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ENGINEERING

HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS Researchers are developing fluids from molten salts or metals that can work at temperatures as high as 800 C. The goal is to increase thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies to 50 percent or greater. SELF-CLEANING REFLECTORS Transparent superhydrophobic coatings can be applied to solar collector mirrors to prevent dust from sticking to the surface, maximizing reflected sunlight.

Mechanical

THE MAGAZINE OF ASME


No.

Technology that moves the world

03 135

X-PRIZE FOUNDER TALKS INNOVATION


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22

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY IS MAKING CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE.

THE SUN
MARCH 2013

CATCHING

PLM GOES CHIC


PAGE

38

PREMIER ISSUE

DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND CONTROL MAGAZINE


PAGE

49

ASME.ORG

Process Measurement Instruments

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P.01

The Heritage Softail Classic is one of six motorcycles developed for a unique line celebrating Harley-Davidson's 110th anniversary.

Video: New Developments in Aerospace


FROM SMART MATERIALS TO PERSONAL FLIGHT, Dr. Diann Brei, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, discusses the nearly limitless future of aerospace.

HIGH ON THE HOG

HARLEY DAVIDSON

HE CELEBRATED HARLEY DAVIDSON MOTOR COMPANY TURNS 110 THIS YEAR, with its resilient brand as

Sandy Signals New Era in Rescue Robotics


For these articles and other content, visit asme.org.
THE DEVASTATION OF HURRICANE SANDY and the continuing pattern of disastrous weather underscores the need for continuous progress in search and rescue robotics. In evaluating the role of robots in the storm, one of the first standout examples was the performance of a floating weather robot codenamed Mercury. ME

strong as ever and a growing international following of hardcore hog lovers who ride to live and live to ride. The Harley-Davidson motorcycles have a Born to Be Wild image, but the real power of the iconic brand comes from disciplined engineering.

NEXT MONTH ON ASME.ORG


ARTIFICIAL BRAIN CELLS BECOMING REALITY? No, were not going to replace
our brains with a RAM chip anytime soon. But someday in the future, when part of the brain dies, we may be able to rewire it with a few new artificially created cells, which researchers at MIT have succeeded in growing in Petri dishes.

BOBBING FOR POWER


RENEWABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT has
focused largely on wind and solar, but now a developer plans to harness the power of waves off of the Oregon coast with a buoy fitted with a mechanical power generation system. Each unit is expected to produce 150 kW of power and enough will be installed to produce 1.5 MW for the first commercial wave-powered system in the U.S.

AN INVESTIGATION OF FORENSIC ENGINEERING


ASME.org talks to Bob Bea, recently called the "nation's foremost forensics engineer about this lesser known area of engineering.

03 135
ON THE COVER
CATCHING THE SUN

CONTENTS

heart of burning structures.


BY ERIC BUTTERMAN

HOW COMPUTER MODELING HELPS A CFD project FIGHT FIRES looks to the

12

32

Concentrating solar power is getting more respect these days.


BY MARK CRAWFORD

Product lifecycle management for all kinds of designers.


BY JEAN THILMANY

PLM CHIC

30

TRENDING

Patterns emerge from a tumultuous decade for manufacturing.


BY ALAN S. BROWN

38

Knowing where you fit and how well can make all the difference.
BY E.N. FREISEN

42

YOU'RE HIRED!

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 03

DYNAMIC SYSTEMS & CONTRoL

The first issue of this ASME technical divisions magazine explores emerging control technologies for automobiles.

49
6

One on one: The man behind the X Prize p.22

INSIDE
Editorial Letters

THE DIGITAL EDITION

GRAVITY POWERS LED LAMP


A generator driven by 20 pounds of rocks.
BY ALAN S. BROWN

26

18 Global Impact
20 24 28 48 76 78 79 81 82 84 Power Transmission & Motion Control Hot Labs Vault Bookshelf Tools//Hardware Tools//Software Positions Open Ad Index ASME News Input/Output

Visit Knowledge Base Newsletters & Magazine

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|| THE MAGAZINE OF ASME

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 04 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | FEBRUARY

Editor in Chief John G. Falcioni Executive Editor Harry Hutchinson Senior Editor Jeffrey Winters Associate Editors Alan S. Brown Jean Thilmany Art and Production Designer Dorothy Szemiot Publishing Assistant James Pero Contributing Writers Michael Abrams, Benedict Bahner, Rob Goodier, Lee Langston, Bridget Mintz Testa, Andrew Reynolds, Kirk Teska, Jack Thornton, Michael Webber, Frank Wicks, Amos Winter, Robert O. Woods Design Consultant Bates Creative Group ASME.ORG Editor David Walsh Managing Editor Chitra Sethi Senior Editor John Kosowatz Managing Director Publishing Philip V. DiVietro Managing Director Conformity Assessment & Publishing Michael Merker Executive Director Thomas G. Loughlin Secretary and Treasurer Warren R. Devries Assistant Secretary John Delli Venneri Assistant Treasurer William Garofalo Second Assistant Treasurer June Ling Senior Vice Presidents Standards & Certification Kenneth R. Balkey Institutes Robert E. Grimes Knowledge & Community Karen J. Ohland Public Affairs & Outreach William J. Wepfer Student & Early Career Development Cynthia M. Stong

Publisher Nicholas J. Ferrari Marketing and Promotion Manager Anthony Asiaghi Circulation Coordinator Marni Rice Classified and Mailing List 212.591.7534 Advertising Sales Offices East Coast Michael Reier 900-A South Main Street, Suite 103; Bel Air, MD 21014 410.893.8003; fax 410.893.8004 reierm asme.org Southeast Bob Doran 8740 Glen Ferry Drive, Alpharetta, GA 30022 770.587.9421; fax 678.623.0276 doranb asme.org East Central Thomas S. Bednar 391 Long Pointe Drive, Avon Lake, OH 44012 440.933.4746; 440.933.2319 bednart asme.org West Central Thomas McNulty P.O. Box 623; Barrington, IL 60011 847.842.9429; fax 847.842.9583 mcnultyt asme.org Southwest Richard W. Carpenter 26882 Zapata Circle; Mission Viejo, CA 02691-4330 949.235.0309; fax 949.716.6981 carpenterr asme.org West Coast Richard Ayer 127 Avenida del Mar, Suite 2A; San Clemente, CA 92672 949.366.9089; fax 949.366.9289 ayerr asme.org

President Marc W. Goldsmith President-Elect Madiha El Mehelmy Kotb Past President Victoria A. Rockwell Governors Richard C. Benson; Betty L. Bowersox; John R. Elter; Julio C. Guerrero; Bernard E. Hrubala; Richard T. Laudenat; Edmund J. Seiders; J. Robert Sims Jr.; Charla K. Wise

Mechanical Engineering magazine Advisory Board Robert E. Nickell, chair; Harry Armen; Leroy S. Fletcher; Richard J. Goldstein

Contact Mechanical Engineering


Mechanical Engineering Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016 212.591.7783; fax 212.591.7841 memag asme.org
Published since 1880 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Mechanical Engineering identifies emerging technologies and trends and provides a perspective on the role of engineering and technology advances in the world and on our lives. Opinions expressed in Mechanical Engineering do not necessarily reflect the views of ASME.

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Headquarters Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016 212.591.7722; fax 212.591.7674 Customer Sales & Service 22 Law Drive, Fairfield , NJ 07007 973.882.1170; fax 973.882.1717 In U.S. toll-free 800 THE ASME international 973.882.1167 e-mail customercare asme.org Washington Center 1828 L Street, N.W., Suite 810 Washington, DC 20036-5104 202.785.3756 Intl Gas Turbine Institute 6525 The Corners Parkway, Suite 115; Norcross, GA 30092-3349 404.847.0072; fax 404.847.0151 http://igti.asme.org Intl Petroleum Technology Institute 11757 Katy Freeway, Suite 380; Houston, TX 770791733 281.493.3491; fax 281.493.3493 asme-ipti.org European Field Office Avenue De Tervueren, 300, 1150 Brussels, Belgium +32.2.743.1543; fax +32.2.743.1550 Asia Pacific LLC Unit 09A, EF Floor, East Tower of Twin Towers; No. B12, JianGuo MenWai DaJie; ChaoYang District; Bejing, 100022 People's Republic of China +86.10.5109.6032; fax +86.10.5109.6039 India Office c/o Tecnova India Pvt.Ltd.; 335, Udyog Vihar, Phase IV; Gurgaon 122 015 (Haryana) +91.124.430.8413 fax +91.124.430.8207 saxenas asme.org

Give me the place to stand, and I shall move the earthArchimedes

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Mechanical Engineering (ISSN 0025-6501) is published monthly by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. Periodicals postage paid at New York, N.Y., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Mechanical Engineering, c/o The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, Box 2300, Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300. Return Canadian undeliverable addresses to P.O. BOX 1051, Fort Erie, On, L2A 6C7. PRICES: To members, annually $32 for initial membership subscription, single copy $7; subscription price to nonmembers available upon request. COPYRIGHT 2013 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Canadian Goods & Services Tax Registration #126148048. Printed in U.S.A. Authorization to photocopy material for internal or personal use under circumstances not falling within the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act is granted by ASME to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center Transactional Reporting Service, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. Request for special permission or bulk copying should be addressed to Reprints/Permissions Department.

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Copyright 2013 COMSOL. COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, Capture the Concept, COMSOL Desktop, and LiveLink are either registered trademarks or trademarks of COMSOL AB. MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.. Excel is either a registered trademark or trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corp.. SpaceClaim is a registered trademark or SpaceClaim Corporation. AutoCAD and Inventor are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., and/or its subsidiaries and/or afliates in the USA and/or other countries. Creo is a trademark and Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark or trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and in other countries. Solid Edge is a trademarks or registered trademarks of Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries in the US and/or other countries. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Neither COMSOL nor any of the COMSOL products listed herein are afliated with, endorsed by, sponsored by, or supported by any of these other trademark owners.

FROM THE EDITOR


|| FOLLOW @johnfalcioni

DETERMINING OUR OWN FUTURE


T
John G. Falcioni
Editor-in-Chief
o the surprise of some friends who hold the coffee bean as an elixir of religious proportions, on most days I wait to get to the office for my first cup of morning coffee. But on Saturdays I enjoy one of lifes uncomplicated rituals of brewing a pot and easing into the weekend.

PREMIERING
The first issue of the Dynamic Systems & Control magazine is inside, following p. 48. falcionij@asme.org

The society most of us live in affords us these simple pleasures as well as some that arent so simple. Especially in the U.S., we embrace the right to expect a reward for our hard work and the prizes that come from the fruits of our work. The expectation of this quid pro quo doesnt exist everywhere, especially in many places outside the U.S. But theres a growing realization that economic prosperity is tied to science, technology, engineering, and innovation. As our newest columnist, Andrew Reynolds who works at the U.S. State Department and whose first column appears this monthtells us, these dominant forces of prosperity are ones that All nationslarge and smallaspire to harness. The global challenges of the 21st century, Reynolds says, do not respect national boundaries and require cooperation in science and engineering to address them successfully. The magnitude of these global challenges, beginning with population growth, energy, and water, makes the notion of putting even a minor dent in them seem daunting. Positive reviews of AbundanceThe Future is Better Than You Think, co-written by the founder of the X Prize Foundation, Peter H. Diamandis, last year cited the book for its optimistic vision of our own ability to help improve the world. Diamandis and his co-author, Steven Kotler, make the point that were now living

in a world of information and communication abundance. For example, a Masai warrior with a cell phone, they say, has a better mobile phone than the president of the United States did 25 years ago. They write: In a similar fashion, the advancement of new, transformational technologiescomputational systems, networks and sensors, artificial intelligence, robotics, biotechnology, bioinformatics, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, human-machine interfaces, and biomedical engineeringwill soon enable the vast majority of humanity to experience what only the affluent have access to today. Even better, these technologies arent the only change agents in play. It is encouraging to believe that it is within our own ability to create change. For me, Abundance is not so much inspirational as it is reinforcing. But Im lucky. Ive got a first-hand view of our own ability to move the needle on a macro scale. A focus on curating the intellectual capital of engineers, designers, and other important stakeholders has turned ASME into one of those global change agents, and has empowered those of us close to the organization to make a difference. Diamandis (who talks about some of his ideas in this issues exclusive One-on-One interview) asks us in his book to Imagine a world of nine billion people with clean water, nutritious food, affordable housing, personalized education, top-tier medical care, and nonpolluting, ubiquitous energy. He believes that the worlds growing population will have the power to solve many of the problems in front of them, and that everyone deserves to expect the fruits of their worknow thats inspirational. ME

800 453 6202

LETTERS & COMMENTS


ENGINEERING
Mechanical
THE MAGAZINE OF ASME

Technology that moves the world

01 135
No.

JANUARY 2013
ASME Past President Tom Barlow applauds an innovative approach.

by the full complement of articles and content is impressive and fully displays the innovative approach taken by you and your staff. This is truly a new landmark. Keep up the excellent work! Tom M. Barlow, ASME Past President, Lincoln, Calif. To the Editor: Thank you and your staff for the talent and foresight to continually improve, update, and adapt Mechanical Engineering magazine to our rapidly changing world. The new graphic design, the new voices you have added through monthly columns, and the One-on-One section are welcome additions. My best wishes to you and the staff at ASME for a fulfilling new year. Harry Armen, ASME Past President, Exeter, R.I. To The Editor: The new magazine is very nice but you need to tell your 20-something designer that the population is aging. White print on pale orange or gray doesn't work very well on my copy. Even my son, who is not an old fud like me, did not find it easy reading. Possibly some of the combinations were chosen to suit an online version of the magazine.

China's Innovation Gap


When China looks in the mirror, it sees little intellectual property behind its manufacturing muscle. Can it do something about it? P.34
LOOK WHATS TRENDING
PAGE

32

USING SOCIAL MEDIA


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40

NOT SO SIMPLE MACHINES


PAGE

46

ASME.ORG

JANUARY 2013

The redesigned Mechanical Engineering magazine drew positive reviews from readers, who mostly enjoyed the new look and the new voices.
THUMBS UP FOR A REDESIGN
To the Editor: Wanted to let you know I really like the new ME magazine layout. It is much better for flipping through page by page, which means I see all of it. I used to just check the table of contents and look at only selected articles. Nice job! Michael King, Durham, N.C. To the Editor: Congratulations on the new issue of Mechanical Engineering! I can appreciate the amount of inspiration and work that went into the overhaul, in that it represents a new look and a new perspective for the publication. You and your staff are to be congratulated. I thoroughly enjoyed reading through the issue, especially the writeup on Dan Mote and Lee Langston's "Not So Simple Machines." I know both of them well and have appreciated their work. The depth and breadth represented

COMMENT

The building construction sector alone is estimated to inject more than $1 trillion per year into the U.S. economy, representing more than 40 percent of the total energy use in the U.S. (or more than $300 billion per year, according to U.S. Department of Energy). As society seeks to minimize its carbon footprint, consider looking at the building sector as a sustainable system. From an energy sustainability perspective, a single building provides a wide spectrum of opportunities for efficient use of en-

BUILDINGS, SUSTAINABILITY AND IMPACTS FOR THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER


he construction, operation, and maintenance of buildings, neighborhoods, and cities represent a key sector of our economy and of our aspirations for sustainable living.
ergy for lighting, space heating and cooling, and water usage, all enabled by smart control systems. A building could be viewed not as an energy consumer, but as an energy generator if efficiency and renewable technologies such as solar, wind, and hydrogen are holistically integrated. The building envelope provides extensive opportunities for the use of green materials, and for the integration of energy efficient technologies into the faade, such as smart materials for heat storage. The same principles could ap-

ply to neighborhoods at the city scale. A single building may impact the microclimate, which could be mitigated by use of green spaces or shared infrastructure. Sustainability opportunities within the building sector are being recognized by the markets, and specific business prospects are driven by higher building code standards and associated government mandates. An example is President Obamas executive order to set sustainability goals and practices for federal agencies. New thinking is needed that considers the building and the community as a holistic, integrated, and participatory system. Examples that can reduce short- and longterm impacts include: building materials for walls and windows that have multiple uses; protection, sensing, thermal buffering, or power generation; smart neighbor-

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 09

And possibly no one else has a problem with the readability. Otherwise, the design and content are great; keep up the good work. Jim Scott, Portland, Ore. To the Editor: The format and content of January 2013 ME magazine are superb. Please keep it up, and along the way be as specific and informational as possible. Tom Savage, P.E., Seattle To the Editor: Congratulations on your visual presentation in the January 2013

issue. It is encouraging to readers to see ASME moving towards fresh and exciting horizons. I was impressed you followed up in a bold Letters & Comments section. I was particularly elated to read Henry Borgers comment about Jessica M. Wyndhams article, Freedom and

Engineering for All, from the September issue. I agree with Mr. Borger that adopting her proposed posture would create a complex parallel set of competing rights without appreciable benefits to the U.S. Arturo A. Rodriguez, P.E, Miami

We call it Oscimax . YOull call it aWesOme.

FEEDBACK
Send us your letters and comments via hard copy or e-mail memag asme.org (use subject line "Letters and Comments"). Please include full name, address and phone number. We reserve the right to edit for clarity, style, and length. We regret that unpublished letters cannot be acknowledged or returned.

hoods that connect buildings in a single network of energy and environmental information both internally and externally. These challenges offer opportunities for mechanical engineers to address and develop real-world solutions in the buildings and sustainability sectors. As a result, ASME has formed the Integrated/Sustainable Buildings Equipment Systems Task Force expressly to address these issues. For more information about the task force, contact Brandy Smith at smithb asme.org.

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JORGE GONZLEZ, the author, is an ASME Fellow, and the director of the Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability Graduate Initiative and NOAA CREST professor of Mechanical Engineering at the City College of New York.

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1/24/13 4:07 PM

TECH BUZZ

SWATTING THE SUPERBUGS


ADVANCES IN MEDICINE HAVE EXTENDED LIFE expectancy and generally performed miracles. They have also had some unintended consequences: widespread antibiotic use has made some strains of infection harder to kill. Multipledrug-resistant bacteria have become hospital superbugs and are a serious threat to patients.
The Johns Hopkins team placed the devices in single hospital rooms after routine cleaning to disperse a thin film of hydrogen peroxide across all exposed hospital equipment surfaces, as well as on floors and walls, said Trish Perl, an infectious disease specialist and the studys senior investigator. Results showed that the hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced by 64 percent the number of patients who later became contaminated with any of the most common drug-resistant organisms, Perl said. After a room has been cleaned, the vents are covered and two devices placed inside. The door to the room is closed. One device, the larger of the two, disperses hydrogen peroxide into the room, leaving an almost invisible layer2 to 6 micrometers thickon all exposed surfaces, said Pamela Lipsett, surgeon and study co-investigator. Because hydrogen peroxide can be toxic to humans if ingested or corrosive if left on the skin too long, the second, smaller device is activated to break down the bleach into its component parts of water and oxygen. The entire decontamination procedure takes about an hour and a half, Lipsett said. The devices were provided by Bioquell Inc. of Horsham, Pa. ME
JEAN THILMANY

nfection control experts at The Johns Hopkins Hospital have enlisted robot-like devices in the war against the superbugs. In a recent study, they have found that treatment of hospital rooms by these decontamination systems, which were first used to control SARS, can kill and prevent the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. The treatment disperses a bleaching agent into the air and then detoxifies the chemical. Researchers studied the use of hydrogen peroxide vaporizersfirst deployed in several Singapore hospitals during the 2002 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, and later stocked by several United States government agencies in case of an anthrax attack.

QUICK FACTS: DEVELOPER: BIOQUELL INC. WEIGHT: 65 kg DIMENSIONS: 565 x 1250 x 665mm
(with control panel)

DECONTAMINATION CAPACITY: Nominally 250m2

(subject to configuration and loading)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P.11

SUN POWERED: A Solar Impulse flight over Switzerland in 2011.

INDUSTRY CONSENSUS ON NUCLEAR SAFETY


A GROUP OF MORE THAN 100 OF THE WORLD'S TOP NUCLEAR industry executives are rethinking the definition of nuclear safety. They believe that it must expand to include social and economic disruption.
ukushima's three operating reactors shut down as designed when they sensed the March 2011 earthquake. But the plants design engineers had thought a 45-foot-high tsunami was too unlikely a possibility to consider in the design. When the wave hit, it flooded the emergency generators and shut power to the pumps cooling the reactor cores. Within three days, all three cores suffered meltdowns, and a series of small explosions released radiation into the atmosphere. Under current the safety construct, which is focused on health and safety, even the post-tsunami events at Fukushima would rate as a success, because no one died or is likely to get cancer, and the event produced only low levels of contamination. Japan evacuated 100,000 residents from

the area. Radiation will keep tens of thousands of them from returning, perhaps for decades. It will cost tens of billions of dollars to remediate the soil, and as much as $500 billion if Japan decides to replace all 54 of its nuclear power plants. According to Nils Diaz, the former chair of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission who headed ASMEs Presidential Task Force on Fukushima, the event had consequences that will last for years. These included evacuations and lost jobs and production. Society is forcing the industry to address those disruptions, Diaz told the meeting. "Every one of you is already working with the new nuclear safety construct, whether you like it or not. The only question is, is it good enough? The answer is, 'No.' Now we need to take the next step, he said. Dominique Miniere, executive vice

president of lectricit de France, which operates 58 nuclear reactors, put it bluntly: "Imagine that a person has to leave his family home, and his grandson cannot come back. I think he is right to protest, and in fact, I share his opinion. If we cannot guarantee there is no contamination, we should shut down our nuclear power plants. We are first human beings, then engineers." There are many details to work out. Open questions range from what kind of events to include in probabilistic risk assessment to operator training and public communication. The group met by invitation only in Washington, D.C., last December to seek a consensus on broadened safety goals enunciated in the ASME Presidential Task Force report on Fukushima, Forging a New Nuclear Safety Construct. The report was the subject of an article in the September 2012 issue.
ALAN S. BROWN

49

thermal power found that 92 percent had at least some familiarity with the technology, and most understood its fundamentals. Whats more, by a 49 to 32 margin, the engineers surveyed replied that CSP is no longer in the experimental stage. To see for yourself whether concentrating solar thermal power is ready and able to meet our energy needs, read this months cover story, Catching the Sun, on page 32, or sign up for the March 28 webinar on CSP technology being hosted by the ASME Energy Forum. Go to http://go.asme.org/EnergyForum for more details.

A RECENT ASME SURVEY OF NEARLY 500 ENGINEERS on the topic of concentrating solar

IN THIS ISSUE
THIS MONTH, WE INTRODUCE A COLUMN DEALING WITH GLOBAL IMPACT, A TOPIC OF IMPORTANT FOCUS TO ASME. LOOK FOR THIS NEW COLUMN FOUR TIMES A YEAR. Andrew Reynolds is senior advisor in the Office of Space and Advanced Technologies at the U.S. Department of State where he focuses on science and technology and engineering fields, innovation, strategic planning, disruptive technologies, and cooperative research.

ENGINEERS WHO BELIEVE SOLAR THERMAL IS NO LONGER EXPERIMENTAL.

TECH BUZZ
Debbie Mackay at a controlled house fire.
Photo: Debbie Mackay

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P.12

GLOBAL

LAW AND GEO-ENGINEERING


A University of Iowa law professor is recommending the creation of a global governance structure to oversee efforts to slow climate change. Geo-engineering is a global concern that will have climate and weather impacts in all countries, said Jon Carlson, professor of law at the university. The international community must act now to take charge of this activity to ensure that it is studied and deployed with full attention to the rights and interests of everyone on the planet. Carlson, an expert in environmental and international law, said he believes geoengineering is inevitable and will likely happen sooner than later. Some geo-engineering ideas are simple and locally focused, such as planting new forests to absorb carbon dioxide, or painting roofs and paved areas white to reduce solar heat absorption. Others are more complex and controversial cooling oceans so carbon dioxide-laden water sinks to the bottom more quickly or building space-based shields and mirrors to deflect solar heat from the planet. But geo-engineering comes with international legal implications because no one country can implement its own geo-engineering plan without risking weather or climate changes in other countries, Carlson said. Theres also the law of unintended consequences, because while many geo-engineering concepts have proved promising in the lab, nobody knows what will happen when they are actually put into practice, he said. Carlson proposed the International Monetary Fund as a model for the governing body. Like the IMF, his proposed organization would give all countries a place during discussions, but decisions would be made by a relatively small group of directors, each of which has a weighted vote thats based on their countrys greenhouse gas production.

HOW COMPUTER MODELING HELPS FIGHT FIRES


Debbie Mackay gained notice in the first half of 2012 when her computer modeling research showed she might be able to help firefighters predict how blazes will spread and provide better strategies to fight them. Working on her Ph.D. at the time at the University of New South Wales, Australia, she became focused on gathering information on fires and even went to a blaze with firefighters. Taking time off to have her daughter after completing her doctorate, her mind swirls now on new places to take the project.
we might see.' You could pull up a model and take a snapshot of temperatures."

'A

goal is to build a big database with different scenarios to train firefighters," she says. "It's just a matter of getting in all the cases and modeling to see how all these fires started. The database is helpful because you can't keep burning things down for the sake of training." For example, Mackay was able to collect data on a house purposely burned before it was to be demolished. "The ideal would be to do control burns but use really accurate models to train them: 'If this fire happened in a factory this is what we might see. If in an apartment, this is what

Using CFD
For the modeling, the project utilized computational fluid dynamics. "Basically, we divide the space up into small elements and solve the equations for flow iteratively over each element," she says. The main software employed was Fire Dynamics Simulator, a freeware program offered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. She thinks much more can continued on page 14

Every day, more and more of the things we see and use every day start life as a prototype printed on a 3D printer. Its a technology that is changing the world in some amazing ways. Designers

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TECH BUZZ

continued from page 12

HOW COMPUTER MODELING HELPS FIGHT FIRES


be done through testing theories. "We can talk to a lot of fire investigators who can say either this or that happened and then plug it in and see what was more likely," she says. Mackay also says some of the work ahead is just convincing more firefighters to become a part of the research. "Some are hesitant because it's not the same as a real life scenario," she says. "As the technology develops, hopefully it can show even more how useful it can be. But many firefighters I've spoken to have been overwhelmingly positive."

oday, nearly 4,000 people in Haiti power their lights and electronic devices from 15 solar power stations in trailers. And now millions more worldwide may be in line to join them. Haiti is a thus-far-successful test run for the trailers, called SunBlazers, and their creators have an ambitious plan to provide electricity for as many as 40 million people by the year 2020. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute, published an article about the project by the IEEE Community Solutions Initiative group. CSI had just delivered nine trailers to Grand Gove, a small Haitian city that was devastated by a January 2010 earthquake. Now, just over a year later, Ray Larsen and Robin Podmore, CSI

One of the CSI SunBlazers that was set up in Haiti in June 2011. Photos: Community Solutions Initiative

CONTROLLING ENVIRONMENT
And Mackay gained a strong appreciation for their job through her research. "I felt quite privileged to go along to see how they work," she says. "I was impressed by what they can do and it's much more involved than I thought. You're controlling the environment and they know where the fire might go next so much of the time. A firefighter can tell what's happening in a fire just from the color of smoke. If we learn their knowledge better, models can

SOLAR POWER WORLDWIDE


ing to The Institute article. co-founders, have made inroads into communities in Nigeria, Cameroon, and The panels can collect more than South Sudan, and they have plans laid four kilowatt-hours of energy per day, for markets in India and enough to power 40 batBangladesh. tery packs. Or some of that SunBlazers are portaenergy can be converted ble, plug-and-play solar for use by a school, compower stations composed munity center, or small NUMBER OF HAITIANS CURRENTLY of off-the-shelf parts. business. GETTING ELECTRICITY FROM SOLAR When shipped, most of The solar panels charge POWER STATIONS IN TRAILERS the trailer space is taken four large station batteries up by 12-volt lead-acid in the trailer from which battery packs for the home, as well as the smaller home packs are charged. six silicon photovoltaic panels, accordA pack is then carried to a home where each can provide power for LED lamps, Sun at night: SunBlazer batteries provide mobile phones, radios, and small light for communities off the grid. power tools. This can all be wired using wiring kits also shipped in the trailer. Several battery packs could also power small refrigeration units or water-purification or pumping stations. Once the home battery pack is 50 percent depleted, it automatically cuts off to preserve a long battery life. Then it must be carried back to the trailer station, where the homeowner receives a battery recharge or an exchange unit,

A GOAL IS TO BUILD A BIG DATABASE WITH DIFFERENT SCENARIOS TO TRAIN FIREFIGHTERS.


be more realisticHopefully the work done can be passed on to the next generation of firefighters and make their job easier." Mackay also wants to put more time into her research on oxygen's effect during blazes. "We can learn if a window is cracked what the effect of airflow in the room would be," she says. "It's important to run many scenarios to see all the possibilities." Though Mackay admits to not immediately thinking of fires as an area to devote part of her career to, she's locked in now. But she also knows it requires a higher degree of accuracy since future lives could be saved through her work. ME
BY ERIC BUTTERMAN/ASME.ORG

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P.15

CUTTING EDGE GESTURES


H

Surgeons routinely need to review medical images and records during surgery, but stepping away from the operating table and touching a keyboard and mouse can delay the procedure. It can also increase the risk of spreading infection-causing bacteria, because computers are difficult to sterilize.
aving an assistant look at the screen and relay information can be inefficient. According to Juan Pablo Wachs, an assistant professor of industrial engineering at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., a good alternative may be to have doctors gesture during surgery to give commands to a computer. Purdue researchers, including Wachs, are creating a system
continued on page 17

according to The Institute article. The SunBlazer can adapt to many different load situations: Schools, computer labs, small shops, churches, community centers, NUMBER OF coolers, and even refrigerators, Larsen said. PHOTOVOLTAIC Larger loads require multiple trailers, or PANELS IN A SUNBLAZER a stationary version of the SunBlazer, with TRAILER electrical combiners and converters that match the load. In all cases, the goal is to generate maximum benefit to the user community with jobs, service, technical, and business education, and growth reinvestment back into the NUMBER OF KILOWATT community, Larsen said. HOURS OF CSI plans to support the scale-up of ENERGY PER SunBlazer production to reach 40 million DAY COLLECTED BY A TRAILER peoplenearly 7 million homesin eight years by using some of the same tactics it developed during its pilot program in Haiti. Those include seeding local businesses and encouraging local manufacture. To scale up worldwide, CSI plans to raise seed funding through a special fund under the IEEE Foundation that NUMBER OF PEOPLE will support up to ten new start-ups per WORLDWIDE FOR WHOM SUNBLAZERS MAY year, Larsen said. PROVIDE ELECTRICITY Each of these start-ups will in turn BY 2020 find venture funding, grants, or loans of about $10 million to produce enough trailers to reach one million people in five years. If they accomplish that over the next eight years, they will all have served a total of 40 million people by 2020, Larsen said. ME

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TECH BUZZ

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P.17

continued from page 15

CUTTING EDGE GESTURES


that will recognize hand gestures given by the doctors as commands to manipulate MRI images on a large display. The system uses depth-sensing cameras and specialized algorithms The researchers asked surgeons to identify functions they perform with MRI images in typical surgeries and to suggest gestures for commands. Ten gestures were chosen: rotate clockwise and counterclockwise; browse left and right; up and down; increase and decrease brightness; and zoom in and out, Wachs said. Critical to the systems accuracy is the use of cameras to continuously monitor what the surgeon wants to do, he said. Surgeons will make many gestures during the course of a surgery to communicate with other doctors and nurses," Wachs said. The main challenge is to create algorithms capable of understanding the difference between these gestures and those specifically intended as commands to browse the image-viewing system." The hand-gesture recognition system uses a Microsoft Kinect camera, which senses three-dimensional space. The camera is used in electronic games

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An example of hand gestures a surgeon might use in the operating room to browse and display medical images of a patient during an operation.

that can track a person's hands. Here, it maps the surgeon's body in 3-D. The researchers are still at work on the system so it is not yet ready for the operating room. ME
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WEB TOOL ANALYZES ENERGY SCENARIOS


THE NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY HAS CREATED an energy analysis tool to help individuals and educators experiment with future energy use scenarios. The interactive Buildings, Industry, Transportation, Electricity, and Transportation Scenarios, nicknamed Bites, allows users to explore how changes in energy demand and supply can affect carbon dioxide emissions and the current U.S. energy trajectory. According to Austin Brown, senior analyst at the lab, "Bites can help people understand the complex issues surrounding the energy and carbon implications of altering America's energy profile. By imagining 'what-if' scenarios, users are able to adjust inputs from things like electricity generation to transportation fuel use in order to compare their outcomes to baseline cases." Bites was adapted for the web so anyone can investigate possible pathways for the U.S. energy economy. Users can adjust assumptions to each sector of the U.S. economy or combine strategies to predict potential future energy use. Scenarios created in Bites can be private, or they can be shared with the analysis community for discussion. Educators and students can use Bites to study the combined impacts of research, policy, or other forms of national action in energy. The Bites team has developed a college-level workshop and is seeking interested educators to help refine the curriculum.

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TECH BUZZ || GLOBAL IMPACT BY ANDREW REYNOLDS

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P.18

DIPLOMACY, DEVELOPMENT, DEFENSE, AND ENGINEERING


D
ecades of empirical evidence are indisputable: science, technology, engineering, and innovation are dominant forces for economic prosperity and social progress. All nationslarge and smallaspire to harness them. The Obama administration policy, published as National Security Strategy in May 2010, embraced those forces as seminal elements of American security and welfare. At the same time, the strategy designated development, the traditional responsibility of the U.S. Agency for International Development, as a third pillar of U.S. national security and foreign relations, together with diplomacy and defense. The first Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, released in 2010 by the U.S. Department of State and USAID, concluded: Science, engineering, technology, and innovation are the engines of modern society and a dominant force in globalization and international economic development. Despite fierce competition and rapidly increasing parity in science, technology, and engineering assets among nations, the United States remains predominant in most fields and is a world leader in education, research, and innovation. U.S. strategic and national security objectives are complemented by domestic R&D priorities identified by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and engineering is pervasive in all of them. They include advanced manufacturing; clean energy; global climate

U.S. foreign policy isnt just about ambassadors and admirals anymore. Engineers are playing a key role in advancing the national interest.
Strategic forecastssuch as Project Horizon Progress Report, prepared by the State Department and USAID in 2006, and the National Intelligence Councils Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds reached similar conclusions about major trends that will impact the future: Science, technology, and engineering will be indispensable to address global grand challenges, but will face economic, social, and ethical boundaries and limits. Growing population and increased human needs will collide with resource constraints, potentially creating geopolitical disputes, trade barriers, sanctions, and national and regional conflict, even war. Demands on the global commons could become more intractable as national and international institutions may be incapable of providing adequate leadership and governance for their stewardship. The information revolution is empowering individuals and non-state actors in unforeseen and unprecedented ways, spurring a new generation of entrepreneurs, innovations and special interests that is challenging the status quo, the role of traditional institutions and even sovereign governments.

change; R&D for informed policy-making and management; information technology R&D; nanotechnology; biological innovation; science, technology, engineering, and math education; and innovation and commercialization of technologies.

Engineering in the Strategic Global Setting


Global challenges of the 21st centurygrowing population; food security; health services; competition for water, energy and other natural resources; nonproliferation; conservation of biodiversity; and protection of the environment and climate, among many othersdo not respect national boundaries and require

cooperation in science and engineering to address them successfully. In the strategic and national security environments we face as a nation and world, engineering in its broadest senseencompassing all of its disciplines, industries, practitioners, innovators, and educators in all countriesmust lead the quest for practical solutions to global problems. U.S. foreign policy isn't just about ambassadors and admirals anymore. ME

Andrew Reynolds is senior advisor for space and advanced technologies, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, at the U.S. Department of State.

TECH BUZZ || POWER TRANSMISSION & MOTION CONTROL

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 20

ENERGY HARVESTING, THE BIG AND THE SMALL


R
ail switches, sensors, signal lights, and crossing gates are often located in remote areas, where it can be expensive to provide power. Mechanical engineer Lei Zuo and two graduate students at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, developed the Railroad Energy Harvester to provide locally generated power to such devices. The harvester is built around a mechanical motion rectifier and flywheel. The mechanical rectifier uses two one-way clutches to convert irregular upand-down vibratory motions into unidirectional rotation of the generator. The design makes use of pulse-like vibrations (high vertical velocity, short intermittent duration) generated by a train's wheels.
The rumble of passing trains can be picked up by this device and converted into enough electricity to power signal lights.
Photo: Lei Zuo.

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The design also uses a flywheel to store energy until it is converted into stable power. When combined with a one-shaft design, the system generates high-quality direct current power at energy conversion efficiencies of more than 70 percent without an electrical rectifier. The application has been licensed to Electric Truck, LLC/Harvest NRG, Inc. The Connecticut company was founded in 2008 to commercialize an energy harvesting shock absorber developed by Tufts University and Argonne National Laboratory. If railroads represent a large energy harvesting application, then pacemakers represent a small but crucial niche. Pacemakers regulate the heart by using small electrical pulses to contract muscles and ensure an adequate heart rate. They rely on batteries, which must be replaced surgically every seven to 10 years. Replacing the battery with an energy harvester would eliminate the need for replacement operations. The harvester would use the hearts own beat as the source of electrical energy. "The idea is to use ambient vibrations that are typically wasted and convert them to electrical energy," M. Amin Karami, a University of Michigan aerospace engineering research fellow. Pacemakers use only a few microwatts of power. Karami's proposed power source is based on a system he originally developed to harvest electricity from the wings of a light unpiloted aircraft. continued on page 26

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TECH BUZZ || ONE-ON-ONE

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 22

ME: You started the X Prize Foundation to jumpstart private space flight. Now you offer prizes for efficient cars, lunar landers, oil spill cleanups, and medical diagnostics. Why? P.D: I was initially driven by my passion for wanting to open up space. By the time the Ansari X Prize was won eight years later, I had become enamored with the potential of incentive prizes to really drive breakthroughs, to identify places where there were market failures and to help solve them. ME: What is the difference between an exciting technology and one that merits an X Prize? P.D: In my mind, an X Prize is something that actually can benefit the lives of a large number of people. There are plenty of exciting technologies that are fun and cool, but they are not going to create fundamentally a world of abundance for the lives of many individuals. ME: Your best-seller, Abundance, argues that independent innovators can develop breakthroughs inexpensively with new technology. Yet things like space ships cost money. Is this a contradiction? P.D: I would argue that the $26 million that [Microsoft's] Paul Allen put up was not big money relative to what space had cost previously, which was hundreds of millions if not billions of dollars. It could be funded by tens of thousands of people around the world. In addition, in 2012, $2.8 billion was raised through various crowd-funding mechanisms. Eric Migicovsky was crowd-sourced $10 million dollars just to build a new watch. Clearly, with the right story, far more than $26 million could be raised to build space ships. And new technologies, like 3-D manufacturing and robotics, enable people to build physical things with far less money. ME: Since the first X Prize, prizes have become a part of engineering culture. Has this changed engineering? P.D: I believe that people are realizing that if you are driven by enough passion with a clear, measurable objective, almost anything is obtainable. I think that small teams of individuals powered by exponential, growing technologies can now accomplish what only government and large corporations could once do.

INTERVIEW BY Alan S. Brown

Q&A PETER DIAMANDIS


Space has always fascinated Peter Diamandis. He put his Harvard Medical School education on hold to earn a master's in aeronautics and astronautics. Back in med school, he founded Space University and a satellite company that landed a $100 million launch contract. He is best known for creating the $10 million X Prize, which jumpstarted private space flight, and Singularity University, a Silicon Valley school for technology leaders.

ME: You've had a lot of fun in your career, and many young engineers have playful attitudes. What's going on here? P.D: I think that's a great observation! We are entering a time where people are beginning to define their own careers, rather than the old way of going to work for an IBM or Lockheed. Young individuals realize they can form a small team or be a company of one. Exponential growing technologies multiplied by the Internet are allowing individuals to become more creative and entrepreneurial than ever before. You can make a career literally out of doing anything. Are you a great video game player? Designer? Movie-goer? Whatever it may be, you can

use your talents to make a living.


ME: You've had several dream technology careers wrapped into one lifetime. What's next for Peter Diamandis? H.L: I am thrilled about the niche I've created with X Prize and with the Singularity University. Both are on the cutting edge of innovation. That, coupled with Planetary Resources (a company founded to mine asteroids), can definitely keep me engaged for at least one normal human lifetime. I also hope to work on human longevity over the next decade or two. While asteroid mining is a $1 trillion opportunity, human longevity is anotherand it comes with the fringe benefit of a long and exciting life. ME

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TECH BUZZ || HOT LABS

At first blush, Internet-enabled cars and robotic fish might not seem to have much in common. But to be realized, both will depend on a wireless network to transmit information.
CONNECTED CARS

ACROSS LAND OR SEA


C

A Wayne State lab is working with researchers at Ford Motor Co. to speed the application development process for Fords OpeXC platform, left, and to bring connected-car features to market faster. The image on the right shows the dashboard of a connected car from Ford. Future cars will include advanced safety features. Photos courtesy of Ford Motor Co.

THE LAB Dependable Networking and Computing Group, Wayne State University, Detroit. THE WORK The Dependable Networking and Computing Group focuses on connected cars, which will be equipped with Internet access and a wireless local area network to link devices. Specifically the group studies the performance of networks needed to support broadband connection on the road. DEVELOPMENT Researchers are equipping downtown Detroit with a special wireless network to test the way vehicles would communicate and perform in the real world.

onnected cars will be able to alert drivers to hazards on the road and help them avoid traffic jams. That kind of information in real time could greatly boost vehicle safety, said Hongwei Zhang, who leads the Dependable Networking and Computing Group. The group is mounting a project in Detroit to look at ways to combine networking technologies to find the best support structure for vehicle communications, Zhang said. The findings have the potential to influence both vehicle and telecommunications infrastructure design, he said. A current project integrates WiMAX mobile broadband with Global Environment for Network Innovations. The next generation of the Internet is being developed based on GENI, Zhang said. Connected cars must be able to switch between mobile broadband networks operating in the area through which the car is traveling. At the same time, in-car entertainment systems and embedded sensor networks can hinder the vehicles communications infrastructure. And that infrastructure needs to contain enough computing capacity to handle information from the networked vehicles, Zhang said.

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 25

The researchers are connecting a multi-sector WiMAX network in downtown Detroit to the national GENI infrastructure. Theyll then be able to run connected vehicle performance tests in a real-world environment and develop other vehicle applications based on next-generation Internet capabilities. Connected cars could also realize the concept of active safety, in which vehicles respond to changes in the environment and act automatically to protect occupants. So they might also feature embedded sensors that would help dictate how cars operate

individually and how groups of cars behave in order to save fuel. To that end, the Wayne State lab is also collaborating with researchers at Ford Motor Co. on a platform called OpenXC to speed the application development process and bring connected-car features to market faster. The goal is to have OpenXC integrated with GENI in 2013, Zhang said. If that goal is realized, software developers and network engineers would be able to work in parallel on new research, he added.

onitoring an underwater environment isnt easy, said Xiabo Tan, director of the Smart Microsystems Laboratory at Michigan State University. Because water conditions vary with time and location sampling needs to be continuous and cant be done with fixed sensors. Tans lab is working to develop schools of robotic fish made of polymer to patrol underwater environments. The small and inexpensive fish-like robots carry multiple sensors and wireless communication devices. The sensors monitor water quality and the communication devices send data back to a base station where information will be collected and analyzed, Tan said. The work stems naturally from the labs mission to create smart and small integrated systems by merging advanced modeling, control, and design methodologies with novel materials and fabrication processes. The robots fishlike shape minimizes drag. Robotic fish move through the water using rhythmic body and fin motions, which provide better maneuverability than does propeller-based propulsion and are especially helpful in dealing with the turbulences and currents the robots often encounter, he said. The robots wont disturb other aquatic creatures with loud motors or jerky movement. The latest prototype, released in 2012, can submerge, which the initial robotic fish couldnt do, and is nearly capable of transferring sensor signals in real time. The fish submerges to sense water quality, but must surface to transmit signals to the base station or to other robotic fish, making for a 10- to 20-minute lag from the time the water is sampled to when information is sent. The robots were developing are unique in the sense that they are a hybrid of a robotic fish and an underwater glider, Tan said. An underwater glider uses the effects of buoyancy to move, and it consumes energy only when changing course.

ROBOT FISH

This fishlike robot is being developed at Michigan State University to continually monitor and send out information on aquatic conditions. Photo: Michigan State University

THE LAB The Smart Microsystems Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing. THE WORK The development of fishlike robots that swim in schools to collect and disseminate information about underwater conditions. DEVELOPMENT Once perfected, robot fish can patrol waterways monitoring temperature, oxygen levels, and other water quality factors. Its hoped they could detect algae blooms or the release of pollutants in real time.
By adopting gliding as a main locomotion mode and tail movement as a maneuvering mechanism, we hope that our robots can work for extended periods on each battery charge. The lab continues to work to make the prototype fish affordable. Each fish will be fitted with sensors to monitor algae blooms, oxygen levels, water temperature, and pollutants, but the large size and high price of each sensoraround $2,000 eachmakes low costs a challenge, Tan said. The fish themselves cost about $2,500 with no sensors. The research has been supported by several projects funded by the National Science Foundation. ME

TECH BUZZ || POWER TRANSMISSION & MOTION CONTROL


continued from page 21

ENERGY HARVESTING, THE BIG AND THE SMALL


The harvester uses a thin sliver of piezoelectric material, which converts vibration into electricity. The system uses magnets to amplify power production, which makes the device less sensitive to heart rate changes. Based on a test using a shaker to reproduce heart vibrations, the system generated enough power from 20 to 600 pulses per minute to continuously power a pacemaker. An ordinary heartbeat would generate about 10 microwatts of power, eight times more than a pacemaker requires. The device is also immune to interference from such devices as cell phones and microwave ovens, Karami said.

Gravity Powers LED Lamp


new gravity-powered light developed by London's Therefore Product Design Consultants, promises to light rooms in developing communities without electrical power. Therefore is also looking at the same technology to recharge batteries and perhaps even make a satellite connection to the Internet.

A 20-pound weight falling slowly provides enough kinetic energy to power a small light.

The design is simplicity itself. The light unit consists of an LED, generator, and drivetrain. Users mount it head-high, then fill a fabric bag with 20 pounds of rocks or sand and attach it to the unit. The drivetrain slows the descent of the bag, turning the generator and powering the light. The device generates 0.1 watt for 30 minutes or 0.5 watt for 18 minutes. Although 0.5 watt is not very much electricity, it is enough to produce more light than a kerosene lamp, according to Therefores co-founder, Martin Reddiford. Reddiford began working on alternatives to kerosene lamps three years ago.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 27

VERBATIM

What drove mea man on a two-wheeler with a child standing in front, his wife sitting behind, add to that the wet roadswas a family in potential danger.
Ratan Tata, recently retired CEO of Tata Group, on his inspiration for the Nano automobile.
LBP-017 (4.625 X 7.5).ai 1 2/3/2011 8:49:00 AM

Not only do kerosene lamps pump 244 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year, but their smoke is linked to cancer, eye infections, and cataracts. Every year in India alone, more than 2.5 million people suffer burns from overturned kerosene lamps. In some regions, kerosene consumes 10 to 20 percent of household income. At first, Reddiford investigated solar powered lamps with batteries. They proved too expensive, and not just because of the panels. The battery accounted for one-third the total cost, and it needed replacement every few years. Instead, Therefore sought ways to eliminate the battery entirely. It considered crank-based designs, but users needed to invest lots of time in rewinding. "The joy of this system is that three seconds of work gives you 30 minutes of light, so there is a big payback," he said. Eliminating the battery slashes costs. Reddiford estimates he can produce 5,000 prototype units for $6.50 each. That is low enough for the light to pay for itself in saved kerosene fuel within three months. After that, operation is free. The LEDs should last for years. The prototype includes a custom gearbox and a direct current motor that acts as the generator. While the motor matches the unit's torque and voltage requirements, it is not especially efficient. The company plans to evaluate a wider range of motors and alternators in the future. The company originally set out to raise $50,000 through crowdsourced funding. Instead, it raised $300,000 within 40 days. This will enable it to build 1,000 GavityLights with terminals that will enable users to use them to charge batteries, run a task light for desk reading, or operate a radio. ME
C M Y CM MY CY CMY K

ALAN S. BROWN

TECH BUZZ || VAULT MARCH 1953

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 28

LOOKING BACK

PROGRESS IN AUTOMATIC PRODUCTION


By H.L. WADDELL EDITOR, FACTORY MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE , NEW YORK

BEFORE THE CPU


In the infancy of computers 60 years ago, the lack of smart controls put strict limits on uninterrupted manufacture of acceptable products without human intervention. This is an excerpt from an article published in the March 1953 issue of Mechanical Engineering.

The editor of a monthly magazine devoted to factory operations, Harry Lee Waddell, took stock of the current state of automatic production, or automation, in an article published 60 years ago this month, when the concept was starting to take hold.
ltimate automation, as we have defined it, calls for uninterrupted manufacture of acceptable products without human intervention. To meet that specification on a factory-wide basis, we must first apply ultimate automation to the individual processes in the plant. Then we must integrate them in a coordinated system. Finally, we must apply a single over-riding control. Of course, there may be several intermediate layers instead of just one. Schematically, the resulting control pattern will look very much like a company organization chart. Depending on the complexity of the processes involved, it may look like the chart of a one-plant small company; or it may look like the chart of a multiplant, multidivision, industrial giant. At each stage, the required elements of control are the same; a closed-loop or feedback system is needed. The commonest form of feedback system is, of course, the human being. He can sense, through sight,

MR. CHARLIE

feel, and so forth, what is going on. In his memory, he can store up information on optimum conditions in terms of his senses. When there is a difference between what is going on and what should be going on, his nervous system puts his muscles to work to effect a correction in the process. Now, its when the human being comes to making a correction in the process that we have to examine two possible approaches. Someone may have told him: If the process error is exactly so-and-so, take thus-andsuch action. Thats simple. And if thats all thats required, then the entire feedback control can be provided mechanically. But what if the specific process error has not been anticipated? At this point, our human being must begin to use his powers of reason and judgment. He faces an original problem, and he must figure out an original solution. This is beyond the present limit of mechanical brains, and hence represents the present limit of feedback control and of automation. ME

The first transportable, submersible drilling rig, which led to todays offshore gas and oil exploration, was commissioned in 1953. Moored at Morgan City, La., today the rig is a museum and training center. It was recognized as an ASME Historical Mechanical Engineering Landmark in March 2012.

TECH BUZZ || WASHINGTON

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 29

The Obama Administration has issued the "Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste," a document describing a system to transport, store, and dispose of nuclear waste. The strategy aims to provide for safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities.
he strategy includes creation of interim storage facilities by 2021 and of a permanent repository by 2048, the development of transportation capabilities to move fuel from shut-down reactors, and establishment of a new organization to run the program. The document notes that a consent-based siting process could result in more than one

ADMINISTRATION ISSUES STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR WASTE


T
THE STRATEGY AT A GLANCE

Creation of interim storage facilities by 2021. Permanent repository established by 2048.

Development of transportation methods to move fuel from shut-down reactors. Founding a new organization to run the program.

storage facility and/or repository, depending on the outcome of discussions with host communities. It also acknowledges that legislation will be needed to permit some of the strategys activities. Until the necessary legislation is enacted, the administration plans to pursue parts of the strategy authorized by current law. The full 18-page strategy is available at tinyurl.com/aun2g9h. The House Energy and Commerce Committee recently issued a statement, which draws attention to the strategy's silence on the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. That statement may be read at tinyurl.com/ b464qg8.

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2013
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TECH BUZZ || TRENDING

GRAPH 01

GLOBAL MANUFACTURING GROSS VALUE ADDED, BY SEGMENT, 2010


100% = $10.5 trillion
SOURCE: World Bank; McKinsey Global Institute analysis

LABOR INTENSIVE TRADABLES


apparel/textiles, furniture, toys

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY INNOVATORS


computers, semiconductors

7% % 9

MANUFACTURING THE FUTURE


Manufacturing remains the surest path to economic growth in developing nations. In China, for example, it helped double the size of the middle class in just 12 years. Gains in other developing countries could catapult 1.8 billion people into the consuming class by 2025. In advanced economies, manufacturing still remains a critical source of innovation, productivity, and exports. Increasingly, it relies on services, obscuring the once clear distinction between these two segments of the economy.
hese are some of the findings in Manufacturing the Future: The next era of global growth and innovation, by McKinsey Global Institute, the economic research arm of global management consultant McKinsey & Co. The report seeks to make sense of a tumultuous decade in manufacturing. McKinsey's analysis classifies manufacturing into five different groups, based on inputs such as R&D, labor, capital, energy, and ease of trade. McKinsey's approach seeks to explain how different types of manufacturers respond to today's markets. For example, McKinsey identifies global goods for local markets as manufacturing's largest segment, accountGRAPH 1 Manufacturing is an extremely diverse sector, encompassing five broad segments whose sources of success differ greatly. Manufacturing segments differ by three main points: distribution of factor costs across capital, energy, and labor, the degree of innovation required to compete, and how tradable a product category is.

BY THE NUMBERS:

ENERGY OR RESOURCE INTENSIVE COMMODITIES


coke, nuclear, and refined-petroleum products, paper/pulp

22%
REGIONAL PROCESSING
food, beverages, plastics, printing

28%
GLOBAL GOODS FOR LOCAL MARKETS
appliances, automotive, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

34%

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 31

GRAPH 02

MANUFACTURING VALUE ADDED AS SHARE OF GDP


SOURCE: World Bank; McKinsey Global Institute analysis

26 24 22
PERCENT SHARE

20 18 16 14 12 10 0 1981

Middle income1

World High income 2 Low income 3

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

1 GNI per capita $1,006$12,275. Example countries: India, China, Russia, Thailand. 2 GNI per capita $12,276 or more. Example countries: EU countries, United States. 3 GNI per capita $1,005 or less. Example countries: Kenya, Nepal, Tanzania.

GRAPH 2 Manufacturings share of GDP has fallen in all but the poorest economies.

GRAPH 03

MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2010


Service Type
R&D, procurement, distribution, sales and marketing, post-sales service, back-office support, and management

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES/ INNOVATORS

55 45

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; GLOBAL INNOVATION McKinsey Global Institute analysis FOR LOCAL MARKETS

REGIONAL PROCESSING

40 60 31 69 31 69 30 70

ENERGY/ RESOURCE INTENSIVE COMMODITIES

Manufacturing Type
early-stage manufacturing and final assembly

LABOR INTENSIVE TRADABLES

ing for just over one-third of the gross value added by all manufacturing worldwide. Global goods include appliances, drugs, and vehicles, products produced or assembled regionally that often make use of components from other regions, like electric motors from China or auto engines from Japan. Competition hinges on research and quality. China is the leader in global goods, followed by the United States, Japan, and Germany. China dominates the production of laborintensive goods, and leads in energy- and resource-intensive products. The United States is the leader in regional processing (things like food, print, and plastics), thanks to automation and a robust supply chain, as well as globally traded technologies that rely on rapid innovation. Manufacturing grows rapidly as a share of the total economy in developing nations. McKinsey found that it usually peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, and then its share begins to decline as the service sector increases. Manufacturing increases wages and wealth, giving consumers more money to spend on services. As the demand for services increases, service jobs generate new jobs themselves. In advanced nations, in fact, service jobs pump more money into the economy than manufacturing jobs do, according to McKinsey. The report also highlights the growing importance of service inputs in manufacturing. McKinsey finds that R&D, marketing and sales, and customer support account for more than one-third of America's 11.5 million manufacturing jobs. Manufacturers also often outsource jobs they might have once handled themselves. Instead of operating warehouses, truck fleets, and networks, they hire logistics, telecommunications, and IT companies to do it for them. McKinsey estimates that this generates 4.7 million service-sector jobs that depend directly on manufacturing. Another 1 million workers are employed in the production of primary resources, such as iron ore and lumber, for manufactured goods. Added together, this brings total U.S. manufacturing employment to 17.2 million, more than half of them in services. ME
ALAN S. BROWN

GRAPH 3 Service type activities already make up 30 to 55 percent of manufacturing employment.

F32

COVER FEATURE | CATCHING THE SUN

The field of 170,000 mirrors at the $2.2 billion Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California will train sunlight onto 459-foot towers, generating 377 MW when it goes online later this year.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 33

THE SUN
There's more than one type of solar energy. And advances in efficiency and cost are making concentrating solar thermal power an attractive option.
BY MARK CRAWFORD

CATCHING

These dish engines in Albuquerque, New Mexico, focus sunlight onto a high efficiency Stirling engine to generate electricity.
Photo: Sandia National Laboratories/Randy Montoya

Capturing that heat and putting it to work has captivated minds of engineers since Archimedess time, if not before. But it has taken advances in materials science and control technologies to bring this ancient dream to the cusp of practical power production. Photovoltaic cells, which turn light into electricity, are the most common means of capturing solar energy. Concentrating solar power systems are more complex: mirrorssometimes 100,000 or morecontrolled by sophisticated tracking systems reflect and concentrate sunlight, which is then converted to heat to generate electricity via steam turbines or heat engines. CSP systems range in size from large, utility-scale operations to smaller units that power individual buildings or plants. The potential for CSP is enormous. More solar energy reaches the earth in one hour than the combined worldwide consumption of energy by human activities in one year. A recent study by the International Energy Agency's SolarPACES group, in conjunction with the

rchimedes, the Greek engineer from the third century B.C., defended his home of Syracuse from a besieging Roman fleet by focusing sunlight reflected off highly polished shields onto the ships, setting them afire. As a historical matter, its probably a myth, but it neatly illustrates the power of solar energy. When concentrated to a high degree, sunlight generates intense heat.

European Solar Thermal Electricity Association and Greenpeace International, suggested that concentrating solar power systems could provide up to 25 percent of the world's electricity needs by 2050. In spite of the promise of CSP, the challenge is making solar thermal energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels and other alternative energy sources. This means increasing the efficiency of CSP technologies, as well as making them more affordable. The primary challenge that is driving all the development work on this technology is how to reduce the installation and operating costs to the point where the generated electricity is cost-competitive with other conventional forms of electricity generation, said Scott R. Hunter, senior research scientist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. This is driving the design of lower-cost mirror materials, thermal storage, scaling to larger mirrors and facilities, and higher operating temperatures.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 35

SOLAR THERMAL IN FOCUS


The ux of energy streaming in as sunlight is roughly 1,000 W per square meter. Getting that ux concentrated enough to be able to do work with it is the challenge for all CSP technologies. Some CSP systems focus sunlight onto a line, where tubes contain a working uid, such as synthetic oil, which is heated and pumped to heat exchangers to produce high-pressure steam. Such systems are oriented north-south and track on a single axis from east to west over the course of a day. The most mature form of this linear concentrator technology uses single-piece parabolic reectors; facilities using this conguration have more than 500 MW nameplate capacity. Linear Fresnel reector systems consist of slightly curved mirrors mounted on trackers on the ground, which reect sunlight onto a receiver tube xed in space above the mirrors. To get higher concentrationsand thus higher temperaturesother CSP systems focus sunlight to a single point. In so-called power tower systems, numerous sun-tracking mirrors known as heliostats focus sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a tall tower. This solar energy heats a heat-transfer uid that is used to generate steam, which then powers a conventional turbine generator. BrightSource Energy of Oakland, Calif., is currently constructing the $2.2 billion Ivanpah project in California, a power tower that will be the worlds largest solar thermal energy plant and power about 150,000 homes. A smaller version of the two-dimensional array called a dish engine uses a mirrored parabolic dish that tracks the sun across the sky. A power conversion unit at the focal point produces electricity. Dish engines are currently the most efcient CSP technology, with a record greater than 31 percent. The power block of a dish engine system is a Stirling engine, which uses hydrogen gas or helium as the working uid. Power towers and dish engines track in two directions and have higher efciency by using dual curved mirrors (focusing at a point or an area on the receiver). Consequently the tracking is more complex to keep the suns image focused on the receiver. Currently about 500 MW of electricity is generated by CSP in the U.S. Five new plants are under construction with nancing from the U.S. Department of Energy loan guarantee program, for start-up in 2013 or early 2014, which will collectively add another 1.3 GW. Some of these plants are among the largest CSP plants in the world. The Department of Energys SunShot Initiative was established in 2011 to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the

Many of the technologies have been shown to work, but the issue is more on how to reduce the cost of large-scale manufacturing and deployment.
decade. This support has been a key driver in advancing CSP research. The SunShot Initiative has set an aggressive target for CSP technologies to achieve cost parity with other forms of energy on the grid by the year 2020, said Ranga Pitchumani, a professor of mechanical engineering at Virginia Tech and director of the Concentrating Solar Power Program for the SunShot Initiative. This calls for at least a 75 percent reduction in costs in order to achieve a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh electric or less without subsidy. Technological improvements have been made in nearly all the sub-components of CSP systems over the past few years. Research efforts include developing novel materials and heat-transfer uids, designing receivers that can achieve high temperatures, and building higher-efciency heat collectors. Some of the key technology issues are molten-salt storage, advanced concentrator technologies, and advanced thermal receiver approaches, said Thomas R. Mancini of TRMancini Solar Consulting in Albuquerque, N.M. Many of the technologies have been shown to work, but the issue is more on how to reduce the cost of large-scale manufacturing and deployment.

HOT TO HANDLE
One area of emphasis is heat-transfer uids. The efciency of the heat engines at the heart of a solar thermal plant is directly tied to its operating temperature, but the heat-transfer uids in current use cant stand up to the highest heat levels. A heat-transfer uid that can operate at very high temperature as a liquid, with no decomposition, will

ITS A DIRTY JOB BUT . . .


Its pretty simple: dirty mirrors and solar panels dont concentrate as much solar energy. A team headed by Scott Hunter of Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Measurement Science and Systems Engineering Division recently received more than $2 million from the Department of Energys SunShot Initiative to develop low-cost, self-cleaning reflector coatings for concentrating solar power collectors. The goal is to develop a transparent superhydrophobic coating that can be applied to the surface of solar collector mirrors. The coating will keep collector mirrors clear of debris by preventing dust from sticking to the mirror surface, maximizing the amount of reflected sunlight from the collector mirrors and decreasing cleaning costs. Hunter plans to engineer the coatings so they can be easily applied to the front surface of CSP collector or heliostat mirrors. If all goes well after two years of field testing, the coatings will be ready for application in operating facilities. "By using transparent superhydrophobic coatings on collector mirrors, well be able to create high-performance and low-maintenance concentrating solar power electricity generation," he said. The reflector coatings are expected to provide as much as a 90 percent reduction in mirror cleaning and maintenance costs, and provide about a 20 percent improvement in the average amount of reflected solar energy. result in higher thermal efciencies for CSP, said associate professor Peiwen Li, director of the University of Arizonas Energy and Fuel Cell Laboratory. The temperature limit of synthetic oil is 400 C and for the current available molten salt is 550 C. New DOE projects are setting a target of 800 C. Li is a principal investigator for a ve-year, $5 million project funded by the SunShot Initiative to develop molten salt-based uids as possible alternatives to traditional heat-transfer uids. Lis objective is to make a heat-transfer uid from multiple salts that can work in a temperature range from 250 C to 800 C. This means the uid will not freeze at temperatures above 250 C and will not degrade below 800 C, Li said. Other requirements for the heat-transfer uid include low cost and favorable properties like low vapor pressure, low viscosity, and high thermal conductivity. Another ve-year, $5.5 million SunShot project will team researchers from the University of California-Los Angeles, University of California-Berkeley, and Yale University to investigate the use of metal alloys as a heat-transfer uid in CSP systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800 C. Professor Sungtaek Ju of UCLAs Department of Mechanical Engineering is the lead on that project, which will use a novel material synthesis system to rapidly screen metal alloys with the desired thermophysical properties. The search space is being dened through thermochemical modeling efforts and the application of rapid screening tools. A combination of modeling and experimental tools, including high temperature corrosion ow loops, will be used to verify that the metal alloys identied can meet all the needs of a CSP plant. Our main goal is to develop new types of lowmelting point alloys and associated structural materials with several constraints, including high-temperature stability to allow the power cycle to run at temperatures beyond 650 C, thereby achieving high cycle efciency and low levelized cost of electricity, Ju said. We also want minimal corrosion and creep, high heat-transfer performance, low viscosity, and high heat capacity. New high-operating-temperature uids, the DOE believes, can be used to realize thermodynamic power conversion cycles capable of 50 percent or greater thermal-to-electric conversion efciencies, thereby reaching a levelized cost of electricity target of 6 cents per kWh, Ju said. Of course, the cycle efciency is a function of the heat source temperature and we want to push it as high as possible.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 37

New heat-transfer fluids can be used to reach conversion efficiencies of 50 percent or greater.
INDUSTRIAL SOLAR
The SunShot Initiative is funding other research that might be able to deliver new technologies to meet various technical and cost targets within the next three to ve years, Pitchumani said. These include highly efcient reector materials integrated with low-cost structures for collectors, lean solar eld manufacturing and assembly approaches, self-aligning and tracking heliostats, self-cleaning mirrors, solar selective coatings for enhanced absorption with lower radiative loss, and corrosion-resistant materials and coatings. High-temperature, higher-efciency power cycles, such as the supercritical CO2 cycle at the 1 MW and 10 MW scales, and the solar-integrated Brayton cycle, will trend toward higher (greater than 50 percent) efciency operation with dry cooling, Pitchumani said. Some of these have broader relevance beyond the solar industry to the nuclear and fossil industries as well. The SunShot Initiative is also investing in several thermal energy storage technologies. A CSP plant can be more exible in meeting utility power demands if it has reliable thermal storage, and storage makes it more competitive with photovoltaics, which have dropped in price in recent years. In one project, General Atomics is developing a method for storing the thermal energy produced by a CSP system in chemical bonds, which promises signicantly higher energy storage density than sensible and latent energy storage methods. Another approach being developed by Terrafore, in collaboration with the Southwest Research Institute, focuses on a packed bed of encapsulated phase-change materials. Solar thermal is also an excellent t for a variety of industrial applications, such as thermal enhanced oil
Parabolic troughs bring sunlight to focus along a line. Although they produce lower temperatures than solar towers do, linear concentrators can be easier to build and operate.
Photo: DOE/NREL 00113/Warren Gretz

recovery, where solar energy is used to produce steam to steam ood oil wells that are low pressure and viscous, allowing for easier resource extraction. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery is projected to be a $16 billion market by 2020, said Kristin Hunter, communications director for BrightSource. Estimates indicate that more than 50 percent of global oil reserves require enhanced oil recovery. Thermal EOR represents a major market opportunity in the U.S. and in oil producing countries around the world. Nearly every part of the CSP system presents rich opportunities for mechanical engineers to contribute their expertise. In particular, the challenging SunShot Initiative goals call for innovations and ingenious system designs to drive costs down, while improving efciencies. Virtually every sub-discipline in mechanical engineering plays a role in CSPheat transfer, uid mechanics, high-temperature materials and coatings, thermodynamic power cycles, lean manufacturing, assembly and automation, metrology, sensing and control, and computational modeling, Pitchumani said. In addition, there is tremendous opportunity to develop reliable and cost-effective solutions for system components such as actuators and drives, pumps, valves, ttings, and pressure vessels. These solutions must also be engineered to endure the harsh temperature, corrosive, and erosive environments in which CSP systems operate. ME MARK CRAWFORD is a geologist and independent writer based in Madison, Wis.

P. 38 | MARCH 2013 | MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT:

PLM
I

It's not just for engineers anymore.

BY JEAN THILMANY

HE VENDORS OF PRODUCT lifecycle management systems are in a constant battle against being pigeonholed. Sure, PLM has become a critical tool for manufacturers of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, or companies that produce and package food. But lifecycle management can be used in all types of manufacturing industries, the vendors say.
ndeed, engineers may not realize the various industries that use PLM now, or how the technology helps non-engineering companies. For instance, the technology is being used by a high-end watchmaker and an embroidery artist to determine how it could work for high-end design. And in the fashion industry, PLM could soon manage something as hard to dene as the latest clothing trend in Tokyo or what shade is being touted as the new black during Milan Fashion Week. In spite of the differences in the way engineers, chem51164378211473 ists, retailers, and apparel makers use PLM, theyre using it for the same basic purpose: to organize and track data across the enterprise and around the globe, said Vipin Goyal, senior manager at Kalypso, a technology consulting rm in Beachwood, Ohio. Goyal is a mechanical engineer in a unique position to survey PLMs use across industries. Often, PLM specialists are consolidated in one eld and have little experience with life in any other. But not only has Goyal worked in the manufacturing and engineering world, helping to implement PLM systems at Hitachi Ltd. and Toyota, but seven years ago he turned to PLM consulting for the apparel, retail, and fashion industries (often abbreviated ARF). For engineers, Goyal said, product lifecycle management focuses on managing a design or a

bill of material, doing engineering change management tied to drawings and assembly, and tracking who has control of a part. These engineers often work for large companies with suppliers and operations housed at several locations around the world. They also tend to have a lot of moving parts to track with up-to-the-minute precision, he said. So for engineering companies, the moving parts that need to be tracked are usually composed of CAD designs that change and are updated by a number of team members frequently. For the retail and fashion industry, the moving parts are often stockkeeping units, or SKUsthe string of letters and numbers that are used to track and identify products.

FILING SYSTEMS

ts a common shorthand to think of PLM as a large le devoted to a products development. With a PLM system, userswhether engineers, designers, sales managers, suppliers, or project managersknow where to go to nd the latest information about the product. And the system ensures each le revision is tracked and is immediately updated and that all users have access to the latest changes. Usersno matter where theyre locatedcan also com-

"FASHION AND RETAIL HAVE REALLY EVENT-SHORT DEVELOPMENT CYCLES. THEY HAVE TO COME UP WITH A PRODUCT WITHIN A FEW MONTHS, AND THAT'S QUITE A CHALLENGE."

123RF.COM

PLM
ment on changes or potential changes. A PLM system also ensures that only those who are permitted to see le information have access. Sometimes the technology is called product data management, or PDM, though denitions vary by vendor. According to Goyal, PLM systems focus on overall product development while PDM systems dont necessarily include the bill of material and engineering change management capabilities present within PLM systems. Many of these capabilities can be useful in any industry. What separates the way engineering rms and fashion houses use PLM, Goyal said, can be summed up in one word: seasonal. The emphasis in retail isnt on designing a complicated cell phone or car with its many parts but on the season or on seasonal events like Valentines Day or back to school, he said. Fashion and retail have really event-short development cycles. They have to come up with a product within a few months, and thats quite a challenge. The retail and apparel industries use PLM to track breakneck development processes and to make sure those processes remain on trend and on schedule. Its also used to track the location of the huge number of SKUs and product variations managed within those industries. With a car the maximum variation you can have is from the premium version to the version without any extra options, Goyal said. But with fashion even a single trouser can run from extra small to large in six different colors and in mens and womens versions. So you can have a few hundred variations of that one item. The retail and apparel industries arent nearly as focused on product development as engineering companies are, he added. For engineers, PLM is a way to centralize and to focus on product development and innovation. In retail and apparel, PLM is used to manage the supply chain more than product development, he said. If you look at the complexity of developing an automobile engine or a high tech device, its obviously much more complex than a T-shirt, Goyal said. But for a T-shirt you have to understand how many sizes, colors, and assortments you need to supply whereso the focus for PLM shifts from the product itself to the entire supply chain. In the apparel industry, the merchant is king, he added. The merchant decides the assortment for next season and might say: These are the ve new shirts, ten new jacketstwo solid and two printedthat Im looking for next season. Show me something. Thats where PLM starts, he said. That provides the input to the creative and technical designers and teams following up, and thats managed with PLM. Fabrics, dyes, packaging and packing, and other materials can be tracked with the system. In addition, production at the overseas factories that can produce millions of pieces per customer order may also tracked within the system, Goyal said. For his part, Jonathan Riss, artistic director of the Jay Ahr House, which creates embroidered, high-end clothing in Paris, uses a new technology from Dassault Systmes called FashionLab. The system comprises the vendors 3-D, PLM, and other software applications tailored to those in the fashion business. Riss uses the PLM aspect of the system to collaborate with niche experts in embroidery, mainly in China and India, he said. They provide him with their work and with ideas for future projects. Watchmaker Franois Quentin, founder of the luxury watch company 4N, also in Paris, is using the FashionLab system to collaborate with suppliers and retailers, said Jerome Bergeret, director of FashionLab at Dassault.

THE PURSUIT OF DESIGN


PLM is helping designers of fashionable products ranging from embroidered, high-end clothing (above) to luxury watches (below). Jonathan Riss of Jay Ahr House, for example, uses Fashionlab software from Dassault Systmes to collaborate with embroidery experts in China and India.

"Fashion designers dont use PLM the same way that engineers do. In fashion PLM is used to keep abreast of trends and consolidate designs and inspirations."

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 41

INNOVATION FROM ANYWHERE

ashion designers dont use PLM the same way that engineers do. According to Goyal, in fashion PLM is used to keep abreast of trends and consolidate designs and inspirations. In retail, fashion, and apparel, your innovation can come from anywhere, he said. If its a jeans company coming up with a new jean, they have to understand the United States customers preferences and then the trends coming from Tokyo and Italy or Paris or India or Hong Kong. Its really getting inspiration from trends from so many different parts of the world and still maintaining your brand presence. You dont want your brand to look completely different in Tokyo and New York. For PLM its funnel all those different inputs and come up with products that are meaningful to all different tastes but are unique, he added. Its a different world over here in retail, fashion, and apparel than when I was in engineering. PLM can handle product complexity whether a company designs a few items with many parts or a number of products that need to be localized to many communities around the globe, said Joe Escoe, PLM strategist at Procter & Gamble. Escoe was a speaker at the 3DExperience Forum sponsored by Dassault Systmes in November 2012. Procter & Gambleheadquartered in Cincinnati but with locations around the worldhas implemented a PLM system from Dassault. The consumer product company relies on the system to help with product design and qualication, and to ensure it is using parts in cost-effective ways. For example, though a razor may be customized for

vs.

=
PRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN
"The maximum variation you can have with a car is from the premium version to the version without any extra options...with a T-shirt you have to understand how many sizes, colors, and assortments you need to supply where so the focus for PLM shifts from the product itself to the entire supply chain."
Vipin Goyal, senior manager, Kalypso

different markets around the world, the PLM system can help ensure that all the critical components of the razor, such as the blade, are identical for all models, Escoe said. Standardization wherever practical streamlines production and cuts down on the number of different parts and components needed from suppliers, he added. We want to deliver the same designs everywhere as much as possible, he said. So we look at component reuse in our PLM system. The system also ensures that employees responsible for moldmaking and for packaging the products are part of the product design cycle, he said.

CUSTOMIZED PLM

COMPONENT REUSE: SAME BLADE FOR THE WORLD MARKET


Though a razor may be customized for different markets around the world, PLM can help ensure that critical components, such as the blade, are identical. This streamlines production and cuts down on the number of different parts and components needed from suppliers.

USING PLM TO MANAGE THE SUPPLY CHAIN


With fashion even a single pair of trousers can run from extra small to large in multiple colors and in mens and womens versions. So you can have a few hundred variations of that one item. PLM can track fabrics, dyes, packaging and packing. Production at overseas factories with the potential of producing millions of pieces per customer order can also be tracked within the system.

ashion-driven industries are using PLM systems in new, idiosyncratic ways, and that means that they cant simply purchase and implement an existing system the way an engineering company can, Goyal said. Retail-fashion-apparel systems need to be customized with a consultants help exactly to their needs. Macys could never use a system just as it is, Goyal said. The technology has to go through various business processes. And the design team and the product development team and the sourcing team will all get a chance to give input and customize it to their needs. One thing Goyal has noticed from his work in both the engineering and the retailfashion-apparel industries is a difference in the time it takes for employees to become enthusiastic about a new PLM system. Engineers tend to be more receptive to new systems, he said. But when you come to dealing with creative designers, I wouldnt say the system is a problem, but it takes longer to get them to understand how the new system and process will help them because they need to be comfortable it will make them more creative and not less. While engineers may bristle at not being called creative, looking at how PLM systems are used in other elds may give them some fresh perspective on innovative ways to use the software they rely on every day. ME

JEAN THILMANY is an associate editor of Mechanical Engineering magazine.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 42

Knowing yourself and the organization your strengths and your weaknesses will arm you with confidence.
BY E.N. FREISEN

To get employment as a mechanical engineer, or to win a contract, you will be interviewed, usually more than once. An interview is a way of communicating and exchanging data and information about both yourself and your potential employer for the purpose of making a sound decision to work together. To get the position that you want, you must have a winning interview.
A winning interview is one that allows you to nd out if the position and potential employer are really right for you. It is also one that allows the potential employer to determine if you are the best candidate for the position, and if you will t into the employers team, now and in the future. Many interviews are brief. Ten, twenty, or thirty minutes are typical. During the interview, both you and the employer need to nd out about each other. The potential employer must evaluate your ability to meet the companys needs, and will do so based on information that you provide. This comes from your rsum, your examples, references, what you say in the interview, and how you say it. Similarly, you should evaluate the opportunity presented and any offer that is made according to what you know about the organization. Find out how well you t. Making this process a winner for both sides requires some work on your part. This work starts with rst knowing yourself. Next is to learn about your prospective employer, and organiza-

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NG RE E INEE WA

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IGNER SENIOR POLYMER CUIT DES NUCL R I C K R ENGI O W GING SCIENTIST GEOTECHNI A T K C E A NEE P CAL MA N IPAL R C T N E I R IALS PRO PR R C A H E S S E C R I E N EER T I S S C T I T E L DUC N U S O A GIN PTICA TI YDR TE E L H EN E E RIN E M D O I I C B A L N NG E S N C G G I INEER L I G U N A INE E R ECT ING ERI YD A E H UTO NG SERVICES AVIONIS G N I T D OPT C QUA AG UIL ICA L I N E G B G I N T N E I E D R Y U L L CLEA , CO WE R N W T T ELDING LYST EH P NA

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HIRED!

PIPE SUPPOR T ENGINEER TECHNIC

AL SPECIALIS T

WELDING E NGINEER O PTICAL

ENGINEER PHYSICIST

tion. Do your homework and be prepared. Learn how to listen and to read between the lines. Practice and stay in the moment.

ARE YOU CERTIFIED OR LISCENSED? WHAT IS YOUR EXPERIENCE LEVEL? WHICH SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, AND ABILITIES DO YOU POSSESS? WHAT IS YOUR WORK ETHIC?

languages, including CHECK AND VERIFY computer programming YOUR DATA, JUST Good sources of public languages? Are you certiKNOW YOUR SWOT AS YOU MINE AND USE YOUR information are magazines ed or licensed? What An excellent self-diagnostic tool is SOURCES and newspapers, press is your experience level the SWOT Analysis. releases, annual reports, and for certain engineering SWOT stands for strengths, the Internet. Get brochures and weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. work? Are you familiar with handouts. Read the companys ads. local codes, customs, We each have our own Find out who is who in the organizaand standards? Typical set of strengths and weaktion. This is your external or public weaknesses are a lack of nesses. What are yours? intel. these attributes, knowlIdentify them for yourself, Inside intel requires establishing edge, and skills. What honestly and fully. For one or more contacts in the organizahave you done or are you some, just out of school, a tion. This is where your network of doing to improve, ministrength would be educaNUMBER OF MINUTES A family and friends comes into play. mize, and overcome your tion, grades, class work, TYPICAL INTERVIEW LASTS. Mentors and references are of great weaknesses? Be specic. etc. Weaknesses may inBe strong. clude a lack of experience. Strengths and weaknesses focus If you have worked a while, which on you. Opportunities and threats accomplishments are you most proud? are directed away from you toward How did you bring value to your emthe organization and the environployer and the work you did? Who can attest to these facts? Do you have exam- ment in which it operates. Opportunities and threats are both external ples and exhibits that you could bring and internal to the organization. to the interview? Are they appropriate Learning about them requires some to the position, or a general representaintelligence gathering. tion of your capabilities? Which skills, Develop les of information about knowledge, and abilities do you possess? value in fact nding. Let them know How may these be of value to a potential your potential employers. What do you appreciate their help. Reciproyou know about each organization, employer? How could you t in to the cate. its operations, needs, nances, busiorganization, now and later? What is You must check and verify your your work ethic? Get and give examples. ness and market plans, etc.? Develop data, just as you mine and use your your questions. Know what you Be able to concisely explain. sources. need to know. Are you conversant or uent in Opportunities may be in the market, technology, or product development. A company may be focused on improving productivity or reducing errors and omissions. Opportunities are specic to each organization. Your task is to get some advance knowledge about what these may be and how you may be able to leverage your intel. Threats include the external, such as a declining market, poor busi-

30

IDENTIFY YOUR STRENGTHS


AND WEAKNESSES.

INTELLIGENCE GATHERING:
DEVELOP FILES OF INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS...INSIDE INTEL VS. EXTERNAL/PUBLIC INTEL...GET ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND HOW YOU MAY BE ABLE TO LEVERAGE YOUR INTEL.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 45

CRITICALIT

Y SAFETY LEA D RESEARC H SCIENTIST

MARINE EN GINEER BIO MEDIC

AL ENGINEER

ness or nancial conditions, obsolete product lines, or legal and regulatory issues. Each threat may have a signi- any adverse impact on your future work and value to the employer. Reccant bearing on a companys prosognize the probable threats. Then pripects, or on yours. Find out as much you need to honestly populate oritize them based on their potential as you can in advance and determine it with all relevant data. Making impact and probability of occurrence. what you may need or want to learn a list of attributes for each headThis is a risk management exercise. Be during the interview. Mentally preing may take several pages but is the creative in your potential strategies. pare and rehearse your questions. best place to begin and stimulate your Make a grid of your strengths Threats to an organization data gathering. and weaknesses as one may also be internal. This Having made your lists, and their dimension, and the opis a delicate subject, as intersections, focus on the strengths/ WHICH portunities and threats they may be due to polopportunity cell A rst. These are your ACCOMPLISHMENTS that you face or foresee in icy, ignorance, or willful key selling points to the employer. By ARE YOU MOST PROUD OF? the future for you and your neglect by management. anticipating questions and developing potential employer as the Internal threats may be a powerful answers, with your strengths other dimension. This grid reason to hire a new face. and opportunities in mind, you will be exercise is multi-dimensional, Try to nd out with quesprepared to say why you are the best as is life. tions. Practice listening to answers. candidate. In this SWOT grid, the high priority If your sources have not been able The weaknesses/threats cell D identicell A is where your specic strengths to get this information, the interes things that must be addressed. By mesh with the organizations opportuviewer may be willing to discuss the using your imagination, you can develop nities. A second cell B should subject, but dont press it. Use this a strategy for overinformation in your evaluation of the show how your strengths can coming all or most of help meet potential threats to rm. them. Be prepared the organization. and you wont be GOOD SOURCES OF PUBLIC Both of these cells should embarrassed. DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE INFORMATION ARE MAGAZINES be specic in describing how The other two cells, Prepare a dossier or le for each AND NEWSPAPERS, PRESS RELEASES, ANNUAL REPORTS, you believe you may bring strengths/threats, B, potential employer. Integrate this AND THE INTERNET. value to the organization in and weaknesses/opinformation into your own specic the position you are seeking. portunities, C, are important and should SWOT analysis for the particular A third cell C is important in be addressed, but are of lower priority, interview you are getting ready to do. identifying where you may be weak at least initially. You need to develop See where you may be able to t in in capitalizing on the organizations a strategy to address these two cells, and to be of value. How each potenopportunities. The fourth cell shows because you may be asked about them, tial employer may meet your goals where your weaknesses coincide with and how you respond is as important as and objectives. Evaluate and priorithreats to the organization. Cell D is what you say. Look for the leverage for tize the data you are able to gather. the lowest priority, but dont neglect it, you and the rm. Document ndings. as it may be signicant in some cases. It is best to be prepared. A SWOT For each relevant threat, you need For this grid to be most effective, analysis is unique to each person, and to work out your strategy to minimize

www

FOCUS ON YOU.

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS


ARE DIRECTED AWAY FROM YOU TOWARD THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH IT OPERATES.

valuable in knowing yourself. That knowledge will make you comfortable with yourself. It will show in how you change of information. It should handle yourself and how you do in an provide adequate information for interview. You are and should be the evaluation and to make a hiring deciexpert about you. If you are honest best side forward by being informed sion, by both parties. with yourself, you will recognize your so your questions can be to the point Being open and direct in your quesadvantages and the benets that you as you try to learn about terms and tioning and observations during the can bring to a potential employer. This conditions. interview will show your knowledge gives you power. If you dont know the answer to level of condence and Examples and exhibits an interview question, you must say the effort you have made. of your accomplishments so directly. Be honest. Hemming and But you need to determine will demonstrate your THE BETTER hawing or being bashful can hurt how far you should go with strengths. YOU ARE ABLE TO READ THE you. Depending on the situation, a discussion. Be aware of INTERVIEWER, you may offer to nd out and report body language and pay ANTICIPATING THREATS AND RESPOND later. Remember, the interviewer is attention to the line of Besides noting the opporAPPROPRIATELY, THE BETTER looking for reasons to select or reject questions being asked. tunities that you foresee for YOU WILL DO. you. Your task is to make a decision in The better you are able to the employer, you should your favor as easy as possible for the read the interviewer, and develop a strategy for overinterviewer. respond appropriately, coming the threats. Which Being respectful includes the better you will do. events may occur, and are probable? turning off your cell phone. It is wise, too, to consider How would you propose to prevent Dressing appropriately for your audience. What do you these events from being too costly? the situation is where some of believe they are looking for, Having an idea of how to answer your inside intel helps, by givand how do you, in particular, that kind of question is evidence that ing you an idea of the culture of meet their needs? Help interyou have considered the possibilities. the organization. Sometimes viewers by anticipating That evidence may be more important THE a coat and tie is required, their needs and make the than your proposed remedy. EmployINTERVIEWER WILL BE INTERESTED sometimes not. At times caers are looking for people who can help exchange easy for them. IN YOUR QUESTIONS sual or eld clothes may be Listen. them solve problems and make gains AND HOW YOU appropriate. It all depends If you or the interviewer for the organization. FRAME THEM. on the culture. is being vague, you are both Not all the information you need to Inquire before your interview just wasting time. If either of have may be available by the time of you seems want to avoid certain issues, if there are any conditions or limitathe interview. The interview is your tions on what you may bring with you that is a red ag of danger. You can chance to ask questions and nd out. in the way of exhibits and samples. be assertive and in control, and even The interviewer will be interested in guide the discussion, if need be. Not all Do not bring or discuss any classied, your questions and how you frame condential, or proprietary informainterviewers are good. them. It is an evaluation point. tion in an interview. Your exhibits During the interview, you put your The interview should be an exand samples may include a class or team project of recent completion, certicates, commendations, or certicationsanything that you are proud of and is public.

Good listening in four steps:

1. Hear how and what is being communicated. If youre unclear, ask for clarification. Get specific; be sure to understand. 2. Be polite and respectful. 3. Analyze what you heard and saw. 4. Form your response. Respond concisely, directly, and honestly.

MAKING YOUR CASE


For a winning interview you must present a compelling case that you are the candidate who will do the best work and add the most value to the employers organization. Your immediate task is to make the inter-

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING | MARCH 2013 | P. 47

Whats a SWOT Grid?


STRENGTHS OPPORTUNITIES
The organization has an opportunity to develop a new line of products in the robotic tool industry.

The SWOT grid seeks to find intersections of your strengths and weaknesses with opportunities and threats facing a potential employers organization. Here is a hypothetical example.

WEAKNESSES
The opportunity to make a profitable robotic tool, or set of tools is dependent on getting to market early with the correct product that the customer needs. In the current market, this is undermined by a lack of service after sale and competent staff to assist, as needed and on-call.

My specific strengths include high grades in machine and tool design. Three years of classroom use of CAD/CAM tools, two years of programming experience, and I was the lead person on our senior robotics project.

A
The threats to the development of robotic tools include the high level of competition in this market, both in the U.S. and internationally.
My strengths are due to class work in this specific area, team project work, and additional reading and investigation. I feel competent and ready to make a significant hands-on contribution in this endeavor. The organization needs to grow in robotics, or it will lose market share. To date, the organization has been a leader and has been responsive to changing customer needs.

While I do not have past work experience in this area, I am ready to assist in the design, development, and deployment of such robotic tools, and am able to make on-site visits and decisions, to the limit of my skills, knowledge, abilities, and training (to be provided by the organization).

THREATS

Multi-tasking robotic tools are becoming more complex and complicated to develop, install, and service. The weakness of vendor support makes an expensive tool purchase problematic. A positive commitment to satisfaction of the customer/user is needed with strong corporate on-site implementation program. Any errors and omissions must be immediately addressed to the customers satisfaction. A log of errors, omissions, and problems must be maintained, and from it a set of lessons learned, and communicated to both our customers and our staff.

I have no experience but am willing to assist in this assignment. Our organizational ability to learn and adapt is critical to overcome any disadvantages. In most organizations this is a culture to be adopted and stressed to gain maximum effectiveness in the market.

viewer comfortable with the decision to hire you, now. Assuming that is, that you are comfortable with being an integral part of the organization. Interviews typically end with a nal question: Do you have anything more to add? If you do, briey respond, thank the interviewer, and leave. Thank the receptionist (a possible intel source) on your way out. After leaving, make notes and document specics. After your interview, immediately

follow up with a short thank you to all who were involved. You shouldnt add anything, or try to answer unanswered questions or open issues, unless you have been asked to do so. In one of my winning interviews, I noted that there were 35 other candidates for the position. All these candidates were fully educated and qualied. I said that the interviewers had a difcult choice to make as we were all capable of doing the work. But to

assist them in their choice, I noted that while we all could do the work, I would be their best choice because I actually would deliver the most value for the employer. It worked for me. Good luck. ME E.N. FRIESEN is an ASME Life Fellow who worked as an engineer and manager at the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. After his retirement he formed Seagull Consultants and taught project management courses at Loyola Marymount University.

BOOKSHELF

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 48

Machinery Failure Analysis, and Troubleshooting: Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants, Fourth Edition.
Heinz P. Bloch and Fred K. Geitner Butterworth-Heinemann, 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451. 2012.

Machinery Failure Analysis, and Troubleshooting, written by two established authorities on failure and reliability, is a guide and reference in the field of machinery in plant settings. It is structured to teach failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to various problem situations. The book examines the wealth of technological advances and changes in approach seen since the last edition was published more than a decade ago. Covering the engineering detail and management theory, this book provides a reference and training resource for engineers and managers working in manufacturing and process plants. It provides detailed information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime. Along with this information it also includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure the reader is familiar with the visual evidence one needs to recognize problems. Other chapters cover proven approaches to failure definition and offer failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to problem situations. It goes on to demonstrate with examples how the progress and results of failure analysis and troubleshooting efforts can be documented and monitored.

FEATURED

Fluid Mechanics, Water Hammer, Dynamic Stresses, and Piping Design


Robert A. Leishear ASME Press, Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. 2013.

760 pages. $139.95. ISBN: 978-0-1238-6045-3.

Handbook of Energy Audits, Ninth Edition.


Albert Thumann, Terry Niehus, and William J. Younger The Fairmont Press Inc., 700 Indian Trail, Lilburn, CA 30047. 2013.

ater hammer may be defined as an extreme fluid transient, occasionally recognized by loud banging, or hammering sounds, which are caused by flow rate changes and resultant pressure surges. The terms fluid transient and water hammer are frequently used interchangeably. The primary purpose of this text is to provide practicing engineers with the analytical tools required to identify water hammer concerns and prevent equipment damage and personal injury. The principles of pipe system design with respect to fluid mechanics, valves, and pump operations are followed by basic structural piping design principles, water hammer theory, pipe system dynamics, and failure analysis. This text is intended for practicing engineers in the power and process piping areas. Relevant industries include power companies and utilities; pressure technology, valve, and pipe manufacturers; and petrochemical processing facilities. The text integrates multiple structural and fluids engineering disciplines to illustrate the principles of troubleshooting pipe systems for fluid flow problems and pipe failures.

This handbook is designed to serve as a comprehensive and practical reference on energy auditing in buildings and industry. Topics include energy assessment and computer software that can guide in planning and carrying out a thorough and accurate energy audit, including electrical, mechanical and building systems analysis, at any type of facility. The authors provide instructions on accounting procedures, rate of return, and lifecycle cost analysis. Completely edited throughout, this latest edition includes a new chapter on retro-commissioning and energy audits. Revisions include new information on ISO 50001 and the Superior Energy Performance program plus a completely updated chapter on software. Also covered is information on understanding a utility bill and using that knowledge to trim energy costs. Loaded with forms, checklists, and working aids, this book is intended for anyone responsible for conducting or overseeing a facility energy audit. 489 pages. $119.95. ISBN: 978-1-6008-6897-9.

446 pages. $169; ASME members, $135. ISBN; 978-0-7918-5996-4.

A forum for emerging systems and control technologies.

MARCH 2013 VOL. 1 NO. 1

ELECTRIFIED

CONNECTED

E IL B O M O T U A E H T F O E R U THE FUT

2013 American Control Conference Renaissance Washington Hotel

ACC 2013
Washington, D.C. June 1719, 2013

Led by the General Chair Lucy Y. Pao and Program Chair Daniel Y. Abramovitch, the 2013 American Control Conference (ACC) will be held at the Renaissance Washington Hotel in Washington, D.C., June 17 (Monday) through June 19 (Wednesday), 2013. This years conference will include regular and invited sessions, tutorials, workshops and exhibits, and will feature a plenary lecture: Advanced Motion Control for High Tech Systems by Maarten Steinbuch, as well as a semi-plenary lecture: Game Theoretic Learning with Applications to Networked Control Systems by the 2012 Eckman Award winner Jason Marden. Other semi-plenary lectures include those on Societal Challenges for Control, by Xi-Ren Cao; Sustainability, by Paul Torcellini; and Smart Healthcare Systems, by Markus Fromherz. For the rst time, the ACC conference will host a generalinterest lecture aimed at the public. The inaugural talk entitled "How We Interact with Robots, Feedback Loops, and Autonomous Systems: Historical Perspectives and a Look Forward will be given by David A. Mindell.

For more information visit:


http://a2c2.org/conferences/acc2013/

STANFORD UNIVERSITY
Munger Center, Palo Alto, CA

October 2123, 2013


The conference presents the premier event for the DSCD. It features a carefully structured technical program, professional meetings, the DSCD awards banquet, the Nyquist Lecture, and many opportunities to network with colleagues.

Dynamic Systems
and Control Conference DSCC
For the rst time, this DSC conference will include a singletrack experimental session where a group of researchers will display their research ndings in-situ.

The Sixth Annual Dynamic Systems and Control (DSC) Conference, sponsored by the Dynamic Systems and Control Division (DSCD) of ASME International, and led by the General Chair Nejat Olgac and Program Chair Miroslav Krstic, will be held Oct. 21 through Oct. 23, 2013, at Stanford Universitys Munger Center, in Palo Alto, CA.
The conference will cover topics from dynamical systems, modeling, control theory, simulation, analysis, and design, to industrial applications and control education in technical, interactive, and tutorial sessions.

For more information visit http://dsc-conference.org/DSCC/2013

EDITOR

A. Galip Ulsoy, University of Michigan, ulsoy@umich.edu


DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND CONTROL MAGAZINE EDITORIAL BOARD

Jordan M. Berg, Texas Tech University, Jordan.berg@ttu.edu Jaydev P. Desai, University of Maryland, jaydev@umd.edu Hans DeSmidt, University of Tennessee, hdesmidt@utk.edu Kiriakos Kiriakidis, United States Naval Academy, kiriakid@usna.edu Venkat Krovi, SUNY Bu alo, vkrovi@bu alo.edu Alexander Leonessa, Virginia Tech, leonessa@vt.edu Peter H. Meckl, Purdue University, meckl@pudue.edu Gregory M. Shaver, Purdue University, gshaver@purdue.edu Guoming Zhu, Michigan State University, zhug@egr.msu.edu

SUBMIT ARTICLE IDEAS TO:

A. GALIP ULSOY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ulsoy umich.edu (734)-936-0407


SUBMIT DSCD NEWS ITEMS TO:

RIFAT SIPAHI, NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY, rifat@coe.neu.edu

Future issues of Dynamic Systems & Control Magazine will include the following themes:

June 2013 Compact and E cient Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems September 2013 Control Problems in Wind Power Generation December 2013 Control of Energy Systems
ON THE COVER: The 2013 Ford Focus Electric

elcome to a new venture of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division (DSCD). You are holding in your handsor perhaps viewing in a browserthe inaugural issue of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Magazine. Control engineering is the often invisible enabler that has found its way into almost every engineered system to make them smartbuildings, vehicles, factories and appliances are but a few everyday examples. Such control systems efciently provide comfortable homes and ofces, reduce fuel consumption and emissions, improve product quality and productivity, and provide convenience in our hectic daily lives. Systems and control engineers also study and analyze the behavior of complex natural systems, such as sheries, diseases, and the carbon cycle, enabling them to be well managed and mitigate undesirable consequences. At the heart of these dynamic systems is often feedback, where sensors measure changing system behavior, controllers make decisions based on that information, and actuators act on the system to inuence future behavior. Feedback is ubiquitous and is one of those powerful engineering ideas that has quite literally changed the world. DSC Magazine is not just a new publication, but a new type of ASME publication a hybrid magazine that combines some of the features of a high-quality journal with aspects of a general-interest technology magazine. DSC Magazine will include the highest quality articles from top experts on topics of current and emerging interest. These articles will be written for a general technical audience with an engineering background, and not just for specialists in a specic research area. We envision that these will be excellent gateway articles for those engineers in industry and academia who would like to start working in this area. You will also see articles, typically shorter, that report on exciting new control systems developments in various industries; again written by top engineering experts who are actually engaged in carrying them out. This rst issue highlights emerging control technologies for automobiles. Tony Philips, Ryan McGee, Johannes Kristinsson and Hai Yu who are at the Ford Motor Co., give us a glimpse of the automotive future in their article, Smart, Connected and Electried: The Future of the Automobile. Another article features the work of Giorgio Rizzoni and Huei Peng, who are among the worlds experts on controls in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This Buckeye and Wolverine have collaborated in an article called, Hybrid and Electried Vehicles The Role of Dynamics and Control. The article provides an introduction to the dynamics and control problems and methods associated with the rapidly growing area of HEVs. In the third feature article, called Future Mobility: Integrating Vehicle Control with Cloud Computing, Dimitar Filev, Jianbo Lu and Davor Hrovat, who are also at Ford, bring their expertise to bear on introducing the systems and control problems associated with the use of cloud computing in automobiles. Clearly, driven by control technologies and engineers, the century-old automobile is undergoing major changes right before our very eyes. In future issues of DSC Magazine, you can look forward to interesting articles on diverse topics such as how control technologies are transforming hydraulic power, the key role that controls play in wind-power generation, the importance of modeling and control in energy systems, and issues of security and safety of industrial controls. The magazine also provides an opportunity to meet some of the outstanding engineers that make up the ASME DSCD community. The ASME DSCD has a long and distinguished history. The DSCD has approximately 2,000 primary members, and meets regularly twice a year at the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference in October and at the American Control Conference in June. These, and many other division activities and awards are also reported and highlighted in the pages of this inaugural DSC Magazine. I sincerely hope that you will enjoy this new hybrid magazine and be inspired to connect with the ASME DSCD community. As a long time control engineer, I know well the power of feedback, and I look forward to receiving your comments to continuously improve the magazine. Please send your comments directly to me at ulsoy@umich.edu. A. Galip Ulsoy Editor, DSC Magazine

2012 ACC crossed the border!


Led by General Chair Tariq Samad and Program Chair Dawn Tilbury, 2012 American Control Conference (ACC) held on June 27-29 was the first ACC organized outside United States, in Montral, Canada. The conference, which broke
the ACC records for submissions, registrants, and hotel room nights, featured an intensive program of regular, invited, and tutorial technical sessions, preconference workshops, various special sessions, and social events. At the conference, the plenary talk was given by Karl Johan strm on Accomplishments and Prospects of Control, which covered the history, successes, and research challenges of advanced control, especially in the past 50 years. Furthermore, at the conference banquet, American Automatic Control Council (AACC) 2012 awards were presented. Arthur J. Krener received the Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award for his contributions to the control and estimation of nonlinear systems; Eugene Lavretsky was awarded the Control Engineering Practice Award for his contributions to the development

and transitioning of adaptive controls technologies to advanced ight controls; Jason R. Marden received the Donald P. Eckman Award for his outstanding contributions to game theoretic methods for distributed and networked control systems; and for their 2011 ACC papers, Cameron Nowzari and Jorge Cortes, and Douglas MacMynowski and Mattias Bjorklund were awarded the O. Hugo Shuck Award. At the award cer-

BACK ROW (LEFT TO RIGHT): Mattias Bjorklund,

Eugene Lavretsky, Arthur J. Krener, Jason R. Marden, Konstantin Amelin. Front row (left to right): Mathieu Claeys, Jorge Cortes, Russell Rhinehart (AACC President), Cameron Nowzari, Alexander Scheinker, Masahiro Ono.

emony, best student paper award nalists Justin Barton, Mathieu Claeys, Konstantin Amelin, Masahiro Ono, and Alexander Scheinker were also recognized.

CONGRATULATIONS TO ...
...DSCD members Shan Hu (top), Rajesh Rajamani (middle) and Xun Yu (below), who received outstanding-paper recognition from Applied Physics Letters. Their paper on exible solid state paper-based carbon nanotube supercapacitors was selected for the 50th Anniversary Editor's Choice Collection by the journal editorial board. This is a select group of 50 papers chosen from over 12,000 papers published in the journal during 2009-2012. ...DSCD member, and past chair of DSCD, Dawn Tilbury (far right) who received the Society of Women Engineers' Distinguished Engineering Educator Award. The award was introduced in 2012 and can only be awarded to the members of Society of Women Engineers. The candidate is selected based on her teaching ability and ability to inspire students to attain high levels of accomplishment, her scholarly work, and her professional society activities.

SOCIETY AND DIVISION AWARDS It is not too late to nominate your colleagues for the 2013 DSCD Awards! Upcoming nomination deadlines are on March 31, 2013, and June 30, 2013. Please visit Honors & Awards at http://www.asme-dscd.org/ for nomination instructions.
2 MARCH 2013

DSCD NEWS
FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA, OCTOBER 17-19, 2012

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: Mathukumalli Vidyasagar (on right) receives the Rufus T. Oldenburger Medal from Masayoshi Tomizuka; the Draper Innovative Practice Award is presented by Huei Peng to Anthony M. Phillips (on right); Asok Ray (on right) receives the Paynter Outstanding Investigator Award from Masayoshi Tomizuka .

ed by General Chair H. Harry Asada and Program Chair Jeffrey Stein, the 2012 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC) was held jointly with the 11th Motion and Vibration Control Conference hosted by the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers. For the rst time in the DSCC history, a small number of top quality papers were selected to be presented in semi-plenary sessions. The conference also featured special sessions, the prestigious Nyquist lecture, plenary presentations, and an engaging industry-academia networking session. At the 2012 DSCC Awards banquet, society and division awards were presented. The Rufus T. Oldenburger Medal of the Society was given to Mathukumalli Vidyasagar, the 2012 Draper Innovative Practice Award of the division was presented to Anthony M. Phillips, and the 2012 Paynter Outstanding Investigator Award of the division was awarded to Asok Ray. The 2012 Kalman Best Paper Award of the division was received by Said Mammar on behalf of all the authors Nicoleta Minoiu Enache, Said Mammar, Benoit Lusetti, and Yazid Sebsadj for their paper published in 2011 in Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control. The 2012 Michael J. Rabins Leadership Award of the division was presented to Jeffrey L. Stein; and Manfred Morari was awarded the 2012 Nyquist Lecturer of the division.

2012 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference

nished my one-year term as DSCD Chair on June 30, 2012. When I started my term last summer, I decided that in addition to keeping the division running, I would like to start something new. One of the goals in our Strategic Plan from 2008 is to increase industry participation in the Division activities. After discussing with the Executive Committee, we decided to launch an Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) to get advice on how to accomplish this goal. The IAB was chaired by Tony Phillips from Ford, and also included Scott Borto from Mitsubishi Research, Maryam Khanbaghi from Corning, and Satish Naryanan from United Technologies. They met several times Please visit http://www.asme-dscd. org/division-interests/news to read the remaining of the text and to get to know more about the recommendations of IAB and the actions taken within the division in order to amplify industry participation in DSCD activities.

MESSAGE FROM DSCD PAST CHAIR DAWN TILBURY

1 2

UPCOMING CONFERENCES

Led by General Chair Lucy Y. Pao and Program Chair Daniel Y. Abramovitch, the 2013 American Control Conference will be held in Washington, DC, Monday through Wednesday, June 17-19, 2013. Details about the conference can be found at http://a2c2.org/conferences/ acc2013/

Michael J. Rabins Leadership Award is presented by Huei Peng to Jeffrey L. Stein (on right); Manfred Morari (on left) is honored with the Nyquist Lecturer award.

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: Said Mammar (on right) receives the Kalman Best Paper Award from J. Karl Hedrick; the

The 2013 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, led by General Chair Nejat Olgac and Program Chair Miroslav Krstic, will be held at Stanford University, Munger Center, Palo Alto, CA on October 21-23, 2013. Details about the conference can be found at http:// dsc-conference.org/DSCC/2013
The ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Magazine Editorial Board would like to thank Daniel Y. Abramovitch, Denise McKahn, Peter Meckl, Nejat Olgac, Manish Paliwal, Lucy Y. Pao, Rajesh Rajamani, Tariq Samad, and Dawn Tilbury for their contributions to the news content. The above text was edited by Rifat Sipahi.

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: Brad Paden, Jun Ueda (Young Members Chair of the 2012 DSCC), and best student paper finalists: Yizhai Zhang, Mahdi Jadaliha, Andreas Hansen, Nima Fazeli, and Chiao-Ting Li.

SMART,
The C-MAX Hybrid headlines Ford's transformed lineup, one-third of which will feature a model with 40 mpg or more in 2012.

AND

he automobile of the future is electric. It is connected. It is smart. Clearly, we see that the automotive industry is in the midst of a major migration toward electrified vehicle technology. The number of electrified vehicle nameplates offered in the U.S. market has grown from two in 2001 to more than 30 today. The reason for this explosive growth is the substantial benefit that electrification offers in increasing overall vehicle efficiency and thereby greatly improving fuel economy. At the same time, we as a society are moving toward a world where we are always "connected." This extends into the automobile where technologies such as Cellular, Bluetooth, WiFi, Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2V/V2I), and Power Line Communication (PLC) are already being integrated into new vehicles. This vehicle connectivity presents many new opportunities ranging from using off-board memory and computation capability to accessing broad ranging and real-time online information sources. In order to build these automobiles of the future, we need an intelligent control system that optimizes the vehicle's operation for each customer on every trip over the entire life of the vehicle. Computational Intelligence provides the vehicle the ability to reason, adapt, and learn based on historical usage data, the present operating conditions, and the predicted future states. This article will introduce some of the opportunities that we see at this intersection of electrification, connectivity and smart controls and give some examples of the new functionality that may be coming to your vehicle soon.

AUTOMOBILES HAVE GROWN IN COMPLEXITY AND SOPHISTICATION SINCE THEIR INVENTION AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY. In recent decades,

this trend has accelerated as advanced electronics and embedded controls have become ubiquitous in modern vehicles. These technologies facilitate rapid introduction of new features that improve everything from safety and efciency to comfort and convenience. Indeed, the vast majority of new features added to cars are now software enabled. Todays automotive consumers continue to grow more interested in vehicle efciency. Rising fuel prices and concerns about global warming are driving customers to seek more fuel-efcient vehicles in their purchase decisions. Automakers have responded by introducing technologies designed to improve efciency. Vehicle electrication has been one of the most effective technologies, providing fuel economy improvements of up to 50%. As automakers nd ways to reduce the cost of electried components and systems, the technology will continue to propagate throughout their product portfolios. Vehicle connectivity is another rapidly emerging trend in the industry. Today, vehicles already connect to the outside world through embedded cellular systems in the vehicle (e.g. GMs OnStar system) or through brought-in systems using a drivers phone connected to the vehicle through Bluetooth technology (e.g. Fords Sync system). Until now, this connectivity has primarily served to empower the driver by bringing the always connected mindset into the car. Future vehicles will

4 MARCH 2013

ELECTRIC
THE

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control

High Voltage Battery Electric Motors


OF THE AUTOMOBILE
BY Anthony M. Phillips, Ryan A. McGee, Johannes G. Kristinsson, and Hai Yu
FORD MOTOR COMPANY

Electric Transaxle

FIGURE 1 Powersplit HEV configuration.

FORD MOTOR COMPANY

also leverage connectivity to empower the vehicle to achieve improved vehicle system performance. Clearly tomorrows vehicles will be smart, connected, and electried.

ergy usage in the vehicle using controls. The last item, known as energy management optimization (Sciarretta & Guzzella, 2007), is typically done by trying to minimize the vehicles fuel usage over a drive cycle while maintaining the batterys state of charge. Although there are many types of HEV congurations, each of them has at least 2 degrees of freedom for selecting the powertrain operating points, u(t), that can be used to achieve this optimization. To date it has not been possible to fully achieve this optimization in a production vehicle, however, because it relies on a priori knowledge of the drive cycle, which typically hasnt been available.

ELECTRIFICATION

lectried powertrains are now a familiar technology in the automotive industry. The rst production hybrid vehicle of the modern vehicle era was launched in the United States over ten years ago and most automakers now have at least one hybrid vehicle in their portfolio. Moreover, electrication offerings have grown to include plug-in hybrids and battery-only electric vehicles as well. Each of these congurations offers customers unique benets in energy efciency but they also come with unique challenges to overcome to reach their full potential. To understand these challenges, it is useful to consider each individually.

Battery Electric Vehicles


Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are the simplest form of electried vehicles from a complexity perspective. In BEVs, the powertrain and fuel tank of a conventional vehicle are replaced by an electric motor and a high-voltage battery (see Figure 2). The powertrain torque control in a BEV is relatively straight forward. Since these vehicles have only one power source, it is simply a matter of converting the drivers demand into a motor

FIGURE 2 Battery electric vehicle configuration.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles


Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine a conventional powertrain with electric motor(s), power electronics, and a highvoltage battery for the purpose of increasing overall powertrain efciency. Figure 1 shows a powersplit HEV conguration that includes two electric motors coupled to the engine through a planetary gearset and to the wheels through the driveline. The motors are also connected electrically (not shown) to a highvoltage battery. This is only one of many types of HEV congurations. The efciency improvements of HEVs are achieved through engine downsizing, engine start/stop, regenerative braking, and the ability to dynamically trade off fuel usage with electrical en-

High Voltage Battery

Electric Motor

MARCH 2013 5

Generation

WiMAX (rel 1.5+) LTE HSPA+

4G

(Advanced)

3G

UMTS CDMA2000

HSPA

2G

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

10 kbit/s

100 kbit /s

1 Mbit/s

10 Mbit/s

100 Mbit/s

1 Gbit/s

FIGURE 3 Speed comparisons of common mobile networks.

torque request under the constraints of the driveline components. Instead, the challenge for BEVs is to deliver the maximum possible driving range. Because these vehicles only have the energy of the onboard battery available for propulsion, their driving range is typically limited to 100 miles or less before the battery needs to be recharged from the electrical grid. Cost, weight, and packaging considerations prevent the use of larger batteries. Moreover, the time required to charge the battery typically ranges from three to eight hours depending on the power capabilities of the vehicle and the charging system. The combination of these factors has motivated automakers to look for ways to squeeze out every additional mile of range while also minimizing range anxiety of drivers. Automakers have limited opportunity to use controls to give BEV drivers more range and less anxiety. Unlike HEVs, BEVs have no available internal degrees of freedom to use to improve efciency through powertrain control. Instead, the only opportunities lie with being able to inuence how drivers operate their vehicles, for instance by choosing energy efcient routes or by reducing driving aggressiveness. In order to reduce driver anxiety, automakers need to provide the best possible estimate of the distance until empty (DTE) for the vehicle, which in turn requires a prediction of the expected vehicle energy use along the planned route. Realization of all of these functions requires learned or forecasted knowledge about the driver and the vehicles operating environment.

optimizing energy usage. Like in an HEV, optimizing this energy usage depends on a priori knowledge of the drive cycle.

CONNECTIVITY
lthough some predictive controls can be performed based on locally collected data in the car, a connected vehicle will have several advantages in terms of access to data and computational resources. There are many different ways to connect a vehicle, using different infrastructures, technologies and transmission mediums. In this paper we will focus on the common mobile Internet connectivity, typically the same sort as is used for handheld smartphones and laptops.

Mobile Internet
Mobile Internet is a collection of techniques used to connect mobile consumer devices such as smartphones to the Internet. It uses existing cellphone networks to send and receive IP data packets effectively making the device a portion of the Internet. However, as it uses wireless transmission to the cellphone infrastructure, the quality of the connection varies depending on distance to cellphone towers and the surrounding environment. Some of the key characteristics in mobile Internet are: n Speed or throughput is the measure of how much data can be transmitted at once and is the most common attribute. The maximum theoretical throughput varies depending on technology with typical rates of approximately 30-100 kbps for 2nd generation mobile systems (GSM/GPRS, CDMA2000/1x), 0.4-7 mbps for 3rd generation systems (UMTS, EV-DO or 3G) and 100-300 mbps for 4th generation systems (LTE, WiMAX, or 4G). The maximum theoretical throughput is seldom achieved as this assumes a xed location in close proximity to the tower, and the speeds available for a moving car are therefore much lower. Figure 3 compares the speed of various mobile technologies. n Latency is the time it takes for a single data package to reach the destination. This varies considerably in mobile networks with averages ranging from 10ms up to several hundred milliseconds (and sometimes seconds) under bad conditions. n Packet Loss is measured in percentage and indicates how many packets never reach their destination. In good coverage areas, this should be minimal, but as a car moves in and out of coverage, several percent of loss during a trip is possible. Another important property of mobile internet is that, just as with home networks, the mobile device is seldom given a public internet address. This does not affect messages and requests originating from

Plug-in HEVs
Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) provide the benets of both HEVs and BEVs at the cost of a larger battery than would typically be in an HEV. Because PHEVs, like HEVs, can be run on fuel only without depleting the battery, they offer driving ranges similar to HEVs and can be easily refueled at a gas station. In addition, because of the larger battery, like a BEV, they also offer some electric-only driving range. PHEVs have one additional degree of freedom beyond an HEV. Because customers expect to charge their PHEVs from the grid after each trip, the vehicle needs to operate in a way that will fully deplete the battery during the trip. If the trip is longer than the electric-only driving range of the PHEV, selection of the depletion prole of the battery charge provides another opportunity for
6 MARCH 2013

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control

the car, but it prevents cloud-based servers from directly contacting the vehicle without the vehicle inviting the connection rst. Advantages By allowing communication between the car and the cloud several advantages can be realized: Outsourcing of computation. We can perform computations or run algorithms that would require much more powerful computers (faster or more memory) than could be installed in a car. Access to persistent personal storage. Data for predictive algorithms could be based on a drivers usage of more than one car, letting the predictive algorithm work in an optimal way even for new or temporary vehicles (e.g. rental cars). Real-time and dynamic data access. An optimization algorithm could make use of factors not available in the vehiclethe driver and/or car might behave differently based on weather, trafc or personal schedule which can be available from the cloud. Cloud connectivity can also give access to a large set of static or dynamic data sources useful for the control algorithms, such as high-resolution maps, or topography information. Crowd-sourcing. By allowing access to data collected from all drivers, personalized algorithms that are depending on historic driver data could still be made to produce benecial results even when there isnt enough personal data available, either because the situation is new or the driver has not been at a specic destination before. Unique challenges As mentioned in the section above, the unique characteristics of mobile communication introduce a unique set of challenges. First, since coverage is never guaranteed, a vehicle can never rely wholly on connectivity and there will always need to be a default functionality implemented onboard. Secondly, even if connectivity exists, it might be too slow to be useful. Unfortunately this is not always possible to measure and the vehicle must always be prepared to switch over to alternative local functionality.

FIGURE 5 Example BEV customer using their cell phone to configure charging preferences

Smart Control System Design


People ultimately use their vehicle to get from one location to another. On any given trip there are three key ways that the overall driving experience can be affected. The rst is the choice of route, e.g. shortest distance, shortest time, greenest. The second is the choice of vehicle operation. In this, the driver can choose to drive aggressively, smoothly, or anywhere in between. The third is the choice of propulsion system operation. The vehicle control systems choice of the battery power, engine torque, and other operational parameters has a signicant impact on trip efciency. The rst two are choices that can be inuenced by the control system, but ultimately the driver makes the decisions. The third is determined by the vehicle control system. Connectivity offers unprecedented levels of information that can be used by the vehicle control system to help the driver get from point A to point B in the way that the driver is looking for. Smart control system design can help drivers pick an optimal route, coach drivers in how to best operate their vehicle, and automatically pick the optimal operating point of the powertrain to maximize the system efciency. The level of attribute performance (e.g., fuel consumption, emissions, drivability) on a trip from point A to point B is related to the amount of information richness. As shown in Figure 4, as the control system learns more about the upcoming situation, the opportunity becomes bigger for attribute improvement through smart control system design. At one end of the spectrum, drivers can provide information about their operational preferences. At the other end of the spectrum, the control system has perfect preview information. Across this spectrum of information richness, there is an
MARCH 2013 7

Attribute Performance

Partial Preview Driver Personalization

Optimized

Information Richness


FIGURE 4 Information creates opportunities for improved attributes.

Figure 1 - Information Creates Opportunities for Improved Attributes.

110 100
Battery SOC state (%)

Battery SOC control trajectory in different control strategies Default Linear Pattern Linear Reference Pattern Reference

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 0 20 40 60 80 100

Fuel Consumption (kg)

10 5 0

120

140

160

Default (7.92 kg) Linear (7.39 kg) Pattern (7.29 kg)

20

40

60 80 100 Travel distance (km)

120

140

160

FIGURE 6 Smart SOC control in a PHEV can lead to improved fuel economy (Yu, Kuang, & McGee, 2011)

increasing opportunity for control system optimization and improved vehicle attributes.

Driver Initiated Control System Con guration


Drivers can inform their vehicle about their driving preferences and the control system can adapt its logic to increase the vehicle performance. With a limited amount of energy stored in the high voltage battery and long recharge times, driving a BEV comes with additional concerns about range anxiety. Drivers can inform their vehicle about their driving habits by preconguring the start times for their next trip, as well as their climate control preferences. The vehicle then automatically charges the battery during the most cost effective time of day or night, while ensuring that the charging event completes by the start of the next trip. Additionally, the cabin temperature and battery temperature can be preconditioned while the vehicle is plugged into the grid. In this way, the cabin and battery temperatures are controlled to the desired setting in advance of driving using grid energy rather than the precious energy stored in the battery. This leaves more energy available for propulsion, thereby extending the driving range and reducing range anxiety. Figure 5 shows an example of a BEV owner conguring their charging and temperature preferences.

trip (Tulpule, Marano, & Rizzoni, 2009). In this example, a single piece of preview information (driving distance until the next charging event) can be used to congure the control system and deliver improved fuel economy. Predicting this information can be done based on past driving history (Naghshtabrizi, Kristinsson, Yu, & McGee, 2011) or through the navigation system. Moving beyond only driving distance information, the control system can use preview information about the upcoming road segments, e.g. city or highway, to employ pattern-based state-of-charge (SOC) pre-planning algorithms and further improve fuel economy. Pattern construction, classication, and real time distance based SOC control are all key technologies required to leverage this information. The distance-only information has been shown to improve fuel economy of a PHEV by more than 6%, while including the pattern based preplanning technology improves fuel economy by nearly 8% (Yu, Kuang, & McGee, 2011). Figure 6 compares the fuel consumption for the Base SOC control, the Linear Discharge control, and the Pattern Based SOC control for one particular drive cycle. The second part of Figure 6 shows the accumulated fuel consumption across the driving distance. For this particular example, the default strategy initially uses less fuel due to the higher battery usage. However by the end of the drive cycle the default strategy consumes more fuel.

THE QUEST FOR A FULLY OPTIMIZED CONTROL SYSTEM


s more and more information is accessed, a clearer picture of the upcoming driving prole can be constructed. Depending on the time (or distance) horizon, different information sources can be fused into a coherent prediction. For example, if we know nothing about the trip, the control system can guess based on past usage. For instance, if it is 7 a.m. on a Tuesday morning and the car is started in the owners garage, then it is highly likely, based on driving history data, that the person is driving to work. Once the system knows the destination, either from the navigation system or through a prediction, the system can determine the route. With a route, the system can consult various geographical data sources to determine the elevation, speed limit, road curvature, and various other road attributes for each segment of the trip. Given the map data, the system can overlay trafc signal timing and real timeand predictedtrafc data and obtain a likely travel-

Preview Information
There are many pieces of information available to a vehicle that can be used to construct preview information. Using a planned (or predicted) route, map data, and real time trafc information, a smart control system can construct a prediction about the upcoming situation that the vehicle will experience. Electried vehicles are particularly well suited to take advantage of this preview information due to their onboard energy storage. For example, in a PHEV, a key goal of the control system is to utilize all of the available energy in the battery prior to the next charging event. It is well understood that depleting the battery evenly across the entire trip is more efcient than depleting the battery at the maximum rate in the beginning of the
8 MARCH 2013

Preview Horizon
100 m 2 km 50 km 100 km

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


250,000 km

Event
Example Single accel or braking event Preview Data Predicted velocity profile Control Approach Model Predictive Control formulation for energy management

Segment
Example Section of road between two intersections Preview Data Predicted energy consumption Control Approach Optimal route. (Pick your favorite optimization technique)

Trip
Example Single trip from origin to destination Preview Data Predicted route, personal EV zones Control Approach Location based engine on/off behavior for low emission zones

Trip Chain
Example Multiple trips between charging events Preview Data Distance until next charging event Control Approach Distance based SOC depletion

Lifetime
Example From the factory to the junkyard Preview Data Battery health prediction Control Approach Battery life extending operational profiles for both charging and driving

FIGURE 7 Smart SOC control in a PHEV can lead to improved fuel economy (Yu, Kuang, & McGee, 2011)

ing speed and elevation prole for that particular driver. Alternatively, clustering algorithms can be used to summarize the operational proles into a distinctive set of patterns (Yu, Tseng, & McGee, 2012). In this example, we can see that increasing information richness leads to a more accurate prediction across a longer horizon. At the extreme, if a control system has perfect preview information, dynamic programming (DP) based solutions can be used to determine provably optimal control laws. While DP is a useful tool for benchmarking the best possible solution, it is not practical because there are no perfect predictions. However, control system researchers are constantly nding new ways to make use of every new piece of information. In Figure 7 we can see that the preview horizon extends from a few meters to an entire lifetime of driving. Across this spectrum, different information sources are used to inform the vehicle control system and different approaches are used to improve electried vehicles. An exemplary idea is given for each category to illustrate potential applications. REFERENCES Modern automobiles continue to grow in Naghshtabrizi, P., Kristinsson, J., Yu, H., & McGee, complexity and sophistication. Electried R. (2011). "Distance Until Charge Prediction powertrains now provide vastly improved and Fuel Economy Impact for Plug-in." fuel efciency by utilizing high voltage sysAmerican Control Conference. San Francisco, CA. tems to overcome some of the shortcomings Sciarretta, A., & Guzzella, L. (2007, April). "Conof traditional combustion engines. Smart controls have enabled a wealth of new vehicle trol of hybrid electric vehicles." IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 27(2), pp. 60-70. features ranging from automatic climate control to vehicle dynamic control. Vehicle Tulpule, P., Marano, V., & Rizzoni, G. (2009). "E ects of Di erent PHEV Control Strategies connectivity, having already empowered the on Vehicle Performance." American Control driver through infotainment and telematics, Conference. St. Louis, MO. now promises new computing resources and Yu, H., Kuang, M., & McGee, R. (2011). "Tripinformation that can be leveraged directly oriented Energy Management Control for improved vehicle performance. At the inStrategy." IEEE Conference on Decision and tersection of these three vehicle mega trends Control. Orlando, FL. lies a eld that is rich for development. In Yu, H., Tseng, F., & McGee, R. (2012). "Driving the future, drivers will benet in everything Pattern Identi cation for EV Range from enhanced drivability to more durable Estimation." IEEE International Electric Vehicle vehicles.
Conference. Greenville, SC.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS


Anthony M. Phillips is a senior technical leader at Ford Motor Co. He joined the company after receiving his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in mechanical engineering and has been part of the Research and Advanced Engineering sta since 1998. Currently, he is responsible for Fords advanced vehicle and battery control system development for all electri ed vehicle applications. He also oversees a portfolio of research projects spanning both in-vehicle control system technologies and control system development processes. His recent work has focused on connected vehicle control, battery management systems, and system engineering and model-based design processes. Ryan A. McGee is a technical expert in Electri cation Research and Advanced Engineering at Ford Motor Co. He received his B.S. and M.Eng. in electrical engineering from Cornell University and an MBA from the University of Michigan. He is a member of IEEE and SAE. Jhannes G. Kristinsson is a research engineer at Ford Motor Co. where he is working on developing a architecture for empowering electri ed vehicles by adding connectivity, preview information and other external systems to the powertrain. He received a masters degree in computer science and engineering from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. Before joining Ford, he developed public WiFi hotspots solutions on-board high-speed trains in Europe and worked on vehicle networking at Volvo Cars. Hai Yu received her B.S.E.E. and M.E.E.E degrees from Harbin Institute of Technology, China, and a Ph.D. from the Ohio State University. He has been working at Ford Research and Advanced Engineering since 2007. He is conducting research in electri ed vehicle control and intelligence, energy management optimization and electri ed vehicle dynamic controls. From 2005 to 2007, he worked with Robert Bosch GmbH, Chassis Controls, on new generation vehicle dynamic control system development.

Hybrid and
BY Giorgio Rizzoni and Huei Peng

THE ROLE OF DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

vehicles:
80 miles per gallon (approximately 3 liters per 100 km) by 2003. The program ended in 2001, with the automakers having demonstrated (but not launched production of) the GM Precept, the Ford Prodigy and the Chrysler ESX. All of these vehicles were characterized by the use of lightweight materials, hybrid powertrains, and other technological innovations. PNGV provided the opportunity for substantial research to be carried out in collaborations among the automotive companies, their suppliers, national labs, and universities.

ybrid and electrified vehicles have demonstrated significant fuel economy improvement, especially for city driving, and are gaining market acceptance. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles have captured about 3.3% of the U.S. market 1, with an annual sales growth this year of 65%, and they also account for more than 20% of the Japanese market 2 . In Japan, the high market penetration is due to government incentives and high fuel prices (~ $8/gallon). The success of hybrid vehicles in Japan demonstrates the potential for hybrid vehicles in other urban markets with high fuel prices, such as large cities in Europe and Asia.

A hybrid powertrain contains at least two power sources, typically an internal combustion engine (ICE) as the primary power source, and a secondary power source, such as an electric motor. Hybrids save fuel by exploiting the additional exibilities available in the design and operation of the hybrid powertrain, including load leveling, regenerative braking, engine shut-down, component right-sizing, and if available, manipulating the electronic continuously variable transmission. The added exibility in the powertrain operation and design means model-based analysis, simulation and control play an even more prominent role in vehicle design and operation. In other words, having the best components (battery, motor, etc.) is not enough to ensure the success of an electried vehicle. Topnotch performance is only achieved by the proper selection of powertrain conguration, proper sizing of all components, and optimal control, in addition to rst-rate powertrain components. In this article, we will review past successes and future challenges of modelbased approaches for the analysis, design and control of hybrid vehicles. The takeaway message is that this is a eld that has signicant potential for future research and development.
10 MARCH 2013

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The origin of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) dates back to 1899, when Dr. Ferdinand Porsche, then a young engineer at Jacob Lohner & Co, built the rst hybrid vehicle 1. The Lohner-Porsche gasoline-electric Mixte, used a gasoline engine rotating at a constant speed to drive a dynamo, which charged a bank of accumulators. These, in turn, fed current to electric motors contained within the hubs of the front wheels. In the United States, the rst reference to a hybridelectrical vehicle may be found in a 1905 patent ling by H. Pieper1 , a German-born Belgian. By the time the patent was issued in 1908, reciprocating ICEs had improved signicantly and hybrid vehicles, much like battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), had disappeared from the market. Nearly a century later, in 1993, eight agencies of the U.S. government formed a partnership with the three major automotive manufacturers to advance vehicle technology, with the goal of producing highly fuel-efcient vehicles. The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)3 , involved DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors. Its most widely publicized, but not only, goal was to develop production vehicles capable of achieving

HYBRID VEHICLES
Hybrid vehicles are generally classied according to their powertrain architecture as shown in Figure 1. A series hybrid uses a large electric motor to propel the vehicle while using the ICE and a second electric machine to generate electricity to directly provide propulsion, or to charge a battery. The Diesel-Electric propulsion system used in locomotives would be an example of such architecture, and a similar concept can also be implemented in a hydraulic hybrid using hydraulic pumps and motors, and accumulators. A parallel hybrid can blend mechanical power from the ICE and the electric motor(s) through appropriate mechanical coupling and transmission elements to deliver mechanical power to the road or to recharge the battery. The Honda Civic Hybrid is an example, and such an architecture can also be realized in hydraulic hybrids using hydrostatic transmissions. A third conguration, the one that is most commonly found among production hybrid passenger vehicles today, is the power-split hybrid, in which the properties of both a series and parallel hybrids are achieved, frequently by using one or more planetary gear sets to couple two electric machines, to the ICE on one side, and to the driveline on the other. The

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


Toyota Prius is a commercially successful example of this architecture. An HEV is considered charge sustaining if the electric energy storage system is recharged only by power supplied by the ICE or by regenerative braking. If, on the other hand, the vehicle is designed to deplete stored energy in the battery during the course of a trip, ending the trip with a lower state of charge than at the start and requiring re-charging from the electrical grid, the vehicle is called charge depleting, or a plug-in hybrid (PHEV). The Chevrolet Volt is the rst commercially produced example of such an architecture, although this concept was proposed and demonstrated in the early 1990s4. The charge-depleting vs. charge-sustaining distinction is not of practical use in hydraulic or mechanical hybrids, as very little energy can be stored in an accumulator or a ywheel, although during the PNGV years there was signicant effort made to develop commercial ywheel batteries that would be capable of storing signicant energy.

FIGURE 1 Three general types of hybrid powertrain configurations.

GROUND VEHICLE MODELING AND ENERGY ANALYSIS


To understand the potential bene ts of any hybrid vehicle architecture we rst need to understand vehicle energy and power requirements, which are imposed by its duty cycle. Duty cycles vary dramatically depending on the intended use of the vehicle, and range from the driving habits of the average consumer to requirements imposed by commercial or military vehicles.

vehicle motion: Ftotal (t) = Fa (t) + Fg (t) + Fr(t) + Facc (t) While the total power associated with this load is: Ptotal (t) = Ftotal (t) V(t) 2 The aerodynamic drag is modeled by:

To overcome the road load, Ftotal (t), the powertrain (conventional or hybrid) must supply a motive force at the wheel, FMW (t), which can be related to the wheel torque TMW (t), using the effective wheel radius, RW , by:

FMW (t) = R TMW (t)


W

Fa = Fa (V) = a Af Cd Veff 2

Forces acting on a vehicle


The power required to motor a vehicle is known as the road load, and can be broken into several components: rolling resistance, vehicle internal frictional losses, aerodynamic drag, grade (if any), and inertial loads (accelerating the vehicle). A small portion of the power is used for accessory loads (e.g., alternator, air-conditioning compressor, power steering pump). In trucks or utility vehicles, a signicant portion of the power may be used to drive equipment (e.g., hydraulic pumps) in addition to the accessory loads. Here we present a basic analysis of the forces acting on a vehicle, considering the vehicle as a lumped mass, and only accounting for longitudinal motion 5-6. With reference to Fig. 2, consider a vehicle of mass M, moving at a speed V on a grade of angle . The total road load is dened as the force impeding

where Cd is the drag coefcient, Af is the projected vehicle frontal area, a is air density, Veff = V - Vwind is the effective air/ vehicle relative velocity, where Vwind is the resultant vector of the head wind force. A wide range of factors affect the total rolling resistance of the vehicle, including tire temperature, ination pressure, and age. The rolling resistance force is often approximated by: Fr(V, ) = MgcosCr(V) 4 The rolling resistance coefcient, Cr depends on the type of tire, the tire pressure, temperature, the vehicle mass and the road surface. Typically Cr = 0.013 0.02 for smooth pavement 9. The force due to the road grade can be modeled as Fg = Mg sin where is the angle of the road with the horizontal (see Fig. 2). Thus, the total aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance and grade force resisting the motion of the vehicle is:
Ftotal = a Cd Af V 2 + CrMg cos + Mg sin 5 eff

The balance of these forces determines the net acceleration (or deceleration) of the vehicle, according to Newtons second law of motion:

Meff dV = FMW (t) - Ftotal (t)

where Meff is the effective mass of the vehicle referenced to the wheels, that is the sum of the vehicle mass plus the equivalent mass resulting from the moments of inertia of all rotating components, including engine and driveline. The latter is dependent on the transmission speed ratio if the vehicle is equipped with a multi-speed transmission. Using the total load we arrive at the total required power:
Ptotal = [ a Cd AfV 2 + CrMgcos + Mg sin ]V + Pacc 8 eff

in which Pacc is the power required for the accessories.

DRIVING CYCLES
To evaluate fuel economy, emissions and performance of a vehicle, it is customary to use standard driving cycles, e.g. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) driving cycles, which are typically implemented on a
MARCH 2013 11

chassis dynamometer in the case of lighta resistance force acc duty vehicles 7. These cycles are represented a Grade resistance as traces of vehicle speed versus time. For g force g example, the federal test procedure (FTP) Rolling resistance schedule, commonly used to assess a lightr force duty vehicles fuel economy and emissions r covers a distance of 11.04 mi (17.77 km), for Accessories and acc driveline losses a duration of 1,874 s at an average speed of 21.2 mi/h (34.1 km/h). Prior to executing Vehicle speed FIGURE 2 Forces acting on a vehicle the FTP, the vehicle is kept in cold soak (i.e., a stabilized ambient thermal state) overnight. At the beginning of the test, the engine is red and operated during the warm-up phase. At the end of the rst portion of the is very important in selecting the appropriate hybrid vehicle cycle (i.e., the Federal Urban Driving Schedule, FUDS, shown in architecture, and in choosing the best means for kinetic energy Fig. 3), the vehicle is stopped for a rest period of 10 minutes (hot recovery8-9. As an example, consider the FUDS cycle, shown in soak). Then the beginning of the second FUDS cycle is executed. Figure 3, a relatively gentle driving cycle, chosen to represent This overall procedure is designed to provide a representative urban driving, it would theoretically be possible to recover 3.6 sample of vehicles during their warm-up phase and operating at MJ of energy if all of the kinetic energy during deceleration can nominal operating temperatures. be recovered. However, for safety reasons, regenerative braking Using the road load model, the force at the wheel is given by: systems cannot completely replace friction brakes. In addition to kinetic energy recovery, hybrid powertrain dV FUDS - FF ederal U rban D riving S chedule 2 = a Cd Af V eff + Mg cos Cr + Mg sin + (M + Meq ) 9 MW dt architectures also permit engine downsizing, as well as the ability Assuming no grade ( = 0) and no wind, the power at the wheel to implement idle reduction strategies using engine start-stop Cycle parameters Statistics: technologies. Further, the electric drivetrain makes it possible is given by: Duration = 1372 s Mean positive acceleration 0a .497 m/s2 engine map, in regions with lower to operate,= in torque-speed dV 3 PMW = a Cd Af V + Cr Mg V + MeffV dt 10 brake-specic fuel consumption. 2 Mean negative Distance = 12.368 mbe provided at the vehicle wheels The energyk to over the cycle isacceleration = -0.345 m/s then given by: ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS Mean aerodynamic power = 0.83 kWlynchpin Mean speed = 9.01 m/s dV dt Energy storage is the of a hybrid vehicle. In HEVs such 3 EMW= PMW dt = a Cd Af V dt + Cr Mg V dt + Meff V dt 11 storage comes from electrochemistry, but it is also possible to cycle cycle cycle Mean aerodynamic energy = 1 .14 M J power and mechanical systems. In the store energy using uid present section we examine the most common energy storage In 11, the integral terms are vehicle independent, but are cycle Mean positive inertial power = 6.43 kW system technologies. Figure 4 is a Ragone plot depicting the dependent, while their coefcients are vehicle dependent. relationship between specic power and specic energy of variOne method for improving fuel economy is to recover and store Mean negative inertial power = -4.46 kW ous energy storage devices, including for comparison also energy as much of the vehicles energy as possible during decelerations. conversion= devices The process of storing the energy is commonly known as regenInertial energy expenditure 3.6 Msuch J as the internal combustion engine and the fuel cell. Clearly some energy storage devices are better erative braking. Typically, the recovery of brake energy is only a suited= for providing fraction of the available energy. Analyzing a vehicle driving cycle potential Regeneration -3.6 MJ power, while others are more effective at providing longer-term energy. Even within one specic technolto understand the potential availability of kinetic energy recovery

F F F F

Aerodynamic

Mg

Figure 3 - FUDS driving cycle and related parameters, including power available for regeneration, shown in red.

FIGURE 3 FUDS driving cycle and related parameters, including power available for regeneration, shown in red.

FUDS: FEDERAL URBAN DRIVING SCHEDULE

CYCLE PARAMETERS ... Duration = 1372 s Distance = 12.368 km Mean speed = 9.01 m/s STATISTICS ... Mean positive acceleration = 0.497 m/s2 Mean negative acceleration = -0.345 m/s2 Mean aerodynamic power = 0.83 kW Mean aerodynamic energy = 1.14 MJ Mean positive inertial power = 6.43 kW Mean negative inertial power = -4.46 kW Inertial energy expenditure = 3.6 MJ Regeneration potential = -3.6 MJ
12 MARCH 2013

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


ogy class (e.g. batteries or ywheels), designs can be optimized for energy or power applications. For example, in a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle or in a pure electric vehicle, energy capacity is a dominant consideration, while in a commercial vehicle that operates according to a duty cycle with frequent starts and stops, for example a delivery van or a refuse hauling vehicle, a technology capable of recovering signicant power may be preferred over one that has signicant energy capacity. signicantly greater power densities in comparison to batteries. While supercapacitors are not appropriate replacements for batteries in most hybrid applications, they are well suited to certain duty cycles that require high-power capabilities and long life. An example of such an application is the refuse-hauling truck developed by Oshkosh Truck Corporation19, in which a supercapacitor energy storage system was used to exploit the frequent start-stop duty

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE Batteries, modeling and state of charge and state of health estimation

Thomas Edison tried to produce practical battery-electric vehicles about a century ago. Low battery energy density and reliability prevented success. Batteries continue to be the performance and cost bottleneck for FIGURE 4 Specific Power versus Specific Energy for Various Short-Term Energy Storage Systems 10. all electried vehicles today. Because batteries are expensive and subject to failure if not treated properly, vehicle manufacturers are faced with a tradeoff between a larger battery pack with higher cost allowing for less stressful demand, and a right-sized battery pack that causes batteries to be operated near their practical limits, with accelerated aging and reliability concerns. As an example, the NiMH battery pack in the Toyota Prius is only used in a region of SOC that corresponds to at most 25% of the battery capacity. Oversizing the battery pack has resulted in very reliable operation, with vehicles (and battery packs) currently on the road approaching ten years of service. To ensure safe, reliable and efcient operations of the traction batteries, an effective battery management system (BMS) must be developed. A BMS serves many functions that primarily rely on sensors, including temperature monitoring, over-charging and over-discharging prevention, and cell-to-cell imbalance detection and mitigation. Two of the most notable examples are the estimation of battery SOC and State-of-Health (SOH) 11-12. For these two BMS functions, accycle of a residential refuse hauling truck. curate battery models that can be implemented in real-time are necessary. Both electrochemical models 13-15 and equivalent circuit models 16-18 haveFigure been4 - Specific Hydraulic systems Power energy versus Sstorage pecific Energy for Various Short-Term Energy Storage Systems [ 10]. applied to battery SOC and SOH estimation (see Fig. 5). The electrochemical All hybrid vehicles available on the pasmodels describe distributed electrochemistry behaviors in the electrodes and senger car market today are HEVs. However, electrolyte and typically deploy partial differential equations with a large number for heavy-duty applications hybrid hydraulic of unknown parameters. The complexity often leads to signicant computer vehicles (HHVs) are excellent alternatives memory and computation requirement and the models are usually over-paramebecause they are more cost effective and have terized and robust. much higher power density and reliability. In Equivalent circuit battery models use standard electric circuit elements as the addition, hydraulic actuators typically do not building blocks to describe the battery voltage-current relationship. Despite the require a dedicated cooling system, which is simple model structure, when proper complexity is included, battery behavior advantageous for cost, reliability and packagcan be reconstructed with high accuracy. As an example, given the battery curing reasons. A major challenge for hydraulic rent prole, the voltage can be predicted with a standard deviation error as low actuators is the fact that hydraulic accumulators as 6 mV16 , which is as accurate as the best validated results from electrochemihave much lower energy density, which means they are excellent power boost devices but do cal models, and more than adequate for practical BMS functions. Surprisingly, not have adequate energy for extended pure hya simple RC circuit plus a resistance is adequate and robust as a model for SOC draulic driving range. The short burst of power estimation 16 . means they are only suitable for urban operaSOH has a different meaning for different applications. In battery packs used tions and not highway driving. The size of the in HEVs, ohmic loss or impedance is important because it affects the maximum hydraulic accumulators and reservoirs also limit power that can be delivered by the battery. For PHEVs or BEVs the key perforthe applicability of hydraulic hybrid technolomance bottleneck is battery capacity. Battery impedance is easy to calculate using gies to passenger cars. the voltage-current information. The battery capacity can be measured when the Hydraulic hybrids are already available on battery is fully discharged and then charged in a laboratory. The eld of SOH the heavy vehicle market. Eaton Corp. has a estimation is a relatively immature eld and further development is still needed. parallel hybrid architecture (i.e., the Eaton Electrochemical, or double-layer, or super capacitors Hydraulic Launch Assist), which reduces fuel consumption by about 20-30%, and a serial Electrochemical capacitors are a special class of capacitors with extraorhydraulic hybrid system which achieves a 50% dinarily large energy densities compared to traditional capacitors, as well as fuel saving in urban cycles. Parker Hannin
MARCH 2013 13

V0

R1

C (=1/c2 R2 )

Load

R2

Source


FIGURE 5 Electrochemical models and equivalent circuit models have both been used to describe battery dynamic behavior and for battery management system functions. Figures from 14 and 18.

Figure 5 - Electrochemical models and equivalent circuit models have b used to describe battery dynamic behavior and for battery managemen maintaining or enhancing drivability are also important. Regardless of the launched a serial hydraulic system in 2010 with similar fuel powertrain topology, the essence of the HEV control problem is the instanfunctions. F igures f rom [ 14] a nd [18]. saving. Several other companies, including Bosch Rexroth,
Caterpillar, and Komatsu are also developing hydraulic trucks or construction machines such as excavators, mostly based on parallel or power split congurations. We expect hydraulic hybrids to gain signicant market share in the near future. taneous management of the power ows from energy converters to achieve the control objectives. One important characteristic of this general problem is that the control objectives are mostly integral in nature (fuel consumption and emission per mile of travel), or semi-local in time, such as drivability, while the control actions are local in time. Furthermore, the control objectives are often subject to integral constraints, such as maintaining the battery SOC within a prescribed range. Much can be learned from global optimization exercises over a priori known driving cycles. However, these solutions do not directly lend themselves to practical implementations. In addition to minimizing vehicle energy use, vehicle designers must also meet a number of other practical constraints that present tradeoffs. Exhaust gas emissions, which are tightly regulated, can be signicantly affected in a hybrid propulsion system. For example, engine starting and stopping cycles may have an impact on the thermal and chemical environment of the catalysts used in the exhaust aftertreatment system. Drivability is also strongly inuenced by the architecture and control of a hybrid powertrain, as is vehicle noise-vibration-harshness (NVH). Miller22 presents an excellent overview of all of the challenges presented by hybrid propulsion systems, from an industrial perspective. Each of these control problems, fuel economy and CO2 emissions minimization, meeting regulated emissions constraints, achieving acceptable performance and drivability, requires the use of models appropriate for the task, and much work has been done to develop such models.

Mechanical (kinetic) energy storage systems


In addition to electrochemical and uid power energy storage, energy can also be stored mechanically using a rotating disc (i.e., ywheel). Investigation into the concept of storing energy in a rotating disc for passenger cars was prompted by rising gasoline prices in the 1970s. Andrew Frank at the University of Wisconsin investigated the idea of using a large ywheel to store energy and allow engine-off operations20. This concept was implemented in a prototype vehicle using a hydrostatic continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a large steel ywheel, which showed fuel economy improvements of up to 33%. The introduction of kinetic energy recovery in race cars, starting with the 2009 Formula 1 racing season, prompted the development of regenerative braking systems with high power density, resulting in a high speed ywheel system with a full toroidal CVT with ywheel speeds exceeding 60,000 rev/ min and 60 kW of power with a total system weight of only 25 kg 21. Flybrid Systems, under the license from toroidal CVT designer Torotrak, has been working with car manufacturers to bring the technology to production vehicles and have reported that up to 21% of the energy needed to propel a vehicle can be recovered from braking 21.

Energy modeling and instantaneous optimization as a surrogate for global optimization


The optimal energy management problem in a hybrid electric vehicle consists of nding the control u(t) that leads to the minimization of the performance index J, where mf is the mass ow rate of fuel used:
12

MODELING AND CONTROL OF ELECTRIFIED VEHICLES Modeling: hierarchy of models


Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles are aimed at meeting several simultaneous objectives. The primary one is fuel consumption, but minimizing engine emissions and

subject to constraints that are related to: i) physical limitations in the actuators and in the stored energy; and ii) to the requirement to maintain the battery SOC within prescribed limits. Since the minimization needs to be performed over an unknown driving cycle, a realizable solution to this problem is very difcult, if not impossible, to achieve. Three approaches

14 MARCH 2013

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


to solve this problem have been proposed over the years, namely, rule-based controls, local optimization solutions as surrogates of the global solution, and formal optimal control solutions, including Pontryagins minimum principle and dynamic programming. A local optimization method that has demonstrated considerable success is the Equivalent fuel Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), originally proposed by Paganelli23. The method is based on accounting for the use of stored electrical energy, in units of chemical fuel use (g/s), such that one can define an equivalent fuel consumption taking into account the cost of electricity: are often referred to as shuffle vibrations34. Another undesired response characteristic, generally referred to as shunt, arises upon initial pedal application due the high rate of change of driveline torque. Typical pedal tipin/tip-out related drivability issues are demonstrated in Figure 6. Figure 6a depicts the shunt and shuffle observed in a test vehicle when operated in pure electric mode with no torque compensation. A typical response delay experienced during engine-only operation is shown in Figure 6b. This figure also illustrates the brake release bump phenomenon that commonly occurs in automatic transmission equipped vehicles. Pedal feel problems are more likely to occur in HEVs since the driver's demand for power (or acceleration) can be met using different actuators through different paths35. Additional drivability considerations may arise in hybrid vehicles due to the presence of multiple (often redundant) actuators and as a result of the operating principles of supervisory control strategies36. Due to the complex nature of hybrid drivetrains, HEVs are usually operated in fully or partially mode-based control37 , that is, mode selection and switching is an integral part of the supervisory control strategy. Such a mode-based control is architecture dependent (e.g., a PHEV could operate in electric-only mode or in hybrid mode, with obvious differences in the control strategies implemented and in the actuators used). One common element that is present in virtually all hybrid vehicles is the engine start-stop function. Since the start-stop function is frequently used in hybrid vehicles, its seamless implementation is crucial for consumer acceptability38. Mode transitions that affect drivability in HEVs are not limited to the engine start and stop events. For example, a mode change from hybrid operation to regenerative braking may excite driveline vibrations when the gear backlash reverses direction.

13

In 13, Ebatt is the energy capacity of the battery, Qlhv is the lower heating value of the chemical fuel, and s(t) is the equivalent factor that assigns a cost to the use of electricity. Then, the global minimization problem is converted into a local minimization problem:

14

where the virtual fuel consumption of the electric propulsion system is approximated by the use of an equivalent cost of the electricity, representing future fuel use required to replenish the stored electrical energy used in the present. The equivalence factor is cycle dependent, and can be adapted as a function of driving, geographical and traffic conditions24-25. This approach has been shown to closely approximate the global optimal solution. Formal optimal control methods have also been applied to this horizon optimization problem, using deterministic dynamic programming26-27, stochastic dynamic programming28 , model predictive control, or Pontryagins minimum principle29-30. Serrao et al. in31 present a comparison of deterministic dynamic programming, ECMS and a Pontryagin solution, and show that ECMS can in fact be interpreted as a Pontryagin minimum principle solution, in which the equivalent fuel consumption is the co-state in the Hamiltonian function that is minimized to achieve the minimum31.

Drivability and NVH


Drivability is a comprehensive term that encompasses vehicle responsiveness, operating smoothness and driving comfort36. In general, the discomfort caused by vibrations and accelerations depends on the vibration frequency and direction, the point of contact with the body and the duration of vibration exposure. Vibrations between 0.5 and 80 Hz are significant in exciting human body response. The most effective excitation frequency for horizontal vibrations lies between 1 and 2 Hz and that for vertical vibrations is from 4 to 8 Hz. Vibrations ranging from 2.5 to 30 Hz generate strong resonance with amplified magnitude of up to 200~350%, which may cause permanent damage on human organs and body parts. Drivability can be quantitatively evaluated by vehicle interior noise level, jerk amplitude and acceleration characteristics. Moreover, engine start/stop frequency is important in HEVs. Several quantitative measures used to assess drivability and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) problems are discussed in32. Gear shifting is the most commonly studied class of drivability problem. Recent work on the control of automatic, (automated) manual, continuously variable and electrically variable transmissions is surveyed in33. For vehicles equipped with (automated) manual transmissions, passive driveline damping is not sufficient to quickly dissipate the transient effects of abrupt torque changes in the absence of torque converters. Even in automatic and CVTs, pedal tip-in/tip-out may lead to noticeable disturbances when the torque converter by-pass clutch is locked. Similar issues also occur in BEVs and HEVs if the electric machines are rigidly coupled to the driveline. The oscillations that correspond to the fundamental driveline resonance frequency

Emissions optimization
The main selling point of hybrid vehicles is their superior fuel economy. While improved fuel economy typically has a trickle-down effect on emissions, this is not always the case. A well-known example is the lab test results of retrofitted Toyota Prius vehicles with larger (~5 kWh) battery packs39 , designed to enable plug-in operation. While the added battery energy improves overall fuel economy, the longer time interval between engine starts and stops caused the catalytic converter to not heat up properly. Therefore, tailpipe emissions at least
MARCH 2013 15

Driving cycles and velocity pro les have great impact on the performance of hybrid vehicles in terms of overall energy consumption, fuel economy and emissions. It has been suggested that road type and trafc condition, driving habits, and vehicle operation modes have various degrees of impact on vehicle fuel consumptions41-42. In addition, incorporating knowledge derived from intelligent transportation systems (ITS) about online driving pattern recognition and trafc and geographical information in control strategies is another path towards the optimization of PHEV energy management43-44. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) allow the vehicle to communicate with other vehicles and the infrastructure to collect information about surrounding and expected events in the future, e.g. trafc condition, turns, road grade, rain, snow, temperature, etc. Such information can assist in designing algorithms such as stochastic dynamic programming, model predictive control, etc.45 . ITS information can (a) Driveline shuffle and shunt be utilized for long-term trip forecast as well as short-term velocity and power prole grade and road surface prediction. Static and dynamic information including road conditions, speed limits, trafc light locations and timing, and real-time trafc ow Figure 6 - Undesirable drivability issues r esulting from pedal tip-in: experimental speeds can be used to build a long term forecast of the overall trip to the destinadata from Ohio State University ChallengeX HEV. tion. At the same time, information about the immediate surroundings, such as lane changing and turning decisions of the host and surrounding vehicles, and estimation of waiting time for turning on red, left turns and stop sign queuing, is helpful for rening short term prediction of future driving prole. Advances in GPS, telecommunication, and portable computing devices will change many aspects of vehicle energy management. In the future, we will see fuel-efcient, environment- and trafc-aware vehicles that integrate ITS and telematic systems with electried propulsion technology to achieve optimal energy management.

PREDICTIVE/ADAPTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS OF ITS

As the penetration of plug-in vehicles (PEVs) increases, their impact on the power grid cannot be neglected; thus, consideration of increased electric power demand and of the timing of vehicle charging must be included in the control/optimization process. FIGURE 6 Undesirable drivability issues resulting fromfpedal tip-in: experimental data from Ohi In the future it will become necessary to analyze information in real time to quantify es resulting rom pedal tip-in: e xperimental State University ChallengeX HEV. the effects of infrastructure, environment, and trafc ow on vehicle fuel economy and lengeX HEV. emissions, and to permit the application of forecasting and optimization methods for the energy management of PEVs. an order of magnitude worse than a producThe electric grid and the transportation system are the two largest sectors that tion Prius were measured. In this particular produce greenhouse gas emissions. When large numbers of vehicles are electried and case, the engine-out emission did not change draw power from the electric grid, it is important to aim for reduced overall greenmuch, but the catalytic converter light-off house gas emissions, rather than just shifting emissions from tailpipes to power plant was seriously affected. Since the conversion stacks. Alternatives to coal or natural gas to provide energy for electried vehicles are efciency of a cold catalyst is very low, fast therefore attractive. Using electricity generated from wind power to charge vehicles is catalyst warm-up and sustainment are the one such alternative: not only does electricity from wind have a lower carbon footprint, keys to minimizing tailpipe emissions40. but plug-in vehicle charging is also an effective way to mitigate wind intermittency. To include tailpipe emission, in addition Electricity generated from solar power has similar characteristics, except that it is to fuel economy, in the performance index, generated during daytime and is better suited for at-work PEV charging rather than charging at home. catalyst temperature needs to be added as In 36 states and the District of Columbia there is now a renewable power portfolio a dynamic state in the hybrid powertrain mandate. Other countries have already set an example on how to integrate renewmodel. The catalyst can be treated as a therables in the power grid, e.g., Denmark primarily uses hydropower to smooth variamal mass with engine exhaust gas as a heattions in wind generation. Controlling the charging of plug-in vehicles to alleviate the ing source, and heat exchange with ambient impact to the grid has been studied, including the idea of using plug-in vehicles as air as the main heat loss. Then there are ancillary services to the grid, possibly with signicant renewable power sources conat least three ways to solve this combined nected to the grid. Modeling and simulating this integrated system requires informafuel economy-emission problem. The fuel tion on detailed grid load proles, power generation pricing and carbon emissions, economy and emission can both be included wind statistics, vehicle usage statistics. In addition, charging control must balance in the cost function with tunable weights; multiple factors: grid stability, fully-charging all vehicles, minimizing data collection the fuel economy optimization problem can and communication, and overall system carbon emission minimization. be solved with emission as a constraint; or In conclusion, the design, modeling and control of hybrid vehicles is a subject rich emission can take priority during cold start in research opportunities for the dynamic systems and control community. We hope and then switch to fuel economy dominant to have conveyed in this article the extent to which this subject lends itself to advances after catalytic converter light-off. in dynamic modeling and model-based control.
16 MARCH 2013

(b) Response delay

FUTURE OUTLOOK

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of our colleagues and students at University of Michigan and Ohio State University. We are grateful for financial support from the automotive industry as well as from the U.S. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, and Army.

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Di Cairano, D. Filev, U. Ozguner, G. Rizzoni, "Cloud-computing based Velocity Profile Generation for Minimum Fuel Consumption: A Dynamic Programming Based Solution," American Control Conference, June 27-29, 2012.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS


Giorgio Rizzoni is the Ford Motor Co. Chair in Electromechanical Systems and professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and director of the Center for Automotive Research at Ohio State University (OSU). He is a Fellow of IEEE and SAE. His research activities are related to advanced propulsion systems for ground vehicles, energy efficiency, alternative fuels, the interaction between vehicles and the electric power grid, vehicle safety and intelligence, and policy and economic analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle fuel economy. Huei Peng is a professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. He participated in the design of several military and civilian concept hybrid vehicles, including FTTS, FMTV, Eaton parallel electric hybrid, and Super-HUMMWV. He is currently the U.S. Director of the Department of Energy sponsored Clean Energy Research CenterClean Vehicle Consortium, which supports 40 clean vehicle research projects.

Integrating Vehicle

his article presents an automotive control approach for information-rich future mobility. It integrates in-vehicle networked controls with cloud computing accessible through a wireless-network to elevate current on-board controls to a new level for additional benefits and performance. While in-vehicle controls remain essential for safety critical and real-time functionality, the cloud-computing paradigm offers another degree of freedom for control system design.

AUTOMOBILE CUSTOMERS AROUND THE WORLD ARE DEMANDING NEW TECH NOLOGIES FOR FUNCTIONS THAT GO BEYOND TRADITIONAL NEEDS. Automobile manufacturers also offer new features for brand recognition and for meeting regulatory requirements. While superior mechanical design remains critical for meeting technological challenges, additional effort is being focused on enhancing electronics, controls, and software1. Automotive manufacturers are investing in the smart utilization of information. We believe that cloud computing offers new opportunities for maximizing the benet of using big data generated by modern automobiles. Cloud computing enables network access to a shared pool of congurable computing resources which have virtually unlimited storage space and computational power. It can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management2, 3. Its presence in automotive applications has been rather limited so far4, 5. For example, a cloud-computing service in MyFord Mobile uses an onboard wireless module to communicate with a cloud-computing service for a whole array of infotainment and telematics features6. Progressive Insurance was the pioneer in using cloud services for monitoring driver performance. Its MyRate driving-monitoring device transmits driving data to a cloud server to determine the driver's insurance premium. Cloud computing is useful in optimizing controls for adaptive

driving experiences. The current on-board Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are targeted for about 100 distinct control and diagnostic functions. While automotive companies continue upgrading ECUs to meet increased computational needs, augmenting them with exible computing resources presents a feasible alternative. By combining in-vehicle networks and cloudcomputing resources, ECUs can conduct simpler and safety critical (e.g., traditional) computations in real-time while more complex but less time-critical computations are accomplished via cloud computing. Outsourcing computation-intensive tasks to a cloud-computing server is an extension of the current server-based concierge/ infotainment type features, e.g., GMs OnStar service and Fords SYNC service. Unlike safety and time critical tasks, higher-level computations (e.g., route planning, optimizing speed prole, context dependent control calibrations, model updating, and diagnosis) might be conducted remotely and used locally. Furthermore, intelligent agents can be called in the cloud to optimally guide vehicles for fuel economy, ride comfort, safe driving, etc. Such intelligent agents can also initialize the computation with a good initial guess for optimization (e.g., using historical or community data), thereby permitting fast convergence to the optimal solution. Various optimization needs in ECUs that were not feasible before can now be conducted in the cloud through a local-simple-remote-complex strategy.

FIG. 1 A CCS connected to in-vehicle networks via communications hardware.

18 MARCH 2013

e will refer to the cloud-computing resources as the Cloud Computing Server (CCS). Integrating the CCS with the in-vehicle networks needs a new system consisting of cloud enabled hardware, communication device, services provided by the CCS, software agents, etc., as shown in Fig. 1. Let's use MyFord Mobile for electried vehicles as an example to describe the hardware requirements6. The MyFord Mobile app and website enhance the electric vehicle experience. They help manage the charging process and provide notication if the planned trip is within the vehicle's range. It includes an onboard wireless module, which can communicate with both remote cellular towers and in-vehicle networks. The driver can also use a smartphone to access the same CCS or the in-vehicle networks. The cellular module consists of a backup battery, a power supply management system, a control area network (CAN) controller, a

INTEGRATING IN VEHICLE NETWORKS WITH THE CLOUD COMPUTING SERVER

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control

Control with Cloud Computing


FIG. 2 Diagram of in-vehicle networks augmented with the remote cloud computations - modules and signals: and -collections of all vehicle actuators, sensors, and controllers; - a vehicle as a generic plant; - a driver, - reference set-points; and - incremental controls and reference set-points operating based on local vehicle measurements; and - incremental controls and set-points operating based on both local and cloud information; - wireless communication device; a ,d - A/D and D/A converters; - the collection of all the arbitration operations among different control signals; - digital control signal generated from the controller ; - drivers control commands that are influenced by unknown information observed by the driver; - sensor measurements at the actuators, -digital sensor measurements; - reference signal.

By Dimitar Filev, Jianbo Lu and Davor Hrovat

subscriber identity module (SIM) card, a 2.5G Hz global system for mobile (GSM) communications circuit block, and a global positioning system (GPS) antenna (optional). Several functions have been implemented, including: estimating state of charge, programming vehicle charging, using location-based services, receiving alerts if the vehicle isn't charging or its charging status has changed, remotely locking or unlocking doors, downloading personalized information, etc. To actively reduce the wireless load and storage usage, the communication between the in-vehicle networks and the CCS cannot be conducted continuously using bi-directional data ow with the same high sampling rate as in-vehicle networks. It should be performed in a controlled manner to reect the on-demand nature of the application and to assure communication integrity. Precautions are required in integrating remote data with local data. Typically remote data are not used in highly dynamic and safety-critical applications, but are used for slowly time-varying processes, where the delay effect is negligible. For example, road slope changes relatively slow and a several second time delay in remote data will not cause signicant error in road slope related computations. The CCS entrusts remote services with a user's data, software, and computation. Its most relevant cloud-computing architecture is Software as a Service (SaaS) where vehicles can access the software in CCS and the vehicle's electronics does not need to manage the cloud infrastructure on which the application software is running. While the in-vehicle software has a standard architecture7, its integration with the cloud computing software over the wireless network is still an open question8. An agentbased architecture for networked control systems is proposed in9 that can be applied to integrating in-vehicle networks with the CCS. The agent-based approach is appealing in that the algorithms and software associated with the agents can be run ondemand and called by many users as needed, while in ECUs, the

software is xed. The agent-based approach leads to a clear shift from previous proprietary systems to modular systems3. The other relevant architecture includes storage as a service where the states related to the vehicle, the driver, and the driving conditions are all categorized, summarized, and stored under the appropriate labels in the CCS. They can be accessed by the host vehicle anywhere and anytime. They can also be accessed by the CCSs supervisory agents to assemble community states that summarize the historical and current states of multiple vehicles. Fig. 2 shows a sketch of the integration. W is the communication device, connecting in-vehicle networks and the CCS. The collection of data storage, data processing, computing, and software units in the CCS is denoted as Gr which generates remote signals that can be packed and sent to Cr and Rr. Similarly, data processed in Cl and Rl can be sent to Gr. The architecture of the integrated system involves the complexity of in-vehicle networks and Gr , and can be summarized as follows:
local-simple-remote-simple: simple computations in ECUs

and Gr data utilization for enhancing local computations


local-simple-remote-complex (LSRC): simple computations in ECUs and complex computations in Gr local-complex-remote-simple: complex computations compatible with ECUs capability and Gr data utilization for enhancing local computations local-complex-remote-complex: complex computations compatible with ECUs capability and even-more resourcedemanding computations in Gr

We envision three main types of cloud-computing agents: state estimation, supervisory control, and crowdsourcing agents, for automotive applications. The state estimation agents extend the ability of the on-board system to estimate variables that are not directly measured. The supervisory control agents execute broad tasks that require intensive computational resources, e.g.
MARCH 2013 19

learning models of driver and vehicle, conducting constrained optimization, calibrating control algorithms in real-time, etc. The crowdsourcing agents gather and summarize data from multiple vehicles, and fuse the data with other web enabled information sources.

State Estimation Agents

n this section, we address estimating states/conditions using cloud computing agents including state estimation (cloud as sensor), vehicle health monitoring (cloud as storage), driver's state in ECUs and generating an evolving driver model in Gr (cloud as computer and storage).

Cloud Based State Estimator State estimation from limited sensor measurements is usually conducted using Kalman filters10. Since wireless network and in-vehicle networks have different time delays (large vs. small), data sampling rates (slow vs. fast) and reliability characteristics (lossy vs. lossless), the traditional Kalman filter needs to be modified. For lossy networks, reference11 provides a good survey on state estimation, closed-loop stability, and controller synthesis with sampling, delay, and packet dropouts. In order to deal with the loss of remote data, Kalman filter updating is conducted through the following strategy: when local data is reliable, the Kalman filtering is conducted solely based on local data; when remote and local data are both reliably available, the Kalman filtering is conducted by switching from local data to remote data upon the arrival of remote data, and then switching back to local data when the system is waiting for arrival of the next remote data; when both local and remote data are not reliably available, the Kalman filtering is completely turned off and a dead reckoning scheme is used. Cloud Based Vehicle Health Monitoring An anomaly in a car can start from a weak part, such as a defect in its subsystem. If the defect breaks down, the subsystem has a fault. Although a careful inspection can reveal the fault, the driver might not be aware of it while driving. The fault puts the subsystem into an error state, which may not be noticed by the driver unless there is an error indicator. The error state can lead the subsystem to malfunction, which further causes performance degradation. The degradation eventually causes the subsystem to fail to act properly or perform as anticipated. A system is said to be healthy if it is free from any defect, fault, error, malfunction, degradation, and failure. Health monitoring is a means of using electronics to detect anomalous states before failure occurs. Controlled systems (e.g., drivertrain, powertrain, and brake controls) each have their own health monitoring system. They can directly detect any or a combination of defects, faults, errors, and malfunctions using dedicated sensors or multi-purpose sensors or even performing a self-test. There are usually no on-board electronics to directly detect an anomaly for mechanical systems; only regular service inspections. Although mechanical systems are designed to last for their life span, an anomaly can happen due to road or driving hazards. For example, a vehicle constantly driven on bad road segments can develop excessive wear in its chassis systems. Mechanical subsystems can also develop faults, errors, malfunctions, and degradation due to normal wear through normal usage. For example, the shock absorbers of a high mileage vehicle might not provide enough damping. Since a driver might not be able to sense the mechanical anomaly between regular service intervals, automatic health monitoring is desired for key mechanical subsystems. For autonomous vehicles, health monitoring will rely even more on electronics due to decreased involvement of the driver. Thus, both health monitoring and fault tolerance control are critical for the mass production of autonomous vehicles. An anomaly during normal usage can be detected either by installing new sensors (e.g., pressure sensor for tire pressure drop)
20 MARCH 2013

or using indirect sensors (e.g, tire imbalance can be detected from the wheel speed sensor measurements used for brake control functions)12. The time history of mechanical system response is important since gradual degradation might be predicted from trends in historical data. In addition to storage, many off-line diagnostic algorithms can be performed in Gr . Namely, a large chunk of data collected through the in-vehicle networks related to a certain anomaly can be uploaded to Gr and various complex diagnosis agents can be called in Gr to process the data. Certain parameters, which can characterize the anomaly pattern, might be identified and the fault models might be registered in Gr . In this way, a LSRC strategy can be used. Cloud Based Driver State Estimator The trend of increasing personalization, autonomy, and intelligence in automotive controls requires the creation of "driver-aware" vehicles to offer driver specific features maximizing safety, performance, and comfort, while still leaving full responsibility/control of the vehicle to the driver. This presumes well-developed algorithms for knowing the driver through learning the driver actions, capability, attentiveness, and driving style/behavior. The driver might be modeled through a dynamic system with a mix of deterministic and stochastic parameters. The development of such a driver model in real-time for control is challenging. Existing approaches to this problem include: identifying deterministic driver models13, modeling expert driver control for achieving optimal maneuvers14, modeling driver car-following control15, modeling driver through a model predictive control approach16, modeling driver through Markov chains17, real-time driver behavior identification18, and real-time workload estimation19. Let's use a car-following example to illustrate how driver state can be indirectly identified. During carfollowing, the driver controls the vehicle to follow a leading vehicle with zero speed difference, or a constant relative distance, or the combination of the two. A simplified model can be approximated by using a proportional-derivative (PD) feedback control law20 1 where xl and xf are the travel distances of the leading and following vehicles, xg is the desired gap, and cs and cv are two control gains selected by the driver. The relative velocity v = xl xf and relative distance s = xl xf are measured by on-board radar. The following vehicle acceleration, xf , is measured through a longitudinal accelerometer with output ax. Considering the time delay between the driver's actuation of brake/ acceleration pedal and the vehicle's longitudinal deceleration/acceleration, Equation 1 can be expressed as 2

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


Equation 2 is a second order system, the response time tp and the damping ratio can be computed as soon as the control gains cs and cv are identied 3 which are determined from the driver's driving behavior. Reference 20 introduces an evolving model to identify multiple sets of cs and cv , and uses them to compute the corresponding sets of tp and so as to characterize the driving behavior in real-time under different conditions, e.g. leisure, normal, and aggressive driving. The evolving modeling approach offers exibility in developing models that match the performance of a wide variety of drivers under different circumstances, but is rather limited for on-board applications due to its evolving structure, number of clusters, and corresponding linear models that can signicantly vary for different drivers. However, it ts very well into the cloud-computing paradigm since it allows storage of the models associated with different behaviors in the cloud and the creation of a detailed summary of driver behaviors over extended periods. grade and speed limits along the route are available. The approach uses data from Gr and the invehicle network. In Gr , data including those from geographical information systems (GIS), trafc patterns, and speed limits are used together with vehicle models stored in Gr. All the available vehicle data such as the initial starting location, nal destination, and optionally any waypoints, is transmitted from the in-vehicle networks to Gr. The optimization is conducted by using an optimization agent in Gr and the optimal velocity prole is displayed to the driver through a human-machine interface (HMI). Figure 3 illustrates such an approach and the details can be found in4.

he control computations21, 22 can be conducted in Gr in a pseudo-real-time fashion to conform to wireless communication constraints. Gr clones its software onto multiple virtual machines at run-time for individual vehicles to access. Certain automotive controls are dictated by the models that describe the dynamics to be controlled. Errors, variations in the model parameters, and disturbances in these models negatively affect the control performance. It is known that accurate real-time parameter identication and adaptation of these models can greatly improve the control performance, for example, using the indirect adaptive control method23. Due to the computation and storage limitation, ECUs cannot readily perform robust real-time parameter identication for each model. Those tasks can be conducted in Gr. The collection of multiple models, once validated through a validation process conducted in Gr , can, for example, be used for storing the historical record of the identied model parameters for health monitoring. With multiple validated models, the so-called falsied adaptive control approach might be applied24. Those models might also be used for designing model predictive control (MPC) , and the MPC agent can be run using the optimization software in Gr to nd 25 the control parameters based on the evolving models, effectively functioning as an adaptive MPC (AMPC). Fuel Economy Optimization Agent The fuel economy route and speed optimization problem can be summarized as follows: Fuel Economy Route & Speed Optimization (FERSO): Given a starting location X 0at time t0 and a destination location X f with terminal time tf , nd the optimal route from all the routes connecting X 0 and X f such that the fuel consumption of nishing the route is minimized vehicle dynamical constraints are obeyed tf t0< t for a given positive real number and nd the optimal travel speed prole such that when the vehicle uses such a travel speed prole (e.g., with cruise control), the vehicle's fuel consumption can be further optimized. A FERSO agent solves a FERSO problem through a constrained optimization using dynamic information from the trafc, the road surface, the road geometry, the vehicle and its powertrain models, etc. Due to the complexity of constrained optimization, such a FERSO agent needs to run its computation in Gr. In the following we consider a specic FERSO agent that optimizes the speed prole under the assumption that the route is given, and the preview of the road

CLOUD BASED SUPERVISORY CONTROL AGENTS

FIG. 3 Vehicle speed profile optimization using a Fuel Economy Route & Speed Optimization (FERSO) agent

Ride and Handling Optimization Agent The traditional suspension system provides a compromise among ride control, ride comfort, and driving safety. Ride control requires limiting the sprung-mass motion within the available design constraints, ride comfort requires isolating the sprung mass from the road disturbance while meeting the available suspension space and wheel travel requirements26, and vehicle handling and driving safety in general requires keeping the tire in contact with the road by reducing wheel hop. The suspension spring rates are designed to produce rigid body heave, pitch, and roll modes with frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 Hz. The levels of damping are designed to provide good ride comfort and at the same time to provide a certain level of ride control. For example, good secondary ride (i.e., elimination of high-frequency ripples) needs lower level suspension damping and in general an overall soft suspenMARCH 2013 21

optimizing the vehicle's ride control, ride comfort, and vehicle handling and driving safety. Through intelligence, i.e., computers, the actively controlled suspensions can incorporate several advantageous features such as: road adaptive control ride/handling feedback control road preview control abnormal road mitigation Majority of such suspension controllers considered so far are road adaptation and handling feedback controls26, namely, the controller adjusts the suspension damping or stiffness or forces reactive to the measured or estimated road disturbance (e.g., road roughness) and to the driver's control of braking, throttling, or steering. Some suspension controllers take road preview data into account27, 28 , where the suspension controller is adjusted with respect to the previewed road. For abnormal road conditions such as potholes and road edges, the suspension control can take predictive actions to mitigate the consequences of driving over those abnormal road situations. While road preview can be conducted through vision sensors, they can also use the CCS to collect crowdsourcing data from individual vehicles driving over the abnormal roads. The Ride and Handling Optimization (RHO) agent uses the preview road proles stored in to optimize the suspension control. The control action of the RHO agent can be summarized as follows:

Fig. 4 Flow-chart for DAAS functions

if the road data in Gr shows rough terrain ahead, the RHO agent will be called to optimize the suspension control command to maximally isolate the secondary ride and at the same time to achieve a certain level of acceptable ride control if the road data in Gr shows rough terrain together with primary ride contents, the RHO agent will be called to optimize a balanced cost which is a function of ride comfort, the ride control, and drive safety if the road data in Gr shows heavy trafc in the road ahead, the RHO agent will be called to maximize driver safety (e.g., using maximum damping or suspension force to keep the wheel on road in order to prepare the vehicle for emergency maneuvering)

sion setting. However, if it is too soft, primary ride (i.e., elimination of low-frequency bumps) and vehicle handling could suffer. For vehicles equipped with controlled suspensions, the conict between primary and secondary ride for traditional suspensions can be reduced through adaptation to different road and driving conditions. The suspensions are actively controlled for

REFERENCES
1 Aoyama, M., 2012 Computing for the Next Generation Automobile, Computer, 45(6), pp. 32-37. 2 Mell, P., and Grance, T., 2011, NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Special Publication 800-145, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 3 Furht, B., and Escalante, A., 2011, Handbook of Cloud Computing, Springer. 4 Wollaeger, J., Kumar, S., Onori, S., Cairano, S. , Filev, D., Ozguner, U., and Rizzoni, G., 2012, Cloud-Computing Based Velocity Profile Generation for Minimum Fuel Consumption: a Dynamic Programming Based Solution, American Control Conference. 5 Li, Z., Chen, C., and Wang, K., 2011, Cloud Computing for AgentBased Urban Transportation Systems, IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems, 26(1), pp.73-79. 6 Ford Motor Company, 2012, MyFord Mobile: Communicate with Your Ford Focus Electric, http://media.ford.com/images/10031/MyFord_Mobile.pdf. 7 AUTOSAR, http://www.autosar.org/ 8 Iwai, A., and Aoyama, M., 2011, Automotive Cloud Service Systems Based on Service-Oriented Architecture and Its Evaluation, IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing. 9 Wang, F., 2008, Overview of Agent-based Control and Management for NCS, Networked Control Systems Theory and Application, edited by F. Wang and D. Liu, Springer. 10 Grewal, M., and Andrews, A., 2001, Kalman Filtering: Theory and Practice Using Matlab, Wiley. 11 Hespanha, J., Naghshtabrizi, P., and Xu, Y., 2007, A Survey of Recent Results in Networked Control Systems, Proc. of the IEEE, 95(1), pp. 138-162. 12 Lu, J., Filev, D., and Johnson, L., 2011, Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors, SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing. 13 Macadam, C., 2003 Understanding and Modeling the Human Driver, Vehicle System Dynamics, 40(1-3), pp. 101-134. 14 Velenis, E., Tsiotras, P., and Lu, J., 2008, Optimality Properties and Driver Input Parameterization for Trail-braking Cornering, European J. of Control, 14(4). 15 Burnham, G., Seo, J., and Bekery, G., 1974, Identification of Human Driver Models in Car Following, IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, 19(6), pp. 911-915. 16 Prokop, G., 2001, Modeling Human Vehicle Driving by Model Predictive Online Optimization, Vehicle System Dynamics, 35(1), pp. 19-53. 17 Pentland, A., and Liu, A., 1999, Modelling and Prediction of Human Driver Behavior, Neural Computation, 11, pp. 229-242. 18 Lu, J., Filev, D., Prakah-Asante, K., and Tseng, F., 2009, From Vehicle Stability Control to Intelligent Personal Minder: Real-time Vehicle Handling Limit Warning and Driver Style Characterization, Proc. of IEEE Symp. Series on Comp. Intelligence. 19 Prakah-Asante, K., Filev, D., and Lu, J., 2010, Hybrid Intelligent System for Driver Workload Estimation for Tailored Vehicle-Driver

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control


if the road ahead has a pothole, the RHO agent will be called to conduct abnormal road mitigation, e.g., adjust the damping and stiffness of suspensions or reposition the vehicle attitudes in order to minimize the effect of driving over the pothole The RHO agent might also be used with other automotive controls to enhance other aspects of vehicle performance. Driver Assistance and Active Safety Agent Driver-assistance (DA) systems monitor, classify, and determine driving conditions where a driver needs to be reminded of potential danger or be assisted with additional control authority to enhance his control or reduce his workload. The driving conditions are classified based on driver intent, driving scenario, deviation from normal driving, and driver control action. A suite of DA features can currently be found in vehicles29 including adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, lane keeping aid, driver alert, auto high beam, traffic sign recognition, active park assist, blind spot information system, hill start assist and speed limiter. Other DA features, such as lane change assistance, intelligent speed advice, night vision, driver drowsiness detection, hill descent control, traffic jam assist30, are also being developed. Active safety (AS) features involve autonomous actions, which are one step further from DA. Such AS features focus on avoiding accidents or mitigating injury/damage due to unavoidable accidents through various vehicle controls. Notable AS features in production31 include electronic stability control (ESC)32 , roll stability control33 , collision mitigation by braking, curve control, emergency steering assist34-35 , and multi-collision braking 36-37. The combination of DA and AS is denoted as driver assistance and active safety (DAAS). Due to the involvement of drivers and driving scenarios, DAAS features need to be both scenario-aware and driver-aware. Our focus here is on the DAAS agents that use data from Gr and from in-vehicle networks to help identify conditions to support or enhance the traditional DAAS features. Figure 4 shows the action flow of the operations used in a DAAS agent, which combines data yk from on-board sensors, estimated plant state xp , and vehicle, driver, and community k states. The parameter is first deduced from on-board data, state estimation, and data from Gr. The driver behavior is next determined from sensor data, previous calculations, and cloud data representing the recorded driver behavior. The driving condition is also determined from on-board and cloud data. If a condition in which the driver needs to be reminded is present, the DAAS agent first sends out advisory information presented through an HMI device. If a condition where driver attention is not compatible with the demand on the driver (after the advisory display), the DAAS agent will issue a warning signal. Based on the way in which the driver responds to the advisory or warning info, the DAAS agent determines further actions. For example, if the driver is not responding to the warning signal, the agent will initiate a semi-autonomous action through Csa that can take aggressive control measures to operate the vehicle but still tries to follow the driver's general intent. If after the Csas action, the motion of the vehicle does not achieve the desired safety level, the agent will initiate an autonomous controller Ca that can override the driver's intent and automatically control the vehicle (e.g., either stopping the vehicle or reducing the vehicle speed). While the decision making itself can be performed on ECUs, much of the information used for the decision making such as the state of the driver, the vehicle, the road, the traffic, etc. and their utilizations need to be performed in Gr . The proposed DAAS agents can be used for many scenarios. For example, a vehicle path anomaly might be determined by comparing the host vehicle trajectory with the community trajectory deduced from all surrounding vehicles; the safe path to which the vehicle can escape when there is an emergency or an avoidable accident or after the vehicle has been engaged in a collision can be deduced from cloud information about the traffic together with the local sensor measurements. Another example is that all driver assist features try to warn the driver without knowing if the driver prefers this or not and DAAS features can be personalized by utilizing the learned driver behavior registered in Gr . A driver behavior centric approach is required if a warning needs to adapt to driver at any specific time during driving. Crowdsourcing Agents Individual vehicles can sense road and traffic conditions using on-board sensors. The sensed data can then be uploaded to Gr and stored under specific labels. The average behavior of all the vehicles traveling within close time and spatial proximity is called

Communication and Interaction, Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics. 20 Filev, D., Lu, J., Tseng, F., and Prakah-Asante, K., 2011, Real-time Driver Characterization During Car Following Using Stochastic Evolving Models, Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics. 21 Hrovat, D., Tseng, H., Lu, J., Deur, J., Assadian, F., Borrelli, F., and Falcone, P., 2011 Vehicle Controls, The Control Handbook: Control System Applications, William S. Levine. 22 Hrovat, D., Jankovic, M., Kolmanovsky, I., Mahner, S., and Yanakiev, D., 2011, Powertrain Control, The Control Handbook: Control System Applications, William S. Levine. 23 Ioannou, P., and Fidan, B., 2006, Adaptive Control Tutorial, SIAM. 24 Safonov, M., and Tsao, T., 1997, The Unfalsified Control Concept and Learning, IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, 42(6), pp. 843-847. 25 Hrovat, D., Cairano, S., Tseng, H., and Kolmanovsky, I., 2012, The Development of Model Predictive Control in Automotive Industry: a Survey, IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control.

26 Hrovat, D., 1997, Survey of Advanced Suspension Developments and Related Optimal Control Applications, Automatica, 33(10), pp.1781-1817. 27 Tomizuka, M., 1976, Optimum Linear Preview Control with Application to Vehicle Suspension - Revisited, Trans. of ASME on J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 98(3), pp.309-315. 28 Hrovat, D., 1991, Optimal Suspension Performance for 2-D Vehicle Models, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 146(1), pp. 93-110. 29 Ford Motor Company, 2011, Ford Focus and C-Max Customers Take New Technologies Onboard, http://media.ford.com/news/fordfocusandcmaxcustomerstakenewtechnologiesonboard.htm. 30 Ford Motor Company, 2012, Ford Develops Traffic Jam Assist and New Parking Technology to Help Address Future Mobility Challenges, http:// media.ford.com/article_pdf.cfm?article_id=36722. 31 Ford Motor Company, Ford, Volvo and Jaguar Developing Intelligent' Safety Systems of Tomorrow, http://media.ford.com/article_display. cfm?article_id=22078.

32 Tseng, E. Ashrafi, B., Madau, D., Brown, T., and Recker, D., 1999, Development of Vehicle Stability Control at Ford, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 4(3), p223-234. 33 Lu, J., Messih, D., Salib, A., and Harmison, D., 2007, An Enhancement to an Electronic Stability Control System to Include a Rollover Control Function, SAE Transactions, 116, pp. 303-313. 34 Floyd, F., 2010, Continental Wants Emergency Steer Assist to Drive Cars Away from Accidents, Motor Trend, Jun. 16. 35 Chakraborty, I., Tsiotras, P., and Lu, J., 2011, Vehicle Posture Control through Aggressive Maneuvering for Mitigation of T-Bone Collisions, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. 36 Bickerstaffe, S., 2012, Conti Puts the Brakes on Secondary Collisions: Emergency Braking Function Stops the Car after the First Impact, Automotive Engineer, July 19. 37 Zhou, J., Lu, J., and Peng, H., 2010, Vehicle Stabilisation in Response to Exogenous Impulsive Disturbances to the Vehicle Body, International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, 8(2/3/4), pp. 242-262.

Focus on Dynamic Systems & Control

the community state. A cloud supervisory agent, called a crowdsourcing agent, can be used to classify and summarize the data from individual vehicles to assemble community states for a specific location. For example, it computes the minimum, maximum, and average speeds traveled by individual vehicles and the speed frequency distribution at a specific location. The road condition can be similarly evaluated. Presently, detailed road maps with updated road characteristics are not available. Although a road surface and geometry map can be obtained by using a laser scanner, its practical usage is rather limited. Thus, multiple vehicles traveling and collecting data on the same roads provides an opportunity for digitally mapping" the roads. The real-time measurements from in-vehicle networks can capture road features including roughness, geometry variations, friction levels, and curvature variations. Notice that if the road sensing vehicles only use their own sensed data, its usefulness is very limited since there is no preview type of information unless the vehicle drives on a previously classified road. If all the vehicles passing through a road segment are sending their data to Gr , the road conditions can be much more accurately determined. A particular vehicle's data can be used for preview by other vehicles. The road surface friction level might be determined through variables calculated for anti-lock braking, traction control and ESC from individual vehicles. The road geometry such as road bank and slope can be determined from the on-board inertia sensors and sent to Gr .

ABOUT THE AUTHORS


Jianbo Lu received his Ph.D. degree in Aerospace Engineering from Purdue University in 1997. He joined Ford in 2000, where he is currently a Technical Expert. His interests are in automotive controls, intelligent & adaptive vehicles, driver assistance, and active safety. He is a recipient of the Henry Ford Technology Award. He is a co-inventor on more than 70 US patents and is the author/co-author of more than 60 technical papers. He is currently serving as an Associate Editor for IFAC J. of Control Engineering Practice and IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology and is the Chair of Intelligent Vehicular Systems & Control Technical Committee, IEEE SMC Society. Dr. Lu is a senior member of IEEE and a member of ASME, SAE, and Tau Beta Pi. The photograph below shows Dr. Lu at the recent FISITA 2012 conference in Beijing.

Vision for Future Mobility

t is expected that increasing numbers of people will live in big cities, or megacities, with highly concentrated populations. Drivers navigating their way in such increasingly crowded urban areas will need vehicle control systems with an increased level of intelligence such as fast data processing, adaptation, control reconfiguration, optimization in reaction to massive incoming information. Vehicles will also be used as personalized information channels to find the best services and sources for the driver. Such needs will lead to further advancement of automotive controls. This paper considers one possible transformational direction: integrating vehicle controls with cloud computing for enhancing their informational and computational capability. Future vehicle controls can be expected to be personalized and adaptive to driver needs, capability, and preferences (e.g., aged drivers need more driver assistance features which might be annoying to young drivers, experienced driver might prefer a different control calibration). This personalization is transferrable to autonomous driving by designing the autopilot to mimic human drivers. Adaptive controls are likely to be one of the most useful strategies for such personalization. In future vehicle controls, the cloud can be used for very demanding computations that otherwise cannot be accomplished by on-board ECUs, especially for information-intensive tasks. The so-called local-simple-remote-complex vehicle control strategies are likely to unlock the potential of implementing methods and tools, e.g. dynamic programming, that are presently used only in an off-line setting. The cloud can also be used as a storage place to record current and historic vehicle data that can be used for predictive diagnosis and prognostics of the vehicle health.
24 MARCH 2013

Davor Hrovat received his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Davis in 1979. Since 1981, he has been with the Ford Motor Company where he conducted and led R&D efforts on various aspects of chassis, power train and overall vehicle control. He is a co-inventor on more than 50 US patents and is the author/co-author of more than 100 technical papers. In 2006 he was appointed the first Henry Ford Technical Fellow in the area of Controls. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the recipient of the 1996 ASME/Dynamic Systems and Control Innovative Practice Award and the 1999 AACC Control Engineering Practice Award. In addition, Dr. Hrovat is a Fellow of IEEE, IFAC, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Dimitar Filev is Senior Technical Leader, Ford Research & Advanced Engineering. He received his PhD. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Czech Technical University in Prague in 1979. He joined Ford Motor Company in 1994. His research interests are in modeling and control of complex systems, intelligent control, fuzzy and neural systems, and their applications to automotive engineering. He has published 4 books, over 200 technical papers, and holds 20 US patents. He is the recipient of the 2008 Norbert Wiener Award of the IEEE SMC Society and the 2007 IFSA Outstanding Industrial Applications Award and is Co-Editor in Chief of the Int. J. on Evolving Systems. Dr. Filev is a Fellow of IEEE and IFSA and is shown in the photograph below delivering a lecture at the 2009 Benjamin Franklin Symposium at Villanova University.

2nd Annual ASME Verification and Validation Symposium


May 22-24, 2013 - Planet Hollywood Resort, Las Vegas, Nevada

Unlimited potential. One unique event.


The ASME V&V Symposium presents an unmatched opportunity to network and exchange ideas with engineers and scientists on computational modeling and simulation, methods for verification of codes and solutions, simulation validation, and assessment of uncertainties in mathematical models, computational solutions, and experimental data.

Interact with experts from a wide range of international companies including:


Caterpillar Science Applications Intl. Corporation Southwest Research Institute Sandia National Laboratory Virginia Tech University University of Pisa Bechtel Ford EDF Westinghouse

Join worldwide professionals from these fields:


Aerospace engineering Automotive engineering Atmospheric and earth science Civil engineering Defense applications Fluid and thermal mechanics High energy density physics Materials science and engineering Medical device design and analysis Nuclear power system design and analysis Solid mechanics

Testimonials:
The ASME V&V Symposium demonstrated the rapidly growing interest in verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification. Private companies, regulatory organizations and universities are recognizing that VVUQ serves as the foundation of predictive capability in computational simulation. Dr. William Oberkampf, Sandia National Laboratory "The ASME V&V Symposium was a high energy level meeting with engaged discussions among people serious about V&V. This is what science-based engineering is all about. Dr. Patrick J. Roache, Consulting Engineer

Watch the program take shape: asmeconferences.org/VVS2013

Spring 2013 Training Courses for Engineers and Technical Professionals


April 2013 - Toronto
PD190 BPV Code, Section IX: Welding and Brazing Qualifications PD359 Practical Welding Technology PD513 TRIZ: TheTheory of Inventive Problem Solving 8-10 Apr 8-10 Apr 8-10 Apr PD231 Shock and Vibration Analysis PD603 GD&T Combo Course PD013 B31.1 Power Piping Code PD665 BPV Code, Section 1: Power Boilers PD443 BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1 Combo Course PD561 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Advanced Applications with Stacks and Analysis PD313 Fundamentals of Fastening Systems PD591 Developing Conflict Resolution Best Practices PD441 Inspection, Repairs and Alterations of Pressure Equipment 15-17 Apr 15-18 Apr 15-19 Apr 15-19 Apr 15-19 Apr 17-18 Apr 18-19 Apr 18-19 Apr 18-19 Apr PD010 ASME A17 .1 Safety Code for Elevators & Escalators 15-18 Apr

PD515 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles for Gages and Fixtures 8-10 Apr PD597 Risk-Informed Inservice Testing 8-10 Apr PD631 Manufacturing, Fabrication and Examination Responsibilities in Codes, Standards and Regulations for Nuclear Power Plant Construction 8-10 Apr PD633 Overview of Codes and Standards for Nuclear Power Plant Construction PD171 Pump and Valve Selection for Optimum System Performance PD632 Design in Codes, Standards and Regulations for Nuclear Power Plant Construction PD675 ASME NQA-1 Lead Auditor Training PD686 Layout of PIping PD432 Turbo Machinery Dynamics: Design & Operation PD621 Grade 91 and Other Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels PD593 FRP Piping Fabrication and Installation Processes PD532 Professional Responsibilities for Engineers PD634 Comparison of Global Quality Assurance and Management System Standards Used for Nuclear Applications 8-10 Apr 8-11 Apr 8-11 Apr 8-11 Apr 8-12 Apr 8-12 Apr 10-12 Apr 11 Apr 11-12 Apr

April 2013 - Atlanta


PD387 Understanding Chiller Performance, Operation and Economics PD100 Introduction to Elevators and Escalators PD539 Bolted Joints and Gasket Behavior PD523 Quality Assurance (QA) Considerations for New Nuclear Facility Construction PD014 B31.3 Process Piping Design PD184 BPV Code, Section III, Division 1: Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components PD644 Advanced Design and Construction of Nuclear Facility Components per BPV Code, Section III PD657 HVAC Systems and Chiller Performance Combo Course 22 Apr 22-23 Apr 22-23 Apr 22-24 Apr 22-25 Apr 22-25 Apr

PD394 Seismic Design & Retrofit of Equipment and Piping 22-25 Apr 22-25 Apr 22-25 Apr

11-12 Apr

April 2013 - Portland


PD570 Geometric Tolerancing Fundamentals 1 PD575 Comprehensive Negotiating Strategies 15-16 Apr 15-16 Apr

PD581 B31.3 Process Piping Design, Materials, Fabrication, Examination and Testing Combo Course 22-26 Apr PD601 Bolting Combo Course PD602 Elevator and Escalator Combo Course 22-26 Apr 22-26 Apr

PD583 Pressure Relief Devices: Design, Sizing, Construction, Inspection and Maintenance 15-16 Apr PD146 Flow Induced Vibration with Applications to Failure Analysis PD349 Centrifugal Pump Design and Applications PD398 Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Plant Piping Systems PD442 BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1: Design and Fabrication of Pressure Vessels PD506 Research and Development Management PD618 Root Cause Analysis Fundamentals 15-17 Apr 15-17 Apr

PD027 Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems: Sizing and Design 23-25 Apr PD386 Design of Bolted Flange Joints PD391 ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids PD102 How to Perform Elevator Inspections Using ASME A17 .2 PD577 Bolted Joint Assembly Principles Per PCC-1-2010 PD624 Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer PD457 B31.3 Process Piping Materials, Fabrication, Examination and Testing 24 Apr 24-25 Apr 24-26 Apr 25-26 Apr 25-26 Apr 26 Apr

PD370 B31.8 Gas Transmission & Distribution Piping Systems 15-17 Apr 15-17 Apr 15-17 Apr 15-17 Apr 15-17 Apr

REGISTER NOW. 1.800.843.2763 or www.asme.org/education

April 2013 - New Orleans


MC100 ASME Masterclass: Design and Selection of Materials for B31.1 Power Piping 29 Apr-1 May

May 2013 - Orlando


PD456 Tools and Methods of Finite Element Analysis PD475 The New Engineering Manager: Moving from Technical Professional to Manager PD567 Design, Analysis, and Fabrication of Composite Structure, Energy, and Machine Applications PD673 Design and Selection of Heat Exchangers PD513 TRIZ: The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving PD268 Fracture Mechanics Approach to Life Predictions 28-30 May 28-30 May 28-31 May 28-31 May 30-31 May PD596 Developing a 10-Year Valve Inservice Testing Program PD674 International Business Ethics and FCPA PD010 ASME A17 .1 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators 20-21 May 20-21 May 20-21 May 20-21 May 20-22 May 20-22 May 20-22 May 20-22 May 20-23 May

May 2013 - Aberdeen


PD445 B31 Piping Fabrication and Examination PD577 Bolted Joint Assembly Principles Per PCC-1-2010 PD410 Detail Engineering of Piping Systems PD615 BPV Code, Section III, Division 1: Class 1, 2 & 3 Piping Design Combo Course PD633 Overview of Codes and Standards for Nuclear Power Plant Construction PD643 ASME B31.3 Process Piping PD644 Advanced Design and Construction of Nuclear Facility Components Per BPV Code, Section III PD621 Grade 91 and Other Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels 28-29 May 28-29 May 28-30 May

PD448 BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 2: Pressure Vessels 28-31 May

PD672 BPV Code, Section XI, Division 1: Inservice Inspection 10-Year Program Updates for Nuclear Power Plant Components 20-23 May PD675 ASME NQA-1 Lead Auditor Training PD681 International Business Ethics and FCPA Combo Course 20-23 May 20-24 May 22 May 23-24 May 23-24 May

May 2013 - Las Vegas


PD382 How to Predict Thermal-Hydraulic Loads on Pressure Vessels and Piping PD077 Failure Prevention, Repair and Life Extension of Piping, Vessels and Tanks PD359 Practical Welding Technology PD389 Non-Destructive ExaminationApplying ASME Code Requirements (BPV Code, Section V) PD395 API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 Fitness for Service PD467 Project Management for Engineers and Technical Professionals PD621 Grade 91 and Other Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels 6-7 May 6-8 May 6-8 May 6-8 May 6-8 May 6-8 May 6-8 May

PD676 Strategic Thinking PD595 Developing a 10-Year Pump Inservice Testing Program PD680 Understanding the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

PD631 Manufacturing, Fabrication and Examination Responsibilities in Codes, Standards and Regulations for Nuclear Power Plant Construction 6-8 May PD683 Probabilistic Structural Analysis, Design and Reliability-Risk Assessment PD622 BPV Code: Plant Equipment Requirements PD598 Developing a New Inservice Testing Program PD629 Project Management Combo Course PD107 Elevator Maintenance Evaluation PD599 BPV Code, Section III, Division 1: Class 1 Piping Design PD615 BPV Code, Section III, Division 1: Class 1, 2 & 3 Piping Design Combo Course PD115 The Gas Turbine: Principles and Applications PD445 B31 Piping Fabrication and Examination PD449 Mechanical Tolerancing for Six Sigma PD496 Preparing for the Project Management Professional Certification Exam PD531 Leadership and Organizational Management PD600 BPV Code, Section III, Division 1: Class 2 & 3 Piping Design 6-8 May 6-9 May 6-10 May 6-10 May 8-9 May 8-9 May 8-10 May 9-10 May 9-10 May 9-10 May 9-10 May 9-10 May 10 May

PD448 BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 2: Pressure Vessels 6-9 May

Special Offer to Non-ASME Members


Attendees of any ASME Training & Development Public Course or Seminar registered as non-ASME members and with no prior ASME membership affiliation will receive a FREE one-year membership to ASME - valued at up to $144 - following submission of an application form. All ASME members will continue to enjoy special Member Only discounts off the List Price on most ASME Training & Development Public Courses, eLearning Programs and Seminars.

REGISTER NOW. 1.800.843.2763 or www.asme.org/education

TOOLS //HARDWARE

HONING MACHINES
Sunnen Products Co., St. Louis, Mo.

he companys SV-1000, SV-400, and SV-500 vertical honing machines are being replaced with the SV-2000, SV-2400, and SV-2500 models that feature the same outward appearance as the predecessor models, and contain new servo technology for spindle, stroker, and tool-feed to reduce cycle time and expand processing options. Upgraded capabilities include selectable tool-feed, constant crosshatch, and faster automatic bore detection. The SV-2000 and SV-2400 machines are already in production, while remaining SV-400 and 500 models will be replaced later this year. The range of machines can process bore IDs from 3 mm to 300 mm.

VARIABLE PITCH CONTROL


Amacoil, Aston, Pa.

FIVE-AXIS VICE
Lexair Inc., Lexington, Ky.

All Uhing Model RG linear drives now feature a manual pitch control which permits a 10:1 adjustment of the linear pitch, the linear distance the drive will move on the shaft per one revolution. The pitch control lets users turn the pitch down in increments across one hundred discrete settings. Adjustable pitch allows for linear speed variations in applications where it is desirable to keep the drive motor running at a constant rate. Once the pitch of the drive is set, it will remain the same regardless of the drive motor speed. The pitch will change only if the operator adjusts the pitch control.

OML's new Genius five-axis vice maximizes clamp force at the top of the jaws by pulling them closed at the top with a collapsing lead screw, while holding the bottom of the jaws in place with an opposing force screw. According to the manufacturer, by holding the vice jaws apart at the bottom and pulling closed at the top, the dual-screw, pullto-close design pulls the workpiece down against the stops as closing force increases. The Genius vice is available in two sizes, capable of holding parts up to 8 inches, with maximum clamp force of 9,000 pounds.

LINEAR POSITIONING STAGES


Dover Instrument Corp., Westborough, Mass.

Mini-MAG (MMG) precision linear positioning stages are now available with an optimized controls package. OEMs and end users can combine an MMG linear motor stage with a compact Dover board-level single-axis servo drive for integration into a control cabinet, or a Kollmorgen AKD servo drive for singleor multi-axis applications with a graphical user interface and real-time performance feedback. Both options provide Ethernet communication for fast data acquisition. MMG stages are available in aluminum-based versions with an optional single phase motor to reduce controller complexity, system footprint, and cost.

SUBMISSIONS
Submit electronic files of new products and images by e-mail to memag@asme.org. Use subject line "New Products." ME does not test or endorse the products described here.

CNC Machining for R&D


Our PCNC 770 mill goes far beyond any desktop modeling mill, bringing serious capability to research and engineering workshops and at a size that ts any space and a price that ts any budget.
Tormach PCNC 770 3-Axis Mill

SAFETY COUPLINGS
ZERO MAX INC., PLYMOUTH, MINN.

Torq-Tender overload safety couplings are available in models designed for washdown applications. They clean up easily, wont corrode, and operate in a wide temperature range. They provide torque limiting and coupling functions in a single, compact unit that protects motor and drive systems from jam-ups and excessive overloading. Torq-Tender washdown models have a special seal and modified housing that resists water intrusion and outside contamination. They use a food grade lubricant.

A rigid frame and robust spindle allows prototypes to be cut from the materials you use: Plastic, aluminum, steel, even titanium - whatever you need to get the job done.

$6850
(plus shipping)

starting at

PCNC 770 Features:


Vector technology drive Computer controlled

10000 RPM spindle grade ballscrews

Precision ground P4 26 x 8 table Provides both manual

& automatic operations

Integrated options for

digitizing, 4th axis, CNC lathe and more

LIQUID TIGHT PLUGS/BUSHINGS


HEYCO PRODUCTS INC., TOMS RIVER, N.J.

Product Information and online ordering at


Shown here with optional stand, machine arm, and accessories.

www.tormach.com

Liquid Tight BreakThru Plugs are designed for use in TormachAd_Jan2012.indd panels between 0.02 in. (0.5 mm) and 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) thick, with mounting hole diameters of 0.50 in. (12.7 mm) to 1.093 in. (27.8 mm). The co-molded nylon and elastomer parts function as liquid tight plugs with an IP 67/68 rating, yet can be pierced by round wire, cable, or tubing to function as liquid tight bushings with the same rating. The plugs have locking fingers that snap into holes in fractional increments with fingertip pressure and withstand a pushback force of greater than 35 pounds.

11/23/2011 9:49:29 AM

Assessing Building Energy Performance:


From Principles to Practice
April 18, 2013 | 1:00 PM4:00 PM EDT

ASHRA E Webca st

FREE

GAS TURBINE AND TRANSMITTER SYSTEM


OMEGA ENGINEERING, STAMFORD, CONN.

This free webcast will feature industry experts who will explain the importance of building energy performance and its far-reaching implications in both new and existing buildings.
For more information about the program, presenters, continuing education credits, sponsorships, and ABEP resources, please visit us at www.ashrae.org/ABEPwebcast OR scan this tag with your smart phone.

The SYS/FTBG100 series measures the volumetric flow of gas through a pipeline and features outstanding accuracy, hybrid ceramic bearings for superior life, dc or ac (optional) power, pulse and analog output, optional high and low alarms and includes Windows Configuration Software. Standard calibration includes a calculated K-factor for gas that is derived from a 10-point NIST calibration for water. Calibrations at customers actual operating densities can be performed with special order. Industries include HVAC and petrochemical. Applications include fiscal measurement, plant cost allocation, gas flow monitoring on process units and energy consumption/conservation.

TOOLS //SOFTWARE
MODEL AND SIMULATE

Capability: MapleSim, a physical modeling and simulation tool, has been upgraded to version six. The tool can be used for plant modeling, virtual prototyping, simulation, and optimization and analysis. MapleSim, coupled with Maplethe vendors mathematical softwareis an open environment with no need for built-in components or analyses. The programming and analysis capabilities allow users to run simulations, customize analyses or script new ones, perform optimizations, develop symbolic control laws, and investigate models. Custom components can be created from their unsimplified governing equations. Hardware: PC running the Windows operating system. DEVELOPER: Maplesoft, 15 Kumpf Drive, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2V 1K8; 800-267-6583; 519-747-2373; fax 519-747-5284; www.maplesoft.com. COST: $5,515 for a single user commercial license; $1,245 for a single user academic license. Government and student discounts available.
CLOUD CAD

Use the app Scenect and a gaming device to scan real-world objects and create 3-D designs suitable for 3-D printing.

using the app Scenect. The device can be used to scan real-world objects to create 3-D designs that can be printed. The app uses sensor data from the devices to acquire the scanning information and is a version of Scene LT, which controls a Microsoft Kinect or Asus Xtion device to create 3-D point clouds. With the app, objects can be scanned from different sides by moving the sensor around the objects; interiors can be scanned by panning and moving the sensor inside the rooms. Using the Asus Xtion and a laptop computer allows for easy mobile scanning of rooms. The app incorporates the color data in addition to the geometry of the object to produce full-color 3-D models. As the app is still in an experimental state, the developer doesnt offer support at this time. Hardware: Microsoft Kinect or Asus Xtion Pro Live running Scenect 5.1. DEVELOPER: Faro, 250 Technology Park, Lake Mary, FL 32746; 800-736-0234; fax 407-333-4181; www.faro.com. COST: Free at http://3d-app-center.faro.com.
IMPORTS MADE EASIER

Capability: ZWCAD Touch is a CAD application for mobile devices that offers the capability to edit and remark on DWG files. Also offered is cloud storage for designs and online synchronization with third-party storage services. The app offers .DWG support, allowing users to open DWG files without conversion. Hardware: iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch. DEVELOPER: ZWSoft, 907 E. Strawbridge Ave., Suite 200, Melbourne, FL 32901; 321-676-3222; fax 321676-2181; www.zwsoft.com. COST: Free at the iTunes app store at https://itunes. apple.com.
TWO OR THREE

NH 03054; 603-882-5876; fax 603-889-6039; www. bricsys.com. COST: $373 to $985.


PHOTO REAL

Capability: BricsCAD version 13 for the Linux operating system is a DWG-based CAD platform with assembly modeling capabilities. The upgrade offers new 2-D features. Thus, the application can be used for 2-D drafting or 3-D modeling. New features for the Linux version are similar to the ones released for the Windows operating system in 2012 and include: assembly modeling; kinematic analysis of moving or rotating parts of a model; and a series of new commands, functions, dialogs, and features for 2-D drafting. Hardware: PC running the Linux operating system. DEVELOPER: Bricsys, 45 Hanna Circle, Merrimack,

Capability: Shaderlight, a rendering plug-in for SketchUp, lets users make a photorealistic rendering from a SketchUp model. The plug-in shares the same user interface as SketchUp. Users can see their models and renderings change as they work in that system. The rendering tool is now available via a timed access license that offers the plug-in for purchase in 30-day, three-, or six-month increments for those completing large projects or with limited rendering needs. Hardware: PC running SketchUp. DEVELOPER: ArtVPS, St. Johns Innovation Centre, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS U.K.; United States phone number: 415-513-0543; fax 617-849-8471; www.artvps.com. COST: $50 for 30 days, starting.
LIFE TO PRINT

Capability: Users of any vendors CAD system can make use of 3DSync, a 3-D CAD editing tool that the vendor said has been shown to increase productivity when working with imported CAD data. The editing tool scans imported 3-D models, recognizes design intent, and automatically applies appropriate design parameters. This allows CAD models to be shared and edited between incompatible versions of the same CAD systems or among different CAD applications. The tool supports common CAD formats such as STEP, IGES, Parasolid software, and the JT data format, and has built-in data translators to help eliminate versioncompatibility issues. Hardware: PC running a CAD application. DEVELOPER: Siemens PLM Software, 5800 Granite Parkway, Suite 600, Plano, TX 75024; 800-498-5351; www.plm.automation.siemens.com. COST: $199 at www.siemens.com/plm/3dsync. ME

SUBMISSIONS
Submit hard copy or e-mail memag@asme.org, using subject line "Software Exchange." ME does not test or endorse software described here.

Capability: The geometric data from the gaming devices Microsoft Kinect or Asus Xtion Pro Live can be acquired to create 3-D models and for 3-D scanning

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P.79

positionsopen
FACULTY POSITION in Mechanical Engineering at the State University of New York at Binghamton The Department of Mechanical Engineering at SUNY Binghamton invites applications for a tenure-track, assistant professor faculty position in the area of dynamics beginning Fall 2013. Candidates must have a PhD in Mechanical Engineering or an equivalent degree. The successful candidates research will be in MEMS, NEMS, sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. Experience in the fields of nonlinear dynamics, mechatronics, and control will be considered a plus. The candidate will be able to obtain external research funding, and will teach at both the undergraduate and graduate levels of dynamics, vibrations. Additional information can be found at http://www.binghamton.edu/me. Application should be submitted online at: http:// binghamton.interviewexchange.com Tennessee Tech University The College of Engineering Tennessee Tech University invites applications for the position of the Director, Center for Energy Systems Research. Details about the position, duties, required and preferred qualifications and procedure for applications may be found at www.tntech.edu/jobs. Information about the center can be found at www.tntech.edu/cesr/. Screening of applications will begin on February 15, 2013; open until filled. AA/EEO. Department of Mechanical Engineering Open-rank Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Columbia Engineerings Department of Mechanical Engineering at Columbia University in New York City invites applications for tenured or tenure-track faculty positions. Appointments at the assistant professor, associate professor and full professor, will be considered. Applications are specifically sought in any of the areas that fall under the umbrella of energy conversion and energy systems. The School of Engineering has recently launched an Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering. One of the areas of translational research is Smart Cities. Linkages to the Institute will offer an opportunity to collaborate with a wider network of faculty. Some of the potential areas of interest are i) smart and pervasive sensing, ii) building energy systems, iii) systems approach to energy sources, conversion, storage and demand side management, iv) integration of sensing, optimization and control, v) smart mobility. The Department offers a research environment that is particularly conducive to collaborations across departments as well. Candidates must have a Ph.D. or its professional equivalent by the starting date of the appointment. Applicants for this position at the Assistant Professor and Associate Professors without tenure must have the potential to do pioneering research and to teach effectively. Applicants for this position at the tenured level (Associate or Full Professor) must have a demonstrated record of outstanding research accomplishments, excellent teaching credentials and established leadership in the field. The successful candidate should contribute to the advancement of the department in these areas by developing an externally funded research program, contributing to the undergraduate and graduate educational mission of the Department and is expected to establish multidisciplinary research and educational collaborations with academic departments and units across Columbia University. The Department is especially interested in qualified candidates who can contribute, through their research, teaching, and/or service, to the diversity and excellence of the academic community. Candidates should apply online at:https://academicjobs.columbia.edu/applicants/ Central?quickFind=57151 and should submit electronically the following: curriculum-vitae including a publication list, a description of research accomplishments, a statement of research/teaching interests and plans, contact information for three people who can provide letters of recommendation, and up to three pre/reprints of scholarly work. The position will close no sooner than June 30, 2013, and will remain open until filled. Applicants can consult http://me.columbia.edu for more information about the department. Columbia is an affirmative action/ equal opportunity employer with a strong commitment to the quality of faculty life. Department of Mechanical Engineering Open-rank Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Columbia Engineerings Department of Mechanical Engineering at Columbia University in New York City invites applications for tenured or tenure-track faculty positions. Appointments at the assistant professor, associate profes-

positionsopen
sor and full professor, will be considered. Applications are specifically sought in any of the areas that fall under the umbrella of mechanical engineering, with particular emphasis on, but not limited to (1) the mechanics, physics and chemistry of advanced materials and materials processing for multifaceted applications. Examples include, but are not limited to, nanostructured materials and composites, energy storage, nano-photonics, soft matter, biological systems as well as for sensors and actuators; and, (2) medical robotics with specialization in, but not limited to, surgical intervention/assistance, rehabilitation, haptics, biomimetics, image-guided intervention as well as human-robot interactions. Candidates should have expertise in experimental, multiscale computational and/or theoretical methods in research areas complementary and synergistic with faculty in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In addition to these areas, all outstanding candidates will receive serious consideration. Candidates must have a Ph.D. or its professional equivalent by the starting date of the appointment. Applicants for this position at the Assistant Professor and Associate Professors without tenure must have the potential to do pioneering research and to teach effectively. Applicants for this position at the tenured level (Associate or Full Professor) must have a demonstrated record of outstanding research accomplishments, excellent teaching credentials and established leadership in the field. The successful candidate should contribute to the advancement of the department in these areas by developing an externally funded research program, contributing to the undergraduate and graduate educational mission of the Department and is expected to establish multidisciplinary research and educational collaborations with academic departments and units across Columbia University. The Department is especially interested in qualified candidates who can contribute, through their research, teaching, and/or service, to the diversity and excellence of the academic community. Candidates should apply online at: https://academicjobs.columbia.edu/ applicants/Central?quickFind=57150 and should submit electronically the following: curriculumvitae including a publication list, a description of research accomplishments, a statement of research/ teaching interests and plans, contact information for three people who can provide letters of recommendation, and up to three pre/reprints of scholarly work. The position will close no sooner than June 30, 2013, and will remain open until filled. Applicants can consult http://me.columbia.edu for more information about the department. Columbia is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer with a strong commitment to the quality of faculty life.

Clinical Professor of Innovation and Development


School of Engineering & Computer Science, Baylor University
Special Information: This non-tenure-eligible position reports to the Chair of Mechanical Engineering in the School of Engineering & Computer Science (ECS) and the Vice President for University Development. Annual contract is a ten-month contract based on the academic year. Target employment date is June 2013, or sooner. Application Procedure: Please submit a letter of application, current curriculum vitae, and transcripts. Include names, addresses, and phone numbers of three individuals from whom you have requested letters of recommendation to:

Cynthia C. Fry, Search Committee Chair Baylor University One Bear Place #97356 Waco, Texas 76798-7356 254-710-3876
Materials may be submitted electronically to: Michelle_Aars@baylor.edu Job Description: The recognized need is for an industry-savvy intrapreneurial faculty member, a master practitioner, who can bring their corporate insight and experience to Baylor University. This professional will support the innovation and design activities of ECS and University Development, in support of all undergraduate ECS degree plans. Specific roles and responsibilities include: Utilize a highly developed network of industry contacts and reputation to bring strong, continuing partners into engagement with the Kern Entrepreneurship Education Network (KEEN) initiatives at Baylor University. Teach/coteach 3-4 course loads/year, including Technology Entrepreneurship and the design courses in ECS to assure full attention to manufacturability, cost efficiency, and the dynamics of moving new product ideas through industrial firms. Partner with ECS Development Officer to support Development objectives through identifying and securing corporate sponsorships.Responsible for a Development portfolio of 25-40 companies, with an expectation of 3-5 visits per month. Travel as needed to cultivate and maintain corporate/donor relationships. Other duties as assigned by the Dean of ECS. Minimum Qualifications: A Bachelors degree in Engineering or related field. A Master's degree in Business, Engineering, or closely related field AND five years of experience in small business development or intrapreneurial leadership in the public or private sector. Preferred Qualifications: Doctoral or terminal degree in related field. Experience in mentoring and supervision in an academic or professional setting. Evidence of a commitment to fostering student development and academic success. Experience with developing and promoting new ventures. The ability to work effectively with a wide variety of stakeholders as a team player. The ability to work well without close supervision. Demonstrate excellent interpersonal skills in the areas of creative problem-solving, conflict resolution, group planning, and decision-making processes. General Information: Chartered in 1845 by the Republic of Texas, Baylor University is the oldest university in Texas and the worlds largest Baptist University. Baylors mission is to educate men and women for worldwide leadership and service by integrating academic excellence and Christian commitment within a caring community. Baylor is actively recruiting new faculty with a strong commitment to the classroom and an equally strong commitment to discovering new knowledge as Baylor aspires to become a top tier research university while reaffirming and strengthening its distinctive Christian mission as described in Pro Futuris (www.baylor.edu/profuturis). Salary: Commensurate with experience. Application Deadline: This position will be open until filled or closed. To ensure full consideration, complete applications must be submitted by 03/31/2013.

For Classified AND Mailing List Inquiries


please contact

Nick Ferrari (212) 591-7534


ferrarin@asme.org

FACULTY POSITIONS THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON Akron, Ohio
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Akron is seeking qualified candidates for hiring at the Assistant Professor level. The following six positions are tenure-track. Applicants must have an earned doctorate in Mechanical Engineering, or closely related fields. The successful candidates will be expected to establish and maintain independent, externally funded, research programs and contribute to our B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. programs by teaching courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, advising graduate students, as well as performing other academic duties as may be requested by the department. The areas of interest include: 1. Aerospace Engineering (Job opening #7648-two positions). Special consideration will be given to candidates with proven strength in the areas of: (a) aerospace materials, manufacturing and design, (b) aerospace instrumentation and control, (c) space propulsion (supersonic and hypersonic propulsion), and (d) design of aerospace components. 2. Systems Engineering (Job Opening #7652). Preference will be given to applicants with a background in aerospace, mechanical, manufacturing or automotive engineering. 3. Materials and manufacturing (Job Opening #7653). Of special interest are candidates with expertise in: (a) materials processing, (b) materials characterization, (c) tribology (surface engineering, friction mitigation), (d) engineered materials (adaptive, smart, high temperature and coatings), and (e) additive manufacturing. 4. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics (Job Opening #7654). Candidates with expertise in the following analytical/numerical and experimental fields will have priority consideration: (a) renewable energy, (b) energy conversion, (c) advanced cycles for energy applications, and (d) heat transfer and fluid mechanics in nano-materials. 5. Structural Health Monitoring and Tribology (Job Opening #7657). Candidates with expertise in the following analytical/numerical and experimental fields will have priority consideration: (a) surface engineering, and (b) structural systems. The department presently includes 21 full-time faculty and over 1000 students, undergraduate and graduate. It offers B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering in areas of specialization spanning thermo-fluids, mechanics of solids, vibrations, controls, and materials science. The College of Engineering has 2,700 undergraduate 360 graduate students. The University of Akron is a state-assisted metropolitan university in northeast Ohio with 30,000 students; more details can be found at www.uakron.edu. The University of Akron is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. The University of Akron is a vibrant community within metropolitan Akron with more than 80 buildings on 218 acres, including an award-winning student union, state-of-theart recreation and wellness center and beautiful on-campus football stadium. With a population nearing 200,000, Akron is the fifth largest city in the state of Ohio. Located within 500 miles of 42 major cities, yet surrounded by over 40,000 acres of parkland, Greater Akron provides living and working environments to suit every lifestyle. The area boasts a low cost of living and outstanding cultural access. Easy access to airports and major highways puts you at the hub of a world of experiences and opportunities. For complete details and to apply please visit: www.uakron.edu/jobs. Refer to the job opening numbers above. The University of Akron is committed to a policy of equal employment opportunity and to the principles of affirmative action in accordance with state and federal laws.
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University is a government-funded tertiary institution in Hong Kong. It offers programmes at various levels including Doctorate, Masters, and Bachelors degrees. It has a full-time academic staff strength of around 1,200. The total consolidated expenditure budget of the University is close to HK$5 billion per year.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


1) Professor / Associate Professor in Aviation 2) Assistant Professor in Aeronautical Engineering / Mechanics and Materials / Design and Computational Solid Mechanics / Control, Dynamics and Acoustics (several posts)
The Department of Mechanical Engineering is one of the six academic units in the Faculty of Engineering. It offers a wide range of programmes, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, over a large spectrum of topics including product analysis and design, environmental technology and transportation, aerospace and aviation, design and manufacturing, computer aided engineering design, etc. To underpin teaching, the Department is presently engaged in the following research areas: combustion and pollution control, uid-structure interactions, materials and mechanics, sound and vibration, and product design and development. Please visit the website at http://www.me.polyu.edu.hk for more information about the Department. The appointees will be required to (a) teach at undergraduate and postgraduate levels; (b) conduct research that leads to publications in top-tier refereed journals and awards of research grants; (c) undertake research, programme/curriculum development and administration; (d) supervise student projects and theses; (e) engage in industrial and scholarly research/consultancy activities; and (f) undertake academic and departmental administrative duties. The appointee at Associate Professor / Professor level will be required to take an active leadership role in the Department. Applicants should have (a) a PhD degree in relevant disciplines, plus substantial years of experience in teaching and research; (b) good teaching and publication records or management experience in the industry; (c) a good network to facilitate the development of high-level applied research collaborations/consultancy projects between PolyU and reputable institutions/organizations and industry; and (d) excellent communication skills and the ability to use English as the medium of instruction. Applicants for appointment at Professor level should have proven experience in securing or raising research funds from the government or industry, outstanding achievements in research and scholarship as well as an excellent reputation as a leading scholar. Applicants who have extensive and successful research or publication records, proven experience in programme/curriculum development and substantial years of experience in teaching/administration/industry will be considered for appointment at the level of Associate Professor. Applicants with less experience will be considered for appointment at the level of Assistant Professor. Remuneration and Conditions of Service A highly competitive remuneration package will be offered. Initial appointment for Assistant Professor will be on a xed-term gratuity-bearing contract. Re-engagement thereafter is subject to mutual agreement. An appropriate term will be provided for appointment at Associate Professor and Professor levels. Applicants should state their current and expected salary in the application. Application Please submit application form via email to hrstaff@polyu.edu.hk; by fax at (852) 2364 2166; or by mail to Human Resources Ofce, 13/F, Li Ka Shing Tower, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. If you would like to provide a separate curriculum vitae, please still complete the application form which will help speed up the recruitment process. Application forms can be obtained via the above channels or downloaded from http://www.polyu.edu.hk/hro/job.htm. Recruitment will continue until the positions are lled. Details of the Universitys Personal Information Collection Statement for recruitment can be found at http://www.polyu.edu.hk/hro/jobpics.htm.

Mechanical, Aerospace, & Biomedical Engineering


H. H. Arnold Chair of Excellence In Computational Fluid Dynamics
The Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering (MABE) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is seeking exceptionally qualified candidates with significant expertise in the theory and applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for H. H. Arnold Chair of Excellence in Computational Fluid Dynamics. This appointment is based at the UT Space Institute (UTSI), Tullahoma, Tennessee, an integrated component of the UTK College of Engineering and MABE Department. Applications and nominations are invited for this senior position. Prior academic experience is desirable but not required. Applicants with outstanding industrial research accomplishments are welcomed. The successful candidate will have a doctorate in engineering or a related field, a proven track record of developing research funding, and a substantial and active research program with archival publications in CFD science and engineering. The successful candidate will be an internationally recognized leader in the area, a team player, and able to build multi-participant research programs. In addition, the successful applicant must be qualified to obtain a US Department of Defense security clearance. The MABE Department has a strong upward trajectory, with 34 faculty members at Knoxville and UTSI campuses, and offers degrees at all levels in mechanical, aerospace and biomedical engineering. For further information, see http://www.engr.utk.edu/mabe. The successful candidate will have ample opportunities to develop a research and education program that combines the strengths of the Tullahoma and Knoxville locations. UTSI (http://www.utsi.edu/) is located adjacent to the US Air Forces Arnold Engineering Development Complex, home of the most advanced and largest complex of flight simulation test facilities in the world. UTSI faculty have extensive research collaborations with AEDC. See http://www.arnold.af.mil. Opportunities to work with the Department of Energys Oak Ridge complex, which includes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (http://www.ornl.gov), also exist. The ORNL campus also contains many unique research facilities, and a multitude of collaborative opportunities for world-class research are available and encouraged. The National Institute for Computational Science (http://www.nics.tennessee.edu/computing-resources/kraken) is a joint partnership between UTK and ORNL and offers significant opportunities for successful candidates to incorporate petascale computing resources into their research. The University of Tennessee, a Carnegie RU/ VH institution, is the states comprehensive, land grant, research institution with 1300 faculty and 27,500 students in 13 colleges and schools. The College of Engineering is undergoing a period of substantial growth in both physical infrastructure and research expenditures. The College has eight departments with 135 faculty, 2400 undergraduates and 900 graduate students. Review of applications and nominations will begin February 1, 2013, and will continue until the position is filled. Applications should include a concise letter of intent outlining the applicants research goals and objectives, current CV, in addition to the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of four references. Applications and nominations should be sent by email to whame@utk. edu and addressed to: Dr. William R. Hamel, Professor and Head, MABE Department.
The University of Tennessee is an EEO/AA/Title VI/Title IX/Section 504/ADA/ADEA institution in the provision of its education and employment programs and services. All qualified applicants will receive equal consideration for employment without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, sex, pregnancy, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, physical or mental disability, or covered veteran status.

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mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 81

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Baylor University .................................................................................. 79 Hong Kong Polytechnic University ........................................................... 80 University of Akron ................................................................................ 80 University of Tennessee.......................................................................... 80

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positions open
complete CV should be addressed to Dr. Samuel Gazit, Search Committee, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Braude College, POB 78, Kermiel, Israel, sgazit@braude.ac.il. THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, is accepting applications for faculty positions at the Instructor, Assistant, Associate, and Full Professor levels. Applicants must possess a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering or closely related field. Preference will be given to candidates with expertise in areas that fill current needs in the department (fuel cells, photovoltaic power, heat transfer, nuclear engineering, and biomedi-

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ASME NEWS
ASME

ASME Completes Headquarters


began a new era in January when the 250 staff members who work in its New York office settled into the new ASME World Headquarters. In terms of distance, it wasnt a long move. The new address is Two Park Avenue, across the street and down a block from the Societys previous home. But the new headquarters features state-of-the-art facilitiesincluding increased meeting space, innovative areas for collaborative work projects, and museum-style display areas to tell the story of engineering and its significance to modern society that were not previously available. Two Park Avenue is a New York City landmark. It was designed by renowned Art Deco architect Ely Jacques Kahn and completed in 1928. The 29-story building is noted for the decorative terra cotta panels on its exterior and
The former home of ASME, Three Park Avenue, is only 200 feet from the new headquarters.
A STONE'S THROW

the vivid mosaic above its entrance. In conjunction with the move, the ASME Foundation announced a campaign to enable participants to publicly recognize contributions to mechanical engineering or memorialize great contributions to the field. The Two Park Avenue Support Campaign, the Foundation says, is intended to be a means to show support and appreciation for the profession of engineering. This campaign will be a fantastic opportunity to get in at the ground
Many of the spaces in the new headquarters, such as the sixth floor boardroom, are designed to allow for a great variety of uses.
FLEXIBILITY

TWO PARK AVENUE FLOORS: 29 FLOORS LEASED BY ASME: 6 & 7 CONSTRUCTION: 19261928 RENOVATION: 2005 ARCHITECTURAL STYLE: Art Deco

FORUM FOCUSES ON NEW ENERGY TechnologIES

merging energy technologies, from fuel cells to hydrokinetic power, are being explored in a new yearlong multi-media series. Formally launched last month, the ASME Energy Forum will combine content from ASME.org, Mechanical Engineering magazine, and other sources with live sessions featuring respected names in the field who are working to bring new energy technologies to market. The goal is to provide leading expert perspectives on how emerging energy technologies work, the technical issues

and challenges involved in deploying them, and the economic implications they may have for businesses. One of the innovative segments of the campaign is a series of webinars that will allow audiences to interact with industry and academic leaders. These one-hour webinars will be free to registrants and will be moderated by an ASME staff member. The first webinar in the series, which was moderated by ASME.org editor David Walsh, focused on hydrokinetic power, which taps the natural movement of running rivers, ocean currents, or

tidal flows. The Feb. 14 webinar featured presentations by ASME Past President Susan Skemp, executive director of Florida Atlantic Universitys Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center, and Jonathan Colby, a hydrodynamic engineer with Verdant Power, which has deployed a tidal power facility in New York City. Related articles, including Waves, Currents, and Electrical Potential and Catching the Sun, ran in the February and the current issue of Mechanical Engineering and are available on the ASME Energy Forum page on ASME.org.

To visit the ASME Energy Forum page, go to

http://go.asme.org/ EnergyForum

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 83

Move to TWO Park Avenue


floor of a new era, said Matt Schatzle, executive director of the ASME Foundation. Let me be clear, this is not a capital campaign. The headquarters are built and ready. This opportunity means instead that participants will be able to support ASMEs initiatives in education, humanitarian engineering, and public policy, but with a once-in-a-generation opportunity to share in the profession-wide visibility the new headquarters will inevitably bring. Naming opportunities will be
STATE OF THE ART

available at many levels, from the central Hub, Two Parks main public space, to individual conference and reception areas, board rooms, team work areas, and gallery spaces. According to Schatzle, Supporters of the Two Park Avenue Campaign will be like angel investors. They will be getting in at the beginning of vital philanthropic programs and making them happen. We are excited to welcome participants and to working with them individually as ASMEs first team.
The main public space in the new Two Park offices features tables, informal seating, coffee makers, and a large video screen.
THE HUB

The new headquarters provides more meeting rooms, such as this one, and spaces intended to foster collaborative work.

A dramatic atrium provides access to the main reception area, board rooms, and executive offices.

ATRIUM

N
Other ASME articles on hydrokinetics also may be found on the ASME Energy Forum page, as can links to registration for upcoming events. Future webinars will cover topics as diverse as concentrating solar thermal power, waste-to-energy conversion technologies, wind power, fuel cells, and natural gas production via hydraulic fracturing.

Deadline APPROACHES FOR NOMINATIONS OF OUTSTANDING STEM Educators


ominations are still being accepted for the 2013 DiscoverE Educator Awards, which provide engineers with the opportunity to show their appreciation for pre-college STEM educators who are responsible for introducing young people to engineering concepts. Applications must be submitted by March 8, 2013. The application form includes a short survey to be completed by the educator and the engineer/student nominator. ASME launched the program in 2012 as part of the Engineers Week slate of activities. Last year, engineers and engineering students nominated more than 180 teachers for the inaugural DiscoverE Educator Awards. As many as three award winners will receive a trip to Washington, D.C., for a recognition event in June, a $2,000 cash prize, a digital projector, and a gift pack of classroom supplies. Their engineer or student nominators will also receive a trip to Washington. Eight runners-up will receive gift packs. In order to be eligible, the nominated teachers must be full-time educators teaching in grades 6 through 12 or equivalent and the nomination must be submitted by an engineer or engineering student.

INPUT OUTPUT

mechanical engineering | MARCH 2013 | P. 84

A little denser and far more viscous, honey twists in water. Below, air bubbles and oil interact in a modified Hele-Shaw cell.

PHOTOGENIC FLUIDS

n July 1967 editors of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics reviewed an educational film series and declared fluid mechanics photogenic. Two years ago, a former student of mine, Robyn Nariyoshi, and I embarked upon exploring fluid dynamics from an aesthetic point of view. In addition to being an engineering student, Robyn was also a choreographer and dancer. I assigned her several projects with the goal of producing two- and three-dimensional objects that show fluid motion in a visually engaging manner. She produced three distinct projects with a modest budget of $400, funded by an undergraduate research award by the University of the Pacific. One project was to create low Reynolds number flow situations using safe household fluids and simple setups, which would be photographed at Robyns kitchen counter. Several hundred images were recorded and 10 were selected as the final outcome of this project. For one image a stream of honey was drizzled at room temperature through tap water. Honey has a higher density than water but on the same order, while it

has a viscosity three orders of magnitude higher. The difference in viscosity resulted in unusual turns and twists as the stream of honey sank in the water. A second project was to create an interactive device using a granular material to create 3-D surfaces. Robyn cut a transparent Plexiglas cylinder in half. The segments can be aligned and hold a disk with a pattern of holes. When fine-grain sand is poured into the top segment, some of it passes through the holes. A moving topography is formed above the disk as the sand flows through it to the lower segment of the cylinder. This dynamic show is enhanced when the sand grains are in several colors, and their motion is mesmerizing to watch. The inspiration for the third project came partly from the oil and vinegar salad dressing served in Italian restaurants. The objective was to create a desktop unit to exhibit the interaction of two immiscible fluids. Robyn tested three fluid combinations in a Hele-Shaw cell: vinegar and olive oil, water and olive oil, and air and olive oil. The air-oil combination produced the most interesting visual effects as air bubbles, flattened in the cell, moved slowly through oil. To increase visual interest, Robyn added a partition with several gaps, and filled one chamber with olive oil and the other with air. It takes about two minutes for the oil to completely drain into the lower chamber. As Robyn aptly demonstrated, the journal editors were right: photogenic indeed. ME An earlier version of this paper with extensive references appeared in the 2011 Proceedings of the Annual Conference and Exhibition of the American Society for Engineering Education, available at http://search.asee.org under conference papers and authors name. Said Shakerin is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of the Pacific in Stockton, Calif.

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FORUM
HYDROKINETICS / SOLAR / WASTE TO ENERGY / WIND / FUEL CELLS / HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
ASME Energy Forum is a new, year-long multi-media series that explores the technical aspects of a broad range of energy sources and related technologies. From solar power and hydrokinetics to fuel cell vehicles and wind farms, you'll get leading expert perspectives on how these energy sources and technologies work, the technical issues and challenges, and the economic implications for businesses.

ASME ENERGY

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