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Hydrogen

Lighter than Air!

Footnote 1

__________ percent of the visible matter in the universe has a Hydrogen component.

Oceans seem to have an inexhaustible supply of Hydrogen atoms, however, there are ________ onshore or onshore deposits of Hydrogen gas [H2] that can be mined, drilled and/or tapped for energy-production purposes. When Hydrogen is burned, in internal combustion engines or whenever it is combined with oxygen, the byproduct is ___________. To obtain usable Hydrogen gas [H2] for the Hydrogen economy, it is necessary to break the _____________________ _______________ which hold Hydrogen together with other atoms, most commonly, oxygen and carbon.

A Source of Hydrogen Gas - Water and Coke


A process to commercially produce Hydrogen gas is to use very high temperature steam [H2O] to react with coke (almost pure carbon C) to form Hydrogen gas [H2] and carbon monoxide [CO]. This process is known as ____________________________.

Footnote 2

A Syngas Process H2O + C H2 + CO

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 1 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

A Source of Hydrogen Gas - Natural Gas


A second commercially viable method of producing Hydrogen gas [H2] begins with ________________ __________ [usually methane]. Methane [Natural Gas] CH4 C + 2 H2

Footnote 3

After using large amounts of energy to break Hydrogens molecular bond with Carbon, the resultant Hydrogen gas [H2] has a much _______________ energy content than the natural gas from which it was freed.

A Source of Hydrogen Gas - Water


An __________________ can be added to water to increase the electrical conductivity of the water. When the solution is subjected to an electric current: Gaseous Hydrogen will be produced at the ________________. Gaseous oxygen will be produced at the ____________.

A Water Process 2 H2O 2 H2 + O2

Footnote 4

Need a Science Fair Project for your kids? see page 11!

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 2 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Net Energy - It takes energy to produce energy.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics5 reveals that more energy is needed to separate water into its Hydrogen and Oxygen components than the energy obtained when Hydrogen and Oxygen is recombined to produce heat or electrical energy. Example: Sources indicate that 150 kilowatt-hours [KWh] of thermal energy from a power plant [assumed to be a coal fired electrical generating plant] are required to produce ________ KWh of electrical energy. The 58 kilowatt-hours [KWh] of electrical energy are required to break up Hydrogens bonding with oxygen to yield only ________ kilogram of Hydrogen gas [H2]. Burning one kilogram of Hydrogen gas [H2] yields ________ kilowatt-hours [KWh] of thermal energy. So 150 KWh yields 58 KWh which yields one [1] Kilogram of Hydrogen which yields 39 KWh. This is quite inefficient.

With the industrial cost of electricity in the range of $0.06 per KWh, then one Kilogram of Hydrogen can be produced for ______________ [= 58 KWh * $0.06/ KWh ] The energy content of _____________ kilogram of Hydrogen is roughly equal to the energy content of one gallon of gasoline. 6, 7 To be useful to the consumer, Hydrogen must undergo compression [or liquefaction], transportation [marketing] and probably regulation. Thus, in the Hydrogen Economy, so-far, for a one gallon equivalent of gasoline, the costs are: Variable Production costs [electrolysis] $3.48 Allocation of Fixed Production costs [Production facilities, the plant] $ ? Compression [variable] $ ? Transportation / Marketing [variable] $ ? Regulatory / Taxes [variable] $ ? Total cost of Hydrogen [one gallon equivalent of gasoline] = greater than $3.48

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 3 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Hydrogen - Automotive Issues


Some auto manufacturers are engineering ______________ vehicles which include Hydrogen-specific engines. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle. Experts suggest that almost all existing gasoline engines can be converted to either natural gas or Hydrogen fuels. Below is BMWs 12-cylinder, 260-horsepower Hydrogen 7 coupe which is in limited production.

Footnote 8

1. Hydrogen Fuel tank, holds approx 8kg [equates to 17.6 pounds] of liquid Hydrogen at -253C [equates to -423 F]. 9, 10 The Hydrogen tank has a volume of 170 liters (45 gallons) and occupies half the trunk. 2. Petrol [gasoline] tank, with 74 litre capacity [equates to approx 20 gallons]. 3. Pressure control valve. 4. Internal combustion engine, uses petrol [gasoline] or liquid Hydrogen. 5. The Hydrogen tank has a range is limited to 200km [equates to approx 125 mile range]. [equates to 15.5 miles per kg of LH2] 6. The Petrol [gasoline] tank has a range is limited to 500km [equates to approx 310 mile range] [equates to approx 16 miles per gallon of gasoline]
Footnote 11

Regarding hybrid vehicles utilizing Hydrogen, the main issue is the _____________ of the fuel. Hydrogen is considered in the National Electric Code to be second only to acetylene in ____________ _____________. For this reason, it will be necessary that Automotive Engineers start with the protective fuel tank, and then design the car around the tank. Hydrogen fuel tanks for compressed Hydrogen or Liquid Hydrogen [LH2] must have a combination of vacuum barriers, super-insulation and be constructed of materials that wont shatter at ultra-cold temperatures. Fittings, seals, and valves are particularly difficult to manufacture and maintain.

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 4 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Hydrogen - The Fuel Cell


In a Hydrogen Fuel Cell, the Hydrogen gas [H2] is not burned. Instead of _______________ to produce heat, a fuel cell uses the Hydrogen gas [H2] to create an ________________-_______________ _____________ . The goal is to create useful electricity, not heat. A Hydrogen Fuel Cell is visualized as an almost ideal machine. This is because a Hydrogen Fuel Cell has no major moving parts and is therefore extremely reliable. When compressed Hydrogen gas is as the fuel, there are three outputs from the fuel cell: ________________, ________________ and _________________.

A Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Footnote 12

GM Vice President Larry Burns opined that, the cost of fuel-cell vehicles must be reduced ______ percent to compete with internal combustion engines.13 Some experts refer to the significant amounts of ______________ required as a catalyst for fuel-cell operation. Hydrogen Fuel Cell - video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oy8dzOB-Ykg

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 5 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Is Energy from Hydrogen considered a Renewable Energy?


Renewable Energy noun any naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelectric power, that is not derived from fossil or nuclear fuel.
Footnote 14

States with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS)


Footnote 15

"Renewable Portfolio Standards [RPS] are made on a state-by-state basis. Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) establish a minimum percentage of electricity that retailers must provide from renewable energy sources. However, RPS rules vary from state to state, which presents important challenges to successful implementation. Key issues are discussed in terms of resource availability, solar-specific provisions, and political and regulatory consistency, and their impacts on the ability to finance new renewable energy projects. A successful RPS policy must balance a states goals for fuel diversity, economic development, price effects, and environmental benefits. 16 Example: On March 22, 2010, Bill Ritter [Governor of Colorado] signed legislation (HB 1001) requiring that 30 percent of Colorados electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2020 one of the highest percentage requirements in the U.S.

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 6 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Hydrogen Not a likely energy source - Possibly a method for energy storage
The energy required to produce Hydrogen gas disqualifies it as a likely energy ___________ . However, Hydrogen could be produced for the purpose of energy ___________ . In our industrialized society today, energy storage is a function accomplished on a large scale by _________ ___________ __________. This is where a hydroelectric generator is operated as a water pump causing water to be lifted uphill to an elevated reservoir. When power is needed, the water flows downhill through the turbine for generating electricity. Futurists propose that Hydrogen gas would be produced using any ______________ generating capacity from solar / wind / nuclear / coal / hydroelectric plants. During peak periods when an electric utility plants capacity is ______________, the utility company will use the Hydrogen Fuel Cell to generate electricity.

Footnote 17

Footnote 18

Compressed Hydrogen gas [or liquefied Hydrogen] in conjunction with Hydrogen Fuel Cells can somewhat serve the same function as storage batteries for storing electrical energy.
Footnote 19

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 7 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Our market economy and the American way:


Tax shelters for any industry have the effect of distorting free market economies. Good news for the American free market and Joe the Plumber.
Hydrogen does not seem to have any special Tax Shelters outside the typical accelerated depreciation and possibly and property tax exemptions that are available to many other industries.

Subsidies and Grants for any industry have the effect of distorting free market economies. Good news for the American free market and Joe the Plumber.
1. 2. Bloomberg.com reported that President Obama has turned a cold shoulder to hydrogen cars.20 Federal Funding Cut! U.S. Energy Department funding for hydrogen-related projects will be cut by 60 percent to $68.2 million next fiscal year under budget plans that President Obama presented.21 Obamas cutting of grants for Hydrogen rejects a priority of President George Bush, who in his 2003 State of the Union speech to Congress called for $1.2 billion in spending on hydrogen-powered cars. 22

Statutory / Regulatory Requirements, for any industry, including "Renewable Portfolio Standards," [RPS], have the effect of increasing the overall cost of energy generation. Good news for the American free market and Joe the Plumber.
Hydrogen is somewhat ineligible from the Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS). This is because Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) seem to require that Hydrogen Fuel cells must derive hydrogen : from fuels such as "eligible biomass fuel," landfill or anaerobic digester methane gas, hydrogen derived from such fuels, or, from the electrical output of a qualified renewable generation unit ..23

Talking Points with your Colleagues and Neighbors


1. Although there seems to be an inexhaustible supply of Hydrogen atoms on Earth, Hydrogen cannot be considered to be a source of Energy. 2. Hydrogen cannot be considered to be a renewable Energy. 3. Burning Hydrogen produces water and heat. 4. The energy content of one kilogram of Hydrogen is roughly equal to the energy content of one gallon of gasoline. 5. Hydrogen is not a realistic alternative to gasoline due to the necessity of manufacturing Hydrogen gas, and the high costs of liquefaction & storage. 6. Scientists hope to create a power grid that will convert surplus energy to Hydrogen gas [or liquid Hydrogen]. Then, when demand is high, electricity can be generated through the use of Hydrogen Fuel Cells. 7. If the Hydrogen Economy is to be considered part of a viable solution to energy problems in the USA, then the Hydrogen Economy should be developed through private industry in the marketplace where the ingenuity of Americans flourishes. 8. Any direct or indirect federal funding of the Hydrogen Economy has the effect of penalizing consumers and punishing taxpayers by: Increasing taxes, Increasing deficit spending, and Increasing fuel costs.
Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts Workbook Page 8 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

Fun
Water, water, every where, Hydrogen, Hydrogen, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink; But greenies soon must learn, Water, water, every where, Hydrogen, Hydrogen, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink. Yet none for us to burn. - Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Ed Hiserodt --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --References & Sources: 1 2 3 4 5 accessed 2010502 http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/art/001_symbol.gif Lou Ann Hammond, 2005, Flying into the Future, accessed: 20090509 www.carlist.com/autonews/2006/autonews_311.html Ron Kurtus, (4 May 2003), Hydrocarbon Bonding, accessed 20090510 www.school-for-champions.com/chemistry/hydrocarbon.htm accessed 20090510 http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/fuel-cells/figures/electrolysis_sml.png accessed 20050510, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy, stating that the entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. accessed 20080119, http://www.solartoday.org/2004/may_june04/h2_afford_it.htm Though

hydrogen prices and amounts traditionally have been quoted per standard cubic foot, the common unit of measure is quickly becoming the kilogram. A kilogram (kg) of hydrogen has essentially the same energy content as a gallon of gasoline, on a lower heating-value basis123 megajoules. Thus, discussions of hydrogen in fuel applications are facilitated by this quick conversion to the gasoline equivalent.

accessed 20090510 http://hydrogentruth.info/index.html The energy in one kilogram of hydrogen (33.4 kilowatt-hours of electricity) is almost the same as in one gallon of gasoline (33.7 kilowatt-hours of electricity). accessed 20090510 http://www.aeri.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2006/11/_42326278_bmw_eco_car416.jpg accessed 20090510, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_Hydrogen Four liters of liquid hydrogen are needed to match the same energy content of one liter of gasoline. Christian Wst, Nov 17, 2006, Not as Green as it Seems, accessed 20090510 http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,448648,00.html BMW's thermo-tank, specially designed to hold liquid hydrogen as well as regular gasoline, has the same diameter as the drum of a washing machine. It has a volume of 170 liters (45 gallons) and takes up half the trunk. But it can only hold eight kilograms (17.6 lbs) of the extremely light hydrogen fuel -- barely enough for a 200 kilometer (124 mile) trip. What's more, some of the tank's contents have to be released as they heat up and evaporate -- even the best insulation system can't keep temperatures down forever. After nine days, half the tank load has gone bad. With the exception of BMW, every car company out there is betting on a different technology: fuel cells, which transform hydrogen into electricity via a chemical process. The electricity generated in the process then drives the vehicle. This method promises far greater efficiency, but the current technology yields only modest driving performance. Test cars with fuel cell engines can produce between 50 and 90 kilowatts, but they consume only about 14 liters of hydrogen per 100 kilometers (62 miles) -- a fuel value corresponding to that of four liters (one gallon) of gasoline.

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BMW's hydrogen car: Beauty or beast?, 17 November 2006, accessed 20090510 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6154212.stm

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 9 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

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Energy Kids Page, accessed 20090510 http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/IntermediateHydrogen.html John Gartner, June 6, 2002, Fuel Cell Car Coasts Across U.S., , accessed 20090510 http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2002/06/52877 accessed 20100502 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/renewable+energy accessed 20100502 http://geospatial.blogs.com/geospatial/2010/03/us-states-with-renewable-portfolio-standards-rps.html accessed 20100502 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy08osti/41409.pdf accessed 20090510 http://www.iit.edu/~smile/weekly/pumpstor.jpg accessed 20090510 http://www.rise.org.au/raps/img/fuel_cell_demo.jpg accessed 20100504 http://www.lighthound.com/thumbnail.asp?file=assets/images/engaaa.jpg&maxx=300&maxy=0 Obama and Hydrogen Dont Mix According to Bloomberg Posted on April 27th, 2009 by admin http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/blog2/index.php/political-issues/obama-and-hydrogen-don%e2%80%99t-mixaccording-to-bloomberg/ Bloomberg, Alan Ohnsman, May 11, 2009 Honda May Develop Plug-In as Obama Alters U.S. Policy (Update2) Accessed 20090524 http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aD0dW_P92jeU&refer=us Bush's State of the Union speech [2003] WASHINGTON (CNN) Wednesday, January 29, 2003 Posted: 3:40 AM EST (0840 GMT) Transcript of President Bush's second State of the Union address, delivered to Congress Tuesday night. Accessed 20090524 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/01/28/sotu.transcript/ Tonight I'm proposing $1.2 billion in research funding so that America can lead the world in developing clean, hydrogen-powered automobiles. George W. Bush Massachusetts Technology Collaborative Renewable Portfolio Standard Accessed 20090524 http://www.masstech.org/cleanenergy/policy/rps.htm The Hydrogen Economy By: Ed Hiserodt The New American August 20, 2007 http://www.thenewamerican.com/node/5247 1 gallon = approx 3.78 litres 1 liter = approx 0.26 gallons

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--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --99% no water molecular bonds syngas natural gas lower electrolyte cathode anode 58 one [1] 39 $3.48 One hybrid storage explosive danger combustion electro-chemical reaction electricity, heat, and water 90 % platinum source storage pumped water storage surplus strained

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 10 of 11 September 26-28, 2012

http://www.all-science-fair-projects.com/science_fair_projects/38/819/5db524216341764c1438c1f760fddff8.html

H2O Electrolysis - Splitting Water


Electricity is "created" when certain chemicals react together. We use chemically- made electricity to power many machines from flashlights to a watch or sometimes a car. Yes, there are cars that run on electricity! The devices that store electricity are called batteries. Electricity can also be used to produce chemical changes. Water is a simple chemical made from two gases -- hydrogen and oxygen. Every molecule of water has two atoms of hydrogen for every atom of oxygen. H2O is the chemical formula for a molecule of water. If an electrical current is passed through water between electrodes (the positive and minus poles of a battery), the water is split into its two parts: oxygen and hydrogen. This process is called electrolysis and is used in industry in many ways, such as making metals like aluminum. If one of the electrodes is a metal, it will become covered or plated with any metal in the solution. This is how objects are silverplated. You can use electricity to split hydrogen gas out of the water similar to the process called electrolysis. What you need. 1. A 9 volt battery 2. Two regular number 2 pencils (remove eraser and metal part on the ends) 3. Salt 4. Thin cardboard 5. Electrical wire 6. Small glass 7. Water What to do 1. Sharpen each pencil at both ends. 2. Cut the cardboard to fit over glass. 3. Push the two pencils into the cardboard, about an inch apart. 4. Dissolve about a teaspoon of salt into the warm water and let sit for a while. The salt helps conduct the electricity better in the water. 5. Using one piece of the electrical wire, connect one end on the positive side of the battery and the other to the black graphite (the "lead" of the pencil) at the top of the sharpened pencil. Do the same for the negative side connecting it to the second pencil top. 6. Place the other two ends of the pencil into the salted water. What you will discover As the electricity from the battery passes through and between the electrodes (the pencils), the water splits into hydrogen and chlorine gas, which collect as very tiny bubbles around each pencil tip. Hydrogen collects around the cathode and the chlorine gas collects around the anode. How can you get chlorine from H2O? Good question! Sometimes in experiments, a secondary reaction takes place. This is what happens in this experiment. Oxygen is not given off in this experiment. That's because the oxygen atoms from the water combine in the liquid with the salt to form hydroxyl ions. Salt's chemical formula is NaCl - sodium chloride. The chlorine gas is from the chloride in the salt. The oxygen in the hydroxl ions stay in the solution. So, what is released in this reaction is not oxygen but is chlorine gas that collects around the pencil tip. Around the other pencil is hydrogen gas. In real electrolysis systems, a different solution is used, and higher levels of electricity help to split the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen without this secondary reaction.

Hydrogen Lighter than Air! NALTA 27th Annual Conference / Baltimore, MD Douglas M. Potter, CPLTA, CDOA, CPL National Association of Lease & Title Analysts

Workbook Page 11 of 11 September 26-28, 2012