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Chapter 12.

Technical and Vocational Education in Sri Lanka: Background New legislation Policy 61 : Create a legal environment that facilitates development initiatives and effective implementation of TVET. Chapter 13. TVET Sector: Economic and Financial Aspects Economic contribution of the TVET Sector Policy 62 : Ensure that all TVET institutions in the state sector provide relevant statistics on an annual basis to the TVEC Policy 63 : Require all registered private sector TVET providers to submit annual financial and statistical reports to the TVEC. Financial Management Policy 64 : Encourage state and private sector providers to use basic cost information uploaded to the TVEC in generating financial accounting reports Policy 65 : TVEC should establish a Management Information System to facilitate generation of financial management reports by institutions Alternative funding mechanisms Policy 66 : Curricula and courses provided at state-run TVET institutions should be strictly responsive to economic and social demand and be maintained at national and international competitive levels. Policy 67: Enhance active participation of industry sector employers in designing courses provided by state-owned TVET institutions. Policy 68 : The legal provisions of state-run TVET institutions should ensure more financial autonomy. Policy 69 : Rationalize courses to optimize the use of resources in state TVET institutions. Supporting non-state sector institutions Policy 70 : Provide state assistance where necessary, to non-state sector TVET institutions. Policy 71 : Encourage establishment of formal, long-term public-private-partnerships at institutional and training centre level. Coordination of donor assisted TVET initiatives Policy 72 : Ensure that donor/lender funding is utilized in a manner that is consistent with the national development plan for the TVET sector. Chapter 14. TVET Sector: image, effectiveness, and employability

Image based on resources and staff Policy 73 : Provide sufficient funds for the development of TVET institutions. Image based on services /courses Policy 74 : National Vocational Qualification certification should be the standard of competency in the TVET sector, in content delivery methodology and the overall evaluation process for education and training. Image based on the resultant occupations Policy 75 : Establish salary scales for certified craft personnel commensurate with the NVQ. Policy 76 : Ensure due recognition of NVQ competency standards in recruitment to state-sector posts, and in awarding government contracts. Image based on partnerships Policy 77 : Encourage TVET institutions to establish partnerships to conduct training programmes for industry. Enhancing foreign employment opportunities for TVET qualified personnel Policy 78 : Create better foreign employment opportunities for TVET qualified personnel. Development of self employment and entrepreneurship skills Policy 79 : Develop entrepreneurship skills to promote self-employability. Access to TVET for Vulnerable groups Policy 80 : Design customized TVET/livelihood training for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. Chapter 15. TVET Sector: Human Resource Management Staff Development (state and non-state sectors) Policy 81 : Develop staff through pre-service training and in-service exposure to industry. Teacher Transfers Policy 82 : Establish a transfer scheme in each training organizational network, based on accepted principles, that will ensure optimal delivery of its training programmes for the benefit of students. Performance Development Policy 83 : Develop and implement a Performance Appraisal (PA) system based on the assumption that staff personnel are competent professionals and that institutional frameworks exist to support their development. Promotion of staff

Policy 84 : Develop and implement in each training organization, an internal promotional scheme which is effective, fair and systematic. Chapter 16. Linking different educational and vocational qualifications Linking technology and the world of work with general education Policy 85 : Extend the resources of the TVET sector to the school system, through short term programmes on technology Establishing Pathways for School Leavers to enter TVET Policy 86 : Provide a seamless pathway for school leavers who do not have direct entry into higher education, to continue their education in the TVET system. Linkages with higher education Policy 87 : Establish linkages with higher education institutions in the area of research, programme development and in policy matters Recognition of Non-NVQ programmes under NVQ framework Policy 88 : Establish a standardized system to recognize non-NVQ programmes under the NVQ framework. Part Three

Quality Assurance, Assessment and Accreditation Career Guidance and Counselling

Chapter 17. Quality Assurance, Assessment and Accreditation General Introduction Policy 89 : Establish a National Quality Assurance and Accreditation Council (NQAAC) to cover all areas of Higher Education and Technical and Vocational Education in Sri Lanka. Quality assurance and accreditation in Higher Education Policy 90 : Establish a Common Credit and Qualifications framework for all Universities and Institutions involved in Higher Education Quality Assessment System for Higher Education Policy 91 : Establish a Quality Assessment system for Higher Education institutions, which includes internal as well as external assessment Accreditation of Institutions / Programmes Policy 92 : Make provisions for accreditation of institutions involved in Higher Education and programmes offered by them.

Adopting Good Practices in Delivery of TVET Policy 93 : Promote TVET providers to adopt good practices for efficient and effective delivery of training Registration of Training Institutions Policy 94 : All TVET providers operating in Sri Lanka should register with TVEC to assure quality of training Accreditation of courses Policy 95 : Establish an accreditation and quality assurance framework for all TVET institutions. Policy 96 : Recognize institutions to conduct competency-based assessments (CBA) for the award of NVQ Quality Management Systems (QMS) Policy 97 : Make QMS the essential tool for the maintenance and upkeep of course accreditation National Competency Standards Policy 98 : Develop National Competency Standards and Assessment Criteria for occupations based on the labour market analysis. Competency Based Assessments (CBA) Policy 99 : Assess skills / competencies against requirements of the relevant National Competency Standard Chapter 18. Career Guidance and Counselling Career guidance and counselling for students in Universities and other HEIs Policy 100 : Enhance the capacity of career guidance units, so that they provide an efficient service to students in HEIs. Career Guidance and Counselling in the TVET Sector Policy 101 : Establish a career guidance network for the TVET Sector. Psycho-social counselling Policy 102 : Establish units to provide psycho-social counselling.

What is Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT)? Generally it refers to skill training related to industrial, manufacturing, construction and service sectors. In other words, training related to non-farm occupations. Also, it refers to education and training outside the general education and higher education systems. And TEVT covers a diverse range of activities, which are undertaken by the government, non-government and private sector organizations. In the recent past, a considerable amount of work has been done to reform and rationalize the TEVT sector. It is, therefore, useful to discuss very briefly the outcomes of reforms and rationalization initiatives of the government. Over the past four decades, the socio-economic setting of Sri Lanka has changed considerably. Among the most significant changes that brought about social upheavals were youth insurrections of 1971 and 1989. And, in 1978, the introduction of liberalized economic policies set in motion a radical shift in the economy. As a response to the youth insurrection of 1971, the government established the National Apprenticeship Board (NAB). One of the recommendations of the Youth Commission, which probed into the youth uprising of 1989, was the establishment of the National Education Commission (NEC). In 1990, the government set up the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC). Technical education was traditionally with the Education Ministry for over a century. And vocational training was part of the employment services of the Labour Department. In 1994, the government took a bold step of bringing together the main government agencies responsible for technical education, vocational training, apprenticeship, technical teacher training and the TEVC under one ministry. This made it possible for Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) to be mutually supportive, complementary functions. Also, for the first time, TEVT sector was elevated to a ministerial function. In 1977, the government liberalized the economy. And the liberalized economic setting diminished the role of government and boosted the involvement of the private sector in production, manufacturing, construction and services. Consequently, reform and redirection of education and training became an urgent necessity. Hence, in 1995-1996, three Presidential Task Forces on General Education, Higher Education, and Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) were charged with the responsibility of formulating reforms in these respective sectors. The Presidential Task Force on Technical Education and Vocational Training Reforms recommended sector-wide policy reforms. These were categorized under four main thrust areas. The most significant steps initiated under each of the main thrust areas of TEVT Reforms are outlined under the following headings.

The role of the government The Task Force on TEVT Reforms recommended that the government should move away from being the main provider of training and become its facilitator, standard-setter, regulator and coordinator. Accordingly, the private sector was given a more active and participatory role. And the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) was reconstituted and converted to a statuary body with greater autonomy and increased representation by the private sector. Thus, TVEC was made a more functional and effective organization with enhanced capacity and capability to set skill standards, ensure quality, and to regulate and coordinate TEVT. The private sector participation in particular, made it possible for the TEVC to respond more closely to emerging skill needs of the labour market. The involvement of the private sector in planning and implementation of TEVT Private sector investors were given a range of incentives including grants, duty-free imports, and tax concessions to set up training facilities. The government also established the Skills Development Fund (SDF) to assist the employers to get their employees trained in new skills. The SDF commenced in July 2000 with a contribution of Rs. 100 million from the government, and Rs. 1 million each from the Employers Federation of Ceylon (EFC) and from a private sector entrepreneur. This entrepreneur became the first chairman of SDF. And even with all these incentives, there was lack of motivation on the part of employers to pay for training and upgrade the skills of their employees. Their preferred option was to poach trained workers from other companies. This practice is very common even in more developed countries. Linkage between general education, university education and TEVT The Task Force recommended that the TEVT system should offer opportunities to thousands who leave the general education system at different points to progressively acquire a certificate, diploma and degree level qualifications. This was aimed at making TEVT more attractive to the large number of students who miss opportunities for higher education including admission to traditional universities. The Task Force also recommended the establishment of a degree-awarding institution at the apex of the TEVET system exclusively for those following TEVT. Accordingly, the government gave priority for the establishment of a University of Vocational Technology (UNIVOTEC). To be continued EMAIL | PRINTABLE VIEW | FEEDBACK

TVET Recruitments and Completions in Public Sector TVET Institutions Unemployment Vocational Training Vocational Training & Unemployment Year 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 No.Recruited No.Completed Male Female Total Male Female Total 51443 39178 55426 35986 36020 19508 55528 20178 12237 32423 43301 25170 68877 20238 12153 32391 37118 23080 60198 19170 11325 30495 54843 38479 93322 37734 28753 66487 50919 36914 87774 37046 27327 64373 49042 34104 83156 37163 27058 64221 56177 41747 97924 33544 24916 58460

Recruitments & Completions in selected Public Sector Training Organizations in 2

Institute National Apprentice and Industrial Authority (NAITA) Vocational Training Authority (VTA) Male No. Recruited Female Total Male

No. Complete Female

12,482 12,873 18,532 10,719 National Youth Service council (NYSC) 5,301 6,017 National Institute of Business Management (NIBM) 5,580 4,680 Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET) 10,245 6,965 Sri Lanka Institute of Printing (SLIOP) 584 249 203 105 Sri Lanka Institute of Textile & Apparel

25,355 3,745 29,251 15,873 11,318 4,391 10,260 1,189 17,210 6,573 833 318 308 198 3,055 1,116 281 110

3,872 8,925 5,279 1,178 5,322 142 103 23 55

Ceylon - German Technical Institute (CGTTI) Gem and Jewellery Research and Training Institute (GJRTI) National Design Centre (NDC) Total

2,983 242

72 39

25 28 56,177 41,747

53 31 17 97,924 33,544 24,916

Note: Completions include the intake of previous years for courses of different duration. * Excluding In-Plant training Sources: National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA), Vocational Training Authority (VTA) Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET), National Youth Services Council (NYSC) National Institute of Business Management (NIBM), Sri Lanka Institute of Printing (SLIOP) Institute for Construction Training and Development (ICTAD), Mahapola Training Institute (MTI) Ceylon German Technical Training Institute (CGTTI), Gem and Jewellery Research and Training Institute (GJRTI) Sri Lanka Export Development Board (EDB)

Recruitments & Completions in Selected Public Sector Training Organizations by Prov 2011
Province Male Western Southern No. Recruited Female Total Male No. Completed Female Total

22,200 6,871

12,077 7,103

34,277 13,974

11,260 4,704

6,283 4,726

17,5 9,4

'Nipunatha Piyasa' (Level 3),354/2,Elvitigala Mw,Colombo 05,Sri Lanka.