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FOOTINGS Definition: Footings are structural members used to support columns and walls and to transmit and distribute

their loads to the soil in such a way that the load bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded, excessive settlement, differential settlement, or rotation are prevented and adequate safety against overturning or sliding is maintained. Types of Footing: 1. Wall footings are used to support structural walls that carry loads for other floors or to support nonstructural walls.

2. Isolated or single footings are used to support single columns. This is one of the most economical types of footings and is used when columns are spaced at relatively long distances.

3. Combined footings usually support two columns, or three columns not in a row. Combined footings are used when tow columns are so close that single footings cannot be used or when one column is located at or near a property line.

4. Cantilever or strap footings consist of two single footings connected with a beam or a strap and support two single columns. This type replaces a combined footing and is more economical.

5. Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns. They have limited width and continue under all columns.

6. Rafted or mat foundation consists of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They are used, when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy single footings cannot be used, piles are not used and differential settlement must be reduced.

7. Pile caps are thick slabs used to tie a group of piles together to support and transmit column loads to the piles.

Moment in footings: According to ACI 08: The external moment on any section of a footing shall be determined by passing a vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces acting over entire area of footing on one side of that vertical plane. Maximum factored moment, Mu, for an isolated footing shall be computed as prescribed in 15.4.1 at critical sections located as follows: (a) At face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings supporting a concrete column, pedestal, or wall; (b) Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings supporting a masonry wall; (c) Halfway between face of column and edge of steel base plate, for footings supporting a column with steel base plate. In one-way footings and two-way square footings, reinforcement shall be distributed uniformly across entire width of footing. In two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement should be distributed in following ways: a) Reinforcement in long direction shall be distributed uniformly across entire width of footing.

b) For reinforcement in short direction, a portion of the total reinforcement, sAs, shall be distributed uniformly over a band width (centered on centerline of column or pedestal) equal to the length of short side of footing. Remainder of reinforcement required in short direction, (1 s)As, shall be distributed uniformly outside center band width of footing.

where is ratio of long to short sides of footing. Shear in footings: Location of critical section for shear in accordance with Chapter 11 shall be measured from face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings supporting a column, pedestal, or wall. For footings supporting a column or pedestal with steel base plates, the critical section shall be measured from location defined in 15.4.2(c). Where the distance between the axis of any pile to the axis of the column is more than two times the distance between the top of the pile cap and the top of the pile, the pile cap shall satisfy 11.11 and 15.5.4. Other pile caps shall satisfy either Appendix A, or both 11.11 and 15.5.4. If Appendix A is used, the effective concrete compression strength of the struts, fce, shall be determined using A.3.2.2(b). Computation of shear on any section through a footing supported on piles: a) Entire reaction from any pile with its center located dpile /2 or more outside the section shall be considered as producing shear on that section. b) Reaction from any pile with its center located dpile /2 or more inside the section shall be considered as producing no shear on that section. c) For intermediate positions of pile center, the portion of the pile reaction to be considered as producing shear on the section shall be based on straight-line interpolation between full value at dpile /2 outside the section and zero value at dpile /2 inside the section. Design Considerations: Footings must be designed to carry the column loads and transmit them to the soil safely while satisfying code limitations. a) The area of the footing based on the allowable bearing soil capacity b) Two-way shear or punching shear. c) One-way bearing d) Bending moment and steel reinforcement required e) Bearing capacity of columns at their base. f) Dowel requirements g) Development length of bars h) Differential settlement

Size of Footing: The area of footing can be determined from the actual external loads such that the allowable soil pressure is not exceeded.

Area of footing !

Total load includingself - weight allowablesoil pressure

Strength design requirements:

qu !
Two-Way Shear (Punching Shear):

Pu area of footing

For two-way shear in slabs (& footings) Vc is smallest of

4 Vc ! 2  f c b0 d F c

According to ACI

Where, bc = long side/short side of column concentrated load or reaction area<2 b0 = length of critical perimeter around the column When b >2 the allowable Vc is reduced. Design of two-way shear: a) Assume d. b) Determine b0: b0 = 4(c+d) for square columns where one side = c b0 = 2(c1+d) +2(c2+d) for rectangular columns of sides c1 and c2. c) The shear force Vu acts at a section that has a length b0 = 4(c+d) or 2(c1+d) +2(c2+d) and a depth d; the section is subjected to a vertical downward load Pu and vertical upward pressure qu.
Vu ! Vu !

2 or square u  q u c  d

columns r columns

 q u c 1  d

c 2


or rectangula

d) Allowable J c ! 4J f c b0 d Let Vu= f. Vc


4J f c b0

If d is not close to the assumed d, revise your assumptions

Design of one-way shear: a) For footings with bending action in one direction the critical section is located a distance d from face of column. J V c ! 2J f c b0 d

b) The ultimate shearing force at section m-m can be calculated

u ! q

L c b d 2 2

If no shear reinforcement is to be used, then d can be checked. c) If no shear reinforcement is to be used, then d can be checked, assuming Vu = f. Vc


Flexural Strength and Footing reinforcement: a) The bending moment in each direction of the footing must be checked and the appropriate reinforcement must be provided.
As ! M

a Jf y d  2 b) Another approach is to calculated Ru = Mu / bd2 and determine the steel percentage required r . Determine As then check if assumed a is close to calculated a

a !

f y As 0 . 85 f c b

c) The minimum steel percentage required in flexural members is 200/fy with minimum area and maximum spacing of steel bars in the direction of bending shall be as required for shrinkage temperature reinforcement.

d) The reinforcement in one-way footings and two-way footings must be distributed across the entire width of the footing.

einforcem ent in band width 2 ! Total reinforcement in short direction F  1

Where, F! long side of footing short side of footing

Bearing Capacity of Column at Base: a) The loads from the column act on the footing at the base of the column, on an area equal to area of the column cross-section. Compressive forces are transferred to the footing directly by bearing on the concrete. Tensile forces must be resisted by reinforcement, neglecting any contribution by concrete. b) Force acting on the concrete at the base of the column must not exceed the bearing strength of the concrete N1 ! J 0.85 f c A1 Where f = 0.7 and A1 =bearing area of column c) The value of the bearing strength may be multiplied by a factor A2 / A1 e 2.0 for bearing on footing when the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area.

The modified bearing strength

N 2 e J 0 . 85 f c A1 A2 / A1 N 2 e 2J 0 . 85 f c A1

Dowels in Footings: A minimum steel ratio r = 0.005 of the column section as compared to r = 0.01 as minimum reinforcement for the column itself. The number of dowel bars needed is four these may be placed at the four corners of the column. The dowel bars are usually extended into the footing, bent at the ends, and tied to the main footing reinforcement. The dowel diameter shall not exceed the diameter of the longitudinal bars in the column by more than 0.15 in. Development length of the Reinforcing Bars: The development length for compression bars was given

ld ! 0.02 f y db / fc
but not less than

0.003 f y d b u 8 in.
Dowel bars must be checked for proper development length.

Differential Settlement: Footings usually support the following loads: a) b) c) d) Dead loads from the substructure and superstructure Live load resulting from material or occupancy Weight of material used in backfilling Wind loads

General Requirements for Footing Design: a) A site investigation is required to determine the chemical and physical properties of the soil. b) Determine the magnitude and distribution of loads form the superstructure. c) Establish the criteria and the tolerance for the total and differential settlements of the structure. d) Determine the most suitable and economic type of foundation. e) Determine the depth of the footings below the ground level and the method of excavation. f) Establish the allowable bearing pressure to be used in design. g) Determine the pressure distribution beneath the footing based on its width h) Perform a settlement analysis.