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# Lin Shaodun A0066078X 1

2012/2013
Vibration Theory and Applications Assignment 2
(By Lin Shaodun, A0066078X)

1 A string of length L fixed at its both end has an initial tension T = N/m. It is
plucked at x = L / 3 through a distance y0 and released. Determine the natural
frequencies and its subsequent motion.

Free-vibration equation of string:
c
2
o
2
w
ox
2
=
o
2
w
ot
2
, c = I p
( 1.1 )
The general solution of Eqn. (1.1) for both end fixed string:
w(x, t) = sin
nnx
l

n=1
_C
n
cos
ncnt
l
+
n
sin
ncnt
l
]
C
n
=
2
l
_ w
0
(x)
I
0
sin
nnx
l
Jx ,
n
=
2
ncn
_ w
0
(x)
I
0
sin
nnx
l
Jx
( 1.2 )
Since w
0
(x) = u (No initial velocity),
n
= u hence Eqn. 1.2 reduced to
w(x, t) = C
n
sin
nnx
l

n=1
cos
ncnt
l
, C
n
=
2
l
_ w
0
(x)
I
0
sin
nnx
l
Jx
( 1.3 )
The initial deflection w
0
(x) is given by:
w
0
(x) = _
Sy
0
x
l
or u x
l
S
Sy
0
(l -x)
2l
or
l
S
x l
( 1.4 )
Substituting Eqn. (1.4) into Eqn. (1.2), we have:
Lin Shaodun A0066078X 2
C
n
=
2
l
__
Sy
0
x
l

I
3
0
sin
nnx
l
Jx +_
Sy
0
(l -x)
2l
I
I
3
sin
nnx
l
Jx_
C
n
=
2
l
`
1
1
1
1
Sy
0
l
_
l [l sin
nnx
l
-nnx cos
nnx
l

n
2
n
2
_
0
I
3
-
Sy
0
2l
_
l jl sin
nnx
l
+nn(l -x) cos
nnx
l
[
n
2
n
2
_
I
3
I
1
1
1
1
1

C
n
=
2
l
_
Sy
0
l
_
l [l sin
nn
S
-nn
l
S
cos
nn
S

n
2
n
2
_ -
Sy
0
2l
_
l [u +u -l sin
nn
S
-nn
2l
S
cos
nn
S

n
2
n
2
__
C
n
=
6y
0
l
_
l sin
nn
S
-
nnl
S
cos
nn
S
+
l
2
sin
nn
S
+
nnl
S
cos
nn
S
n
2
n
2
_
C
n
=
6y
0
l
_
Sl
2
sin
nn
S
n
2
n
2
_ =
`
1
1
1
1
9y
0
sin
nn
S
n
2
n
2
or n = 1,2,4,S,7,8,
u or n = S,6,9

( 1.5 )
Substitute Eqn. (1.5) back to Eqn. (1.3), we have the equation of motion:
w(x, t) =
9y
u
n
2

1
n
2
sin
nn
S
sin
nnx
l

n=1
cos
ncnt
l
, n = 1,2,4,S,7,8,
w(x, t) =
9y

a
2
_
3
2
stn
ax
|
us
cat
|
+
3
8
stn
2ax
|
us
2cat
|
-
3
32
stn
4ax
|
us
4cat
|
-
3
5
stn
5ax
|
us
5cat
|
+
3
98
stn
7ax
|
us
7cat
|
+_
( 1.6 )
As for natural frequencies of string, the boundary condition at w(l, t)=0, hence:
w(x, t) =
9y
0
n
2

1
n
2
sin
nn
S
sinnn

n=1
cos
ncnt
l
= u, n = 1,2,4,S,7,8,
cos
ncnt
l
= u
( 1.7 )
Solve Eqn. (1.7) to obtain the natural frequency:

n
= 2n
n
=
ncn
l
= _
1
2
+2n] n, J
n
=
nc
2|
=
n
2|
_
T
p
, , n = 1,2,S,
( 1.8 )
Lin Shaodun A0066078X 3
2. A rod of length L and mass m is clamped at one end and attached axially to a
spring of stiffness K at the other end. Determine the characteristic equation and the
natural frequencies for the longitudinal vibration of the rod.

The normal mode solution for wave equation c
2

2
u
x
2
=

2
u
t
2
is:
u(x, t) = X(x)c
ot

( 2.1)
Where is a natural frequency of the system and X(x) is the mode shape
corresponding to that natural frequency. Substitute Eqn. (2.1) into wave equation,
we have:
c
2
o
2
X
ox
2
+
2
X = u, c = E p
( 2.2)
The general solution for Eqn. (2.2) is:
X(x) = C
1
cos [

c
x +C
2
sin[

c
x
( 2.3)
The resultant of the normal stress at the right end of the rod is always balanced by
the force produced by spring:
EA
ou
ox
(I, t) = -ku(I, t)
( 2.4 )
Application of the normal mode solution Eqn. (2.1) to the boundary condition stated
_
X(u) = u
EA
JX
Jx
(I) = -kX(I)

( 2.5 )
Use X(u) = u in Eqn. (2.3) leads to C
1
= u, which simplifies Eqn. (2.3) to:
X(x) = C
2
sin[

c
x
( 2.6)
Substitute Eqn. (2.6) into EA
dX
dx
(I) = -kX(I), we have the characteristic equation:
EA

c
cos [

c
I = -k sin[

c
I
( 2.7)
m
k
m: Mass of the rod
k: Spring stiffness
L: Length of the rod

L
Lin Shaodun A0066078X 4
EA
k

c
= -tan[

c
I
Or
= -n()
wheie =
EA
kI
, =

c
I, c = E p
Solve above equation by graphing method to obtain the value of on the
intersection points as shown below:

The fundamental natural frequency of the rod is:

=
c

=
p

( 2.8)
A plot of vs. is shown below:

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10

,

-
t
a
n
(

)
Plot of vs. -Tan()

-tan()
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.1
1.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02

Plot of vs.