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A, B, C

Eau

Gaz

´

Electricit´e

Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C
Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C
Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C
Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C
Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C
Eau Gaz ´ Electricit´e A B C

A

B

C

G S A

A B ( A, B ) A B ( A, B ) ( B, A ) A B A B

7

2

3 1 5 6
3
1
5
6

4

7

2 3 1 5 6
2
3
1
5
6

4

A E B D C
A
E
B
D
C
D B C E
D
B
C
E

A

A d ( A) A

G

A ∈S

d ( A) = 2 Card ( A )

0 , 1

G d(A ) d ( A)

2 Card ( A ) = d ( A) =

A

∈S

d( A) +

d (A )

d

( A)

d(A )

d (A )

d( A) = 2 Card ( A )

d (A )

d( A)

d( A )

d ( A)

d( A)

d( A )

n 2

{0 , 1 , 1}

n

i i ∈ { 0, 1,

A 0 B n 1

A

, n 1}

, n

A B G A B

( M i , M i +1 ) i = 1 ,

, k 1 M 1 = A M k = B

A G B A B A C A . A B G C A = C B C A ∩ C B =

G G G

G G G ( A, B )

AM 2

G

M k B M i

G G G G G ( A, B ) AM 2 G M k B M

G G G G G ( A, B ) AM 2 G M k B M

G n G

n 1

n n = 1 n = 2 n 2 n n 1 G n + 1 a G 2a = A S d( A) 2n a n A G A n G G n 1 G n

M k M 1 k 3

M 1 M 2

M i

A B

G n M k M 1 k 3 M 1 M 2 M i A B

n

n 1

n 2 G n n 1 G M 1 M 2

( M 1 , M 2 ) M 1 M 2

M k M 1

M k M 1 ) n n 2

M 2

G n G n n 1 n = 2 n 2 n G n + 1 G M 1 M 2

M 1 ( M 1 , M 2 ) M 3 M 2 d( M 2 ) 2) ( M 2 , M 3 ) M i M i M i +1 ( M i , M i +1 ) G ( M i ) M k d( M k ) 2 M k G A A G G G n 1

G n

n n = 0 n 0 n G n + 1 G ( M 1 , M 2 )

M k M 1

M 1 M 2

G G G G

n G M 1 M 2

M 2

G

T ( M 1 , M 2 )

G

M k M 1

T G

G G

G n K n

G G G G n K n 6 X Y X Y

6

X Y X Y K X,Y K x,y x = Card ( X ) y = Card ( Y )

K 3,3

K X , Y K x , y x = Card ( X ) y =

K 3 ,3

n 2 n n

n

101 100 10

50

0 , 1 , 2 ,

, 9 10 10 × 10

n m

m n

m < n m = n ( m, n )

n × n n × ( n 1)

n n 1

1 , 2 , 3 , n = 6 n = 1986

n (n 1)

,

2

n × n { c, c } c c n 2 3

2

G G

G s a f

s a + f = 2

G k

s a + f = 1 + k

G s a + f

G G s a = s 1 f = 1 s a + f = s ( s 1) + 1 = 2 G s a f s = s a = a + 1 G f = f + 1 s a + f = s ( a + 1) + ( f + 1) = 2

G k

G G k 1 k s a + f + ( k 1) = 2 k

s a + f = 1 + k

s = 6 , a = 9 2 a 4 f

f 9 f = 2 + a s = 5

K 3 ,3

2

G s a

a 3 s 6

G s + f a + 2 G 3f 2 a

2 + a s + f

s + 2

3 a a 3s 6

K 5

K 5 s = 5 a = 10 10 > 3 × 5 6

K 3 ,3 K 5

K 3, 3 K 5

s a a 2s 4

11

n 1 G n 1 n a b a + b n G n

G G G

P 1 ,

, P n d

3 n 6 {P i , P j } P i P j = d

E A B E { A, B } A B f ( E ) E ( E ) = 1003 2003 f ( E ) 3003

G G k G k k G k G χ ( G )

χ ( G )

G n χ ( G ) n G = K n G χ ( G )

A B F E G H D C G 1 G 2
A
B
F
E
G
H
D
C
G 1
G 2

G n M 1 , M 2 ,

, M n

i : d( M i ) d ( M i +1 ))

G M M M M d( M ) M d ( M ) + 1

G n ∆( G ) G

χ ( G ) ∆( G ) + 1

χ ( G )

G 1 G 1 χ ( G 1 ) 2 χ ( G 1 ) = 2

χ ( G 2 ) E, A, B, H, D, F, G, C c 1 E, G C c 2 A D

c 3 B H c 4 F χ ( G 2 ) 4 G 2 A, E, F, H G 2

G 2 χ ( G 2 ) 4 χ ( G 2 ) = 4

G k k G

G n P n k k G P ( k ) P G

G n a G n + a e = ( A, B ) G e G G · e A B A B e G · e G \ e G e

C A B
C
A
B

G

C C A B A ≡ B
C
C
A
B
A ≡ B

G\ e

G · e

t G G t = 1 k k k

t 1 t G t + 1 G k n = t + 1 k k G k n k n G 1 a < t 2 n t e = ( A, B ) G G \ e G · e t G \ e G · e Q R Q R d Q = n d R = n 1 k k G Q ( k ) R ( k ) k G \ e A B k G \ e k G e k G \ e k G k G \ e A B k e k G · e k G \ e k G · e k G \ e R ( k ) Q ( k ) = R ( k )+ k G

n

n P ( k ) = k ( k 1) n 1 n n = 1 P ( k ) = k n 1 n P ( k ) = k ( k 1) n 1 T n + 1 k T A A T n k k ( k 1) n 1 k k 1 k T A k T k ( k 1) n k T k T T A k T

e = ( A, B ) e k k ( k 1) 3 e K 3 k K 3 k k ( k 1)( k 2)

P ( k ) = k ( k 1) 3

k ( k 1)( k 2) = k ( k 1)( k 2 3k + 3)

n

n

K 6 A A B, C, D B, C D A

n

k

G n

G n 2

2

4

n G = K n

2

, n

x, y ( x +y ) 2 xy x = y ( x y ) 2 0 x = y I x = ( I ) J = S\ I I ( J ) = y = n x G A A A A d( A) x G J I I J a G a A J d ( A)

a A J d ( A) A J x = xy ( x+ y ) 2 = n 2 x = y = n A J x J n n

2

2

2

4

2

2

n G = K n

2 , n

2

G N a b a + b G N

6 G χ ( G ) 6

k k k = 3 : G n a k k 3

a

k

2

× n 2

2

k

1

120

n 2 n 2

3

2

A S = {1, 2,

, 1 000 000} 101 , t 100 S

t 1 , t 2 ,

A j = {x + t j / x A} j = 1 , 2 ,

, 100

G n G

n 3 n

5 G n χ ( G ) 5

5 G n χ ( G ) 5 G G 2 G G C C

G G

2 G

G C C

A d ( A) A d ( A) n n = 0 n 0 n G n + 1 G C G C C G G G G C G C G C

G

G G A B G H G Ω A B H

G G A B G H G A B H H G ( A, Ω) ( B, Ω) G

K n K n , n 4 × n n 1) n ( n 2)
K n K n , n 4 × n n 1) n ( n 2)

K n K n,n

K n K n , n 4 × n n 1) n ( n 2) A

4 × n n 1)

n ( n 2) A B A B

, n 1

n 1 1, 2,

2n n 1 2 n

k 1 n k n n

n n 2 n 3 n 3

a 2a = A S d ( A) 2n a > n 1 a < n

G G n = 2 n = 3 n 4 A B d ( A) 1 C A C B A B A, B, C C B D B A C A, B, C, D

A B

G G C G G G C G G C G G C G

G M A M B A ∈ A M A A A A ∈ A A d ( M ) M G M A ∈ A M A B A B B M A A B card ( A ) + card ( B ) + 1

c c G l 1 l 2 c c