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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.

College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Lesson Plan
Cover Page: Course Overview Semester: 4 Course Title: Fluid Machinery Total Contact Hours: 33+24 SEE Marks: 100+50 Lesson Plan Author: CS Prasad Checked By: Year: 2013 Course Code: 10ME44 Duration of SEE: 3 hrs+3 hrs CIE Marks: 100+50 Date: 17-01-2013 Date:

Prerequisites: Study of Turbo Machinery requires basic knowledge of Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Machine Design. Course Overview: This course on Turbo Machinery deals with the study of rotating machines. Turbo Machinery encompasses a broad category of machines starting from the simple domestic water pump to the steam, gas and water turbines used in power plants and sophisticated aircraft propulsion engines. The course covers important aspects of design and operating characteristics of centrifugal and axial flow compressors, pumps and turbines. Lecture classes will be followed by experiments on turbo machinery to understand application of theory to practice. Course Learning Objectives (CLO): By the end of the course, Students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Classify different types of turbo machines. Analyze energy transfer in centrifugal and axial flow turbo machines.. Explain the thermodynamic processes occurring in compressors and turbines. Evaluate the performance of centrifugal pumps and compressors. Explain the operational characteristics of axial flow compressors. Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbines as well as steam and gas turbines. Explain basic designs of hydraulic turbines. Perform experiments on hydraulic pumps and turbines and determine their characteristics.

Relevance of the Course: 1. Facilitate students to differentiate between positive displacement machinery and turbo machinery. 2. Provide fundamental knowledge to design and analyse turbo machinery. 3. Orientation towards application of turbo machinery in various industries. 4. Provide hands-on opportunity to experiment with turbo machinery to understand concepts.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Content
Course Code: 10ME44 Course Title: Turbo Machinery Teaching Hours: 3 Hrs per Week UNIT-1 1. Introduction to Turbo Machinery: Definition of a turbo machine; classification and parts of a turbo machines; comparison with positive displacement machines; dimensionless parameters and their physical significance; specific speed; illustrative examples on dimensional analysis and model studies. 2. Energy Transfer in Turbo Machines: Basic Euler turbine equation and its alternate form; components of energy transfer; general expression for degree of reaction; construction of velocity triangles for different values of degree of reaction. UNIT-2 3. Compression Process: Overall isentropic efficiency of compression; stage efficiency; comparison and relation between overall efficiency and stage efficiency; polytropic efficiency; pre heat factor. 4. Expansion Process: Overall isentropic efficiency for a turbine; stage efficiency for a turbine; comparison and relation between stage efficiency and overall efficiency for expansion process; polytropic efficiency for expansion process; reheat factor for expansion process. UNIT-3 5. Centrifugal Pumps: Definition of terms used in the design of centrifugal pumps like manometric head, suction head, delivery head; manometric efficiency, hydraulic efficiency, volumetric efficiency, overall efficiency; multi stage centrifugal pumps. 6. Centrifugal Compressors: Expression for overall pressure ratio; width and blade angles at impeller inlet and outlet; slip factor and power input factor; surging and its control. UNIT-4 7. Axial Flow Compressors: Classification; expression for stage pressure ratio; work done factor, radial equilibrium conditions; determination of air angle distribution with respect to blade height using free vortex flow theory. 8. Steam and Gas Turbines: Impulse and Reaction turbines; velocity and pressure compounding; condition for maximum utilization factor for multi stage turbine with equiangular blades; effects of blade and nozzle losses. UNIT-5 9. Hydraulic Turbines-1: Classification; unit quantities; Pelton wheel, velocity triangles, bucket dimensions, turbine efficiency. 10. Hydraulic Turbines-2: Francis and Kaplan turbines; Velocity triangles, effect of rotational speed on blade shape, draft tubes and their function, types of draft tubes. 03 Hrs 03 Hrs 04 Hrs 04 Hrs L-T-P: 3+0+2 CIE: 150 SEE: 150

04 Hrs

03 Hrs

03 Hrs

03 Hrs

03 Hrs

03 Hrs

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Turbo machinery laboratory Section 1: Flow Calibration: (06 Hrs) 1. Determination of coefficient of friction due to flow of fluids in pipes. 2. Determination of forces developed by impact of jet on vanes. 3. Calibration of flow measuring devices: a. Sharp edged orifice b. Venturi meter c. V-Notch 4. Determination of coefficient of minor losses due to flow of fluids through pipes. Section 2: Performance Estimation of Turbo Machinery: 1. Performance testing of turbines: a. Pelton wheel b. Francis turbine c. Kaplan turbine 2. Performance testing of pumps: a. Single stage centrifugal pump b. Multi stage centrifugal pump c. Reciprocating pump (18 Hrs)

Course Outcomes: After successful completion of this course, the students will be able to: 1. Differentiate between positive displacement machines and turbo machines. 2. Have basic knowledge to design and analyse turbo machines. 3. Understand application of turbo machines in various practical situations. 4. Conduct experiments on turbo machines with a view to understand their design and operating concepts. Reference Books: 1. V.Kadambi and Manohar Prasad, An introduction to Energy conversion, Volume III, Turbo machinery , Wiley Eastern Ltd. (1977). 2. G. Gopalakrishna and D. Prithviraj, A Treatise on Turbo machines, Scitech Publications (India) Pvt. Limited (2002). 3. D.G. Shephered, Principles of Turbo Machinery, The Macmillan Company (1964). 4. S.M. Yahya, Turbines, Compressors & Fans, Tata-McGraw Hill Co., 2nd Edition (2002)

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Evaluation Scheme
Scheme for Continuous Internal Evaluation (CIE):

Assessment Nos. Max. Marks. Internal Assessment Tests Duration Seminar/Assignment Total Marks Nos. Max. Marks.

Weightage in Marks 3* 45 (15 marks for Quiz + 30 marks for descriptive answers) 90 min. 1 10 50

*Best 2 out of 3 tests together with seminar/assignment will be considered for CIE marks Scheme for Semester End Examination (SEE): The question paper will consist of Part A and Part B. Part A will be for 20 marks covering the complete syllabus and is compulsory. Part B will be for 80 marks and shall consist of five questions carrying 16 marks each. All five questions from Part B will have internal choice and one out of two questions has to be answered compulsorily.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course unitization for Internals and Semester End Examination

Unit

Chapter

Teaching Hours Test-1

No. of Questions in

No. of Questions in SEE Test-3

Test-2

1 1 2 3 2 4 5 3 6 7 4 8 9 5 10

Introduction Energy transfer in turbo machines Compression Process Expansion Process Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors Axial Flow Compressors Steam & Gas Turbines Hydraulic Turbines-1 Hydraulic Turbines-2

04 8 04 03 03 03 03 04 2 03 03 8 03 2 2 8 2 2 2 2 2

Note: 1. Each test paper will consist of a quiz and descriptive type of questions. The quiz will be for 15 marks covering the relevant chapters and is compulsory. 2. The descriptive part of the test paper will consist of a total of 10 questions from relevant chapters out of which the student should answer 50% of questions from each unit.

(CS Prasad) Faculty In-charge Date: 17 January 2013

Head of the Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059 Chapter wise Plan Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Unit / Chapter Number and Title: 1/1. Introduction Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to: 1. Define a turbo machine and name its parts. 2. Describe differences between a turbo machine and a positive displacement machine. 3. Apply dimensional analysis to turbo machines and describe its significance. 4. Classify turbo machines based on specific speed. Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 4 Portion to be covered per hour Definition and classification of fluid machines. Buckingham Pi theorem and dimensional analysis. Definition of specific speed and its influence on performance of fluid machines. Illustrative examples of dimensional analysis. Planned Hours: 04

Model Questions 1. Explain salient differences between positive displacement machines and fluid machines. 2. Sketch and explain the different parts of a simple turbo machine. 3. State Buckingham Pi theorem and explain its significance with respect to fluid machinery. 4. Define specific speed and explain the classification of fluid machines based on specific speed.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Unit/Chapter Number and Title: 1/2. Energy transfer in turbo Planned Hours: 04 machines Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Explain the basic and alternate form of Eulers turbine equation. Describe the different components of energy transfer in turbo machines. Draw velocity triangles for inlet and outlet segments of turbo machines. Explain degree of reaction and draw velocity triangles for different degrees of reaction.

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 4 Portion to be covered per hour Basic Eulers turbine equation and its alternate form. Components of energy transfer and degree of reaction in turbo machines. General analysis of a turbo machine, effect of blade discharge angle on energy transfer and degree of reaction. Application and numerical examples.

Model Questions 1. Explain the different terms of Eulers turbine equation with respect to power absorbing and power producing turbo machines. 2. Explain degree of reaction as applied to a turbo machine. Express degree of reaction in terms of static and dynamic pressure terms. 3. Explain the influence of blade outlet angle on the head-capacity characteristic of a centrifugal compressor. 4. Illustrate how the operating parameters of a prototype turbo machine can be found by model tests.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Unit/Chapter Number and Title: 2/3. Compression Process Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the difference between compressible and incompressible flows. Explain the thermodynamics of compression process occurring in a compressor. Describe the various factors controlling the efficiencies of compressors. Analyse the efficiencies of compressors.

Planned Hours: 03

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Stagnation and static properties of fluid and their relations, compression process, overall isentropic efficiency of compression. Stage efficiency; comparison and relation between overall efficiency and stage efficiency; Polytropic efficiency; pre heat factor; simple numerical examples on compression process.

Model Questions 1. Differentiate between static and stagnation properties and explain their interrelationship. 2. Explain stage efficiency for a compressor and establish a relationship between stage efficiency and overall efficiency. 3. Explain polytropic efficiency of a compressor. 4. Explain the preheat factor with respect to compression process.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Unit/Chapter Number and Title: 2/4. Expansion Process Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Explain the thermodynamics of expansion process occurring in a turbine.. Describe the various factors controlling the efficiencies of turbines. Analyse the efficiencies of turbines. Describe the inter relationship between various turbine efficiencies.

Planned Hours: 03

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Expansion Process, overall isentropic efficiency for a turbine; stage efficiency for a turbine Comparison between stage efficiency and overall efficiency for expansion process. Polytropic efficiency; reheat factor; Simple numerical examples on expansion process.

Model Questions 1. With the use of a T-s diagram, explain the thermodynamic process of expansion. 2. Explain stage efficiency for a turbine and establish a relationship between stage efficiency and overall efficiency. 3. Explain polytropic efficiency of a turbine. 4. Explain the reheat factor with respect to expansion process.

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 3/5. Centrifugal Pumps Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classify centrifugal pumps based on specific speed. Define terminologies used in the design of centrifugal pimps. Explain the significance of different efficiencies of centrifugal pumps. Describe the operation and application of single and multi stage centrifugal pumps. Conduct experiments on single stage and multi stage pumps in a laboratory and analyse their performance.

Planned Hours: 03

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Introduction, parts of centrifugal pumps and their mode of operation; definition of terms used in design of centrifugal pumps. Pump characteristics; manometric, hydraulic, volumetric and overall efficiencies of pumps. Numerical examples on basic design and performance of centrifugal pumps.

Model Questions
1. Describe the working principle of centrifugal pumps.

Define the various efficiencies as applicable to centrifugal pumps and explain why these are necessary. 3. Describe operation of pumps in series and parallel configurations. 4. Explain the application of centrifugal pumps in various industries.
2.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 3/6. Centrifugal Compressors Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. Classify centrifugal compressors based on specific speed. 2. Describe method of calculating blade angles and flow passage dimensions for a centrifugal compressor. 3. Explain the phenomenon of surging and methods of surge control. 4. Describe application of centrifugal compressors in various industries.

Planned Hours: 03

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Centrifugal Compressors and their classification: expression for overall pressure ratio. Blade angles at impeller blade root and blade tip; slip factor and power input factor; width of the impeller flow channel. Surging of centrifugal compressors and surge control methods; numerical examples on design and performance of centrifugal compressors.

Model Questions 1. Describe classification of centrifugal compressors based on specific speed. 2. Explain the term slip factor and describe how it influences the performance of a centrifugal compressor. 3. Explain the phenomenon of surge and the methods available for surge control. 4. Explain the application of centrifugal compressors in various industries.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 4/7. Axial Flow Compressors Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Explain working principle of axial flow compressors and provide reasons for staging. Describe design of axial compressor blades using free vortex theory. Describe operational characteristics of axial flow compressors. Describe practical applications of axial flow compressors.

Planned Hours: 04

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 4 Portion to be covered per hour Axial flow compressors; expression for pressure ratio developed per stage. Work done factor, radial equilibrium conditions. Determination of air angle distribution with respect to blade height using free vortex flow theory. Multi stage axial compressors and their practical applications.

Model Questions
1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the working principle of axial compressors and explain the reasons for staging. Explain the radial equilibrium theory and its application to design of axial flow compressors. Explain how the blades of axial flow compressors can be designed using free vortex theory. Describe practical applications of axial flow compressors.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 4/8. Steam and Gas Turbines Planned Hours: 03

Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Illustrate the differences between impulse and reaction turbines. Describe various methods of compounding steam and gas turbines. Describe the various losses occurring in turbines and how they affect turbine efficiencies. Explain the reasons for staging of turbines and how to maximize utilization. Describe the effects of reheat in turbine stages.

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Impulse and reaction turbines, staging and need for compounding. Velocity and pressure compounding of steam and gas turbines. Condition for maximum utilization factor for multi stage turbine with equiangular blades; effects of blade and nozzle losses; reheat factor.

Model Questions 1. Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbines and describe the flow through them. 2. Explain the need for compounding and describe velocity and pressure compounding of turbines. 3. Describe the operation of multi stage turbines and explain the condition for maximum utilization. 4. Describe the various losses occurring in turbines and state how they affect the performance of turbines. 5. Describe the reheat occurring in a turbine with the help of temperature-entropy diagram.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 5/9. Hydraulic Turbines-1 Planned Hours: 03

Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classify water turbines for different applications. Understand the significance of unit quantities. Describe the operation of Pelton wheel. Perform basic calculations pertaining to Pelton wheel bucket dimensions. Describe the different efficiencies of Pelton wheel.

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Classification of hydraulic turbines; unit quantities. Pelton wheel, operating characteristics, velocity triangles; Pelton wheel bucket dimensions. Pelton wheel efficiency, volumetric efficiency; numerical calculations.

Model Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe classification of water turbines based on head, speed and flow Describe the significance of unit quantities for comparison of turbines. Explain the basic construction and working of Pelton wheel. Describe the application of Pelton wheel in hydro electric power plants.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Course Code and Title: 10ME44 - Turbo Machinery Chapter Number and Title: 5/10. Hydraulic Turbines-2 Planned Hours: 03

Topic Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter student should be able to:
1. Explain the basic design criteria for Francis and Kaplan turbines.

2. Explain the need for draft tube in reaction turbines and explain how its dimensions can be found for a given application. 3. Describe the operation of Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine as prime movers for power generation.
4. Perform basic design calculations pertaining to Francis and Kaplan turbines.

Lesson Schedule Class No. 1 2 3 Portion to be covered per hour Francis turbine, velocity triangles, shapes for different blade speeds, basic design of Francis turbine. Draft tube and its function, types of draft tubes, basic calculations. Kaplan and Propeller turbines velocity triangles and basic design; turbine efficiencies; numerical problems

Model Questions 1. Describe the construction and working of Francis and Kaplan turbines. 2. Explain the need for draft tube in reaction turbines and explain how its dimensions can be found for a given application. 3. What is a draft tube and why is it necessary for the operation of reaction hydraulic turbines? 4. Describe the application of Francis and Kaplan turbines in hydro electric power plants.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059

Sub Code: 10ME44


Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V. College of Engineering IV Semester B.E

Turbo Machinery [Model Question Paper]


Time: 3 Hrs Max Marks: 100

Note: Answer all questions from PART- A and one full question from each unit of PART-B Part-A Answer all questions. Each question carries Two marks 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.1 0 Define Specific Speed of a turbine and write its expression. Write one major difference between impulse and reaction turbines. What is the theoretical value of speed ratio (u/V 1) for maximum efficiency of a Pelton wheel? What is the degree of reaction (R) of an axial turbine for which 1=2 and 2=1? Write the expression for preheat factor for compression process. Which type of hydraulic turbine is used for low head high flow situation? What is the normal range of pressure ratio across an axial compressor stage? State Buckingham Pi theorem. What is a draft tube and where is it used? Name the thermodynamic cycle on which gas turbines work. Also mention the thermodynamic processes of the cycle. Part-B 2 Unit-1 (a) Write expressions and state the significance of the following with respect to turbo machines: i. Flow coefficient ii. Head coefficient iii. Power coefficient (06 Marks) Tests on a turbine runner 1.25 m in diameter at 30 m head gave the following results: Power developed: 736 kW Speed: 180 rpm Discharge: 2.7 m3/s Find the diameter, speed and discharge of a runner to operate at 45 m head and provide 1472 kW power output at the same efficiency. (10 Marks
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(b )

Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059 Or 3 (a) Define Degree of Reaction (R) and Utilization Factor () of a turbine. Derive an expression relating utilization factor with degree of reaction. (06 Marks) (b At a stage in a 50% reaction axial flow turbine running at 3000 rpm, the mean ) blade diameter is 685 mm. The maximum utilization factor is 0.915. Draw the velocity triangles and find: i. Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet ii. Power output for a flow rate of 15 kg/s (10 Marks) Unit-2 4 (a) With the help of a T-s diagram, define the following for a compression process: (i) Total-to-total efficiency (ii) Static-to-static efficiency (iii) Infinitesimal stage efficiency (06 Marks) (b ) The overall pressure ratio across a 3 stage gas turbine is 11 and overall efficiency 88%. If the pressure ratio of each stage is the same and the inlet temperature is 1500K, determine (a) Pressure ratio in each stage (b) Reheat factor (c) Power output for 50 kg/s mass flow rate. Take cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-K and = 1.4 (10 Marks) Or 5 (a) What is Reheat Factor in an expansion process? Show that it is > 1 (06 Marks) (b ) An air compressor has 6 stages of equal pressure ratio of 1.4. Overall isentropic efficiency is 84%. Entry pressure is 1 bar and entry temperature is 40C. Determine, (a) State of the air at exit (b) Polytropic efficiency, (b) stage efficiency. (10 Marks) Unit-3 6 (a) Define radial equilibrium in compressors. Derive the condition for radial equilibrium. (06 Marks) (b ) A centrifugal pump runs at 1500 rpm and delivers 100 lit/s of water against a head of 20 m. The outlet diameter of the impeller is 25 cm and the width at outlet is 5 cm. If the manometric efficiency is 75%, determine the outlet blade angle. (10 Marks) Or 7 (a) With the usual notations, derive an expression for the pressure rise in a centrifugal pump. (06 Marks) (b ) A centrifugal compressor delivers 1200 kg/hr of air at suction conditions of 1 bar and 290 K. The velocity of air at inlet is 60 m/s and the isentropic efficiency of the compressor is 70%. If the total pressure ratio is 3 and the mechanical efficiency is 95%, find the temperature of air at outlet and the power required to drive the compressor. Take cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-K and = 1. (10 Marks) Unit-4 8 (a) What is Compressor surge and what are its effects on compressor performance? Briefly explain surge suppression methods used in practice. (06 Marks)
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Department of Mechanical Engineering R.V.College of Engineering, Bangalore 560059 (b ) In a single stage impulse steam turbine, the mean diameter of the blades is 1 m. It runs at 3000 rpm. The steam is supplied from a nozzle at a velocity of 350 m/s and the nozzle angle is 20. The rotor blades are equi-angular and the blade friction factor is 0.86. Draw the velocity diagram and calculate the power developed if the axial thrust is 117.72 N. (10 Marks) Or 9 (a) With sketches, explain pressure and velocity compounding of steam and gas turbines and state where they are applied in practice. (08 Marks) (b ) An axial flow compressor stage has blade root, mean and tip velocities of 150, 200 and 250 m/s The stage is to be designed for a stagnation temperature rise of 20 K and an axial velocity of 150 m/s, both constant from root to tip. The work done factor is 0.93. Assuming degree of reaction 0.5 at mean radius, determine the stage air angles at root mean and tip for a free vortex design where the whirl component of velocity varies inversely with the radius (08 Marks) Unit-5 10 (a) Draw the cross sectional views of a Pelton wheel and describe its working. Also sketch the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of a Pelton wheel. (06 Marks) (b ) A Kaplan turbine develops 1600 kW under a head of 8 m. The turbine is set 2.8 m above the tail race level. The vacuum gauge inserted at the turbine outlet records a suction head of 3.3 m. If the turbine efficiency is 88%, what is the efficiency of the draft tube having an inlet diameter of 3 m? Neglect friction. (10 Marks) Or 11 (a) Draw the cross sectional view of a Kaplan turbine and describe its working. Also sketch the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of a Kaplan runner. (06 Marks) (b ) A double overhang Pelton wheel is to operate a 30 MW generator under an effective head of 300 m. Determine the size of the jet, mean diameter of the runner, speed and specific speed of each Pelton wheel. Assume a generator efficiency of 93%, Pelton wheel efficiency of 85%, speed ratio of 0.46, jet velocity coefficient of 0.97 and jet ratio 12, number of jet n=1. (10 Marks)

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