University Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. S. Manian Director, School of Life sciences Bharathiar University Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India

MESSAGE
It gives me immense pleasure to know that the Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University is organizing the 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium and Training during 25 29 October, 2010 at University campus and bringing out a souvenir to commemorate the occasion.

Human activity has changed the natural forces such as temperature, rainfall, carbon dioxide concentration and tropospheric ozone levels that change the climate of the earth we live in. These changes will pose serious challenges to agriculture through direct influence on crop physiology as well as indirect impact on the beneficial organisms.

The pollinators, especially members of Lepidoptera, have an important role to play in agriculture and forestry. I trust and believe that the symposium on the conservation of Lepidoptera will focus on the impact of global warming and habitat destruction on the biodiversity of this important group and help in developing a road map enhancing professional excellence in their effective management.

I convey my appreciation to Dr. C. Gunasekaran, the Organizing Secretary of the Symposium and my best wishes to the successes of the deliberations.

Coimbatore Date: 21-10-2010

Dr. K. Sasikala Professor and Head Department of Zoology School of Life Sciences Bharathiar University Coimbatore 641 046 Tamil Nadu, India

MESSAGE
This has been a remarkable and achievement-filled year for the department and the university. On behalf of the Organising Committee, it gives me great pleasure to welcome you all to the 3rd ASIAN LEPIDOPTERA CONSERVATION SYMPOSIUM Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India from 25th - 29th October, 2010. This symposium is being organized once in every year and this year it is our privilege to organize the 3rd ASIAN LEPIDOPTERA CONSERVATION SYMPOSIUM in our university campus.

Economic growth in urban areas is often associated with increasing demand for natural resources at the regional and global levels. Urban processes and their impacts have the potential to disrupt ecological functions both close to and at a distance from the urban core. The symposia will explore the effects of interacting urban processes on biodiversity and habitat conservation through analytical papers covering ecological footprints of urban areas, ecosystem services and their benefits, urbanbased conservation efforts, and the links to a sustainability transition.

Overall, we are privileged to have many eminent scientists participating in our program this year.

On this occasion, I extent my warmest greetings to my younger colleague Dr. C. GUNASEKARAN for his sincere efforts to organize this symposia. My best wishes for the success for the programme.

Coimbatore Date: 21-10-2010

Dr. B.A. Daniel Scientist, Zoo Outreach Oorganisation Chair, South Asian Invertebrate Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Peelamedu, Coimbatore - 641 004 Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. Gunasekaran Assistant Professor Department of Zoology Bharathiar University Coimbatore - 641 046 Tamil Nadu, India

MESSAGE
Message from Organising secretaries Welcome to all delegates of the 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium and Training Programme. We are extremely happy to jointly host this event in Coimbatore, India which is organized by IUCN SSC South Asian Invertebrate Specialist Group (SAsISG), Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) and Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) in collaboration with invertebrate conservation groups, research organizations, universities and institutes as well as non-government organizations that work on conservation biology across Asia. United Nations proclaimed 2010 to be International year of biodiversity. People all over the world are working to safeguard this irreplaceable natural wealth and reduce biodiversity loss where in moths and butterflies are part of it and hence we feel that this symposium cum training programme is appropriate at this point of time to conserve Lepidoptera species. In response to our call for the theme Local community conservation meeting Asian Lepidoptera conservation needs, we have received about 100 abstracts for the presentation from 8 countries and 14 States across India. The presentation will address the urgent requirements for the conservation of Lepidoptera in Asia and the presentation themes would cover topics related to investigating the use of iconic / endemic flagship Lepidoptera species to promote habitat conservation through community involvement; assess priority areas / communities for Lepidoptera conservation initiatives at the local level that has global conservation impact; provide tools for species status assessment; train participants in moth and butterfly identification skills; explore aspects of moth and butterfly conservation ecology, management and needs; and promote public education featuring these useful and charismatic insects. The highlight of this five day event is the training component focusing more on future research requirements that will promote Lepidoptera conservation in this region. We are sure that this training will be of much useful for researchers involved in moth and butterfly conservation. This Symposium is sponsored by DST, DBT, CSIR, TNSCST, DRDO, KFBG, CBSG, Chester Zoo UK, and ZSL. We would like to express our sincere thanks to them for sponsoring this important international symposium. The support from Dr. C. Swaminathan, Vice-Chancellor, Bharathiar University, Dr. K. Sasikala, all the staff members of Department of Zoology, and organizing committee members are greatly acknowledged. We would like to thank Sally Walker, Founder / Hon. Director and Sanjay Molur, Executive Director, Zoo Outreach Organisation for their constant encouragement guidance and all staff members of ZOO for rendering their help while planning this symposium. We wish you a pleasant stay during 3ALCS-2010 in Coimbatore. Coimbatore Date: 21-10-2010

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

THEMEOF3ALCS2010
"LocalcommunityconservationmeetingAsian Lepidopteraconservationneeds"

Thekeyareasof3rdALCSareto: investigatetheuseoficonic/endemicflagshipLepidoptera speciestopromotehabitatconservationthroughcommunity involvement; assesspriorityareas/communitiesforLepidopteraconservation initiativesatthelocallevelthathasglobalconservationimpact; providetoolsforspeciesstatusassessment; trainparticipantsinmothandbutterflyidentificationskills exploreaspectsofmothandbutterflyconservationecology, managementandneeds;and promotepubliceducationfeaturingtheseusefulandcharismatic insects.

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

TABLEOFCONTENTS AbstractsOralPresentation
001 002 LaunchingandsteeringflagshipLepidopteraforconservationbenefit
T.R.New

Monitoring,conservingandmanagingmothpopulations:avarietyoftechniquesand casehistories
PaulWaring

003

ProcessesinvolvedinassessingprioritiesforlocallevelLepidopteraconservation programmesthataimtoachieveglobalconservationimpact
RogerC.Kendrick

004 011

DiversityandFaunaofButterfliesinMt.BaxianStateNatureReserves
HouhunLiandBingbingHu

Wendlandiatinctoria(Roxb.)DC.(Rubiaceae),akeynectarsourceforadultbutterflies duringsummerseasonintheSouthernEasternGhats,AndhraPradesh
A.J.SolomonRaju,K.VenkataRamanaandP.VaraLakshmi

012 013 014

EcologicalimpactonbutterflyfaunainurbanhabitatsofBangalore,Karnataka
Venkatesha,M.G.andShashikumar,L.

ButterflyfaunaldiversitypatternsinurbanhabitatsofBangalore,Karnataka
Shashikumar,L.andM.G.Venkatesha

Predatorycapacityofhomopterophagousbutterfly,Spalgisepius(Westwood) (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)onmealybugs,Planococcuscitri(Risso)(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)


Dinesh,A.S.andM.G.Venkatesha

015

AnadditionalchecklistofbutterfliesinthecampusofJahangirnagarUniversity Bangladesh
Md.MonwarHossain

016

AnassessmentofbutterflydiversityintheimpactzoneofwinterSAFgamesareainAuli Bugyal,Joshimath,Uttarakhand
ShubhiMalik,V.P.UniyalandSmitaChaudhry

017

Butterfliesasindicatorsofsustainabilityinthenaturalecosystemwithspecialreference tohighaltitude(HimachalPradeshandJammu&Kashmir)
AvtarKaurSidhu

018

ButterflydiversityinfragmentedforestsofWesternGhats,India:Theroleofsacred grovesandcoffeeagroecosystems
Shivani

019

Invasionoftropicalbutterfliesintothesubtropicsinresponsetoclimatechange:acase studyinTaiwan
YuFengFrankHsu

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

020 021 022

MothdiversityofTawangDistrict,ArunachalPradesh,India
KailashChandraandS.Sambath

StudyonthebiodiversityofbutterfliesandtheircurrentstatusinCentralNepal
B.Khanal,M.K.ChaliseandG.S.Solanki

ThreatstotheNationalbutterflyTriodusdarsiusGray(Lepidoptera:Papilionidae)ofSri Lankaandpossibilitiesofcommunityparticipationinitsconservation
R.G.S.TharangaAluthwattha

023

Evaluationofconservationstatusofbutterflycommunitiesintropicallowland evergreenforestofupperBrahmaputravalley,withspecialreferencetotheJokai ReserveForest,Assam,NorthEasternIndia


R.R.Tariang,D.S.,Bora

024

MonitoringoftheRajahBrookesBirdwing,Trogonopterabrookianaalbescens (Papilionidae),usingdigitalimagesofpuddlingbutterflies
ChooiKhimPhonandLaurenceG.Kirton

025 026

SeasonaldynamicsofbutterflypopulationinDAEcampus,Kalpakkam
K.JahirHussain,T.Ramesh,M.SelvanayagamandK.K.Satpathy

PatternsindiversityanddistributionofbutterflyassemblagesinTonsValley, Uttarakhand,WesternHimalaya
ManishBhardwaj,V.P.Uniyal,ArunP.SinghandAbeshK.Sanyal

027

Diversity,distributionpatternandseasonalvariationinmothassemblagesalong altitudinalgradientinGangotriLandscapeArea,WesternHimalaya,Uttarakhand
AbeshKumarSanyal,V.P.Uniyal,KailashChandraandManishBhardwaj

028

Effectofforestdisturbanceonrainforestbutterflies:acasestudyfromSilentValley NationalPark,Kerala
C.F.BinoyandGeorgeMathew

029

ActiveEnvironmentalEducationforButterflyconservationformiddleschoolstudentsin PuducherrySchools,India
R.AlexandarandG.Poyyamoli

030 031 032 033 034

PrioritizationoftheregionsforconservationofbutterfliesofWesternGhats
AnandPadhye,NeeleshDahanukarandSheetalShelke

Roleofbutterflygardensinenvironmentaleducationandconservation
GeorgeMathewandMaryAnto

Birdwingbutterfliesasflagshipspeciesforinvertebrateconservation
MaryAnto

ButterfliesofKeralaUniversityCampus,Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala
G.Prasad,PrathibhakumariP.V.andLizbyA.Mathews

DiversityofbutterfliesinGreatNicobarBiosphereReserve(GNBR),A&NIslands
C.Sivaperuman,SureshKumarShahandC.Raghunathan

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

035 036

StudiesonlifecycleofPapiliodemoleus(linnaeus)onCitrusmedica
NabanitaDas,PrarthanaMudai,M.Bhuyan,P.R.Bhattacharya

AstudyofbutterflyspeciesdiversityinandaroundhotspringofGarampaniWildlife Sanctuary,KarbiAnglong,Assamincontexttoecotourism
NabanitaDas,RidipChoudhury,PrarthanaMudai,JitenMech,SangitaBorthakur,PallabiBordoloi,M. BhuyanandP.R.Bhattacharyya

037

ButterflyfaunaoftheMahatmaGandhiuniversitycampus,Keralaandthestrategies adoptedforitsconservation
TomsAugustine,S.PrasanthNarayanan,BabuPadmakumar,V.ArunBabu,N.D.Jaisen,JobyPaul,M.Deepa, JishaKurian,K.K.Jayasooryan,J.Ranjini,RathyChandran,P.N.Sreejith,G.ChristopherandA.P.Thomas

038

LepidopteraResearchtoPromoteaCommunityEcotourismInitiativeinEaglenest Sanctuary,ArunachalPradesh
SanjaySondhi,RamanaAthreya

039 040

DNAbarcodingofgenusEurema(Family:Pieridae)fromWesternGhats
GaikwadS.S.,GhateH.V.,GhaskadbiS.S.,ShoucheY.S.

DiversityofSwallowtail(Lepidoptera:Papilionidae)butterfliesinGautalaWildlife SanctuaryofMaharashtra
R.K.Nimbalkar,S.S.Shinde,D.S.TawarandS.P.Muley

041

ButterfliesDiversityofTadobaAndhariTigerReserveForestinChandrapurDistrictof Maharashtra
D.D.Barsagade,A.M.Khurad,M.S.Munir,S.S.KhadakkarandS.K.Channe

042 043

CitizenscienceaconservationtoolforLepidopteranstudiesinMaharashtra
V.Shubhalaxmi

ButterflyDiversityinRelationtoNectarFoodPlantsfromBhorTahsil,PuneDistrict Maharashtra
Nimbalkar,R.K.,Chandekar,S.K.&Khunte,S.P.

045 046

Documentation,monitoringandconservationofbutterflyfaunainCoastalKarnataka
Chakravarthy,A.K.,Shashank,P.R.,andDoddabasappa,B.

InfectionstatusofWolbachiasupergroupinsomecommonlyavailablebutterfliesof IndiaandfemalebiasedsexratioobservedinRedPierrot(Talicadanyseus)which harborstheinfection


KunalAnkolaandPuttarajuH.P.

047

DiversityofButterflySpeciesAbundanceInWesternGhats,Kerala P.V.VineethaandK.Revathi

048

ButterflydiversityintheecoforestandadjoiningareasofAssamUniversitycampus, Silchar,Assam
P.ChoudhuryandS.Changmai

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

049

MalematelocationbehaviourandencountersitesofCentralIndianbutterflies: Influenceoftaxonomy,biotopes,landscapestructures,resources,morphology,and populationvariables


AshishDTiple,SonaliVPadwadandRogerLHDennis

050 051

InteractionofLepidopterawiththeFloraofMandapamGroupofIslands
JulietVanitharani,C.Shanmugapriya,B.KavithaBharathi,andI.VijiMargaret

Hostplantdiversityofbutterfliesandmothsandtheirconservationstratgetiesin WesternGhats,SouthernIndia
MuruganK.

052

Studyonseasonalabundanceandspeciesdiversityofbutterfliesamongselectedfour trailsinKiralakellewetlandinMataraDistrict
W.M.C.D.Wijekoon,C.N.L.BogahawatteandH.C.E.Wegiriya

053

DiversityandConservationstatusofButterfliesinReverstonKnucklesMassifofSri Lanka
P.IndikaPeabotuwage,D.P.K.Siriwardena,MaheshSuraweera,SolMogollonesBarrera

054

Themoths(Lepidopters:Heterocera)ofNorthMaharashtra:apreliminarychecklistof mothfauna
SachinA.Gurule,SantoshM.Nikam,AgnesJ.KharatandArjunS.Gurule

055

ApreliminarysurveyontheConstellationofsemiaquaticlepidopteransofhillstreams ofsouthernWesternGhats
S.Dinakaran

056 057

Diversity,endemismandconservationofIndianbutterflies
KrushnameghKunte

PhylogeneticinferenceofLepidopteraforconservationbiology M.Jeyam,P.Ravikumar,G.Shalini,M.SharanyaandP.Keerthipriya

058

SpeciesInformationService(SIS):Webbasedspeciesmanagementtool SanjayMolurandB.A.Daniel

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

AbstractsPosterPresentation
201 EffectoftemperatureonthedevelopmentalstagesofthepredatorybutterflySpalgis epius(Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)
Dinesh,A.S.andM.G.Venkatesha

202

Flightpatternsandbehaviourofvariousbutterflyspeciesinurbanhabitatsof Bangalore,Karnataka
Shashikumar,L.andM.G.Venkatesha

203

Biology,behaviourandconservationofpredatorybutterflySpalgisepius(Westwood) (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)
Venkatesha,M.G.andA.S.Dinesh

204

Chromolaenaodorata(L.)King&H.E.Robins(Asteraceae),animportantnectarsource foradultbutterflies
P.VaraLakshmiandA.J.SolomonRaju

205

PopulationVariationsAmongSwallowtailButterfliesAtBishopHeberCollege, Tiruchirappalli,TamilNadu
Carlton.R,A.DaisyCaroline,A.Relton,G.GlennyJocelyn

206 207

StudyofLepidopterainSriLanka:Pastpresentandfutureaspects
R.G.S.TharangaAluthwattha

Wildtasarsilkworm,A.mylittaecoraceBhandara(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)an endemicspecies:NeedofConservation
D.D.Barsagade,S.A.Gharade,H.M.Meshram,M.P.ThakreandG.B.Gathalkar

208

Effectsofenvironmentalfactorsanddiseasesonbiologyofthewildtasarsilkworm, Antheraeamylitta(D).EcoraceBhandara(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)inVidarbha
D.D.Barsagade,S.A.Gharade,H.M.Meshram,M.P.Thakre,M.P.DharandG.B.Gathalkar

209

SurfaceultrastructuralandEDAXstudiesontheeggshellofEriSilkwormPhilosamia ricini(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)
D.D.Barsagade,M.P.Thakre,H.M.MeshramandM.Madankar

210

Silkglanddevelopmentandsilkproteinsynthesisinthetropicaltasarsilkworm Antheraeamylitta(D)(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)
D.D.Barsagade,S.A.GharadeandM.P.Dhar

211 212

BiodiversityOfButterfliesInSelectedAreasOfVirudhunagarDistrict
Bakavathiappan,Ga.,Pavaraj,M.andS.Baskaran

SeasonalandrelativeabundanceofbutterfliesinascrubjunglehabitatofPeraiyur taluk,Maduraidistrict,TamilNadu
AlagumuruganC.,PavarajM.,andM.K.Rajan

213

ButterflySpeciesDiversityOfTropicalForestResearchInstitute,Jabalpur,Madhya Pradesh
AshishD.Tiple,K.C.Joshi,SanjayPaunikarandNitinKulkarni

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

214

Toolsandteachingmethodsforeducatingtargetgroupsonbutterfliesinanurban wetlandrestorationsiteatChennai
K.CyrilRufus,PrestonAhimaz

215 216

BiosystematicsofConogethespunctiferalis(Guenee)infestingcastorandcardamom
ShashankP.R.,B.DoddabasappaandA.K.Chakravarthy

Biosystematics,HostrangeandDistributionofthePodborer,AdisuraatkinsoniMoore (Noctuidae:Lepidoptera)
DoddabasappaB.,ShashankP.R.,YathishK.R.andChakravarthyA.K.

217

FaunasticStudiesOnSmallerMoths(Insecta:Microlepidoptera)ofWesternGhats, Kerala
R.S.M.Shamsudeen

218

ComparisonbetweenisolatedDNAfromfreshandovendriedpreservedspecimensof Catopsillapyranthe
Kharwar.A.S.,Magdum.S.,Patil.R.,Sandhan.A.

219 220

NativeLarvalfoodPlantsforButterfliesinJamshedpur,Jharkhand
S.K.Mahato,SeemaRani

Doesmimicevolveearlierthanmodel?Acasestudybasedonalepidopteranmimicry complexpredominantlydistributedinIndiaandSEAsia
ChiaHsuanWei,LiWeiWu,FrankYuFengHsu,ShenHornYen

221 222 223 224

Caterpillarsoutofwater:theoriginofterrestrialAcentropinemoths
LiChengShih,ShenHornYen

SpeciesdiversityofbutterfliesaroundAurangabad,Maharashtra
SarafS.A.&ShindeS.S.

ImportanceofNectarSourcesinConservingButterflyDiversityinUrbanLandscapes
KrutiChhaya,NehaMujumdar,PrachiMhaske,RishikeshPatilandAnkurPatwardhan

HabitatPreferenceandtheeffectofsmallscaledisturbanceondistributionofbutterfly faunainandaroundGauhatiUniversityCampus,Guwahati,Assam
KuladipSarma,BidyutBikashSharma,KripaljyotiMazumdar,BhriguPrasadSaikia

225

Evolutionaryconservationofhemocyticimmuneresponsesinsomesericigenousand nonsericigenouslepidopteroninsects
J.P.Pandey,R.K.Tiwari,SuyogPandey,P.K.Mishra,DineshKumar,B.M.K.SinghA.K.Sinha&B.C.Prasad

226

Assessingcurrentpopulationsandconservationprioritiesforrare,endangeredand legallyprotectedbutterflyspeciesinSikkim,easternHimalaya,India
KrushnameghKunte

227

ButterflydiversityinagriculturallandscapesofShervarayanhillsEasternGhats,South India
M.Lena,G.Shobana,A.AgnesDeepa,andC.Gunasekaran

228

DiversityofbutterfliesinSiruvanihills,WesternGhats,SouthIndia
G.Shobana,M.Lena,A.AgnesDeepa,andC.Gunasekaran

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

229

ButterflyDiversityinThoppayarReservoir,DharmapuriDistrict(EasternGhat),Tamil Nadu,SouthIndia
Elanchezhian.M,GunasekaranC.,Ezhili.N,andThirumathal.K

230 231

Fascinatingworldofbutterflydiversityandecofriendlycommercialization
AgnesKharat,S.M.Nikam,SachinGurule,JaisingDarekarandS.P.Thorat

Comparativestudiesonimpactofurbanizationanddiversityandspeciesabundanceof butterfliesinandaroundCoonoorCity,TheNilgiris
P.MohanaandC.Gunasekaran

232

Roadkilledbutterfliesandhighwaymonitoringmolecularidentificationdanaus butterflies(Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae)basedupondataformmitochondrialDNA
Vadivalagan,C.,Gunasekaran,C.andM.Salahudeen

Workshops UnderstandingWingedfriendsthroughPuppets
Bhanumathi,R.

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

ABSTRACTS ORALPRESENTATION

3ALCS2010
2529Oct2010,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India

ABSTRACTSORALPRESENTATION
001 LaunchingandsteeringflagshipLepidopteraforconservationbenefit
T.R.New
DepartmentofZoology,LaTrobeUniversity,Melbourne,Victoria,Australia T.New@latrobe.edu.au

Lepidoptera,particularlybutterfliesandsomelargermoths,areparamountamongstinsectstargetedforconservation, reflectingboththeirpopularityandtherelativelyhighlevelsofinformationavailabletofocusconservation management.Theyarethuspotentflagships,ambassadorsforinsectconservation,andcanhelptopublicisetheneeds forhabitatandresourceprotectionandthevaluesofinvertebratestoecosystems.Iprovideanoverviewofthe relevantissuesinselectingandpromotingflagshipspecies,andhowlocalcommunitysupportforconservationmaybe encouraged.Themajorthemesnotedare(1)themeaning,roles,andselectionofflagshipspecies;(2)howtheiruse maybepromotedthroughcommunityparticipation;and(3)howflagshipLepidopteramaybeusedtoconserve habitatsandcriticalresources.Thepotentialforexpandingthevarietyofflagshipinsects(bothwithinandacrossmajor taxa)isdiscussed,andseveralAustraliancasehistories(forflagshipspeciesofLycaenidae,PapilionidaeandCastniidae) demonstratehowindividualLepidopterahavebeenpromotedandintegratedintowiderconservationperspectives throughlocalcommunitysupport,withoutwhichtheconservationprogrammescouldnotproceedeffectively.The rolesofflagshipsatlocal,regionalandnationallevelsareoutlined,andtheircentralrolesinpromotinginsect conservationendorsed.Carefullyselectedandsupportedindividualflagshipspecieshaveenduringimportanceinthe developmentofinsectconservation.

002 Monitoring,conservingandmanagingmothpopulations:avarietyof techniquesandcasehistories


PaulWaring
CentreforEnvironment&RuralAffairs(CERA),WrittleCollege,Essex,UK paul_waring@btinternet.com

Theauthordrawsuponthirtyyearsofpracticalexperienceinmothconservation,bothinEuropeandinthetropics,to illustratehowcommonconservationproblemshavebeenaddressedinordertoconservebothentiremothfaunasand individualendangeredspeciesofmoths.Thefirstproblemistodefineprioritiesforconservation.Thebroadbrush approach,aswithmanyinvertebratetaxa,istoaimtoconservearepresentativeselectionofalltheconstituent habitatsinazoogeographicalregionandhopethatallthedependentspeciesofmothsareconservedsomewherein themix.Thisisthesoleapproachinmostcountriesintheworld.Systematicmonitoringofrareandendangered speciesintheUKshowsthatthisapproachiscertainlynot100%successful.TheUKbenefitsfromhavinggood identificationworksfortheentiremothfaunaofjustover2500speciesandanationalnetworkofsomethousandsof skilledmothobservers.Themajorityoftheseobserversarefamiliarwiththebasicecologicalrequirementsandnational distributionsofthelargermoths(macromoths)atleastsome950speciesintheBritishIsles.Theseobservershelpto detectandrecordchangesintheabundanceanddistributionofmothsandhavedonesoforovertwohundredyears. Someofthemostpopularmonitoringtechniquesaredescribed.Incombinationwiththenetworkofaboutone hundredlighttrapsoperatedthroughoutBritainbytheworldfamousRothamstedInsectSurvey,theresultsofallthis recordingshowdeclinesforsomespeciesofover95%innumbersandalsomajorcontractionsofdistribution.TheUK hasalsohadsincethe1940sanationalnetworkofsomethousandsofnaturereserves,setupwiththeaimof protectingarepresentativesampleofallhabitats.Therearemanyexamplesinwhichthedeclinesofmothshavebeen asevidentonthesenaturereservesandinotherprotectedareasaselsewhere.Furthermorethereareagrowing numberofexamplesinwhichrarespecieshavebeenlostentirelyfromthenationalnetworkofreserves,andinsome casesentirelyfromtheBritishIsles.Insomecasesstudiesshowthatlocalandevennationalextinctionshavebeenthe resultofhabitatmanagement,orlackofit,byconservationagenciesandothers.Examplesinwhichmothshavebeen successfullyconservedarealsoprovided.Insomeoftheseexamplesseveredeclinesinnumbershavebeenreversed andbreedinghabitatextendedinarea.

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3ALCS2010
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Theauthorthenprovidessomeexamplesofthemonitoring,managementandconservationofmoths,bothdeliberate andfortuitous,fromotherpartsoftheworld,withparticularemphasisonexamplesfromthetropicsandsubtropics withwhichhehaspersonalexperience.

003 ProcessesinvolvedinassessingprioritiesforlocallevelLepidoptera conservationprogrammesthataimtoachieveglobalconservationimpact


RogerC.Kendrick
SeniorOfficer(p/t),KadoorieFarm&BotanicGarden,LamKamRoad,TaiPo,NewTerritories,HongKongS.A.R.,China. moths@kfbg.org

IdentifyingviableconservationprojectsforLepidopterathattargetthreatenedspeciesdependsuponeffective identificationandexecutionofasequenceofevents.Thisprocessrequiresinformationgatheringandanalysis, stakeholderdiscussionandlocalcommunityinvolvement,planning,action,monitoringandreview. Publishedworkingexamplesfromfourcontinentsaredrawnupontoillustrateallthekeystages,focusingonmethods foridentifyingpriorityareas(complementarity,biodiversityhotspots,habitatdistribution,irreplaceability)for conservingthreatenedLepidoptera,whilstconsideringotherconservationissues.Thepaperalsosuggestsaframework toaidtheconservationmanageridentifykeyareasofaLepidopteraconservationproject.

004 DiversityandFaunaofButterfliesinMt.BaxianStateNatureReserves
HouhunLiandBingbingHu
CollegeofLifeSciences,NankaiUniversity,Tianjin300071,P.R.China lihouhun@nankai.edu.cn

MountainBaxianlocatedatnorthofTianjinnearBeijing,comprizesseveralmountains.Itis8.7kmfromeasttowest and10.8kmfromsouthtonorth.Thealtituderangesfrom500to800m,andthepeak,Juxianfengis1052m.The butterflyspeciesinMt.BaxianStateNatureReservesofTianjinwasstudiedbasedonthecollectioninfivesamples:(a) Xiaogang,(b)ShanmenTaipingGou,(c)ShanmenZhandao,(d)ShanmenXianguSpringand(e)Xiangu SpringMing'anliang.Atotalof2218butterflyspecimenswerecollected,ofwhich88speciesin56generaunder8 familieswereidentified.Nymphalidaewasthedominantfamily,withthemostspeciesnumber(35)andindividuals (784);ParnassiidaeandLibytheidaecontainonlyonespecieseach,whichwasregardedastherarespecies.The diversityindex,thespecificrichness,thedominanceindex,theevennessindexandthesimilaritycoefficientofthefive habitatswerecalculatedandanalyzed. Theresultsshowedthatthechangeoftheenvironmentalqualityinfluencedthediversityofbutterflyremarkably.The greatertheinfluenceofhumanactivityontheenvironmentandforestvegetation,thelowerthediversityindexofthe butterflywas.Inhabitat(d),thefavorableenvironmentalqualityledtothemoststableanddiverseplantcommunity, whichwasfitforbutterfliestoexistandbreed.Sothediversityindexandthespecificrichnesswerethegreatest,but thedominanceindexwasthelowest.Inhabitat(a),thesimpleplantcommunityresultedintherelativelypoor environmentalquality,wherethediversityindex,thespecificrichnessandevennessindexwerethelowest,butthe dominanceindexwasthehighest.Thediversityindexinhabitat(e)waslowerthanthatinhabitat(d)and(c),which accordedwiththeintermediatedisturbancehypothesis.Therefore,wesuggestthattheAdministrativeBureauof BaxianMountainReservesshouldrestoreandimprovetheenvironmentalquality,exploittourismreasonably,and exploitandutilizethebutterflyresourcesmoderately,sothattheendangeredandrarespeciescanbeprotected effectively. Thepreliminaryanalysisofourmaterialalsorevealedthatthepercentageofthewidelydistributedspecies,the PalearcticspeciesandtheOrientalspecieswas56.82%,35.23%and7.95%respectivelyinMt.BaxianStateNature Reserves,thewidelydistributedspecieswereabsolutelydominant,andthePalearcticspecieswereobviouslymore thantheOrientalspecies.

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011 Wendlandiatinctoria(Roxb.)DC.(Rubiaceae),akeynectarsourceforadult butterfliesduringsummerseasonintheSouthernEasternGhats,Andhra Pradesh


A.J.SolomonRaju,K.VenkataRamanaandP.VaraLakshmi
DepartmentofEnvironmentalSciences,AndhraUniversity,Visakhapatnam ajsraju@yahoo.com

Wendlandiatinctoriaisasemievergreentreespecies.ItshowsmassivefloweringforaboutamonthduringMarch April.Thefloralcharacteristicssuchaswhitecolouroftheflower,lackofodour,shorttubedcorollawithdeepseated nectarhaving1518%sugarconcentrationarewelltailoredforvisitationbybutterflies.Thenectarishexoserichand containstheessentialaminoacidssuchasarginineandhistidineandthenonessentialaminoacidssuchasalanine, asparticacid,cysteine,glysine,hydroxyproline,tyrosine,glutamicacidandserine.Theinflorescenceswithclustersof flowersprovideexcellentplatformforforagingbybutterflies.Theflowersarelonglivedandenhanceattractivityto butterflies.Avarietyofbutterfliesvisittheflowersfornectarandindoingso,theypollinatethem.Nymphalidsare verydiverseandutilizetheflowersuntilexhausted.Theflowersbeingsmallinsizewithasmallamountofnectar compelthebutterfliestodoamorelaborioussearchfornectarfromagreaternumberofflowers.But,theclustered stateofflowersisenergeticallyprofitableforbutterfliestoreducesearchtimeandalsoflighttimetocollectagood amountofnectar;suchaprobingbehaviourisadvantageousfortheplanttoachieveselfandcrosspollination. Therefore,thestudyshowsthattheassociationbetweenW.tinctoriaandbutterfliesismutualisticandsuchan associationisreferredtoaspsychophilous.Thisplantservesasakeynectarsourceforbutterfliesatthestudysite wherefloralnectarsourcesarescarceduringsummerseason.

012 EcologicalimpactonbutterflyfaunainurbanhabitatsofBangalore, Karnataka


Venkatesha,M.G.andShashikumar,L.
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity,JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

TheecologicalimpactonbutterflyfaunaofinurbanBangaloreregionwasassessedduring200406.Thenumberof butterflyspeciespresentinbothinwinterandsummerseasonswas65(77%oftotalspecies),whichincreasedupto71 (84%)speciesinmonsoon.However,51species(60%)wereactivethroughouttheyear.Theadultsandlarvaeof variousspeciesofbutterflieswerefoundfeedingondifferentnectar/hostplantsinthefield.Afewspeciesshowedwet anddryseasonforms.ButterfliesofPapilionidae,Danaidae,PieridaeandAcraeidaefamiliesshowedalmostcontinuous andconstantpopulationtrendwhichcoincideswithmanyfloweringseasonofnectarplants,whereasLycaenidae, Nymphalidae,SatyridaeandHesperiidaeshoweddiscontinuousandhighlyfluctuatingpopulationtrends.Papilionidae andDanaidaeexhibitedsignificantpositivecorrelation(p<0.01),whereasLycaenidaeshowedsignificantnegative correlation(p<0.01)withmaximumandminimumtemperatures.Dendrogramclustersindicatedthatthespeciesof Papilionidae,DanaidaeandPieridaeweretemperaturedependentshowingsignificantpositiveaffinities,whereas speciesofAcraeidaeandNymphalidaewereshowingsignificantpositiveaffinitieswithrainandhumidity.Thestudy revealedthatweather,nectarandhostplantshaveastronginfluenceontheoccurrenceofspecificgroupsof butterfliesindifferentseasonsinvariousurbanlandscapes.

013 ButterflyfaunaldiversitypatternsinurbanhabitatsofBangalore,Karnataka
Shashikumar,L.andM.G.Venkatesha
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity,JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

ButterflyfaunaldiversityatdifferentlandscapesofBangalorewasstudiedduring200406.Duringthestudyperiod,a totalnumberof84speciesofbutterflieswererecordedintheBangaloreregion.Nosignificantdifference(p<0.05)in butterflyfaunaldiversityandevennesswasobservedbetweenyearsaswellasamongdifferenturbanlandscapes. NymphalidaeandLycaenidaeweretherichestfamiliesindifferentregions.Similarly,Lycaenidae,Nymphalidae,

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PieridaeandDanaidaewerethemostabundantfamiliesatdifferentlandscapes.Ofthe84butterflyspecies,only20 speciesexhibitedcentpercentfrequency.Catopsiliapyranthe(Pieridae)wasthemostabundantspecies,whereas Colotiseucharis(Pieridae)istheleastabundantspeciesintheurbanhabitat.Amongrecordedbutterflyspecies, Hypolimnasmisippus,Castaliusrosiman,PolyuraathamasandPachlioptahectorareScheduleIandLampidesboeticus, CeporanerissaandPapiliobuddhaareScheduleIIspeciesasperWildlifeProtectionAct.Further,afewofthe recordedspeciesshowedsimilartrendsofpercentabundanceandfrequencylikeschedulespecies.Thedifferenturban landscapesshowedvariationsinthefamilyandspeciesabundance,richnessandpercentfrequencyofspecies.The presentinformationisusefulforplanningandimplementationofconservationmeasuresinurbanecosystem.

014 Predatorycapacityofhomopterophagousbutterfly,Spalgisepius (Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)onmealybugs,Planococcuscitri (Risso)(Homoptera:Pseudococcidae)


Dinesh,A.S.andM.G.Venkatesha
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity,JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

Theapefly,Spalgisepius(Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)isanuncommonhomopterophagousbutterfly.The larvalstagesofthebutterflyvoraciouslyfeedonimportantspeciesofmealybugsviz.,Planococcuscitri,P.lilacinus, Ferrisiavirgata,Maconellicoccushirsutus(Homoptera:Pseudococcidae)andothersuckingpests,whichattack economicallyimportantcropssuchascoffee,cocoa,citrus,guava,mango,mulberry,vegetables,ornamentalplants, etc.PreyingcapacityofthepredatorwasdeterminedonP.citriinthelaboratory.Duringtheeightdayslarval developmentalperiodwithfourlarvalinstarsofS.epius,itsdailypreyconsumptionwasgraduallyincreasedfromthe firsttoseventhdayanditdecreasedontheeighthdaypriortoprepupalstage.ThefirsttofourthinstarlarvaofS. epiusconsumedameanof188.3,679.1,1814.1and4482.5eggsor20,69.4,156.2and646.4nymphsor3,5.9,12.7 and30.5adultsofP.citri,respectively.AsinglelarvaofS.epiusconsumed2407.1eggs,153.6nymphsand31.7adults ofP.citriduringitsentiredevelopmentwhenthepreystageswereofferedtogether.ThestudyrevealedthatS.epiusis apotentialpredatorofP.citriandthusitcouldbeutilizedasamajorbiologicalcontrolagentofvariousspeciesof mealybugs.

015 AnadditionalchecklistofbutterfliesinthecampusofJahangirnagar UniversityBangladesh


Md.MonwarHossain
DepartmentofZoology,JahangirnagarUniversity,Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh zona444@yahoo.com

Duringanextensivesurvey,(fromJune2009toMay2010),toupdatethestatusofbutterflyspeciesinthecampusof JahangirnagarUniversity(JU),anadditional10speciesofbutterflieswereidentified,ofwhich4arecompletelynewin therecordofthoseinBangladesh.ThenewlyrecordedspeciesareTarucusnaraKollar,RathindaamorFabricius, JunoniaorithyaLinn,andVanessacarduiLinn.Thefirstinvestigationconductedfrom1996to1997andthenrecorded theexistenceof51speciesofbutterfliesintheJUcampus.Ofthese,21werefirstrecordedinBangladesh(Hossainet al.,2003).Thenextstudyconductedfrom2003to2004,whichrecordedthepresenceof80speciesofbutterfliesof which36werefirstrecordedinthecountry(Razzaketal.,2007).Thus,thetotalnumberofbutterflyspeciesrecorded intheJUcampusbecomes102,ofwhichthenumberofthenewlyrecordedspeciesinBangladeshis61.Amongthe speciesofbutterfliesidentified,somearehighlyseasonsspecificwhilesomearefoundavailableroundtheyear.


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016 AnassessmentofbutterflydiversityintheimpactzoneofwinterSAFgames areainAuliBugyal,Joshimath,Uttarakhand


ShubhiMalik,V.P.UniyalandSmitaChaudhry
InstituteofEnvironmentalStudies,KurukshetraUniversity,Kurukshetra,Haryana WildlifeInstituteofIndia,Chandrabani,Dehradun,Uttarakhand uniyalvp@wii.gov.in

Ahighaltitudegrasslandsormeadowswhichburstintoamultitudefloraldiversityaretermedasbugyalin Uttarakhand.Beingaflatorslopesurface,alpinemeadowsstretchesfrom3300mto4000marefragilelandscapein andaroundNandaDeviBiosphereReserve(NDBR).Majorityoffloralandfaunalspeciesofthebiospherereserveare endemic,threatenedandeconomicallyandecologicallysensitivetoclimatechange.SouthAsianFederation(SAF)has proposedwintergamesintheAuli.Thealpinemeadowhasanthropogenicpressuresduetotouristsandgrazingof livestockoflocalresidents.PreliminarystudyofbutterflydiversitywasconductedinandaroundAuliwithinthree differenthabitats(humanhabitation,oakforestandalpinemeadow)toassesstheimpactonbutterflydiversityofthe proposedgames.Pollardwalkandsweepnetmethodswereadoptedtodocumentthespeciesdiversity.Atotalof twentyfivespeciesofbutterflieswererecordedfromthestudyarea.Thebaselineinformationobtainedfromthis studywillbeusedforassessingtheimpactofSAFgamesonthefaunalandfloraldiversityoftheareausingbutterflyas indicatorspecies.Butterfliesaresensitivetothechangesinthehabitatandclimate,whichinfluencestheirdistribution andabundance.Theirpresenceorabsenceservestomonitorecologicalchangesinhabitat.Thus,alongterm ecologicalstudyonbutterflycanhelpinassessingthesechangesinnearfuture.

017 Butterfliesasindicatorsofsustainabilityinthenaturalecosystemwith specialreferencetohighaltitude(HimachalPradeshandJammu&Kashmir)


AvtarKaurSidhu
HighAltitudeRegionalCentre,ZoologicalSurveyofIndia,Solan,HP173211,India avtarkaur2000@gmail.com

Butterfliesarethemostimportantcomponentofourbiodiversity.Apartfrombeingaestheticallyattractive,theyactas indicatorstodepictthehealthofahabitat.Thelarvaeofbutterfliesareassociatedwithplantsbutcauseonlylittle damagetothehosts.Theadultsactasincidental,wildpollinatorsandhelpinpollinationofmanynativeplants.The larvaeaswellasadultsarefoodformanypredatorslikelizardsandbirds.Thebutterflydiversityinanecosystemtells howmuchhealthyitis,asbutterfliesareverysensitivetoanychangeintheenvironment.Duetoshortlifecyclesthey aremoresensitivethanothergroupstochangesintheirhabitatsandastheyarebreedinginsmallhabitatpatchesthey arelikelytoreflectchangesoccurringatafinescale.Monitoringthechangeinabundanceandassessingthe distributionofbutterfliesactsasapotentialtoolforassessinglargescalebiodiversitytrends.Consequentlyinthe presentdayscenario,manybutterflyspeciesareunderarealthreatduetodepletionofthenaturalcoverforvarious developmentalactivities.Thisistruerincaseofhighaltitudeareas.Asoneofthemoreinaccessiblepartsofthe HimalayanRanges,thehighaltitudeareasofIndiaareresourcepoorregions.Thesecouldbeconsideredasan importantstudyareabecauseoftheirextremelyfragileecosystem.TheregionsonthenorthflankoftheHimalayas experienceheavysnowfallandtheseremainsvirtuallycutofffromtherestofthecountryforseveralmonthsinthe year.Summersareshort.Theproportionofoxygenislessthaninmanyotherplacesatacomparablealtitudebecause oflackofvegetation.Thereislittlemoisturetotempertheeffectsofrarefiedair.Thepeopleoftheseareasdepend predominantlyonagricultureandanimalhusbandry.Thefloralandfaunalelementsofthisareaareuniqueandhave highlevelofendemismwhichneedtobeprotected.Theyhavedirectbearingonsustainingtheecosystemaswellas thelifeofpeople.Insectsformapredominantgroupandhaveavitalroleintheequilibriumofthecolddesert.Butas comparedtoothervertebrategroups,thisgrouphasreceivedlittleattentionfromresearchers.Duringthepresent presentation,thebutterflydiversityofChudhar,PangivalleyandLadakh(colddesertarea)willbediscussedapartfrom givingobservationsontheirconservationandbehaviouralaspects.Thelattertwoareasremainvirtuallycutofffrom restofIndiaformostpartoftheyearexceptthesummermonths.InpresentstudiestheApollobutterflies(Genus Parnassius)andsomeotherhighaltitudespecieshavebeenobservedtobemosteffectedbytheclimaticchangeand habitatdegradation.

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018 ButterflydiversityinfragmentedforestsofWesternGhats,India:Theroleof sacredgrovesandcoffeeagroecosystems


Shivani
WorldWideFundforNature(WWF)India,CastleHillsRdno.2,MasabTank,Hyderabad shivani196@yahoo.com

ThepresentstudyinafragmentedlandscapeofcentralWesternGhatsinvestigatedtheeffectoftypeoflanduseon thebutterflyspeciesrichnessanddiversity.Butterfliesdispersewidelyatlocallevelandarealsoquitesensitiveto environmentalperturbation,whichmakesthemreliableandusefulstudyorganismsforfragmentationstudies.Five studysites(Kodagu,Karnataka)atvaryingdistancefromtheprimaryforest,eachcomprisingofasacredgroveandone closelylocatedcoffeeplantationweresampled.Butterflieswererecordedusingtransectwalkandfruitbaitedtrap methods.Vegetationcomponentsofgrovesandcoffeeplantationswerealsorecordedtoanalysetheirimpacton butterflyresponses.Sacredgroveswerefoundtosupportahigherspeciesrichnessanddiversityofbutterfliesthan coffeeplantationsfortransectdata,butthetrapdatashowedslightlyhigherspeciesrichnessincoffeeplantations.The studysupportstheroleofsacredgrovesandshadecoffeeplantationsastheynotonlydecreasetheimpactsof fragmentationbyprovidinghabitatconnectivitybutalsomaintainthelandscapeheterogeneity,thusharbouringdiverse speciesassemblages.Fromthepresentstudyonsacredgrovesandcoffeeplantations,itappearsthatcommunity basedconservationstrategiesaretheneedofthedaymainlyinthetropics.Besidestheinevitableneedforpreserving intactprimaryforests,forestfragmentsintheformofsacredgrovesandshadecoffeeplantationsaddontothe conservationofbutterflyassemblagesaswellastotheoverallbiodiversity.

019 Invasionoftropicalbutterfliesintothesubtropicsinresponsetoclimate change:acasestudyinTaiwan


YuFengFrankHsu
DepartmentofLifeScience,NationalTaiwanNormalUniversity,TingzhouRoad,Taipei,Taiwan t43018@ntnu.edu.tw

Therecentglobalclimatechangehasprofoundinfluenceuponthedistributionofvariousorganisms.Withthecurrent trendofglobalwarming,temperateorganismsarelosingtheirhabitats,whereastropicalorganismsareexpandingtheir ranges.Astheinventoryofbutterfliesisrelativelycompleteamonglepidopterousinsectsinmostregions,butterflies representanidealgroupoforganismstomonitorthechangesofbiologicaldistributioninresponsetoclimatechanges. Therehavebeenquiteafewstudiesshowingtheshiftsofbutterflyrangesinrelationtotheclimatesinthetemperate areas,suchasEuropeancountriesandNorthAmerica.Theshiftsoftropicaltaxaintosubtropics;however,havenot beenwelldocumented.TheislandofTaiwanrepresentsanidealobjecttoevaluatetheexpansionoftropical butterfliesintothesubtropicscausedbyglobalwarming.Thebutterflyfaunaoftheislandiswellknown,anditis recognizedthatmostofits400butterflyspeciesarederivedfromtheAsiaticcontinentvialandconnectionduringthe previousglacialepochs.Tropicalspecies,notablythoseinhabitingthePhilippines;however,traveledtoTaiwanallthe timebymeansofseasonalwindcurrentsortyphoons.Withreliabledocumentationofthesestrayingspeciesovera century,ithasbeendemonstratedthatonlyonespecieswassuccessfullyestablishedonthisisland.Casesofsuccessful establishmentsofexoticbutterflieshaveincreasedconsiderablyinnumber.Itturnsoutthatoverhalfofthe observedcasesinvolvespeciesofPhilippineorigin,indicatingthatrisingtemperaturemayberesponsibletothe successfulinvasionsofthesespecies.WehavealsoperformedasurveyofbutterfliesonLanyu(OrchidIsland),the islandclosesttothePhilippinesinTaiwan,overthepasttwoyearstoevaluatethecurrentstatusofspeciesinvading recently.ItappearsafewPhilippineoriginatedspecieshavebeenfirmlyestablishedontheisland.Otherinteresting findingsincludepreviouslyunrecordedstraysofPhilippineendemicspeciesandbreedingofthesestrays.


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020 MothdiversityofTawangDistrict,ArunachalPradesh,India
KailashChandraandS.Sambath
CentralZoneRegionalCentre,ZoologicalSurveyofIndia,168169,VijayNagar,Jabalpur,MadhyaPradesh,India GangeticPlainsRegionalCentre,ZoologicalSurveyofIndia,11D,RajendraNagar,Patna,Bihar,India. kailash611@rediffmail.com

AnexpeditiontoTawangdistrict(ArunachalPradesh)wasconductedbythescientificteamofZoologicalSurveyof India,undertheleadershipofseniorauthorduringtheperiodfrom27thSeptember2009to15thOctober2009forthe rapidassessmentofthefaunaldiversityofthedistrict.Thefieldcampswereestablishedattwoplacesi.e.Lumlaand Zemmethang.Formthesecamps,collectionofmothswasmadeatvariouslocalitiesbyinstallingthelighttraps.During thesurvey,morethan250morphospecieswerecollected,ofwhichpresently103speciesofmothspertainingto15 familieswereidentified.Theanalysisofthefaunarevealedthatthemothfaunaoftheareaisdominatedbythefamily Geometridae,followedbythefamiliesNoctuidae,ArctiidaeandCrambidae.Thestudymayhelpinmonitoringofthe faunalcomponentsintheHimalayanregionduetoclimatechange.

021 StudyonthebiodiversityofbutterfliesandtheircurrentstatusinCentral Nepal


B.Khanal,M.K.ChaliseandG.S.Solanki
NaturalHistoryMuseum,TU,Nepal;CentralDepartmentofZoologyTU,Nepal;DepartmentofZoology,M.U.,India baya200@live.com

Crosssectionalsurveyofbutterflybiodiversitywithin500mto4500maltitudesincentralNepalindicatedthe occurrenceof350speciesatdifferenthabitattypes.Thisdiversityequalsto61%ofthenationstotaldiversity(650 species).Theconservationstatusofmanymidlandspeciesisunderchangingstagemainlyduetopressurizedactionof humansonforestsanditsresources.ThereportofDiagoranicevillei,aNymphalidbutterfly,whichoccursinGodavari forest(1500m)ofKathmanduValley,hasnotbeenobservedforthelast10years.Thestatusofmanyspeciesisunder changingstagemainlyduetoprevailingthreatsofhabitatdegradation.Onlytwospecies,TroidesaeacusandTroides helenahavebeenlistedinCITESAppendixII.TheIUCNRedlistdevelopedin1995incorporated142speciesunder differentstatuscategoriesneedsupdatinginpresentcontext.Thispaperwhichistheoutcomeofanextensivefield studyconductedinvariousperiodssince1990hasdocumentedthespeciesdiversityofbutterfliesincentralNepal includingtheircurrentstatusandunderlyingthreats.Alongwithcurrentfieldresearch,thispaperdealsprevious reportsofinternationalentomologistsforcentralNepal.

022 ThreatstotheNationalbutterflyTriodusdarsiusGray(Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)ofSriLankaandpossibilitiesofcommunityparticipationinits conservation


R.G.S.TharangaAluthwattha
PostgraduateInstituteofScience,UniversityofPeradeniya,SriLanka Aluthwattha@gmail.com

BiodiversitysecretariatofSriLankadeclaredSriLankanBirdwing(Triodusdasius)theNationalbutterflyatthe celebrationoftheyearofbiodiversity,2010.Thedeclarationofanationalbutterflyisaimedatraisingpublicconcern onbutterflyconservation.AlthoughT.dasiusdistributedallovertheislandfromsealeveltohighesthillsthebutterfly preferswoodedhabitatsinwetzone.WetzoneforestcoverofSriLankadoesnotexceed3%ofthetotallandarea. Humanencroachmentintoprotectedareasandfragmentationofprivatelandscausethedisappearanceofhabitats andthehostplantAristolochiaindica.Surveyconductedatforestmarginalvillageswiththefarmersandwomenwho involveinvariousfarmingactivitiesincludingplantnurseriesshowedthat99%ofarenotawareofcaterpillar butterfliesrelationship.MajoritydidnotknowthemedicinalplantA.indica.Aftershorttraining,childrenoffarmers withthehelpoftheireldersstartedrearingbutterfliessuccessfullyfromthecaterpillarscollectedfromfarmlandsand nurseriesbeforeapplypesticides.PropagationofA.indicainnurseriesanddistributionamonghomegardensatforest marginarebeingtested.Traditionalpracticeofplantingmedicinalherbsinhomegardensshouldbereestablished.

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023 Evaluationofconservationstatusofbutterflycommunitiesintropical lowlandevergreenforestofupperBrahmaputravalley,withspecial referencetotheJokaiReserveForest,Assam,NorthEasternIndia


R.R.Tariang,D.S.,Bora
DepartmentofZoology,DigboiCollege,Assam DepartmentofLifeSciences,DibrugarhUniversity,Dibrugarh,Assam rajiblacewing@gmail.com

Habitatlossandfragmentationarethemajorconservationissuesthreateningtheglobalbiodiversity.Thebutterflies arethebestindicatorofthesechangesandcanbeusedassurrogatetoassesstheconservationthreattothe biodiversity.ThecontiguousforestofupperBrahmaputravalleyishighlyfragmentedandexiststodayasfragmented patchesintheseaofteagardens,agriculturefieldsandhumansettlements.Anextensivesurveyforbutterflieswas carriedoutinthesefragmentedforestpatchesduring20062010inordertoassesstheirconservationstatus.An intensivestudywasalsocarriedoutinoneofthefragmenttheJokaiReserveForestinordertounderstandthe ecologicalcharacteristicsthatenablethemtosurviveinthefragmentedlandscape.Wefoundthat32speciesfalls underTheWildlife(Protection)Act,1972,ofthem11speciesareenlistedasthreatenedinRedDataBook;andabout 215species,wereundernonthreatenedones.Ourstudyhasrevealedthatthreatenedbutterfliesarecharacterizedby narrowecologicalnichebreadthbutcurrentlynonthreatenedspeciesarealsoatthehighestriskofextinction.The studyhadrevealedthatabout12speciescurrentlyclassifiedasnonthreatenedones,whichinfact,atariskof extinction,andwesuggestthattheRedDataBookstatusofafurther12speciesofbutterfliesshouldbereconsidered.

024 MonitoringoftheRajahBrookesBirdwing,Trogonopterabrookiana albescens(Papilionidae),usingdigitalimagesofpuddlingbutterflies

ChooiKhimPhonandLaurenceG.Kirton
TropicalForestBiodiversityCentre,ForestResearchInstituteMalaysia,52109Kepong,Selangor,Malaysia phonchooikhim@frim.gov.my

TheRajahBrooke'sBirdwing(Trogonopterabrookiana)isalargeandattractivebutterflythathasbecomeatourism iconinMalaysia.Whilethereisageneralperceptionthatnumbersofthisbutterflyhavedeclinedovertheyearsdueto habitatlossandovercollecting,thereisnodatatosubstantiatethisandnocurrenteffortstomonitorpopulations.The smallvillageofUluGeroh,borderedbyforestintheMalaysianstateofPerak,hasafewsitesatwhichmalesof subspeciesalbescenspuddleinlargenumbers,supportinganecotourismindustryrunbytheindigenouscommunity. Preliminarytestswereconductedinthisvillagetostudypuddlingandflightbehaviouranddevelopamethodof monitoringthepopulation.Digitalimagesofpuddlingbirdwingsweretakenhourlyandthenumbersineachimage werecounted.Atthesametime,flightactivitywasobservedwithinabelttransectalongtheriverwherepuddling birdwingswerebeingphotographed.Thenumberofpuddlingbirdwingsincreasedgreatlyfrom0800to1100hrsand graduallythereafter,reachingapeakat3pm.Therewasagradualdecreasefrom1600to1700hrsandasharpdecline fromthenontill1900hrs.Conversely,flightactivitywashighjustbeforeandjustafterthepeakpuddlingperiodand lowerduringthisperiod,decreasinggreatlyafter1700hrs.Thenumberofpuddlingbirdwingsatthepeakpuddling periodcorrespondedwellwiththenumberofflyingbirdwingsatpeakflightperiods,buttheformerwaseasierto observeandprovidedlargercounts.Wesuggestthatcountsofpuddlingmalesinimagestakenathourlyintervals duringpeakpuddlinghoursisasuitablemethodofmonitoringlocalpopulationsoftheRajahBrookesBirdwing.

025 SeasonaldynamicsofbutterflypopulationinDAEcampus,Kalpakkam
K.JahirHussain,T.Ramesh,M.SelvanayagamandK.K.Satpathy
EnvironmentalandIndustrialSafetySection,SafetyGroup,IndiraGandhiCentreforAtomicResearch,Kalpakkam,TamilNadu LoyolaInstituteofFrontierEnergy(LIFE),LoyolaCollege,Chennai satpathy@igcar.gov.in

SeasonalpopulationtrendsofbutterfliesinhabitingthecampusofDepartmentofAtomicEnergy(DAE)atKalpakkam wasrecordedbysettingapermanentlinetransectof300metersandrecordingallspeciesofbutterfliesobserved

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withinafivemeterdistancearoundtheobserver.Presentsurveyyielded2177individualsof56butterflyspecies belongingtothefamiliesofNymphalidae,Pieridae,Lycaenidae,PapilionidaeandHesperiidae.Nymphalidaefoundto bethedominantfamilyduringallseasons.SignificantnumbersofspecieswereobservedinthemonthofOctoberand JanuarycoincidingwithNorthEastMonsoon(NEM).Thespeciesrichnessanddensitywerealsorelativelyhighduring theNEMperiodandwinter.ThisindicatedthatthebutterfliesatsouthernplainsofIndia,prefertheseseasonstorest oftheyearforbreedingandemergence.Moreover,butterflyrichnessanddensitywasnegativelycorrelatedwith temperature.Presentstudyrevealedthatthetaxonomicstructureofthebutterfliessampled,resemblesthatof Northern,SouthernpartsofWesternGhatsandotherregionofIndiaintwoways;a)dominanceofNymphalidae speciesandb)peakdensityduringwetseasons.Adetailedstudyonecologicallyimportantlocalbutterflyfaunaand theirhostplantsisunderprogresstoconstructabutterflygardeninKalpakkam.Thiscontributionmayprovideabase forselectionofgardenplantswhichwillattractandsupporttheexhibitbutterflies.

026 PatternsindiversityanddistributionofbutterflyassemblagesinTonsValley, Uttarakhand,WesternHimalaya


ManishBhardwaj,V.P.Uniyal,ArunP.SinghandAbeshK.Sanyal
WildlifeInstituteofIndia,Chandrabani,Dehradun DivisionofEntomology,ForestResearchInstitute,NewForest,Dehradun,Uttarakhand uniyalvp@wii.gov.in

Biodiversitylosshasbecamerallyingpointforconservationactivistasitprovidesestimateshowlargelyhumansare makinganimpactonnaturalhabitats.Keepinginmindstudyonspeciesdiversity,distributionandabundanceof butterflies(PapilionidaeandHesperiidae)hasbeeninitiated.Aimofstudywastoinvestigateforpossibleconservation opportunitiesinamosaicofprotected(GovindNationalParkandGovindWildlifeSanctuary)andunprotectedhuman dominatedlandscapeinTonsvalley,WesternHimalaya.Foursiteswereselected,eachwithheterogeneoushabitat mosaics,varyingfromnaturalhabitatstoorchardsandagriculturalfieldswithvariousdegreesofdisturbancealong altitudevaryingfrom900mslto4000msl.Samplingwasconductedadoptingbelttransects(300mlongand10mon eitherside),traversedin45minandaidedwithopportunisticfruitbaittraps.Atotalof3694individualsof121species in82setsofdatawererecorded.Differencesinbutterflycomposition,speciesdiversityandabundanceacrossdifferent sites,habitattypesandaltitudewereanalyzed.Speciesdiversityandrichnessatlowelevationwashigherthanhigh elevationsites,followinglineartrendalongaltitude.Highestdiversityofbutterflieswasaccountedformixedhabitatsof forest,agriculture,scrub,riverineshrubberiesandclearinglandsofhighdisturbance.However,datasupports conservationprioritiestoundisturbednaturalhabitats.

027 Diversity,distributionpatternandseasonalvariationinmothassemblages alongaltitudinalgradientinGangotriLandscapeArea,WesternHimalaya, Uttarakhand


AbeshKumarSanyal,V.P.Uniyal,KailashChandraandManishBhardwaj
WildlifeInstituteofIndia,Chandrabani,Dehradun,Uttarakhand,India CentralZoneRegionalCentre,ZoologicalSurveyofIndia,Vijaynagar,Jabalpur,MadhyaPradesh,India uniyalvp@wii.gov.in

Preliminaryfieldsurveywasconductedindifferentaltitudinalzonesandlanduseareasinthetwohighaltitude protectedareas,viz.,GangotriNationalParkandGovindNationalParkofUttarkashidistrict,Uttarakhand,India.Atotal of475specimensofmothrepresentingaboutmorethat200morphspeciesweredocumentedusinglighttrapmethod duringthesurveyconducted(September2008toMay2010).Preliminaryfindingsshowingdecreasingtrendalongthe increasingaltitudewithsubalpineareasleastdiverseandthesubtropicalareaswithhighestdiversityofmoths. Seasonalityincatchsuccessintermsofspecimensattractedtolighttrappertrapnightwasremarkablewithmonsoon periodobservingleastnumberofspecimenscollectedwhereashighestnumberofspecimenswerecollectedduringthe summerandpostmonsoonperiod.Thelunarphasehadasignificanteffectoncatchsuccesswithnomoondays recordinghighestnumberofcatchandthefullmoondaysshowingleastnumberofcatchforspeciesaswellas individuals.Primaryforestswithminimumdisturbanceregimesshowedhighspeciesaswellasfamilyrichness comparedtodisturbedforestpatchesandagriculturallandscape.Thestudyaimedtoprovideanefforttousemoth

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assemblageasaindicatorforrapidhabitatassessmentforconservationofbiodiversityinentirelandscapewhichisan importantrepositoryofhighaltitudefloraandfaunaofconservationimportance.

028 Effectofforestdisturbanceonrainforestbutterflies:acasestudyfromSilent ValleyNationalPark,Kerala


C.F.BinoyandGeorgeMathew
Research&PGDept.ofZoology,St.ThomasCollege,Thrissur,Kerala,India Div.ofForestProtection,KeralaForestResearchInstitute,Peechi,Thrissur,Kerala,India drcfbinoy@gmail.com

Atotalof164speciesofbutterflieswererecordedfromSilentValleyNationalParkwhichconstitutesapproximately 50%ofthetotalWesternGhatsfauna.Tostudytheeffectofforestdisturbanceonbutterflydiversity500mlongline transectswerelaidatbothundisturbedanddisturbedforests.Meandensityofbutterflieswereloweratundisturbed site(68specimens/km)thandisturbedsite(84specimens/km).Studyrevealedthatalthoughdisturbedforesthadhigh speciesrichness(65species)andabundance(792individuals),speciesdiversityindicessuchasShannonWeinerindex andSimpsonsindexweresignificantlyhigheratundisturbedforest(tvalue=2.29,p=0.05).Theundisturbedforest harbouredseveralendemicandrarespecieswithhighconservationvaluewhilethedisturbedforestcontainedmostly generalistspecies.Thedataforbothsitesfittedatruncatedlognormaldistributionandthelognormaldiversityindex ()wasfoundtobehigherforundisturbedforest(=168.8)thandisturbedforest(=134.4).

029 ActiveEnvironmentalEducationforButterflyconservationformiddleschool studentsinPuducherrySchools,India


R.Alexandar*1andG.Poyyamoli2
1 2

JuniorResearchFellow,DepartmentofEcology&EnvironmentalSciences,PondicherryUniversity,Puducherry,India605014. Associateprofessor,DepartmentofEcology&EnvironmentalSciences,PondicherryUniversity,Puducherry,India605014. *enviroalexandar@gmail.com

Promotingstudentscommitmenttoprotectandconservelocalbiologicaldiversityisanimportantgoalofbiodiversity educationinIndia.Butterfliesarecriticalcomponentsoffunctioningecosystemduetotheirkeyrolesaspollinators andasindicatorsofecosystemhealth.Butterfliesarealsobelovedbypublicaswellasyoungstudentsandchildren, whichislargelyunawarethatmanyspeciesarethreatenedorendangered.Themainobjectivesofthisexperiential biodiversityeducationweretocreateknowledge,interestandnecessaryskillstoinvestigateandidentifythebutterfly speciesdiversityinschoolcampus.Themethodweusedtoassesstheefficiencyofstudentsknowledge,interestand skills,pretestedthestudentstoassessthepreviousknowledge,interestandskillsaboutbutterflyconservation,and posttestedthestudentstoassesstheefficiencyofbutterflyconservationeducationprogram.Theprogram implementedforexperimentalgroupwithactiveclassroomsessions(lectures,discussions,debates,quiz,competitions andtests)andexperientialeducation(Handontrainings,fieldvisitsandgroupprojects).Forbutterflysurveythe censustechniquemethodswereusedtoassessthebutterflyspeciesandcolourphotographswereusedtoidentifythe butterflyspecies.Theposttestresultsrevealedthatthereisanincreaseinstudentsknowledge,interestandskills aboutbutterflyconservationanditsecologicalsustenance.Atotalof47butterflyspeciesbelongingto4familieswere recordedofwhichNymphalidaefamilywasdominantspeciesfoundinboththeschoolcampus.Thestudyconcluded thattheyoungstudentsmustbegiventhechancetoinvestigate,engagewith,andexperiencenatureinorderto appreciate,andmotivatetoconserveandprotectthesefascinatinginsectsatlocallevel.Theconservationofour naturalbiologicalresourceswouldbedependentuponfuturegenerations.Thiseducationalprograminspiredbutterfly conservationaction,havetaughtaboutbutterflyspeciesidentificationskillsamongstudents.

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030 PrioritizationoftheregionsforconservationofbutterfliesofWesternGhats
AnandPadhye,NeeleshDahanukarandSheetalShelke
DepartmentofZoology,AbasahebGarwareCollege,KarveRoad,Pune IndianInstituteofScienceEducationandResearch(IISER),Pashan,Pune DepartmentofBiodiversity,AbasahebGarwareCollege,KarveRoad,Pune adpadhye@gmail.com

WesternGhatsisunderthethreatduetovariousanthropogenicactivities.Inthisstudywehavefocusonthediversity anddistributionofbutterflyspeciesalongtheWesternGhatsinordertoprioritizetheregionsfortheirconservation. WethereforedividedtheentireWesternGhatsinto14LatitudeZones(eachof1spans)andstudiedthespecies diversityineachLatitudezonealongwithhabitatandlarvalfoodplantpreferencesbyliteraturesurvey.Weconducted fieldvisitstopreparechecklistsfortheareasbetween1617Nand1718Nthataredatadeficient.Outof355 species(5familiesand170genera)recordedfromtheWesternGhats,8specieswerefoundinalllatitudinalZones, while25specieswerereportedinonelatitudinalzoneandthusneedhighconservationefforts.Further,southern WesternGhats(8to14Nlatitude)consistsofmorenumberofspeciesandmorenumberofgeneraascomparedto NorthernWesternGhats(14to22Nlatitude).Habitatwisedistributionofspeciessuggeststhattherearethree significantclustersforhabitatpreferencegrosslyseparatedbythelevelofhumandisturbance.Foodplantwise distributionofbutterflyfamiliessuggeststhatPapilionidaeandPieridaearerestrictedtoparticularfamiliesofplants andtheydonotextensivelysharetheirnichewithotherbutterflyfamiliesoramongthemselves.Ontheotherhand Lycaenidae,HesperiidaeandNymphalidaearemorenichegeneralistsandsharemanyplantfamiliesamong themselves.ThustheareaswithfoodplantsofPapilionidaeandPieridaeshouldbeontopoftheconservationpriority preferences.Further,WesternGhatsbetween11Nto12Nalsoneedpriorityforhabitatconservationduetopresence ofmostoftheuniquespecies(20outof25).Ourstudymaythushelpindesigningandimplementingstrategiesfor butterflyconservationintheWesternGhats.

031 Roleofbutterflygardensinenvironmentaleducationandconservation
GeorgeMathewandMaryAnto
ScientistEII,ForestHealthDivision,KeralaForestResearchInstitute,Peechi,Thrissur,Kerala,India ProjectScientist,ForestHealthDivision,KeralaForestResearchInstitute,Peechi,Thrissur,Kerala,India mathew@kfri.org

Publicinterfacingisanimportantelementofenvironmentaleducationandbutterflygardensandhousesareideal meansbywhichvisitorscanobserveandstudybutterfliesinarecreatedenvironment.Theongoingtrainingand extensionprogrammeattheKeralaResearchInstitute,Peechi,Kerala,Indiaaimstopromoteenvironmentaleducation throughpubliclecturesandawalkthroughbutterflygarden.Thegardenestablishedin1998in0.5haofdegraded moistdeciduousforestpatchinInstitutecampussupportsover65speciesofnativebutterfliesalongwiththeirnectar andhostplants.InthispaperananalysisoftheprofileofthevisitorsatthefacilityforafiveyearperiodfromApril 2004toMarch2009isattemptedandtheresultssummarised.

032 Birdwingbutterfliesasflagshipspeciesforinvertebrateconservation
MaryAnto
ProjectScientist,ForestHealthDivision,KeralaForestResearchInstitute,Peechi,Thrissur,Kerala,India drmaryanto@gmail.com

Theuseoficonicflagshipspeciesamongthecharismaticvertebrateshashelpedspurvertebrateconservationeffortsto enviablelevelsworldwide.However,theinvertebratesthoughingreaterdangerareinurgentneedofaglobally appealingemblematicflagshipspeciestoattractconservationeffortsandfunding.IntheWesternGhatsbiodiversity hotspot,thespectacularSouthernBirdwingbutterfly,Troidesminosisanidealflagshipspecieswhichcouldhelp kickstartconservationeffortsintheregion.Currentresearchhighlightthecomplexnatureofinteractionswithin habitatsandthefirmgroundworkneededfordevelopingsinglespeciesmanagementprotocols.Inthispapervarious aspectsofthedistribution,biology,ecology,naturalenemiesandresourceusepatternsofthebirdwingbutterflyare discussed.Thepotentialofthisspeciestobebothanindicatorandaflagshipspeciesintheregionisalsoevaluated.

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033 ButterfliesofKeralaUniversityCampus,Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala
G.Prasad,PrathibhakumariP.V.andLizbyA.Mathews
DepartmentofZoology,UniversityofKerala,Kariavattom,Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala probios1@gmail.com

AsurveywasconductedtofindthebutterflydiversityintheKeralaUniversityCampus,fromJuly2007toDecember 2007in3transectareassuchasgrassycover,woodycoverandgarden.Theresultsrevealedthepresenceof52species ofbutterfliesdominatedbythefamilyNymphalidae.Theyweregroupedascommon,verycommon,rareandveryrare. Thepresentstudyhasbeencomparedwiththeoneconducted11yearsagoandtheyreported46speciesofbutterflies. AmongNymphalidaefamilyweidentifiedCommonbushbrown,TamilLacewing,GlassyBlueTiger,CommonFourRing, TawnyRajah,LeopardLacewing,MonarchButterfly,DarkBlueTiger,PlainTiger,CommonFiveRing,CommonIndian Crow,CommonPalmfly,StrippedTiger,ChestnutStreakedSailorandCommonLascarthatwerenotpreviouslyreported fromthesamestudyarea.However,thebutterfliessuchasCommonEveningBrown,AngledCastor,CommonBaron, Baronet,TamilYeomanandCommonLeoparddidnotshowtheirpresenceduringthestudyperiod.Asfaras Papilionidaeisconsidered,fivespeciesofbutterfliessuchasCrimsonRose,CommonJay,CommonMime,BlueMormon andMalabarRavenwereidentifiedinthestudysitesbuttheyarenotreportedearlier.Thestudyareasupportedthe fourspeciesofbutterfliesinLycaenidaefamilysuchasBandedBluePierrot,GramBlueandLimeBlueButterfly.They werenotreportedpreviously.InthePieridaefamily,weidentifiedMottledEmigrant,CommonGrassYellow,Indian CabbageWhite,CommonGull,LemonEmigrantandThreeSpottedGrassYellowthatwerenotreportedpreviously. MembersofHesperiidaefamily(skippers)wereabsentinbothstudies,maythecampusdidnotsupportthehabitatof thesegroups.Sincetheresultsrevealedthepresenceof8%ofrarespeciesofbutterflies,thestudypointsoutthe importanceofthemaintenanceandconservationofthehabitatandbutterflydiversity.

034 DiversityofbutterfliesinGreatNicobarBiosphereReserve(GNBR),A&N Islands


C.Sivaperuman,SureshKumarShahandC.Raghunathan
ZoologicalSurveyofIndia,AndamanandNicobarRegionalCentre,PortBlairA&NIslands c_sivaperuman@yahoo.co.in

TheGreatNicobarBiosphereReserve(GNBR)istheSouthernmostIslandsintheAndamanandNicobarIslands.This studywasconductedduring20082010bylinetransectmethodtoassessthespeciesdistributionanddiversityof butterflies.Atotalof65speciesofbutterfliesbelongto5familiesand46generawererecordedduringtheperiodand highestnumberofspecieswererecordedfromthefamilyNymphalidaefollowedbyPieridae,Lycaenidae,Pieridaeand Hesperiidae.Oftherecordedspecies,maximumnumberofspecieswasrecordedfromEastwestRoad(59),Lakshman Beach(48),MaharNala&Kondul(47),Kopenheat(45),GingemBasti(44),IndiraPoint(42),AmphibianRoad(40),B quary(38),GandhiNagar(36)andNavidera(28).Thespeciesrichnessandabundanceindicesofbutterfliesvariedin thedifferentfamilies.Thediversityindex(H)rangedfrom3.093.74,withhighestinEastwestroad(3.74).High similaritywasobservedbetweenAmphibianRoadandBquarry.Thesurveyindicatedthepresenceofarichbutterfly faunaandconservationmeasuresinGNBRalsodiscussedinthispaper.

035 StudiesonlifecycleofPapiliodemoleus(linnaeus)onCitrusmedica
NabanitaDas,PrarthanaMudai,M.Bhuyan,P.R.Bhattacharya
DivisionofMedicinal,AromaticandEconomicPlants,NorthEastInstituteofScienceandTechnology,Jorhat,Assam mudaiprarthana7@gmail.com

Butterfliesarethemostbeautifulcreatureofnatureandoneofthemostimportantpollinatorsandpollutionindicator oftheenvironment.ThelifecycleofLimebutterflyiscommonlyknownonitsprimaryhostplantCitrusacida. Althoughfemalelayseggonothermemberofcitrusfamily,butlittleisknownaboutlifecycleparameteronother citrusplant.Further,lifecyclesofbutterfliesinNEIndianecologicalconditionswenotyetdocumentedproperly. Understandingtheinteractionofbutterflieswithlocalclimaticconditionsisimportantaspectsforconservation. Therefore,anattemptwasinitiatedtostudythelifecycleofLimebutterfly,Papiliodemoleus(Linnaeus)(Papilionidae:

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Lepidoptera)anditsinteractionwithitsalternatehostplantCitrusmedicaduringthemonthofAugustSeptember,09. Itwasseenthatthefemalelaideggsinglyontheyoungerleaves.Thesphericaleggislightlemonyellowincolourand withadiameterofabout1.1mm.ThebutterflywasrearedinthelaboratoryconditionintabplantofCitrusmedicafor determiningthelifecycleparameters.Theegghatchedin34daysandtheemergedneonatelarvapossessedbody lengthofabout1.2mm.Larvawasinitiallyverylightbrownincolour.Avshapedwhitepatchesmarkingsimilartobird droppingappearedinA2toA5ofabdominalsegments.Thelarvadevelopedthrough5instars.Thewidthofhead capsuleandlengthandbreadthofdifferentinstarswererecorded.Thedurationofeachinstarsandstageswere determined.Justbeforepupation,thelastinstarlarvastoppedfeeding.Thecaterpillareventuallycametorestonthe substratumtoformaprepupa.Thepupasuspendeditselfwithasilkgirdlefromtheleafsurface.Thecolourofthe pupawasgreenordirtybrowndependingonthebackgroundwheretheyformedpupa.Thepupaappearedheavy markingsonthedorsalsurfacewithdarkbrownandblackstreaks.Pupaewere3034mminlength.Headbearedtwo projectionsandthoraxone.Thepupalperiodlastfor1012days.Theadultlimebutterflywasblackishyellowwithred, bluelunules.Themaleandfemaleweresimilarinappearance.TheadultwasseentovisitflowerssuchasIxora, Lantana,Mussaendafornectaring.Thebutterflyhasbeenrearedcontinuouslyfortwosuccessivegenerations.The meteorologicalparameterswerealsorecordedduringtheexperiment.

036 AstudyofbutterflyspeciesdiversityinandaroundhotspringofGarampani WildlifeSanctuary,KarbiAnglong,Assamincontexttoecotourism


NabanitaDas,RidipChoudhury,PrarthanaMudai,JitenMech,SangitaBorthakur,PallabiBordoloi,M. BhuyanandP.R.Bhattacharyya
DivisionofMedicinal,AromaticandEconomicPlants,NorthEastInstituteofScience&Technology,Jorhat,Assam nabaneetaa@gmail.com

Thepresentcrisisofhabitatchangesinducesriskofexistenceofmanyspecies.Primarily,anthropogenicactivitiesare thecauseofthesesignificantchanges,andbutterfliesareoneofthevictimsofsuchconsequences.Forlastfew decades,manybutterflyspeciesbecomeendangeredandextinct.Inthiscircumstance,itisimportanttoassessthe butterflyindifferentrepresentativespocketsforunderstandingtheircurrentpopulationstatusandecologicalneed. ThemaingoalofstudywastoassessthebutterflydiversityinGarampaniWildlifeSanctuary,Golaghat.Garampani WildlifeSanctuaryislocatedatKarbiAnglongdistrict,Assamcoveringanareaof6Sq.Km.andthegeographicalco ordinatesare2624'0''North,9352'0''East.Thesemievergreenforestharboursmorethan52speciesofwildanimals, manyspeciesofbirdsandreptilesaswellasvastfloraldiversityincludingmorethan50speciesoforchids.However thereisnoanyreportofbutterflydiversityintheSanctuary.Thereforeanattemptwastakentosurveythebutterfly diversityinanaroundthehotspringanimportanttouristspotofthesanctuary.Duringsurvey53speciesof butterflieswererecordedatpremonsoonseason.OftheseNymphalidaeandPieridaewerefoundtobethedominant families,incontrasttoPapilionidae,LycaenidaeandHesperiidae,whichwerescare.Afewbutterflyspeciesprotected underSchedulesofWildlifeProtectionActwasalsoobservedduringthesurvey.Theavailabilityofthesebutterflies indicatesthattheareapossesseslarvalandnectarhostplantsofallthosebutterflies.Asthehotspringispopular touristarea,thereforecureneedtobetakenforprotectingthesurroundingareasfromanycontaminantsand disturbancemadebythetourists.Beingacriticalareaforrestorationofbiodiversityandallowingtouristtoenjoy naturalbeautiesofhotspring,astrategicplanwaspreparedfordevelopmentoftheareaintoanecotourismspot withoutdisturbingbutterflypopulation.

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037 ButterflyfaunaoftheMahatmaGandhiuniversitycampus,Keralaandthe strategiesadoptedforitsconservation


TomsAugustine,S.PrasanthNarayanan,BabuPadmakumar,V.ArunBabu,N.D.Jaisen,JobyPaul,M.Deepa, JishaKurian,K.K.Jayasooryan,J.Ranjini,RathyChandran,P.N.Sreejith,G.ChristopherandA.P.Thomas
SchoolofEnvironmentalSciences,MahatmaGandhiUniversity,PriyadarsiniHills,Kottayam,Kerala,India. AdvancedCentreofEnvironmentalStudiesandSustainableDevelopment,SchoolofEnvironmentalSciences,MahatmaGandhiUniversity, PriyadarsiniHills,andKerala,India tomsaugustine@gmail.com

WedocumentedthebutterflyfaunaandthehostplantsavailableintheMahatmaGandhiUniversityCampus.Total 109speciesofbutterfliesbelongingto85generawererecorded.Thisforms32%ofthebutterfliesdocumentedfrom theWesternGhats.Eightyfourspeciesofplantswerefoundtobeusedaslarvalfoodplantsinthecampus.Amongthe butterfliesrecorded,36%belongedtoNymphalidaefamily,whereasfamilyPieridaeshowedlowestnumberofspecies (8%).Catopsiliapomona,Tirumalalimniace,T.septentrionisandEuploeacorewerethecommonspeciesfoundinthe campus.PresentstudyrevealsthebutterflydiversityandhabitatrichnessofMGUCampus.However,alterationofthe landscapeaspartoftheconstructionworksandotherdevelopmentalactivitiesareharmfullyaffectingthehabitat qualityandtheassociatedbutterflydiversityofthiscampus.Subsequenttoourstudy,theUniversityhasdeclared about12haoftheunaffectednaturalareaofthecampusasaconservationarea,namedJeevakalivelaboratory.This fieldlaboratoryisnowbeingusedforvariousincampusbiodiversitystudiesaswellasconservationawareness programmesfocusingschoolchildrenandpeoplefromvariousbackgrounds.

038 LepidopteraResearchtoPromoteaCommunityEcotourismInitiativein EaglenestSanctuary,ArunachalPradesh


SanjaySondhi,RamanaAthreya
Titlitrust,49RajpurRoadEnclave,DhoranKhas,nearITPark,P.O.Gujrada,Dehradun EcoSystemsIndia,2D,NirvanaEnclave,Basistapur,Bylane3,Guwahati,Assam IndianInstituteofScienceEducationandResearch,Firstfloor,CentralTowerSaiTrinityBuilding,Pashan,Pune,Maharashtra,India sanjay.sondhi1@gmail.com

EaglenestWLSispartoftheKamengProtectedAreaComplexinArunachalPradesh,covering3500sq.kmofclosed canopyforestranginginaltitudefrom100to3500m.ThislandscapeincludesthePakke,SessaOrchidandEaglenest WLS.TheEaglenestBiodiversityProjectwhichstartedin2003,hasresultedinthediscoveryofmanynewtaxa. Preliminarysurveysinthislandscapehaverevealedcloseto200butterflyspecieswithmanyendangeredandendemic speciessuchastheBhutanGloryBhutanitislidderdalii,BlueForesterLethescandaandGreyCommodoreBhagadatta austeniawhichareincludedinSchedule1oftheWildlifeProtectionAct1972.InMay2009,wedemonstratedthe spectaculardiversityofmoths(many100sofspecies)bythesimpleexpedientofilluminatingawhitescreenwitha lamp.Systematicsurveyscoveringdiversehabitats,altitudesandseasonsshouldresultasignificantincreaseinthe numberofbutterflyandmothspecies.Theprimaryobjectivesofthisprojectaretogeneratebasicspeciesdataina poorlystudiedbiodiversityhotspot,augmentasuccessfulongoinglocalcommunitybirdtourismventure,andlaythe foundationforlongtermmonitoringoftheimpactofclimateandecosystemchangesonLepidopterafauna.This presentationwillhighlightthescopeofthestudy,itsobjectives,theopportunitiesandchallenges.

039 DNAbarcodingofgenusEurema(Family:Pieridae)fromWesternGhats
GaikwadS.S.,GhateH.V.,GhaskadbiS.S.,ShoucheY.S.
ModernCollege,Shivajinagar,Pune Dept.ofZoology,UniversityofPune,Pune NationalCenterforCellSciences,UniversityofPune,Pune swapy28@gmail.com

DNAbarcodingisnowwellestablishedtoolforspeciesidentificationwhichemploysnucleotidedivergenceof mitochondrialgeneCytochromeOxidaseI(COI).Thistechniqueisbasedonthefactthatinterspeciesnucleotide divergenceisalwayshigherthantheintraspeciesnucleotidedivergence.ApieridEuremahecabeisknowntoshowhigh

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mitochondrialnucleotidedivergence.Additionallyregionalmorphologicalvariationisalsowellknowninthisspecies. Inthisstudy,wehavecheckedefficacyofCOIasaDNAbarcodeingenusEurema.Sixtyfivecogenericspecimenswere collectedfromvariouslocalitiesofWesternGhats.Wehavesequencednucleargenewingless(wg),mitochondrialgene codingfor16SrDNA(16S)fortheircomparativeperformance,asabarcode,alongwithCOI.Presenceofan endosymiontWolbachiawasalsocheckedinthesespecimens,asitisknowntocausemitochondrialvariationandthus affectingsuccessofthistechnique.OurresultconfirmedthateveninthepresenceofWolbachia,COIisanefficient DNAbarcodemarkerascomparedtoothergenes.

040 DiversityofSwallowtail(Lepidoptera:Papilionidae)butterfliesinGautala WildlifeSanctuaryofMaharashtra


R.K.Nimbalkar,S.S.Shinde,D.S.TawarandS.P.Muley
DepartmentofZoology,V.P.College,VaijapurDist.,Aurangabad DepartmentofZoology,VivekanandCollege,Aurangabad rknimbalkar@gmail.com

InIndiathedistributionsofmostpollinatorspeciesarepoorlydocumentedandevenwiththeirimportanceinproviding ecosystemservices,whilethesespeciesarethreatenedbymanyaspects.Mountingevidencedemonstratesthatthere havealreadybeenbioticresponsestotherelativelysmallclimatechangesthathaveoccurredthiscentury.Inpresent studythediversityofsevenPapilionidaebutterflyfromGautalaWildlifeSanctuaryofMaharashtrawasstudiedin correlationwithhostplantdiversity,followedbyhostplantdensity,herbdensityandfoliageheightdiversity.The diversityofPapilionidaebutterfliesindrydeciduousforestwasaverage,inevergreenalotlessandinscrubforest, moistdeciduousandinteakplantationitwasgood.Thepresentstudysuggestedmoreintensivestudyonthe populationecologyandpresentdistributionofPapilionidaeandallotherbutterfliesareneededfortheconservationof Swallowtailbutterflies.

041 ButterfliesDiversityofTadobaAndhariTigerReserveForestinChandrapur DistrictofMaharashtra


D.D.Barsagade,A.M.Khurad,M.S.Munir,S.S.KhadakkarandS.K.Channe
DepartmentofZoology,MJFEducationalCampus,RTMNagpurUniversity,Nagpur440033 dr_ddbars@rediffmail.com

TadobaAndharitigerreserveislocatedinChandrapurdistrictofVidarbharegionofMaharastra.Theforestaredry deciduoustypewithmixplantationofTendu,Teak,Behara,Dhawda,Yen,Arjuna,Jamunandmanyshrubs,herbsand grasses.Theforestsarereachwithdivershabitat,withverityofseasonalfloweringplantswherebutterfliesare diversified.AmongthereachLepidopterandiversity,40butterflyspecieshavebeenidentifiedwhichbelongstothe9 families.AmongthemfamilyNymphalidaerepresentmorenumberofspeciesfollowedbyPieridae,Lycaenidaeand Danaidae.Thespeciesarediscussedinresults.

042 CitizenscienceaconservationtoolforLepidopteranstudiesinMaharashtra
V.Shubhalaxmi
HornbillHouse,ShaheedBhagatSinghMarg,Fort,Mumbai,Maharashtra vshubhalaxmi@gmail.com

IndevelopedcountriessuchasUnitedStatesandUnitedKingdom,CitizenSciencehasbeenpopularespeciallyinthe fieldofornithology.Thisapproachinvolvesamateursincollectingscientificdata.InMaharashtraforfirsttimethis approachwasusedtostudymothfaunaofnorthernWesternGhats.Thestudyinvolveddocumentationofmothfauna in8locations.Threevolunteerswereselectedandtrainedforthework.Theworkspannedintotwoyears(20042006). Thefirstyearwasspentindatacollectionthroughlighttrapswhichweresetupduringnewmoonnights.Thesecond yearwasspentinidentificationforwhichinternationalexpertisewassought.Thiscombinedeffortsresultedintoa collaborativepaperwhichdocumentedmothinventoryof392(296identified,96unidentified)mothspeciesfrom24

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mothfamiliesbelongingto15superfamilies.Ofthemothspeciesrecorded,withreferencetotheirpublished distributionranges,7speciesappearedtobenewrecordsforIndia,rangeextensionswerenotedfor134speciesand 26specieswereendemictoIndia.Thetrainedvolunteerscontinuetocarryoutmothstudiesintheirowncapacities beyondthestudyperiod.Thisapproachwhichbringstogetherlocalexpert,localcitizensandinternationalexpertsfor localscientificstudiesisasuccessfultriomodeltoemulate.Ifapplied,forfuturestudiesbyinvolvinglargervolunteer basewillresultinextensivesurveysformothfaunaalloverthecountry.

043 ButterflyDiversityinRelationtoNectarFoodPlantsfromBhorTahsil,Pune DistrictMaharashtra


Nimbalkar,R.K.,Chandekar,S.K.&Khunte,S.P.
DepartmentofZoology,VinayakraoPatilMahavidyalaya,Vaijapur,Dist.Aurangabad(M.S.) DepartmentofZoology,AnnasahebMagarMahavidyalaya,Pune DepartmentofBotany,MahatmaPhuleCollege,Pimpri,Pune rknimbalkar@gmail.com

Floralattributesarewellknowntoinfluencenectarfeedingbutterflies.However,thereispaucityofinformationon foodresourcesofadultbutterfliesascomparedtothatoflarvae.ThepresentstudywascarriedoutfromBhorTahsilof DistrictPune,Maharashtra,India,duringAugust2007toAugust2009.Atotalof64Butterflyspecieswererecorded. FamilyNymphalidaeisdominatinginstudyarea,followedbyLycaenidae,Pieridae,HesperiidaeandPapilionidae.19 Nectarfoodplantswereidentifiedbelongingto10plantfamilies.PlantsofAsteraceaefamilyaremoreusedby butterfliesasnectarfoodplants.VisitsofButterfliesweremorefrequenttoflowerswithtubularcorollasthantonon tubularones,toflowerscolouredred,yellow,blueandpurplethanthosecolouredwhite&pinkandtoflowersources availableforlongerperiodintheyear.SpeciesabundancereachedthepeakinthemonthsduringAugusttoNovember. AdeclineinspeciesabundancewasobservedfromthemonthsDecembertoJanuaryandcontinueduptotheendof May.Ourfindingsareimportantwithrespecttomonitoringbutterflyandplantdiversityanddefiningconservation strategiesintheBhorTahsil.

045 Documentation,monitoringandconservationofbutterflyfaunainCoastal Karnataka


Chakravarthy,A.K.,Shashank,P.R.,andDoddabasappa,B.
DepartmentofEntomology,UniversityofAgriculturalSciences,GKVK,Bangalore chakravarthyakshay@yahoo.com

InvestigationswerecarriedoutonbutterflyfaunaincoastalKarnatakafromOctober2005toSeptember06andfrom January2008toDecember2009in16locationsofcoastalKarnatakaalongastretchof250km.Onehundredand twelvespeciesofButterfliesbelongingto8familiesand70generawereidentified.Someoftheuncommonandrare butterflieswere:OrangeTailOwl(Bibasissena),TamilSpottedFlat(Celaenrrhinusnficernis),SpottedAngle(Caproma agama),Contignousswift(Polytremislubricans),LargeBandedSwift(Pelopididassubochracea),Waxdart(Cupitna purrea),Treeflitter(Hyarotisadrustus),Tamiloakblue(Arhopalabazaloides),SouthernBirdwing(Troidesminos), MalabarBandedpeacock(Papiliocrino)etc.Semievergreenvegetation,tropicalandmoistdeciduousforestplaysan importantroleinbutterflydiversityandhabitatpreference.Thelittoralandswampvegetationoccurringalongthe riverestuaries,creeksinletsandislandsincludeplantslikeCrotalariaverrucosa,Launaeapinnatifida,Mangrove beanstalketc.SomeoftheendemicbutterflyspecieswhichoccurtypicallyinCoastalKarnatakaareSouthernBird wing,MalabarRose,MalabarBandedSwallowtail,MalabarRaven,MalabarBandedPeacock,MalabarTreeNymph, NilagiriTiger,RedspottedDuke,TamilLacewing,NilagiriCloudedYellow,etc. Hotspotsforconservationofbutterflies arethepublicparks,openareassurroundingpublicoffices,openareassurroundingeducationalinstitutionsandalong thecoastsomepatchesoffloweringplantscanbemaintainedtoattractbutterfliesandbees.Commonflowering shrubs(Largestromialanceolata,Barrintoniaraecemosa,Hibiscussinensis,Oleandersp,jacarandasp.,Cassiajavanica, Neeriumsp.andIxorasp.etc)andtreeslikeTabubiaavalanidia,Spathodeacompanulata,Terminaliaballerica, Terminaliaarjuna,Buteamonospermaetc.whichareattractivetobutterflies,beesandsomebirds.Attractiveplants canbegrowninopenareas,gardens,backyardsofhousesandislandswhichwillhelpinconservingthebiological diversity.Pesticideskillbutterflies,caterpillarsandotherusefulinsects.Someasureshavetobetakentoavoid

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insecticidesandherbicidesinsuchhotspots.Peopleshouldbeeducatedbyconductingawarenessprogramson butterflyconservation.Tourismanddevelopmentactivityalongthecoastalregionshouldberestricted.Someofthe endangeredspeciesofbutterfliescanberearedundercageconditionsandreleased.

046 InfectionstatusofWolbachiasupergroupinsomecommonlyavailable butterfliesofIndiaandfemalebiasedsexratioobservedinRedPierrot (Talicadanyseus)whichharborstheinfection


KunalAnkolaandPuttarajuH.P.
SchoolofNaturalSciences,DivisionofBiologicalSciences,BangaloreUniversity,Bangalore kunalankola05@gmail.com

ThematernallyinheritedobligatebacteriaWolbachiaisknowntoinfectvariouslepidopteraninsects.Howeversofaronlyfew butterflyspeciesharboringthisbacteriahavebeenthoroughlystudied.Thecurrentstudyaimsinidentifyingtheinfectionstatus ofthesebacteriainsomeofthecommonlyfoundbutterflyspeciesinIndia.Atotalof9butterfliesspeciesbelongingto4 differentfamilieswerescreenedwithWolbachiaspecificwspandftsZprimers.ThepresenceofWolbachiasupergroupBinthe butterflyRedPierrotandBlueMormonisdocumentedforthefirsttimeinthecurrentstudy.Thestudyalsogivesanaccounton thelifetimefecundityandfemalebiasedsexratioRedPierrotbutterflyrevealingtheputativeroleofWolbachiainfemale biasedsexratiodistortion.

047 DiversityofButterflySpeciesAbundanceInWesternGhats,Kerala
P.V.VineethaandK.Revathi
EthirajCollegeforwomen,Chennai reva63@rediffmail.com

Biodiversityisthevarietyoflifedescribingthenumberandvariabilityinrelationtoecosystemsinwhichtheyoccur. Keralahasrichbiodiversitywhichdeservestobestudiedanditisdifficulttask.Henceanattemptwasmadetostudy thediversityofbutterflyspeciesinkallamalaforaperiodof10monthsfromSeptember2009June2010.Duringthat periodabout107speciesofbutterflieswererecordedfromdifferenthabitatsofKallamalasuchasplantations, cultivationandnaturalforest.KallamalaisvillageinAttappadyhillslocatednearSilentValleyNationalParkwhichis famousforitsbiodiversityandtheconservationofspecieabundances.Alongwithbirdsbutterfliesarealsoregardedas thepowerfulmonitoringtoolsinenvironmentmanagementbecauseoftheirdiversityandsensitivity.Butterfliesare habitatspecificandareimportantpollinators.TherecordedspeciesincludesmanyEndemic,Migratoryandnear threatenedspecies.Theconservationofbiodiversityisveryimportantforthemanagementofourecosystembecause bothecosystemandbiodiversityarecloselyrelatedandInterdependent.Morenumberofspecieswererecordedfrom thenaturalforestareawhichsupportsalargediversityofflora.Therewasnotmuchdifferenceobservedinspecies abundanceinalmostallthehabitatbecauseofthediversityofplantsanditindicatesthehealthoftheenvironmentin thestudyarea.Conservationoffloraandfaunaareveryimportantbecausetherichbiodiversityofanecosystem indicatesthehealthoftheenvironment.Butterfliesandbirdsareveryimportantindicatorsofenvironmentalhealth. Natureshouldnotbedestroyedandithastobemaintainedforarichbiodiversity.Henceattemptsshouldbemadeto studythebiodiversityoftheecosystemandstepsshouldbetakentoconservethebiodiversityofourecosystem.

048 ButterflydiversityintheecoforestandadjoiningareasofAssamUniversity campus,Silchar,Assam


P.ChoudhuryandS.Changmai
DepartmentofEcologyandEnvironmentalScience,AssamUniversity,Silchar,Cachar,Assam parthankar@rediffmail.com

AstudyonthediversityofbutterflyinnaturalandmanmodifiedhabitatswascarriedoutintheEcoforestandits adjoiningareasofAssamUniversityCampus,Silchar,SouthAssamforsixmonths(fromDecember2009toMay2010) usingthelinetransectmethod.Thestudywasfirstofitskindthatmadeanattempttounderstandthebutterflyfauna

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oftheregionandtohavebaselineinformationonitscommunities,hostplantsanditsconservationstatusincluding differentthreats.Duringthepilotstudy,atotalof63butterflyspeciesbelongingto41generaunder6familieswere encountered.Nymphalidaewasthelargestamongtheidentifiedfamilies.MorediversitywasobservedintheEco forestareaoftheuniversityincomparisontotheUniversityCampusproper&nearbyIrongmaravillageareas,thelatter twohavingmoreanthropogenicdisturbances.Fewrareandendangeredspecieswerealsorecordedduringthestudy. Someseriousthreatstobutterfliesinthestudyareawerealsodetectedduringtheshorttermstudy.

049 MalematelocationbehaviourandencountersitesofCentralIndian butterflies:Influenceoftaxonomy,biotopes,landscapestructures, resources,morphology,andpopulationvariables


AshishDTiple,SonaliVPadwadandRogerLHDennis
ForestEntomologyDivision,TropicalForestResearchInstitute,Jabalpur,MadhyaPradesh NERCCentreforEcologyandHydrology,MonksWood,AbbotsRipton,Huntingdon,CambridgeshirePE282LS,UK.Institutefor Environment,SustainabilityandRegeneration,StaffordshireUniversity,MellorBuilding,CollegeRoad,StokeonTrentST42DE,UK.School ofLifeSciences,OxfordBrookesUniversity,Headington,OxfordOX30BP,UK. ashishdtiple@yahoo.co.in

Malematelocationbehaviourandencountersiteshavebeenstudiedin72butterflyspeciesatNagpur,India,and relatedtotaxonomy,morphology,habitatandpopulationparameters.Speciescanbeplacedinthreebroadclassesof matelocationbehaviour:invariantpatrolling,invariantperching,andperchpatrol,thelatterassociatedwithincreasing sitefidelity,territorialdefenceandmaleassemblages.Significanttaxonomicdifferencesoccur,closelyrelatedspecies tendingtosharematelocationbehaviours.Morphologicaldifferencesarefoundwithheavierandlargerbutterflies displayinggreatersitefidelityandterritorialdefenceanddifferencesoccurringbetweenindividualsofspecieswhich bothperchandpatrol.Invariantpatrollingisparticularlyassociatedwithtracksthroughvegetation,hostplanttrack distributions,andhighfemaletomalenumbersobservedontransects;invariantperchingislinkedtomoretoedge featuresthanpatrolling,andtolowerpopulationcountsontransect.Specieswhichperchpatrol,defendterritoriesand establishmaleassemblagesareassociatedwithmorecomplexvegetationstructures,andhaveencountersitesat vegetationedges,landformsandpredictableresource(hostplant)concentrations.Theevolutionofdifferentmale matelocationbehavioursismodelledoncurrentknowledgeandattentionisdrawntotheimportanceofdistinctive mateencountersitesforbutterflyspeciesconservation.

050 InteractionofLepidopterawiththeFloraofMandapamGroupofIslands
JulietVanitharani,C.Shanmugapriya,B.KavithaBharathi,andI.VijiMargaret
BatResearchLaboratory,AdvancedZoologyandBiotechnologyDepartmentandResearchCentre,SarahTuckerCollege(Autonomous), Tirunelveli627007,TamilNadu jvanitharani@gmail.com

TheGulfofMannar(GoM),whichisthefirstMarineBiosphereReservesestablishedinIndia,liesbetweenIndiaandSri Lankacomprises21islandsamongthemMandapamgroupofisland(Hare,Manoli,Manoliputti,Poomarichan, Pullivasal,KrusadaiandShingle)areoneoftherichestcoastalregionsforbiodiversityinAsia.Eachislandhasitsunique characteristics,surroundedbycoralreefswithrichfaunalandfloraldiversity.Lepidopteraisoneofthemajororderof phytophagousinsectsthatincludescalywingedbutterfliesandmothsoccupiedthisinsularislandarea.Theyactasan importantindicatorsofenvironmentalhealthandtheecosystemservicesprovidedbythemareimmense."Butterflies, forinstance,playahugelypivotalroleaspollinatorsintheecosystemsinwhichtheylive."Theyareimportant herbivorousinsectsthathaveadirecttropicrelationshipwithplants.Somespeciesarepestsbecauseintheirlarval stagestheydamagesomeflora;however,somespeciesareagentsofpollinationofsomeendemicplants,and caterpillarsofafewbutterflies(e.g.,Harvesters)eatharmfulinsects.Lepidopteranattractiveplantspeciesare Thespesiapopulnea,Dolichoslablaklinn,Cocciniagrandis,Salvadorapersica,Pemphisacidula.andsoon.This mutualisticinteractionpermitsfloralrestorationandconservationintheislands.Theseinsectsgettherewardoffood andbenefitstheplantsincrosspollination.Thepresentstudyhaslistedthenumberofplantspeciesbenefitedthrough thisinteractionandtheneededimplicationsforconservationandmanagementpractices.

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051 Hostplantdiversityofbutterfliesandmothsandtheirconservation stratgetiesinWesternGhats,SouthernIndia


MuruganK.
DepartmentofZoology,SchoolofLifeSciences,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore641046,India kmvvk@yahoo.com

IndiaisanationofexordinarydiversityandtheWesternGhatsistheHottestHotSpotforbutterfliesandmothbiodiversity andshowshighestendemism.Theendemicspeciesofbutterfliesandmothsandtheirhostplantsarelostrapidlydue tomanmadeactivities.Thelifeofeachspeciesisdependentonaparticularrangeoffoodplants.Anychangeinthe habitatthatdamagesfoodplantscanthreatenbutterfliesandmoths.Sincetheyfunctionassensitiveindicatorsof environmentalchangetheyactasflagshipspeciesfornatureconservation.Hence,inthepresentstudywediscussedon thehostplants(larvalandadulthostplantspectrum)ofcertainbutterfliesandmothsintheWesternGhats,Tamil Nadu,andSouthernIndiaand(ii)tostudythebiochemicaladaptationalsignificanceinrelationtohostplantselection ofbutterfliesandmoths.Hostplantsofcertainfamilies(Papilionidae,Danaidae,Lycaenidae,andPieridae)of butterfliesandmothshavebeenincludedandfurtherinfluenceofphysicalandbiochemicalnatureofhostplantsand thefoodplantselectionaswellasnutritionalecologyofbutterfliesandmothswerealsoincluded.Hostplantinfluence onthefeeding,growthandreproductionofPapiliobutterfly,PapiliopolytesonthehostplantssuchasMurraya koenigii,Glycosmispentaphylla,AeglemarmelosandCitrusmedica.Amongthehostplants,M.koenigiirearedinsects showedbetterlifehistoryperformancesandmaximalfoodutilizationandfecundity.ItrevealedthatM.koenigii possesshigherconcentrationofnutritionalcomponentsintermsofprotein,carbohydrates,lipids,nitrogenand optimumwatercontent.Similarly,thePieridbutterfly,CatopsiliaflorellahadhighergrowthrateonCassiaauriculata thantheCassiaoccidentalisanditindicatesthatthenutritionalprofilesofhostplants(Cassiaauriculata)enhancedthe growthanddevelopmentofC.florella.Biologicalstudiesofmilkweedbutterfly,D.chrysippusondifferentagedleaves (young,matureandsenescent)andinflorescenceofC.gigantearevealedthatthegreatergrowthrate,faster development,higherfecundityandmaximumlongevitywereonyoungleavesthanontheotheragesandinflorescence andarecloselyparallelwithleafnitrogenandwatercontent.Theseresultsclearlydemonstratethatleaf water/nitrogenindexisthedeterminantfactorforthegrowthanddevelopmentofD.chyrsippusonyoungleavesof Calotropisgigantea.D.chyrsippuswhenfedonsenescentleaveshadlowconsumptionindex,growthrateand nutritionalefficiencymeasures.Thismaybeduetothenegativeeffectsofplanttoughness,fibercontentandhigher levelofcardiacglycosidelevel(allelochemicals).Thegreatergrowthrateandfasterdevelopmentaltimewasnoticedin Daphnisnerii(Sphingidmoth)andEuploeacore(Danaidbutterfly)larvaerearedonyoungleavesofNeriumoleander ratherthanotherleafstagesmaybeduetothehighassimilationcapacityofthelarvaeonyoungleaves.Hencetheleaf watercompositionistheimportantlimitingresourceforD.neriiandE.coretoperformgrowthandreproduction. Flowervisitationofbutterfliesindifferenthostplantsinrelationtosugarutilizationpatternhavealsorevealedthat adulthostplantselectionismainlydeterminedbiochemicalcomponentsinthenectars(sugarsandaminoacids).The roleofhostplantchemical(deterrent/stimulant)stimuliinhostselectionfortheovipositionoffemalehasconsiderable importancefortheprogenyproductionoffemales.Mudpuddlingofbutterflies(male)withselectiveintakeofsalts (sodium,potassium,chlorides,andmagnesium)maybeusedasnutrientsforthesuccessfulmating.Somemale danaidsareattractedtoCrotolariaspp.foralkaloids(Pyrrolizidinealkaloids(PAs)monocrotaline)fromthevarious partsofplantssuchasfloralnectar,pods,leavesandrootsanddecomposedpartsoftheplants.Itisalsoimportantfor thehostplantselectionofdanaidbutterfliesandissuggestedthatthesechemicalsstoredinthebodytissuesfor pheromoneproduction.Incontrastthearctiidmoth(Arginaastrea)usedCrotolariaspp.aslarvalfoodplants.Pesticide poisoningstowildlifemayresultfromacuteorchronicexposure.Pesticidescontaminationsinthecropplantsand floweringplantsdirectlyorindirectlyaffectedbutterflyandmoths.Similarly,butterfliesarealsoaffectedby contaminatedsoilbytakingsaltsanditcanbetransferredtothefemale..Periodicalenvironmentalmonitoringand researchinvestigationleadingtotheidentificationoflarvalandadulthostplants(nectarsource/oviposition)andtheir influenceonthegrowth,developmentandreproductionofeachspeciesofbutterfliesareofandmothsisparamount importancenotonlyformaintainingthebutterflygardenaswellastogoforinsituandexsituconservation.

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052 Studyonseasonalabundanceandspeciesdiversityofbutterfliesamong selectedfourtrailsinKiralakellewetlandinMataraDistrict


W.M.C.D.Wijekoon,C.N.L.BogahawatteandH.C.E.Wegiriya
DepartmentofZoology,FacultyofScience,UniversityofRuhuna,Matara,SriLanka chandanadammika@yahoo.com

PresentstudyinvestigatedtheseasonalabundanceanddiversityofbutterfliesinselectedtrailsinKiralakellewetland fromJanuarytoDecember2008.ItwasproposedecotourismcentreinMataraDistrict.Fourbutterflytrailswere selectedandpointscanlinetransecttechniquewasusedtosurveyofbutterflies.Abundance,diversityandevenness indiceswereestimated.Seasonalabundanceofrecordedbutterflieswascountedintwiceamonth. Recorded24speciesofbutterfliesrepresentedinnine(9)families.Tworarespecies,BandedBluePierrot(Discolampa ethionethion),SmallBandedSwift(Pelopidasmathiasmathias)andoneuncommonspeciesGreatCrow(Euploea phaenaretacorus)wererecorded.Fiftypercentofbutterflieswererepresentedinthreefamilies,Danaidae, Nymphalidae,Papilionidaebelongingfourspeciesineachfamily.Trail2hadhighestSpeciesdiversityandEvenness. Trail1hadthehighestabundanceofbutterflieswithrepresentingdrasticallyhighernumberofBlueGlassyTiger (Ideopsissimilesexprompta),whichwasoneofthefivehighabundancebutterflythroughouttheyear,whileabundance ofotherbutterflyspecieswerevariedinseasonally.GreatCrow(Euploeaphaenaretacorus)representedonlyintrail1 andAngledcastor(Ariadneariadneminorata)confinedtotrail2.Achecklistofrecordedbutterflyspecieswas prepared.Hence,collecteddataduringthisstudyisimportanttogivebaselineinformationonthisimportantgroupof faunainnaturetrailsandtodesignsuitableconservationandfutureecotourismprogramstoprotectthishabitat.

053 DiversityandConservationstatusofButterfliesinReverstonKnuckles MassifofSriLanka


P.IndikaPeabotuwage1,3,D.P.K.Siriwardena1,MaheshSuraweera1,SolMogollonesBarrera2
DepartmentofBotany,FacultyofScience,UniversityofPeradeniya UniversityofAberdeen peabotuwage@gmail.com
2 1

TheKnucklesisaworldheritageforestincentralpartofSriLankawhichisabiodiversityhotspot.Therearemainlyfive foresttypesintheknucklesrangewhicharesemievergreenforests,submontaneforests,montaneforests,patanaand grasslandsandriverineforests.Butterfliesareeasilyrecognizablebioticcomponentoftheecosystem,astheyare visiblyattractiveandcolorful.Theecologicalroleofthebutterfliesinanecosystemisnotonlyasherbivores,butalsoas importantpollinators.Thereare244speciesinthebutterfliesincluding5familiesand20species(8.19%)areendemic toSriLanka,buttherearelotsofendemicsinsubspecieslevel.IntheReverston(Knuckles),twohabitattypeswere categorizednamely:ForestandGrasslandhabitat.Accordingtothesurvey57specieswererecorded,whichisabout 23.3%ofthetotalSriLankanbutterflyfaunasdescribedtodate(including5endemicspecies).Thegrasslandrepresents 32%andforestsarerepresenting68%speciesdiversity.Thespeciesdiversitywithinthefamiliessuchas,Papilionidae 17.5%(N=10),Pieridae14%(N=8),Nymphalidae57.9%(N=33),Lycaenidae8.8%(N=5)andHesperiidae1.8%(N=1) respectively.Naturalforestsintheislandarerapidlydiminishingasaresultoftheexpansionofsettlementsand agriculturalland,leadingtoadverseimpactsontherichbiodiversity.Duetohumanactivities,cardamomcultivations andbuildingconstructionsnaturalhabitatgetdestroyedintheKnucklesarea.Asaresultbutterflydiversityalsounder threatinknucklesconservationarea.Alsoduetotheairpollutionandpesticidesusedintheseareascausethe reductionofthediversityofbutterflies.

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054 Themoths(Lepidopters:Heterocera)ofNorthMaharashtra:apreliminary checklistofmothfauna

SachinA.Gurule1*,SantoshM.Nikam1,AgnesJ.Kharat1andArjunS.Gurule2
P.G.DepartmentofZoology,K.T.H.M.College,GangapurRoad,Nashik422002(MS),India G.M.D.ArtsB.W.Comm.&Sci.College,Sinnar,Nashik422103(MS),India * sachin.gurule@yahoo.com
2

ThemothfaunaofnorthMaharashtrawasstudiedfromlighttrap&spreadsheetsamples.Atotal728 individualswerecollectedcomprisingof254speciesofmothspertainingto182generaand17familiesare recordedfromNorthMaharashtra.Apreliminarychecklistofmothspeciescollectedfromthenorth MaharashtraispresentedbasedonstudiescarriedoutfromJuly2008toJune2010invariouslocalities.The mothfaunawasalsoveryrichcomprisingmostlyofarborealfeedingformsindicatingafairlyundisturbed forestpatchinthearea.Ofthe17familiesencountered,theNoctuidae,Crambidae,Geometridae& Sphingidaerepresentthemostdiversefamilies.Ashighas33%oftotalspeciescollectedaresingletonsand arerecordedasrarespeciescomprisingof728oftotalindividualscollected.Although789specieshavebeen recordedfromMaharashtrastateparticularly;fromPune,Satara,Mumbai&Khandala(Cotes&C.Swinhoe 188789)but,norecordofmothsfoundfromNashik,Dhule,Jalgaon&Nandurbardistricts.Aninventoryof mothsidentifiedfromthenorthMaharashtrahasbeenpresented.

055 ApreliminarysurveyontheConstellationofsemiaquaticlepidopteransof hillstreamsofsouthernWesternGhats


S.Dinakaran
CentreforResearchinAquaticEntomology,PGandResearchDept.ofZoology,TheMaduraCollege(Autonomous),Madurai.625011 dinkarji@gmail.com

Studiesonaquaticinsectcommunitiesarelimitedintropicalstreamsthantemperatestreams.Itisrather difficulttoestablishthenumberofaquaticspeciesfoundinstreamsofWesternGhats.Thereisapaucityof informationonaquaticinsectsduetoinsufficientfieldstudiesandignoranceonaquaticinsectsaccounted forpoordocumentationofthesecommunitiesofstreamsofWesternGhats.Thoughfewstudiesonaquatic insectsofWesternGhatshavebeenpublishedwhicharemoreonEphemeroptera,Plecoptera,Trichoptera andOdonata,verylittleinformationisavailablewithregardtothepresenceofaquaticLepidopterain streams.Theirexactroleinstreamecosystemandfoodwebisverypoorlystudied.Inthisinvestigation,an attempthasbeenmadetodocumentthepresenceofaquaticLepidopterainstreamsofWesternGhats.50 streamsweresurveyedforthepresenceofaquaticLepidopteraoveraspanoffiveyearsi.e.,betweenJuly 2005andJune2010.Ithasbeenobservedthat,onlysevenstreamsshowedthepresenceofLepidoptera. OnespecieseachfromthegeneraAulacodesandParagyrachswereidentifiedbasedonavailableliterature. Ithasbeenbelievedthattaxonomyandphylogenyofthegeneraareinadequatelyknown.Studiesonthe ecologyofaquaticLepidopteraarevitalasbiologicalagentsforadventivesandnuisanceaquaticplants. Enormousstudiesneedtobeexploredinthelightoflifecyclepatternandecologyofthismostignored groupofaquaticinsects.

056 Diversity,endemismandconservationofIndianbutterflies
KrushnameghKunte
IndianFoundationforButterflies.608,BWing,ShukrataraApartments,NawashaMarutiLane,SinhagadRoad,Pune411030,India. krushnamegh@ifoundbutterflies.org

Indiaisamegabiodiversecountryencompassingfourglobalbiodiversityhotspots.Ithostsapproximately 2,500butterflyspeciesandsubspecies,nearly20%ofwhichareendemicandshowaffinitieswithvarious 30

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zoogeographicregions.Theremarkabletaxondiversity,endemismandbiogeographyofIndianbutterflies makethemahighprioritytargetfordiversityandconservationstudies.However,theseaspectsarepoorly documented,especiallywithinIndiasbiodiversityhotspots. HereIpresentspatialandtaxonomicpatternsofdiversity,endemismandbiogeographicaffinitiesofIndian butterflies.Endemismatthesubspecieslevelisveryhigh:3540%formostgroups.Overalltaxondiversityis highestintheE.HimalayaandNEIndia,whereastheproportionofendemictaxaishighestintheAndaman andNicobarIslands.MostbutterfliesshowbiogeographicaffinitywiththeOrientalRegion,indicatingthat bioticcolonizationofIndiawaspredominatedbyIndoChineseandSEAsianelements,despiteIndiasshared platetectonichistorywithAfricaandMadagascar.However,endemismlevelsarehighestwithinbutterfly groupsthatshowbiogeographicaffinitieswiththePalaearcticRegion.Thus,Indianbutterfliesshowcomplex patternsofcolonization,diversificationandendemism.Thesepatternssuggestspecificconservation priorities:theE.HimalayaandNEIndiaRegionsrequireattentionfortheiroverallbutterflydiversity,andthe AndamanNicobarIslandsrepresentexceptionalhotspotsofendemism.

057 PhylogeneticinferenceofLepidopteraforconservationbiology
M.Jeyam1,P.Ravikumar2,G.Shalini3,M.Sharanya4andP.Keerthipriya
1

AssistantProfessor,

2,3,4

Ph.D.Scholars,BiochematicsLaboratory,DepartmentofBioinformatics,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore46

OvermillionsofyearstheEarthhasnurturedinnumerablespecies,providingalltherequirementsforlifeto flourish.TherehavebeenalsoancientextinctionsthroughNaturalextinctionwhichleadstoevolutionbut thisprocessisveryslowandanewspeciesevolvesintimetoreplacetheextinctoneinthebiosphere.Inthe currenteraofindustrialization,theextinctionrateisveryhighandwearelosingdozensofspecieseveryday duetoactivitiesofourhumanrace.Conservationofendangeredorthreatenedspeciesgenerallyrefersto anyactiontakentoprotectthemintheirhotspots.Thiswillmitigatethethreatonthesespeciestoalarge extent;therehavebeenseveralcasesofanendangeredspeciesrecoveringsuccessfully.Phylogenyplaysan importantroleinconservationbiologybyprovidingevolutionarydistinctivenessorphylogeneticdiversity. Phylogenyisusefulinunderstandingtheprocessesthatcouldleadtodiminutionofthespecieswhichcan helpprioritizeconservationeffortsandisapowerfultoolforconservingbiodiversity. Henceinthepresentstudy,fiveendangeredspecies,Teinopalpusaureus,Sasakiacharonda,Parnassius bremeri,Papiliomaraho,Lycaeidesmelissa,wereselectedforphylogeneticstudies.Thenucleotide sequencesforthesespecieswereretrievedfromNCBIandweresubjectedtoBLASTsearchandtheclosely relatedsequenceswereobtained.MultiplesequencealignmentwasperformedusingCLUSTALXandthe resultsweresavedinthePhylipformat.Thephylogenetictreesforeachoftheseendangeredspecieswere constructedusingPHYLIP.Theresultsofallfivetreesshowedtheendangeredspeciesgroupedtogether, indicatingapossibiltythatsomefactoriscommontoallofthem.TheendangeredCoreanaraphaelisand Atogeiameletewerealsointhegroupalongwiththeselectedendangeredspeciesandwerecloselyrelated toSasakiacharonda.Fromtheresultsofthepresentstudy,itcanbeinferredthatspeciescloselyrelatedto theendangeredspeciesmustbegivenattentioninconservationasthereisariskofitbecomingendangered withtime. 31

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058 SpeciesInformationService(SIS):Webbasedspeciesmanagementtool
SanjayMolurandB.A.Daniel
ZooOutreachOrganisation,Coimbatore herpinvert@gmail.com,badaniel@zooreach.org

TheIUCNRedListisgrowingwiththeincreasedthreatforthespeciesandhencetheneedfor documentationisessential.TheSpeciesInformationServiceisatoolthatincreasethequalityand transparencyofRedListassessmentswhilefacilitatingsmoothcollaborationamongexperts.TheSIStool improvetheabilityoftheSSCandIUCNRedListPartnerstocollect,manage,andusespeciesinformation. Thisenhanceandimproveusability,accessibilityandreachoftheIUCNRedListofThreatenedspecies.The papergivesanintroductiontoSIStool.


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ABSTRACTSPOSTERPRESENTATION
201 Effectoftemperatureonthedevelopmentalstagesofthepredatorybutterfly Spalgisepius(Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)
Dinesh,A.S.andM.G.Venkatesha
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity,JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

Theapefly,Spalgisepius(Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)isanimportantpredatorofvariousspeciesofmealy bugs.Theeffectoftemperatureonthedevelopmentalperiod,mortality,eggshatchingandadultemergenceofS.epius rearedonmealybugs,Planococcuscitriwasstudiedatfourconstanttemperatures(26,28,30and320C)withasingle constanthumidity65%RHinthelaboratory.Themeanincubationperiodofeggwas4.75,3.03,3.27and3.05daysat 26,28,30and320C,respectively.Thetotallarvalperiodwas9.42,8.31,7.46,and8.25days,respectivelyattheabove temperatures.Similarly,pupacompleteditsdevelopmentin12.85,8.81,8.41&8.08days.Thehighpupalmortalitywas noticedat300C.Thepredatorcompleteditslifecyclein27.7,21.26,20.2&20.3days,respectivelyatthefour temperatures.Thepercenthatchabilitywasvariedfrom94.2to53%atfourdifferenttemperatures.Thehighest percentegghatchingwasrecordedat280C.Thepercentlarvalmortalitywas12.5,2.8,3.1and20%atincreasingfour temperatures.Theresultsofthisstudyindicatedthat280CwasthemostsuitabletemperatureforrearingofS.epiusasit accountedforlowmortalityofalldevelopmentalstages.AlthoughothertemperatureshowedquickdevelopmentofS. epius,therewasahighpercentofmortalityofthedevelopingstages.Thepresentstudyisusefulformassmultiplication ofS.epius.

202 Flightpatternsandbehaviourofvariousbutterflyspeciesinurbanhabitatsof Bangalore,Karnataka


Shashikumar,L.andM.G.Venkatesha
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity,JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

Theobservationsweremadeontheflightactivitypatternsof84butterflyspeciesinurbanhabitatofBangalore.Of them,Hypolimnasbolina,H.misippus,PareroniavaleriaandPapiliopolytesweremimickingspecies.About27species ofbutterflieswasshowedactivitiesinrestrictedplaces.Similarly,PolyuraathamasandYthimaboldus(Nymphalidae) showedhighpreferencetomoistenvironment.Papiliodemoleus,P.polytes(Papilionidae),Danauschrysippus (Danaidae)andMelanitisleda(Satyridae)werecommonlyseeninhumanhabitations.Majorityoftherecordedspecies usuallyfoundinopenplacesandrarelyinshadowareas.About19specieswereactivefromearlymorningtoevening. Melanitisledacommonlyseenintheeveningandwasattractedtolight.Someofthespecies(Melanitisleda,Mycalesis perseus,YthimaboldusandElymniashypermenstra)exhibiteddistinctwetanddryseasonforms.Mostofthe butterflieswerefoundflyingclosetothegroundlevel,butonlyafewsuchasDanausgenutia,D.chrysippus,Euploea core,Papiliopolytes,Catopsiliapyranthefoundsometimeflyinghighupinthewind.Further,theflightspeedofvarious butterfliesisrathervariable.Thefieldmarginstructureinfluencesbutterflydistribution.Theavailabilityofhostand nectarplants,lightandtemperatureconditionsgreatlyinfluencebutterflyactivitiesinlocalpatches.

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203 Biology,behaviourandconservationofpredatorybutterflySpalgisepius (Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)


Venkatesha,M.G.andA.S.Dinesh
DepartmentofZoology,BangaloreUniversity JnanaBharathi,Bangalore,Karnataka,India venkatmelally@gmail.com

Thelifehistoryandbehaviourofmealybugpredator,Spalgisepius(Westwood)(Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae)rearedon mealybugs,Planococcuscitri(Risso)(Homoptera:Pseudococcidae)wasstudiedinthelaboratory.LarvaeofS.epiusare apotentialpredatorofdifferentspeciesofmealybugsinIndia.Thelarvamoultedthreetimesandtherewerefour larvalstages.Thesedentaryfirstinstarlarvaateeggmass,whereasotherlarvalinstarsconsumedallstagesof mealybugs.S.epiuscompleteditslifecyclein23.81.5days.Itisamultivoltinespeciesandcompleted1012 generationsinayear.Ameannumberofmatureandimmatureeggspresentinthedissectedsynovigenicgravid femalewas74.68.6.Theadultsenclosedinvariablybetween1130and1530handreadyformatingonedayafter eclosion.Matingtookplacegenerallybetween1130and1400hrs.underbrightordiffusedsunlight.Themale defendeditsterritoryifanothermaleintruded.Thepairremainedincopulaonanaverageof61.36.2min.The femaletomalesexratiowas1.45:1.Thepreovipositionperiodwas34daysaftermating.Thebutterflywasmass breadinthelaboratoryandutilizedasabiocontrolagentofmealybugs.Toconservethispredatorinthefield,the methodstobefollowedarediscussed.

204 Chromolaenaodorata(L.)King&H.E.Robins(Asteraceae),animportant nectarsourceforadultbutterflies


P.VaraLakshmiandA.J.SolomonRaju
DepartmentofEnvironmentalSciences,AndhraUniversity,Visakhapatnam ajsraju@yahoo.com

Chromolaenaodorataisaseasonalweedandgrowslikeacultivatedcrop.ItflowersduringOctoberDecember.The floralcharacteristicssuchaswhitetopurplecolourofflorets,shorttubednarrowcorollawithdeepseatednectar,the morninganthesisandtheflattoppedheadinflorescenceprovidingastandingplatformareimportantattractantsfor visitationbybutterflies.Thefloretsattractbutterfliesoffivefamiliesandsphingidhawkmoths.Amongthebutterflies, Nymphalidsarediverseandvisitthefloretsconsistently;theirvisitseffectpollination.Thediurnalhawk moths,MacroglossumgyransandCephonodeshylasalsovisitthefloretsduringdawnandduskhoursfornectar,and effectpollination.Therefore,C.odorata,beinganexoticisanimportantnectarsourceforadultbutterflies.

205 PopulationVariationsAmongSwallowtailButterfliesAtBishopHeber College,Tiruchirappalli,TamilNadu


Carlton.R,A.DaisyCaroline,A.Relton,G.GlennyJocelyn
BhishopHeberCollege,Trichy,TamilNadu,India carltonjune@gmail.com

BishopHeberCollegeainstitutionofhighereducationissetinsprawling25acresoflandofbeautifulsurroundingsin Tiruchirappalli,India.Thecampusisbeautifiedwithvarietiesoftrees,plantsandgardenswithwatersources.The Vasanthamgardenattheentranceofthecollegenotonlyaddsbeautyandcoolatmosphere,butalsoattractsnumber ofbirdandbutterfliesduetovarietiesinfloweringplantslikelantana,alamanda,hibiscus,ixora,curryleaves,nerium, tridaxandothers.Thecampuswithherbsandshrubsprovideanampleatmosphereforthebutterfliestofeedand breed.ThepresentstudyfocusestofindthepopulationvariationamongswallowtailbutterfliesatBishopHeber College.Thestudywascarriedoutforoneyear.Asaresult7speciesofswallowtailbutterflies(papilionidae)were identifiedandrecordedinthecampus.Limebutterfly,commonroseandcrimsonrosewereabundantinthemonthof Junewhereastheotherfivespecieswerefoundtobeless/leastinthemonthofJune.Howevercommonjay,tailedjay, commonMormon,wasrecordedhighinMarch.BlueMormonwasrecordedinJanuary.Thestudyrevealsthatthe campusisrichinPapilionidaespeciesandsomeconservationmethodsaresuggestedforitsconservation.

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206 StudyofLepidopterainSriLanka:Past,presentandfutureaspects
R.G.S.TharangaAluthwattha
PostgraduateInstituteofScience,UniversityofPeradeniya,SriLanka Aluthwattha@gmail.com

RecordsofthescientificstudiesofSriLankanlepdopteragobacktoLinnaeusworkinhisSystemaNaturae.Sincethen overtwohundredyearsupto1950svariousWesternersstudiedSriLankanLepidopteraespeciallybutterflies.Studies ofMothslimitedtotheworkofMoorin188081.StudiesonSriLankanbutterfliesdonebefore1950sweremainly focusedontheirdistribution,Lifehistoryandtaxonomy.Studiesthereafterarescaresandlessthanthirtynonepeer reviewedpaperspublishedinlasttwodecadesarelimitedmigrationobservations,notesonlifehistory,checklistsand comparativestudyofbutterflydiversityindeferenthabitats.Workinitiatedbytheauthorinlastfouryearsincludethe studyofbehavioralecology,puddlingandnectarsources,hostplants,mimicry,protectiveresemblanceand morphologicalvariations,effectofpesticides,invasiveplantsandhabitatdegradation,biogeography,Lepidopterapest anddifferentconservationstrategies.AuthoralsocontinuesliteraturereviewandfieldworkofmothsofSriLanka. Futurestudiesshouldfocusonintegratedconservationstrategies,chemicalecology,molecularbiologicalstudies, migrationmappingandadaptationstochangingenvironment.DetailedsystematicstudiesofSriLankanmothsshould bedone.

207 Wildtasarsilkworm,A.mylittaecoraceBhandara(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae) anendemicspecies:NeedofConservation


D.D.Barsagade,S.A.Gharade,H.M.Meshram,M.P.ThakreandG.B.Gathalkar
DepartmentofZoology,MJFEducationalCampus,RTMNagpurUniversity,Nagpur dr_ddbars@rediffmail.com

Antheraeamylitta(Drury)ecoraceBhandaraisacommerciallyimportanttasarsilkecoraceendowedwithsuperior economictraits,viz.,toughcocoonshell,highershellweight,highersilkratio(15%),lowdeniersilk(8.0)anddisease resistancewiththebetterlusterincomparisontosemidomesticatedDabaecoraces.Duetoitsuncheckedexploitation ithasreachedtothebrinkofextinction.Toutilizethisecoraces,forbreedingpurpose,itisnecessarytosaveitfrom extinctionandmultiplyitspopulationundersemidomesticatedconditions.InordertosemidomesticateBhandara ecoraceanattempthasbeenmadetounderstandtheecology,thatincludeitsgeographicaldistribution,biology, physiogenetic,behaviouralandcommercialattributes.Thesignificanceofresultsinviewofconservationmeasuresare undertakenwithhelpoflocaltribalcommunitytosavethisvaluablegeneticmaterialfromextinctionisdiscussed.

208 Effectsofenvironmentalfactorsanddiseasesonbiologyofthewildtasar silkworm,Antheraeamylitta(D).EcoraceBhandara(Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)inVidarbha


D.D.Barsagade,S.A.Gharade,H.M.Meshram,M.P.Thakre,M.P.DharandG.B.Gathalkar
DepartmentofZoology,MJFEducationalCampus,RTMNagpurUniversity,Nagpur manjushree_dhar@yahoo.co.in

InVidarbharegionofMaharashtra,thewildsilk,Antheraeamylitta(D)EcoraceBhandaraistrivoltinetropicaltasar silkworminhabitinthreemainrangesofhillsintracti.e.Ambhagarh,GuikhurirangeandgroupofhillsnearPaoni. Thesearealieinthealtitude1843to215N,longitude7927to8043E.Thepostembryonicdevelopmentof A.mylittaisdrasticallyinfluencedbytheenvironmentalfactori.e.temperature,humidity,rainfallandfoodplants.The mortalityrateof1stto3rdinstarsishigherduetohightemperatureandhumidityinfirstgeneration.Becauseofheavy rainfall1stto5thinstarlarvalmortalityisincreasedupto75%.Inthefirstcropthediseasesflacherie,grasserieand pebrineareequallyimportanttoincreaselarvalmortality.The1stto3rdinstarsaremoresusceptibletoflacherieand grasseriewhere4thto5thinstarsareaffectedbypebrine.

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209 SurfaceultrastructuralandEDAXstudiesontheeggshellofEriSilkworm Philosamiaricini(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)


D.D.Barsagade,M.P.Thakre,H.M.MeshramandM.Madankar
DepartmentofZoology,MJFEducationalCampus,RTMNagpurUniversity,Nagpur Email:mannu4u@yahoo.in

TheeggshellofErisilkwormPhilosamiariciniisformedfromthesubstancessecretedbyfollicularepitheliumduringthe latevitellogenicstage.Anultrastructuralstudyrevealsthetwolayersofchorion,innertravecularandouterlamellar layer.Thetravecularlayerinternallycoatedwithwaxlayer.Thelamellarlayerisperforatedbynumerousaeropyles. Thescanningelectronmicroscopic(SEM)studiesrevealthedifferentiationofoutersurfaceofeggshellintotwozones micropylaranddisczone.Themicropylarzonecontainsdeeplyconcealedmicropylessurroundedexternallyby follicularcellimpression(FCI)ofrosettepetaloidtypecells.Thedisczonefilledwithhexagonalfollicularcellimpression (FCI)containingvarioussizeofnumerousaeropyles.TheEnergyDispersiveAnalysisofXrays(EDAX)studiesshow abouttenelementspresentontheeggshellsurface.AmongthemsixelementCarbon,Oxygen,Calcium,Sulphur, ChlorineandPotassiumarecommononbothzones.

210 Silkglanddevelopmentandsilkproteinsynthesisinthetropicaltasar silkwormAntheraeamylitta(D)(Lepidoptera:Saturniidae)


D.D.Barsagade,S.A.GharadeandM.P.Dhar
DepartmentofZoology,MJFEducationalCampus,RTMNagpurUniversity,Nagpur shrutii_rok@yahoo.com

Thegradualdevelopmentofthesilkglandcomplexoccursfromthefirsttofifthinstarlarvaeofthetasarsilkworm, AnthereamylittaecoraceBhandara.Thedevelopmentandfunctionalactivityacceleratespredominantlyinthefifth instarlarvainwhicheachsilkglandisdifferentiateintotheanterior,middleandposteriorregionsdistinctly.The developmentofsilkglandpassesthroughgrowth,secretory,regressionanddegenerationphases.Duringthegrowth andsecretoryphasesthecellandnucleishowanenhancedhypertrophy.Theposteriorregionofthesilkglandisthe largestoneandthelumenisfilledwiththesilkproteinsecretiontillthecommencementofspinning.Duringthe spinningperiodthetransportofsilkproteinsecretionfrommiddleandposteriorregionsofthesilkglandstakesplace continuously.Finally,thereleaseofafinethreadfromthespinneretandsubsequentspinningofcocooniswell evident.Soonafterspinningtheepithelialcellsofmiddleandposteriorregionsofthesilkglandsundergoanacute regressionanddegeneration.

211 BiodiversityOfButterfliesInSelectedAreasOfVirudhunagarDistrict
Bakavathiappan,Ga.,Pavaraj,M.andS.Baskaran
PostgraduateandResearchDepartmentofZoology,AyyaNadarJanakiAmmalCollege(Autonomous),Sivakasi626124 pavarajphd@gmail.com

Butterfliesareimportantnaturalresourcesastheyhelpinpollination,andtheyareimportantecologicalindicators. Butterfliesenhancetheaestheticvalueofenvironmentbytheirexquisiteinterestinconservingandmanaging butterflies.Studiesonbutterfliesinanyareawouldhelpustounderstandthestatusofecosystem.Itisessentialthat wedocumentthebutterflyfaunaofcertainregionssothatstepsmaybetakentoensurethesurvivalofthese fascinatingcreaturesforfuturegeneration.Thereislittlethatcanbedonetosaveourbutterfliesoncetheirhabitats aredestroyed.Thusitisimportanttomanageourenvironmentandtocreateawarenessregardingthediversityof butterfliesintothesociety.Hence,inthepresentstudyanattemptwascarriedouttocomparebutterflyspecies compositionanddominantfamiliesofbutterfliesavailableinAruppukottaiandAlangulamareasinVirudhunagar District.InAruppukotaiareatotalof23speciesbelongingtosevenfamiliesofbutterflieswereobserved.InAlangulam areatotalof41butterflyspeciesbelongingto8familieswereobserved.ThestudyrevealedthatthefamiliesPieridae andNymphalidaeweredominantinthesetwoareas.Thepatternsofphenologyrevealedthattheappearanceofmost ofthespeciesofbutterfliesoccurredduringthemonsoonseasons.

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212 Seasonalandrelativeabundanceofbutterfliesinascrubjunglehabitatof Peraiyurtaluk,Maduraidistrict,TamilNadu


AlagumuruganC.,PavarajM.,andM.K.Rajan
PostgraduateandResearchDepartmentofZoology,AyyaNadarJanakiAmmalCollege(Autonomous),Sivakasi pavarajphd@gmail.com

Conservationofbiodiversityisthemostimportanttasktohumankindforvariousreasons.Itfacilitatesecosystem functionsandoffersaesthetic,scientific,culturalandothervaluesandformsthebasisforfoodstuff,fibers, pharmaceuticals,chemicalsetc.Conservationofnaturalhabitatsisveryessentialfortheexistenceofmanyspeciesof insectsincludingbutterflies.Amongthelowerinvertebrates,butterfliesareprobablythebeststudiedgroupinthe forestareaofWesternGhats.LepidopteraisanadvancedandhighlysuccessfulOrder,whosedetailedlifehistories provideawealthofmaterialforthestudyofmanyaspectsofevolution,adaptationincludingmuchfundamentalwork ongeneticsandheredity.Duetoindustrialrevolution,pollution,globalwarmingandchangesinrainfall,habitatfor survivalofbutterflieshasbeenalteredorreducedandinsequencethebutterflypopulationseemstobedwindlingin manyhabitats.Therefore,thepresentinvestigationhasbeenaimedtostudythebiodiversityofbutterfliesinascrub junglehabitatofPeraiyurTalukMaduraiDistrict;Tamilnaduforaperiodoftwelvemonth(May2007toApril2008). Totally65speciesofbutterfliesbelongingto8Familieswereidentified.ThefamilyNymphalidaeandPieridaecontribute morenumberofspecieswith15and14respectivelyandthesetwofamiliesarefollowedbyLycaneidae(13species), Papilionidae(9species),Danaidae(6species),Hesperiidae(5species),Satyridae(2species)andAcreidae(1species). Therelativeabundanceanddiversityofbutterflieswithreferencetoseasonalchangeshavebeenstatisticallyanalyzed anddiscussed.

213 ButterflySpeciesDiversityOfTropicalForestResearchInstitute,Jabalpur, MadhyaPradesh


AshishD.Tiple,K.C.Joshi,SanjayPaunikarandNitinKulkarni
ForestEntomologyDivision,TropicalForestResearchInstitute,Jabalpur,India ashishdtiple@yahoo.co.in

ButterflydiversityandtheirstatusatTropicalForestResearchInstitute,Jabalpurspreadoveranareaof109hectare from2009to2010.Atotalof62speciesofbutterfliesbelongingto47generaofand5familiesviz.,Papilionidae(05 species),Pieridae(9species),Nymphalidae(25species),Lycaenidae(16species)andHesperiidae(7species)were recorded.Ofallthetotal62species,23(37%)werecommonlyoccurring,16(26%)wereverycommon,2(3%)werenot rare,16(26%)wererareand5(8%)wereveryrarelyoccurring.Eightspeciesofthemwererecordedunderthe protectioncategoryoftheIndianWildLifeProtectionAct1972.Thefindingsofthepresentstudyunderlinethe importanceofinstitutionalestatesinprovidingpreferredabodeforbutterflyspecies.Ifdifferentkindsofdisturbances likehumanactivities,moving,removalofmaterialsforfireandgrazingareavoided,ahealthyandgeneticallydiverse butterflypopulationcouldbebuildupinthecampus.


214 Toolsandteachingmethodsforeducatingtargetgroupsonbutterfliesinan urbanwetlandrestorationsiteatChennai


K.CyrilRufusandPrestonAhimaz
EnvironmentEducationCoordinator,HeadEducation,PitchandikulamForestConsultants,AdyarPoongaproject,Auroville cyril4112@yahoo.co.in

Aproblemwithmostyoungchildrensenvironmentaleducationprogramsisthattheyapproacheducationfroman adults,ratherthanachilds,perspective.Teachingnatureabstractlyintheclassroomdoesnotleadtopro environmentalbehaviorsinlaterlife.Childrenexperiencenatureholisticallyandnotasbackgroundforevents. Childrenjudgenaturenotbyitsaesthetics,butratherbytheirinteractionsandsensoryexperienceswithit.Most peoplelookatbutterfliesfromanaestheticpointofview,butfewrealizethattheyarealsoecologicallyimportant.This isparticularlyrelevanttothespecificareaasthesiteisanurbanwetlandrestorationoneinChennaiwhichhas undergoneaseriesoflandusechangesandreplacementofnativevegetation.Realisingthatvarioustoolsandteaching

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methodsonbutterfliesareessentialtoreachthetargetgroups,toolslikecuddapahstonesignagepaintings,collagetile worksandstonesculpturesaswellasteachingmethodslikeactivitybooks,posters,interactivedisplaysandbutterfly watchhavebeendevelopedandused.Anassessmentofalltheseactivitiesandsessionshasshownadistinct improvementinunderstandingbutterfliesandtheirecology.

215 BiosystematicsofConogethespunctiferalis(Guenee)infestingcastorand cardamom


ShashankP.R.,B.DoddabasappaandA.K.Chakravarthy
DepartmentofEntomology,UniversityofAgriculturalSciences,GKVK,Bangalore,Karnataka chakravarthyakshay@gmail.com

Conogethes(=Dichocrocis)punctiferalisnamedasYellowpeachmoth,Cardamomstemborer,Castorshootandfruit borer,isdistributedintropicalAsia,EastAsiaandAustralia.ItisaPyralidmothattackingmorethan120wildand cultivatedplants.Itisaneconomicallyimportantpestonfield,plantation,fruitandspicecropsintropicaland temperateregions.ThegenusConogethesisalarge,taxonomicallycomplextaxon.Untilnowtennamedspeciesof genusConogethesMeyrick,1884hasbeenknownfromEasternPalaearcticandIndoAustralianregions.Typelocalityof C.punctiferalisisIndia,andsomanycloselyalliedspeciesmaybeincludedbuttaxonomicrevisionofthemhasbeen neglectedforalongtime.Morphologicaltaxonomymayhavealimitationinidentificationandclassificationofthese alliedspecies.Differencesinsexpheromonesystemismostlydecisiveforreproductiveisolationinalliedspecies.Also, geneticclassificationofalliedspeciespopulationsmaygivemuchusefulinformationontheirgeneticbackgroundof speciesspecification.TheConogetheswhichfeedsoncastorandcardamomareconsideredassamespecies.Butthe natureoffeedingisentirelydifferent.Thiselicitsadoubtthatthesetwomaybeconspecifictypesortwosegregated species.StudiesongeneticidentificationofConogethescomplexwillfacilitatebiorationalpestmanagementstrategies. InformationonspeciationinConogethesremainsunexplored.

216 Biosystematics,HostrangeandDistributionofthePodborer,Adisura atkinsoniMoore(Noctuidae:Lepidoptera)


DoddabasappaB.,ShashankP.R.,YathishK.R.andChakravarthyA.K.
DepartmentofEntomology,UniversityofAgriculturalSciences,GKVK,Bangalore chakravarthyakshay@yahoo.com

ThePodborer,Adisuraatkinsoniwasfirstdescribedin1745byMooreandrelatedspeciesAdisuraleueanioidesMoore andAdisurapallidaMoorein1747and1749,respectively.GenusAdisuradiffersfromPyrrhiainhavingmidandhind tibiawithsparsespinesandthoraxwithoutsharpcrest.ThirtyeightHeliothinespeciesarerecognizedinfivegenera Adisura,Heliothis,Heliocheilus,AustralothisandHelicoverpaandthisincludesoneofthemostseverepestgroups injuringcultivatedcrops.Until1970sthelifecycleofAdisuraatkinsoniinsouthKarnatakasynchronizedwithlocal Lablabnigerfieldbeanthatemitsacharacteristicaroma.AdisuraatkinsoniwastheprincipalpodboreronLablabpods then.WiththeevolutionofphotoinsensitiveLablabhybridstheLablabbeancropcouldbecultivatedthroughoutthe yearinSouthKarnatakaandinpartsofSouthIndia.GraduallyHelicoverpaarmigera(=HeliothisarmigeraHubner) beganbuildinguppopulationonLablabniger.Today,in2010H.armigeraistheprincipalpodboreronLablab,i.e., almostcompletelyreplacingAdisuraatkinsoni.A.atkinsoniwhichwasrestrictedtofeedingonlyonLablabhasbeen reportedoccasionallyfeedingonBlumeasp.,Cajanuscajan,Lablabniger,CicerarietinumandLensculinaris.However, itisnotknownwhetherplantsotherthanL.nigercansupportthegrowthofborerlarvae.RecentlyA.atkinsonilarvae havebeenfoundregularlyfeedingonredgrampodsbothinSouthandNorthIndia.AnotherrelatedspeciesAdisura marginalis(Walker)hasbeenfoundfeedingonredgrampodsinMadhyaPradeshandUttarPradeshregularlynow.So thisishowspeciationinAdisuraisfacilitatingsurvivalofthespecies.ForsuccessfulIntegratedPestManagement,a revisedtaxonomyofAdisuraisurgentlyrequiredwithbiosystematicsinputfromrelatedspeciesmothswiththeirpest statusonprincipalcultivatedcrops.

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217 FaunasticStudiesOnSmallerMoths(Insecta:Microlepidoptera)OfWestern Ghats,Kerala


R.S.M.Shamsudeen
DepartmentofZoology,SirSyedCollege,Kerala smartysamsu@gmail.com

TheKeralapartofWesternGhatsisknowntoberichinfaunaldiversityandnodetailedsurveyofmicroheteroceranhas beenmadeinthisregion.Itwasinthiscontextthatthepresentstudyonthisgroupofinsectsinthekeralapartof WesternGhatswasundertakentogeneratebaselinedataonthefaunaofthisregionandtodevelopaneasy identificationscheme.Consideringthelargenumberoftaxainvolved,thescopeofthepresentstudyhasbeenlimited tothreesuperfamiliesviz.,Tineoidea,GelechioideaandYponomeutoidea.Thefaunalelementswereinterestinginthat theycontainedseveralnewrecordsfortheregionsixspeciesforKerala;47forsouthernIndia;twospeciesforIndia andthreespecieswerenewtoscience.

218 ComparisonbetweenisolatedDNAfromfreshandovendriedpreserved specimensofCatopsillapyranthe


1
1 2

Kharwar.A.S.,2Magdum.S.,1Patil.R.,1Sandhan.A.

DepartmentofZoology,H.P.TArts&R.Y.KScienceCollege,CollegeRoad,Nashik,Maharashtra DepartmentofZoology,K.T.H.MCollege,GangapurRoad,Nashik,Maharashtra adushere@gmail.com

ClassInsectaofphylumArthropodaexhibitsgreatdiversity.Amongstclassinsectamaximumdiversityisshownbyorder Lepidopterawhichincludesallendopterygotes.Theseincludebutterfliesandmoths.Greatdiversityisbasicallybecause ofdiversewingpatternobserved.Thisdiversewingpatternhasstronggeneticbackground.Thus,extensiveresearch workisgoingontounderstandthegeneticbackgroundofthisdiversity.Inordertostudygeneticcorrelationwiththe diversityamongthespeciesitisproposedtostudytheDNAprofileforwhichDNAisolationisthefirststep.Thesource ofDNAforDNAisolationisveryimportantasvariouspreservationtechniquesmaycauseDNAdamage.Thus,inpresent studyanattemptismadetocompareDNAisolatedfromfreshandovendriedpreservedsamples

219 NativeLarvalfoodPlantsforButterfliesinJamshedpur,Jharkhand
S.K.Mahato,SeemaRani
Curator,TataSteelZoologicalPark,Jamshedpur Email:skmahato196@rediffmail.com

ThepresentpaperinvestigatesthenativelarvalfoodplantsutilizedbybutterflylarvaeinJamshedpur.Thecitylies between2204893Nand860120E.Altitudeoftheareais159mmsl.Butterflyspeciesareveryselectiveinplants fortheiregglayingactivitiesandusehostplantsassupportforegglayingactivity.Plantsthatnourishlarvae (caterpillars)arecalledhostplantsorlarvalfoodplants.ThelarvalfoodplantsofthebutterfliesofJamshedpurhavenot beenstudiedsofar.Forthefirsttimewereportthefoodplantsofthelarvaeofsomecommonspeciesofbutterflies fromJamshedpuronthebasisoflaboratoryrearingandfieldstudies.Fromthebiodiversityconservationpointofview thisinformationisessentialfortheformulationofmanagementprogrammesforbutterflyconservationofthearea.

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220 Doesmimicevolveearlierthanmodel?Acasestudybasedonalepidopteran mimicrycomplexpredominantlydistributedinIndiaandSEAsia


ChiaHsuanWei,LiWeiWu,FrankYuFengHsu,ShenHornYen
DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,NationalSunYatSenUniversity,Kaohsiung,Taiwan DepartmentofLifeScience,NationalTaiwanNormalUniversity,Taipei,Taiwan shenhornyen@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

Itisgenerallybelievedthatinamimicrycomplexthemodelisexpectedtohaveevolvedearlierthanthecomimics.In thepresentstudy,weusedsequenceinformationfrommultiplegenestoreconstructindividualphylogeniesoffour lepidopterangroups(Euploea,Elymnias,Papilio(Chilasa),andCyclosia)thatinvolveintheEuploeamulcibermimicry complex,whichischaracterizedbyhavingsexuallydimorphicwingpatterns,sympatricpolymorphicforms,various secondarydefensemechanismsandawidedistributionrangethroughoutE.Himalaya,IndochinaandSundaland. EstimatesofdivergencetimesshowthatthemimicrycomplexmighthaveformedsincemiddleMiocene.The estimateddivergencetimesofCyclosiaandElymniasarelaterthanthatofEuploeamulciber,asexpected.However, eitherthegenusChilasaorthemimickingCh.paradoxahasevolvedearlierthanEuploeamulciber,andthisresultseems toconjectureourprediction.Analternativehypothesisisthereforebeingproposed:themimicspeciesdidevolve earlierthanthemodel,butthemimicswingpatternwasoriginallynonmimeticandsubsequentlyswitchedto resemblethatofthemodelaftertheemergenceofthemodel.Totestthishypothesis,acomparativephylogenetic studybasedonthegenesresponsibleforparallelwingpatternshiftsisneeded.

221 Caterpillarsoutofwater:theoriginofterrestrialAcentropinemoths
LiChengShih,ShenHornYen
DepartmentofBiologicalSciences,NationalSunYatSenUniversity,Kaohsiung,Taiwan shenhornyen@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

ThegenusParacymorizaWarren,1890,isamoderatesizedacentropinegenuscomprising30speciesranging throughoutsoutheastandeastAsia.Historicallythegenuswasoftenconfusedwithmanyunrelatedgeneraduetothe superficialresemblanceinwingmaculation,whichistermedthenymphuliformwingpattern.Thegenusiscurrently isdividedinto8speciesgroups,and4ofthemareknownhavingaquaticimmaturestages,whiletheothershaving terrestrialimmatures.ThefactthatParacymorizaincludesbothpurelyaquaticandterrestrialspeciesrepresentsa uniquecasefortheLepidoptera,thusmakingthemonophylyofthegenusdoubtful.Inthepresentstudy,a phylogenetichypothesisParacymorizawasreconstructedbyusingmorphologicalcharactersobtainedfrom33species representing25genera.TheresultsshowthattheterrestrialandaquaticParacymorizacladesarenotsistergroups witheachotherandagenusnamelyPotamomusaisnestedwithintheParacymorizacomplex,andterrestrialcladehas evolvedfromaquaticancestor.Furtherstudiesontherelativespeciesrichnessbetweenterrestrialandaquaticclades aswellastheevolutionarychangesinparasitoidhostrelationshiparenecessary.

222 SpeciesdiversityofbutterfliesaroundAurangabad,Maharashtra
SarafS.A.&ShindeS.S.
DepartmentofZoology,Govt.CollegeofArts&Sciences DepartmentofZoology,VivekandCollege,Aurangabad sambhaji4499@gmail.com

Therearearound15000to20000speciesofbutterfliesrecordedworldwide.Indiahostsaround1200to1500of butterflies(Kunte,et.al.,1999).Inpresentinvestigation50speciesofbutterfliesbelongingto8familiesand19sub familieswererecorded.SpeciesbelongingtoPapilionidae,Pieridae,Danaidae,Nymphalidae,LycanidaeandHesperidae werenoticed.Ofwhichmostabuandant(23sp)diversitybelongedtofamilyLycaenidaeandleast(6sp)toDanaidae.

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223 ImportanceofNectarSourcesinConservingButterflyDiversityinUrban Landscapes


KrutiChhaya,NehaMujumdar,PrachiMhaske,RishikeshPatilandAnkurPatwardhan
DepartmentofBiodiversity,M.E.SAbasahebGarwareCollege,DeccanGymkhana,Karveroad,Pune,Maharashtra,India kruti.chhaya@gmail.com

Nectarbeingmainfoodsourceplaysanimportantroleinmaintainingnutritionandreproductionofbutterflies.Even thoughbutterfliesareconsideredtobegeneralists,studieshaveshownthattheydemonstratepreferencewhenit comestochoosingnectarflowersources.Inurbanareassuchresourcesaregenerallypresentinsmallpocketslikehill forests.Nectarplantchoiceswererecordedthroughopportunisticsampling.BhamburdaVanVihar,ahillforest situatedinPunecity(182825N734752E)supportsscrub,drydeciduousforestwithpatchesofmonoculture. Transectmethodwasusedtostudyabundanceofnectarplantsandbutterflies.Intwelvevisitsspanningoverthree months,eightysixnectarforagingvisitswererecordedcomprisingof24speciesofbutterflies.Total15specieswere foundtobeservingasanectarsource.SpeciesbelongingtoVerbenaceaefamily(Lantanacamara)wasthemost preferredfollowedbyFabaceae(Dalbergiamelanoxylon).OntheseplantspeciesMaximumobservedbutterflyspecies wereCommonGull(CeporanerissaFabricus)andCommonLeopard(PhalantaphalanthaDrury).Suchstudiescan provideinsightsforintegrationofnectarplantsalongwithlarvalfoodplantstofostertheurbanbutterflydiversity.

224 HabitatPreferenceandtheeffectofsmallscaledisturbanceondistribution ofbutterflyfaunainandaroundGauhatiUniversityCampus,Guwahati, Assam


KuladipSarma,BidyutBikashSharma,KripaljyotiMazumdar,BhriguPrasadSaikia
DepartmentofForestry,NERIST,Nirjuli(Itanagar),ArunachalPradesh;DepartmentofEnvironmentalScience,GauhatiUniversity,Assam; G.B.PantInstituteofHimalayanEnvironmentandDevelopment,NEunit,ArunachalPradesh;DepartmentZoology,GauhatiUniversity, Guwahati,Assam,India;DivisionofWildlifeandBiodiversityConservation,Environ,Hatigaon,Guwahati kldpsarma306@gmail.com

AstudywascarriedoutinandaroundtheGauhatiUniversityCampustodocumentthediversityofthebutterfliesand thehabitatpreferencesbythemandtheeffectofsmallscaledisturbances.Thewholecampuswasdivedinto4habitat typesandtransectsarelaidaccordingly.Familywiseabundancewasrecordedinallthehabitattypes(closedcanopy forest,openlowland,openfoothillsandresidentialcolonyforest)andfoundthattheabundanceofNymphalidaeishigh althoughtheirdistributionisgreatlyaffectedbythesmallscaledisturbanceslikeconstructionofbuildingandother anthropogenicfactors.Closedcanopyforestareaofthecampusisfoundtoberichindiversityofbutterflyspecieswith highestHvalue.(H=3.02)followedbytheFoothillsarea(H=2.98),thelowlandarea(H=2.63)andlastlytheresidential campusarea(H=2.57).Thediversityofbutterflyisgreatlydependentontheavailabilityofnectarplants.So,small scaledisturbancealwaysaffectthedistributionofbutterflyasitisrelatedtothehabitatdestructionatvariouslevels.

225 Evolutionaryconservationofhemocyticimmuneresponsesinsome sericigenousandnonsericigenouslepidopteroninsects


J.P.Pandey*,R.K.Tiwari**,SuyogPandey**,P.K.Mishra*,DineshKumar*,B.M.K.Singh*A.K.Sinha*&B.C. Prasad*
*SilkwormPhysiologyLaboratory,CentralTasarResearchandTrainingInstitute(CentralSilkBoard),P.O.PiskaNagri,Ranchi835303 **DepartmentofZoology,K.N.Govt.PostgraduateCollege,Gyanpur221304S.R.N.Bhadohi jpp_hcu@yahoo.co.in

Hemocytescomprisethesecondvitalarmoftheinsectimmunesystemandtheyplayskeyroleinimmunodefense processesagainstadverseconditionstoconservetheirinhabitants.TheclassificationofhemocytesofAntheraea mylitta,PapiliodemoleusandDanaischrysippusbelongingtothreedifferentlepidopteronfamiliesweremadebasedon theircytological,morphologicalandimmunologicalfeatures.Thesixmaintypesofhaemocytesnamelyprohaemocytes (PRs),plasmatocytes(PLs),granulocytes(GRs),spherulocytes(SPs),adipohaemocytes(ADs)andoenocytoids(OEs)were identified.Twoadditionalsubtypes,thevermicytes(VEs)andpodocytes(POs)representingthemodifiedPLswerealso

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detectedinthebloodsmearofthelateVthinstarlarvaeandnewlyemergedpupaeofbothA.mylittaandP.demoleus. OnlyVEsareseeninD.chrysippus.VEsarehavingmuchelongatedpseudopodsateitherendofthecellbodywhilethe POshavecytoplasmicprojections/pseudopodsof23ordersandboththecelltypesareprobablyphagocyticinnature. ComparativelymorePLsvariantswereobservedinA.mylitta.Themorphological,numericalandimmunological alterationinhemocyteswereobservedwhentheambientregimeoftemperature(262oC)waschangedtolow(4 2oC),high(502oC)andcyclic20,26and32oC2oCtocausetemperaturestress.Temperaturestressescaused adverseimpactoncellular(hemocytic)organization,itsshift,breakdownanddigestionofcellcontents.Low temperatureinducedclumpingofhemocytesandhightemperaturestresscauseditsspread,formationofvacuoles assembly,lossofcytoplasmfirmnessandlysisofcellularcontentsshowingbustednucleiamongGRsandPLs.More mitoticallydividingPRswereseenunderhightemperaturestress.Interestingly,hemocytesofAntheraeamylitta, (Saturnidae)Papiliodemoleus(Papilionidae)andDanaischrysippus(Nymphalidae)showedvariedhemocyticimmune responsesunderlow,highandcyclictemperaturestressconditions.Thevariationinhemocytetypes,hemocyteprofile andimmunological(hemocytic)responsesofsericigenousandnonsericigenouslepidopteroninsectsspecify evolutionaryconservationofcellular(hemocytic)immuneresponses.

226 Assessingcurrentpopulationsandconservationprioritiesforrare, endangeredandlegallyprotectedbutterflyspeciesinSikkim,eastern Himalaya,India


KrushnameghKunte
IndianFoundationforButterflies.608,BWing,ShukrataraApartments,NawashaMarutiLane,SinhagadRoad,Pune411030,India krushnamegh@ifoundbutterflies.org

Sikkimisunusuallyimportantfordiversity,endemismandconservationofIndianbutterflies.Ithostsapproximately 25%butterflyspeciesandsubspeciesknownfromIndia,andathirdofendemicsandotherbutterflytaxaprotected underIndiasWildLife(Protection)Act.However,littleisknownaboutcurrentpopulations,distributionsand conservationprioritiesforrare,endangeredandlegallyprotectedbutterflyspeciesinSikkimHimalaya.HereIoutline myongoingworktogeneratebaselineinformationonbutterfliesbyintensivelysurveyingpopulationsacrossseasonal, altitudinalandhabitatgradientsinSikkim.Ialsodescriberecentworkleadingtotherediscoveryofthefederally protectedScarceJesterbutterfly(Symbrenthiasilana,Nymphalidae),whichwasspottedinSikkimin2008after90 years.Traininglocalcollegefacultymembersandstudentsinbutterflypopulationecology,taxonomyandconservation biologywithspecialreferencetoSikkimisanimportantcomponentoftheongoingwork.TheDepartmentofForest, Environment&WildlifeManagement,Govt.ofSikkim,isalsobeinginvolvedsothatthefindingsfromthisresearchmay beincorporatedinfutureconservationplanning.Thus,theprojectaimstobuildafoundationformodernpopulation ecologicalstudiesonSikkimbutterfliesandforlocalinvolvementinstudyingandconservingbutterfliesintheeastern Himalaya.

227 ButterflydiversityinagriculturallandscapesofShervarayanhillsEastern Ghats,SouthIndia

M.Lena,G.Shobana,A.AgnesDeepa,*C.Gunasekaran
DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore641046 *chrisguna@gmail.com

Butterfliesareknowntobeoneofthemostappropriatetaxonomicgroupsforenvironmentalevaluation.Thestudy attemptedtoidentifybutterflyspeciesdiversity,richnessandabundanceintheagriculturallandscapesofShervarayan hills,EasternGhats.Hence,itisimportanttodeterminewhetheragriculturallandscapessupportthediversityof species.Butterflyassemblageswerecharacterizedusingtransects(Pollardwalk).Speciesdiversityandrichnesswere calculatedusingShannonandSimpsonsindex.DuringthestudyperiodfromAugust2009toJune2010werecorded 4465individualsbelongingto34speciesofbutterflies.SpeciesrichnessismoreinthefamilyNymphalidaeandPieridae occupiesmorespeciesabundance.Appias,Aurota,EuremaPapilio,Euploea,Castalius,Lampidesspeciesweremost dominated.Habitattypedidnotsignificantlyaffectspeciesrichnesssincefewspeciesdependonthenectarsources availableinagriculturallandscapesandrelativelyuncommonspecieswerenotrecordedduringtheobservation.

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228 DiversityofbutterfliesinSiruvanihills,WesternGhats,SouthIndia

G.Shobana,M.Lena,A.AgnesDeepa,*C.Gunasekaran
DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore641046 *chrisguna@gmail.com

OurstudydocumentsthebutterflyspeciesrichnessandabundanceinSiruvanihills.Werecordedthespeciesdiversity andabundancefromAugust2009toAugust2010inthemoistdeciduousforestofSiruvani,usingthetransectcounting method.Allthebutterfliesrecordedatadistanceof5mfromtheobserverduringthecounts.SpeciesDiversityis calculatedbyShannonWeinerindex.Atotalof5231individualsbelongingto48speciesofbutterflieswereobserved duringthestudy.Moreabundanceofbutterfliesbelongingtothefamilies,Papilionidae,Pieridae,andNymphalidae wererecorded.Butterfliesarethemainbioindicatorswhichcandeterminetheenvironmentalchanges.Thisstudy alsodocumentsbutterflydiversityindifferentseasons.

229 ButterflyDiversityinThoppayarReservoir,DharmapuriDistrict(Eastern Ghat),TamilNadu,SouthIndia


Elanchezhian.M1,GunasekaranC.2,Ezhili.N3,Thirumathal.K4
1. 2.

MElanchezhian.M.PhilScholar,DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India Dr.C.Gunasekaran,AssistantProfessor,DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India 3. Dr.N.Ezhili,AssistantProfessor,DepartmentofZoology,PSGR.KrishnammalCollegeForWomen,Peelamedu,Coimbatore,TamilNadu,India 4. Dr.K.Thirumathal,AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofZoology,PalaniAndavarCollegeForWomen,Palani,TamilNadu,India elaconservation@gmail.com

India,encompassadiverseterrain,climateandvegetation,whichcomprisesofdifferentecosystems.Indiaisgiftedwith arichbutterflyspecies,about1501specieswererecordeduptodate,outof16,823speciesrecordedworldwide. Butterflies,apartfromitscolorfulappearance,theyhavesignificantpartinthefunctioningoftheecosystem.Butterflies arethebestknowntaxonomicgroup,usedtodisclosethequalityoftheenvironment.Furthertheyactasagood bioindicatorsofaparticularbiotype.Here,wemadeanattempttounravelthedistributionofbutterfliesprevailing alongsidethereservoirofThoppayarreservoir,(Dharmapuridistrict),whichisspreadover5530hectares.Ourstudy areapresentinthefoothillsofEasternGhatsandishavingdensevegetation,includesplantslike(mixedforest).We wishtoexplorethebutterflydiversityatThoppayarDaminEasternGhats,duringa12monthsperiod,startedatJune 2009andendedatJune2010.ManypreviousinvestigationsrecordedthebutterflydiversityinWesternGhats,butleast attentionornoattentionhasbeengiventoexplorethediversebutterfliesinEasternGhats.Wehaverecordedthe presenceofbutterfliesbelongtofamiliessuchasPieridae,Nymphalidae,DanaidaeandPapilionidae.Andweidentified 3789numberofindividualsbelongingtotheand32speciesduringoursurvey.Further,toourknowledgeitisthefirst reportaboutthebutterflydiversityalongsidetheThoppayarreservoirinEasternGhats.Traditionalagricultural practicesinareassurroundedbyforestcanbeconsideredasimportantmanagementtoolinbutterflyconservation, highestbutterflyspeciesrichnessisfoundintheThoppayarofthereservoirratherthancoreareaand,forbutterfly conservationthezonessurroundingthestrictlyprotectedareaareequallyimpotentasthecorearea.

230 Fascinatingworldofbutterflydiversityandecofriendlycommercialization
AgnesKharat,S.M.Nikam,SachinGurule,JaisingDarekarandS.P.Thorat
DepartmentofZoology,K.T.H.M.College,Nashik422002,(M.S.),India agneskharat@gmail.com

ButterfliesarefascinatingcreaturesoforderLepidopterahavespecialplaceintheinsectworld.Butterfliesare economicallyveryimportantinsectsbecausetheyaregoodpollinators.Caterpillarsofsomebutterfliesfeedand developonweedsinsteadofagriculturalcropsthushelpingincontrollingweeds.Somecaterpillarsareinsectivorous feedsonaphids,mealybugs,antlarvaeandsoareusefulincontrollingthem.Thusbutterfliescanappropriatelybe calledfriendsoffarmers.Beinghostspecificbutterfliesindicateshealthofhabitat.Richdiversityindicatesgoodhealth ofaparticularhabitat.Insectecologistsalsofocusonbutterfliesasthebestgroupofinsectsforexaminingthepatterns ofbiodiversity.Butterfliesareofgreatestheticvalue.Theyformapartofthenationsheritageandneedtobe conserved.Habitatloss,illegaltradesaremajorthreatstobutterflyfauna.Wecanhelpinbutterflyconservationby encouragingbutterflygardens,butterflyfarmsinhomesandinstitutions.Ecofriendlycommercializationwith

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fascinatingdiversityofbutterfliesistodaysreality.Butterflyfarmingcanprovidejobstothelocalpeopleandpromote conservationofnaturalresources.Agriculturalbuffersarestripsofnativegrassesandwildflowersplantedalong agriculturalfieldmargins.Thesebuffersprovideasolutionforincreasingnativepollinatorsandimprovinghabitat,and alsoprovidefinancialbenefitstofarmers

231 Comparativestudiesonimpactofurbanizationanddiversityandspecies abundanceofbutterfliesinandaroundCoonoorCity,TheNilgiris


P.MohanaandC.Gunasekaran
DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore641046 mohanaconservation@gmail.com

Diversityandextentofhabitatswillcontinuetodeclineashumanpopulationsincrease,andalterlandscapesfor agricultureanddevelopment.Traditionally,naturereserveshavebeencenteredmainlyonareasthatareimportantfor invertebratediversity.Toinvestigatethisproblem,wesampledbutterflyspeciesrichnessinanaturereservein Coonoor.Patternsofbutterflyspeciesrichnessandabundancewereinvestigatedbymeansoftransectmethodacrossa rangeofthetwopredominanthabitattypes(drymixedforestandagriculturalland).Wecomparespeciesrichnessand compositionintheurbanhabitatswiththatinthesurroundingagricultural.Bothbutterflyspeciesrichnessanddensity increasedwithdecreasingconnectivity,measuredastheproportionofurbangreenareaswithin15km.Thissurvey betweenApril2010August2010anddataanalysiswereusedShannonweiner,includingANOVA.Totally16genus and25specieswereidentifiedandinterestinglytheDanausandEuremaspeciesareabundant.(Pachlioptahector, Pachlioptaaristolochiae,Ixiaspyrene,ColotisdanaeCatopsiliapyrant,Euremahecabe,Euremablanda,Eurema nilgiriensis,Coliasnilgiriensis,Paranticanilgiriensis,Tirumalaseptentrionis,Tirumalalimniace,Danausgenutia,Danaus chrysippus,Euploeacore,Mycalesisanaxias,Mycalesisperseus,Ypthimaceylonica,Ypthimachenui,Cuphaerymanthis, Athymaperius,Athymaranga,Junoniaalmanac,Junoniaorithya,Tagiadesgana.)Ourstudydemonstratestwo importantissuesinurbanbiodiversity,localbutterflyspeciesRichnessandintensivelanduse.Traditionallanduse techniquessuchasextensiveagriculturedonothaveadverseeffectsonbutterfliesbut,infact,supportadiverse assemblageofbutterflyspecies.

232 Roadkilledbutterfliesandhighwaymonitoringmolecularidentification danausbutterflies(Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae)basedupondataform mitochondrialDNA


Vadivalagan,C.,Gunasekaran,C.andM.Salahudeen
DepartmentofZoology,BharathiarUniversity,Coimbatore641046 marinedrug.9@gmail.com

Weexaminedthespatialpatternsandfactorsinfluencingsmallterrestrialvertebrateroadkillaggregationsinthe Marudhamalaihill,Coimbatore,southernIndia.Wesurveyedroadsvaryingintrafficvolume,configurationand adjacentlandscapeattributesforroadkillsbetweenJan2010June2010.Thepresentstudyemphasizedthelevelof mortalityfromroadkillsonthisgroup.Forthesixspeciesanalyzed,highfrequenciesofroadkillsapparentlywere associatedwithbreedingactivitiesanddispersal.CarrionorroadsidevegetationalsomightattractLepidopteratoroads andincreasetheirvulnerabilitytohighwaymortality.Inthisconnectionthecausalitybutterfliesaretakentomolecular identificationbyusingthemtDNAsequence(CoxIgene)andalsomorphologicaldatawerecollected.Thefollowingsix speciesPapiliopolytes,Pachlioptaaristolochiae,Pachlioptahector,Catopsilialeda,Danauscrispus,Danausplexippus wereconcentratedonthepresentstudy.DanauscrispusandDanausplexippusweretakenintoconsiderationforthe molecularidentification.Theseresultsrepresentabreakthroughforinsectmoleculartaxonomy.Interestingly,the Danausbutterfliesareevolutionarilyrelated.

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WORKSHOPS

Understandingwingedfriendsthroughpuppets
Bhanumathi
ManagingTrusteePavaiCentreforPuppetry,ChennaiPh:09444486497 pavaibhanu@gmail.com

Learningandunderstandingaboutthelifeofourwingedfriendsthebutterfliesandmoths withpuppetsisexcitingasitbringsaninanimatecharactertolife.Ifwelookaroundnature, wemaycomeacrosscolourfulandbeautifulbutterflies,mothsandtheircaterpillars.They allhavedifferentshapes,sizes,colours,andfoodplants.Eachonehasastoryofhappiness, friendship,bravery,wisdom,honesty,sorrowtotell.Sharewhattheyhavetosaythrough theirimagesintheformofpuppets.Createandhaveatotalpuppetexperiencebymaking thesepuppets.

Dr.R.Bhanumathi,ManagingTrusteePavaiCentreforPuppetry,Chennaiwill conductaworkshoptocreatebutterflies,mothsandcaterpillarpuppetsand understandtheirlifehistory,problemsandconservationeffortsthroughstoriesand presentationsattheendofthesession.

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COMMITTEEMEMBERS
Registration:M.Lena Reception:G.Shobana Session:P.Mohana Outdoor:S.Rhumya Workshop:A.AgnesDeepa Transport:M.Salahudeen Accommodation:S.Radhakrishnan Food:C.Vadivalagan Decoration:S.Malarvizhi Culturals:S.Elanchezhian

VOLUNTEERS
Bharanipriya.D Dharmadurai.D Dinesh.D Kiruthika.R KrishnaPriya.K Kuppuraj.R Maharajan.K MartinaVictoria NandiniDevi.N Nataraj.B Parimala.P Ponmathi.K Poornima.B Priya.S Sakthiswari.S SanthanaLakshmi.V Saranya.C Saraswathy.K Sathish.V Selvarasu.P Siva.T SivapriyaJothi.S Suganya.N.A Sundar.G Vyshnavi.K Christinamary.S Deepthi.P Divyapriya.R Doniaalson Jamsherbabu Janani.S Jenilkumar Karthick.G Karchikeyan.S MaimunaSalipaul Rahulgowtham Revathy.A Roni.M Sakthi.S Shabharni.S sivaniT.jayakumar Sofia.V SheershaRSudhakar Sureshmarimuthu.S Satgurunathan.T VarunaKrishnan Vivek.S Anand.S Aruna.P Chandhini.K Gayathiri.R Heavenlin.M Karthiga.P Ponraj.T Pushpa.D Rakesh.C Ramya.G Saranya.E Senthamariselvan.P Senthooraja.R Sudha.K Suganya.R Sumathi.M Adithya Agalyapriyadharshini Jeeva.S Kavithaa.K Madesh.V Pavithrashri.K Munusamy.C Ponarulselvam.S Ramasamy.N

Sankar.K Sasikalamathi.V Selvakumar.S Stalin.N Thinakaran.M Nandhini.S Rajesh.S VijayaRagavan.S Mahesh Amerasan BalamuraliKrishnan.B Gokilavani.S Govindaraja.N Hemalatha.D Jaya.P Kalimuthu.K Kirubanandhini Munirasu.S Praseeja Cheruparambath Vidhya.G Rangasamy.B Shobanakeerthi.S Shyni.M Sreevani.V Subbaiah.s Subramniam.J SureshKumar.S Vimala.K Balachander.V Abirami.D Anandhi.P AnneRebecca.A Arthi.N ChandraSekar.R Lavanya.S Manikandan.P

Divya.K.R Isamma.P Jayanthi.C Kalaivani.P KarthikKumar.R Kavitha.C Kovendan.K Mareeswaran.P MohanaDevi.S MostoaAhamed.S Muthukumar.S NareshKumar.A NipinBabu.V PanneerSelvam.C Paulpandi.M Poongodi.R PrasannaKumar.K RaichelJacob RaviKumar.R Reejeeth.C Sangeetha.M Santhi.R Saravanan.M Seenivasan.C SenthilKumar.S SheelaPriyadarshini Sowdeswari.R SriDeviP.R SunderRaj.S Sweatha.L Thangam.Y UthayaKumar.V Vadivel.D Vasuki.C Venkatesan.R Vivek.R

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