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KENSINGTON COLLEGE OF BUSINESS

Employees appraisal and reward


In Public Limited Company
Nahid Mohsen Pour 3/3/2011

Words Number: 3630 Without letter, references, content and cover

Nahid Mohsen Pour

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMERY ............................................................................................................................ 3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Purpose of this paper........................................................................................................................... 3 The case study ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Recruitment ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Selection.............................................................................................................................................. 3 Performance Management .................................................................................................................. 3 Appraisal ............................................................................................................................................. 4 Reward system .................................................................................................................................... 4 Job satisfaction .................................................................................................................................... 4 Mentally stimulating job ................................................................................................................. 4 Counterbalanced and fair rewards................................................................................................... 4 Supportive occupation colleagues and condition ............................................................................ 5 Employee`s genetic nature .............................................................................................................. 5 Discussion of the Issue ........................................................................................................................ 5 The philosophy new Pay ................................................................................................................. 5 Expectancy Theory: Money and Motivation ...................................................................................... 6 Equity Theory ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Establishing identical of payment ....................................................................................................... 7 Management Motivation ..................................................................................................................... 8 Executive Manager Motivation........................................................................................................... 8 Middle Director Motivation ................................................................................................................ 8 Lower Level Motivation ..................................................................................................................... 8 Methodology........................................................................................................................................... 9 Evaluation ............................................................................................................................................... 9 Front line worker (Ismail) ................................................................................................................... 9 Middle director (Suneeta) ................................................................................................................. 10 Executive Manager (Imelda)............................................................................................................. 10 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................ 11 References ............................................................................................................................................ 12

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EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
Recruitment, selection, performance, appraisal and reward are important processes in human resource. Rewards system is known as a key factor by a brief review in the literature by theorists and academics. Also job satisfaction is another crucial factor to provide individual at all level satisfaction, achievement and occupation importance. More over this feeling can create productive personals with more effectiveness and loyalty for the organisation while they are trying to gain competitive advantages. The aim of this study is explaining main factors in human resources with a suitable correlative to reward system by theories and methods in the recent journal articles and books. In this study main focus is one the three hierarchical levels of employees in the PLC and find out solution by a suitable rewards system relevant to its role.

Introduction
Job satisfaction, motivations, performance management, appraisal and rewards could be consider as the crucial subjects in human resources to find out and a complete understanding of different processes, methods, theories and essentials in this part of organisations which is a prepared in three parts: purpose, case study, terminology as the parts of introduction for a better clarifying for this paper.

Purpose of this paper


The purpose of this report understands rewards system related to appraisal and performance in the PLC employees in United Kingdom and to probe about the case study and to solve problem within this company by the relevant methods. Recently there is an attention to the key factor successfulness and objects achievement by creating job satisfaction and appreciate intricacy motivation in two its general models (Lieke L.Claartje L. ter Hoeven, 2011) at work and gaining employees` commitment.

The case study


The main aim is to find about reward system has impact on job satisfaction within the three levels of a PLC in United Kingdom. In this case study consider to solve problems in these three levels [lower level (Ismail), middle management (Suneeta), senior executive (Imelda)] about their job satisfaction by the financial and non-financial rewards and which models of rewards can motivate them.

Recruitment
It is a process that describes and invites a proper applicant. (Helen Verhoeven, January 2009)

Selection
The manner of finding and assessing information about an individual in order to reach an employment offer (Gatewood, 2008).

Performance Management
It is an advanced manner of describing, measuring, and improving the performance of individuals and teams and aligning it with the strategic goals of the firm. (PIERCE, 2007)

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Appraisal
The basic purpose of performance appraisal has been to prepare a useful feedback to personals so that they can develop their performance. (Peretz, 2008) It has eight suitable methods: Personal appraisal, 360 degree appraisal, self appraisal, Competence assessment, objective setting, performance related to pay, Coaching, Personal improving plan. (Peretz, 2008)

Reward system
Rewards management is the one of processes in the human resources that is developed, underpinned practically, academically and known as a Soft Variant for human nature in the subject. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Job satisfaction
There is necessary to consider job satisfaction and the amount related to financial or non financial rewards. Job satisfaction is an understanding formulated akin to motivations and job behaviour theories (Cleal, 2011) According Freeman study the main subject concern to job satisfaction is that they related on the objective circumstances in which a person in the organisation is located and either on the one`s psychological conditions. (Freeman, 1978) (Cleal, 2011) A general and famous model of job satisfaction was established by Herzberg 1959 (Cleal, 2011)he found that some occupation elements could only produce dissatisfaction or short lasting motivation while the other elements could implement long term positive experience towards the occupation. Robbins (1998) states there are six important job related elements providing job satisfaction: supportive occupation colleagues, counterbalanced and fair rewards, mentally stimulating job, supportive occupation conditions, individuality and the person`s genetic nature. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Mentally stimulating job


There is clearly connected to job satisfaction. These types of occupations create a suitable space to employees to exercise their proficiency and talent into a variety of assignments and also arrange a feedback system on their performance after they complete their assignment or projects. According Maslow`s theory (1954) individuals in the organisations with stimulating occupations their higher level need of self actualization are fulfilled with this chance to this higher level and can complete their self fulfilment. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Counterbalanced and fair rewards


There is (Beer, 1984) another job connected element that influent on job satisfaction. (Pearson, 2009)Staffs are satisfied while they perceive the rewards that they receive from their occupation correlated to their proficiency and attempts. It is not only about the total financial reward they receive. Equal rewards in compare to their colleagues with the same proficiency and attempts and also a fair treated in the work environment has a huge affection on the employees satisfaction. Equity theory states (Pearson, 2009) recognizing a counterbalance and the fairly rewards to conduct to more job satisfaction and administrative responsibilities.
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Supportive occupation colleagues and condition


This is another positive correlated element to jab satisfaction. Employees always spend a lot of their daily time with their colleagues for this reason their colleagues are a part of their daily lives. Supportive and kindly behaviour between colleagues in the work space increase an employee`s job satisfaction. (Millicent Nelson, 2009)This view seems to be related Maslow`s Theory (1954) that refers the majority of organisation staff prefer to satisfy their affiliation needs. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) In addition according research have presented that employee satisfaction is raised as the immediate manager is friendly and sympathetic, appreciation performing for a good performance, a good listener to the staffs` ideas and appears a personal enthusiasm to them. (Millicent Nelson, 2009)

Employee`s personality
When an employee personality is fitted to the job that s/he is acting, then her or his job satisfaction will enhance. John Holland`s personality job adapted theory refers to a direct correspondent between an employee`s personality characteristics and her or his occupation climate. (Robbins, 1998) (Chuang, 2010)

Employee`s genetic nature


That is another effective element on job satisfaction. Research on job satisfaction shows an important part of some person`s satisfaction is published genetically. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) That is a person`s mind set towards life positive or negative is provided by his or her hereditary nature, holds her or him in extra time, goes on with his or her mind set to the job. (Robbins, 1998) the main intend of this theory is ,that there are some people in the work place who have negative inner idea to the job while rewards, job conditions and benefit cannot change it. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Therefore managers cannot change the attitude of this kinds of personals, instead they must be careful on the selection employees process to prevent of such situations happening at work. More over as well as managers are involvement they are concentrated on training, work improvement, methods and levels of payment and framework within organisation, regards to acceptance that these elements caused a positive changes in the feeling, idea and the personal behaviour. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Discussion of the Issue


The Management of reward system is the one of high level challenges for general managers (Beer, 1984). In fact there is a huge gap and conflicts between reality implementation and theories. It seems there is a close connection in implementation and theories for this reason they are essential subjects in two different direction means in practical and academic.

The philosophy new Pay


Recently there is a huge change in global and local markets with an intensive competition in global markets, capital transportability, technological innovations and shifts within business relations models. Due to achieve in competitive advantages at this time, organisations have designed new high performance job systems (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) According to this notion, there are a connections of rewards with the total strategy. The first discussion exists between managers and theorists about the path towards rewards management (Jody Hoffer Gittell, 2009).New pay states by Lawler (1995) pointed out to perform and consider
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rewards strategically for this reason firms` objectives and policies strongly and precisely explained and weighed then the design of a reward system will be match to these objectives. Smith (1992) stated a reverse perspective which discussed about the new payment system produced to cover the needs of the firms for temporary recruitment and maintenance issues, stresses due to reduction in the expenses and another matters in company with the highly competitive global markets (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011). Also he stated that the reward systems without any changes, stands close to the traditional payment systems for this reason, managers do not consider of the strategic paths for this model. In fact in the reality there is not any practical reward performed regards to this new philosophy. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Expectancy Theory: Money and Motivation


It has a closer meaning to job satisfaction and find out which types of staff are motivated by money. According this theory, money is the key factor to motivate the most of people and it can lead to a special orientation (Hesketh, 2008) (Thorpe, 2000) the expectancy theory states the reason for extrinsic motivation performs in the relation between attempts and rewards which is understandable and the amount of rewards is worth the attempt (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Also it explains the reasons for more powerful intrinsic motivation( tasks, performance) than extrinsic motivation. This Theory has considered as a good practically path for increasing performance related pay in all its models. In theory have important advantages as attracting, maintaining qualified staff, developing person and firms performance, developing motivation and job satisfaction and connecting staff to the firms` objectives. (Thorpe, 2000) Due to the introduction of various attitudes and departure which the reward systems related to it completely the cultures and strategies within organisations, can impact on crucial elements of job satisfaction. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Non financial motivator as recognition which is the one of strongly motivators and appreciation must be considered suitably. A reverse idea that it could be create opposition and disagreement in the job environment (Thorpe, 2000) (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) there is an argue that this type of payments as a kind of support of gender inequality (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) by the effective design systems difficulties are more achievable and easy to answer. Kohn (1993) shows that pay as an incentives schemes is not a good motivator for this reason cannot long time development in the personal yield and in the other hand it could have negative impact on personal motivation and organisational performance. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) According Herzberg showed in 1964; pay as a motivator is a cleanliness element and it can create dissatisfaction whereas it cannot satisfy or motivate. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Payment is a good instrument for management control and it is a critically point for the managers. (Hesketh, 2008)Another disagreement discussion about incentive plans are they could cause in a short time personal growth and it can create an extreme competition within the members of a team rather than participation. In addition Kohan (1993) showed that payments can intimidate creativity and innovation thinking when employees are concentrated on the especial function. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Equity Theory
It consists of outstanding subjects akin performance reward, fairness assessment and equal valuation. Also he mentioned that interest to the payment is less than equity within organisations, which conclude to satisfaction. Equity seldom considered and generally employees respond to inequity by reduction their personal attempts, asking a fair behaviour
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and finally seeking to find another position job. (Adams,1963) (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) (Pearson, 2009) More over The lower level of commitment, higher level of truancy is due to inequity treatment in rewards systems in the organisations and at the end to a worse firms` performance. Firms with better rewards system and payment are more effective than the other competitors with less pay. Higher payments appeals and maintain qualify individuals and the most motivated characters to the organisation for competitive strategies rely on innovation, quality and price. (Preffer, 1998) (Bruns, 2008) Wood (1996) showed group payments are a better motivator rather than personal performance. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Establishing identical of payment


There are two ways of establishing identical payment. (Thorpe, 2000) External and Internal equity: The first way is to pay every one close to the labor market rate with a comprise with other staff`s payment in the other firms as External equity (Luis R. Gomez-Mejia, 2010). (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Internal equity is regards to the firms` goals and designing a reward system related to the firm`s objectives and attention to the work assessment between employees in the same firm (Luis R. Gomez-Mejia, 2010).

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Management Motivation Executive Manager Motivation


According to human capital theory (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010) some times top manager do not feel satisfy in spite of they have a significant payment and financial offer and bonus. Regard to this subject it is very helpful to recognise which type of rewards create to their inner job satisfaction. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)According to Patton (1961) one of the elements of in the motivation subject is called the nature of proficiency and the challenged each employee find in her/his job. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) In order to maximise the motivation due to job challenge a top manager is necessary to know about his/her importance , mastery power in the firm and the quality of his/her occupation. (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010) Patton (1961) refers to the rating means a position and ranking that an employee has in the firm and it is a strong executive motivation for top managers than the financial rewards. (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010)and the one of most powerful executive motivation is to gain to the power of leadership.

Middle Director Motivation


According to Van Gills (1997), Bloom and Reneen (2010) regards to Capital agent theory, middle managers place within a firm in the middle of the top and the bottom as the workforce. Their duties are shifting organisational objectives into targets, performs, forwarding information to the top or to the bottom of the firm. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) Different researches show that the middle directors are related to the business overview and their occupation improvement as the most notable of two motivations. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) (Reenen, 2010) According to the study of Warwick University Paper (1995) showed the major of middle directors have commitment to their firms because of their fear more than satisfying job improvement and an arranged plan. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)There is a consideration about their amounts of pay with a competition by regarding market rate. (Reenen, 2010) The research shows the important elements for the middle directors are the relevance, equity, perfection of acting connected to reward system and their willing to participate in the policy pay establishment. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011)

Lower Level Motivation


According Armstrong& Murlis, 1998 showed that staff at the lower level seldom motivated by financial rewards and it seems their maximise motivation is concern to non financial understanding (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) like respect and consideration from their supervisors. According Tournament theory (Miller, 12-30-2008) as a match of Human capital theory can design a new reward system regards to the new performance rely on the relevant of organisation objective by arranging different tasks, engagement in the role as an important part of performance targets with deadlines and according job contract and emotional and psychological impact can motivate easily the lower level staff by their employer with respect and support. (Miller, 12-30-2008)

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Methodology
This report is an assignment to design a new reward system in three organisational positions as receptionist Ismail, middle manager suneeta and executive manager Imelda based on the case study which is arranged according case study by Ekaterini Galanou1, Georgios Georgakopoulos, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Vasilopoulos Dimitris with title The effect of reward system on job satisfaction in an organizational chart of four hierarchical levels: a qualitative study The resources are renewed and used of new reports as the reports study.

Evaluation
There are three categories for this discussion in three different levels of the firm: front line worker as a receptionist named Ismail, middle director as an account manager named Suneeta and an Executive manager named Imelda.

Front line worker (Ismail)


The most of them are not fulfil by money and they prefer understanding, support and respect by their direct supervisors in spite of financial rewards. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) According to the theories and frame work, analysing for this role is necessary recruitment this level always is by line managers (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) and for the recruitment the relevant manager did not consider job description and the relevant skills related to the job position then this part must again redesign and the criteria of the recruitment must consider precisely in this part of human resources because of expense nature in the part of Human resources (Caldwell, 2010) and regards to the purpose in the selection for this role, they did not consider competency framework as a part of this process for this reason this reception(Ismail) is not qualified for his role and this point must consider (Caldwell, 2010). Regards to the UK current legal and EU law act 1972 the contract of employment this reception might be prepared according Regulatory role refer to employment rights act 1996 under equal treatment is directed and he is entitle to the all of employment rights in UK laws and rules under European Court. (Directgov, 2011) According to the performance management theories seems necessary (Aguinis, 2009) to use of personal development plans in the list of current features as a type of appraisal and personal training for this person Ismail encourage him to attain a relevant qualification like receptionist certificate is suitable or with self appraisal method can increase his motivation by his supervisor (Aguinis, 2009). It seems necessary according tournament theory (Miller, 12-30-2008)match with human capital theory regards to Executive manager arrange a good rewards system for both of them because there is this hazard that Ismail loss his motivation without Imelda rewards and a good payment as a good perspective job (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010) for Ismail correlation between two organisational position is interesting regards to the both of theories which is explained in the section related to Executive management. For this reason a challenging task should consider for him in a specific deadline with a suitable support, respect and the importance of his role in the firm should be mentioned by his supervisor (Miller, 12-30-2008). It is possible according his performance and considers the all of aspects of his performance recognise him for a better position like sale assistant or....Dysfunctional behaviour refer to him can be happened is Misrepresentation as fraud and creative accounting due to his lack of motivation because of direct relation between both of their rewards system. If Imelda omits her bonus, it would have
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a negative impact on the organisation directly to Ismail. There is a hazard to destroy his feature job perspective then this omit creates dysfunction within firm.

Middle director (Suneeta)


According to study shows that they prefer to connect to the top level of managers as their expectation of their role and their power. (Reenen, 2010)They have their own targets and time table. (Ekaterini Galanou, 2011) according to Capital agent theory they prefer to have personal development rather than financial rewards with fear feeling of their position then it is necessary to arrange for Suneeta be sent to coaching or mentoring training course as a appraisal methods in the current features models of performance management and by this arrangement increased her motivation and improved her job perspective between her colleagues and family. If she has faced with Imelda omission and Ismail with no motivation, it would change her to a position that she does not like any risk then she has no innovation in her position. The best reward for her is training and creating motivation by it in her emotionally.

Executive Manager (Imelda)


According her recruitment and selection, these processes are acting very well but first of all seems her job contract must assess because of her perform about rewards, there is a danger inside of firm in gender discrimination laws that she can complain against firm, then it should consider (Directgov, 2011). Also her perform based on cutting her own bonus is not ethical while this act is going to destroy human resources motivation according human capital theory (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010) and tournament theory (Miller, 12-30-2008) with a direct correlation and it would caused a lot of problems within organisation. Regards to current features of performance management method self appraisal and 360 degree appraisal is helpful for increasing her motivation and considering financial rewards based on organisational objectives is suitable to renew her motivation. (Cleal, 2011) There is a probable of dysfunctional behaviour based on her bonus cutting as gaming to more force on firms` staff specially middle manager to achieve the best position in the market to avoid of this problem to design a suitable a reward system is the best way of decrease effectiveness in the organisation. (Dr Jyotirmayee Choudhury, 2010)

Conclusion
There is a big disorder functional within this organisation and in the absence of a human resource department can be the base of many difficulties inside of a firm with a growing rate. (Beer, 1984) In this case study is clear no trustful personals and formal procedure in order to absence of a suitable recruitment, selection, performance, appraisal, and reward processes in this PLC. (Cleal, 2011)

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Recommendations
It seems the reception`s motivation will be increased by: training ,more responsibility in deadline, cognition, support and respect by his supervisor It seems middle manager Suneeta`s motivation will be increased by :training in the coaching and monitoring, participation in the part of strategy policy, more connection with executive manager and increasing her dignity It seems executive manager Imelda`s motivation will be increased by: financial and non financial rewards

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